WorldWideScience

Sample records for international plant biomechanics

  1. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  2. Global models for the biomechanics of green plants: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper considers the biomechanics of green plants for Reynolds number flow in the stem. In particular, it is assumed that the stem is cylindrical and the flow fully-developed. So that if the aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the stem radius to its length, then when the aspect ratio is small analytical solutions have been developed for the concentration, temperature and the axial velocity. The process of translocation and transpiration are discussed quantitatively. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  3. Invertebrate biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Summers, A P

    2017-05-22

    Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution. Our goal is to capture the field of invertebrate biomechanics, which has blossomed from having a primary focus on discoveries at the interface of physics and biology to being inextricably linked with integrative challenges that span biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  5. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  6. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  7. On seed physiology, biomechanics and plant phenology in Eragrostis tef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van S.H.

    2011-01-01

    • Key words: Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter), germination, temperature, model, leaf appearance, phyllochron, development rate, lodging, biomechanics, safety factor, flowering, heading, day length, photoperiod.

    • Background Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter) is a C4 annual

  8. Patellar Tendon Repair Augmentation With a Knotless Suture Anchor Internal Brace: A Biomechanical Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfeld, Alex; Pawlak, Amanda; Liebler, Stephenie A H; Morris, Michael; Paci, James M

    2018-04-01

    Patellar tendon repair with braided polyethylene suture alone is subject to knot slippage and failure. Several techniques to augment the primary repair have been described. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate a novel patellar tendon repair technique augmented with a knotless suture anchor internal brace with suture tape (SAIB). The hypothesis was that this technique would be biomechanically superior to a nonaugmented repair and equivalent to a standard augmentation with an 18-gauge steel wire. Controlled laboratory study. Midsubstance patellar tendon tears were created in 32 human cadaveric knees. Two comparison groups were created. Group 1 compared #2 supersuture repair without augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. Group 2 compared #2 supersuture repair with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. The specimens were potted and biomechanically loaded on a materials testing machine. Yield load, maximum load, mode of failure, plastic displacement, elastic displacement, and total displacement were calculated for each sample. Standard statistical analysis was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ± SD yield load and maximum load in the SAIB augmentation group compared with supersuture alone (mean yield load: 646 ± 202 N vs 229 ± 60 N; mean maximum load: 868 ± 162 N vs 365 ± 54 N; P augmented repairs (mean yield load: 495 ± 213 N vs 566 ± 172 N; P = .476; mean maximum load: 737 ± 210 N vs 697 ± 130 N; P = .721). Patellar tendon repair augmented with SAIB is biomechanically superior to repair without augmentation and is equivalent to repair with augmentation with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire. This novel patellar tendon repair augmentation is equivalent to standard 18-gauge wire augmentation at time zero. It does not require a second surgery for removal, and it is biomechanically superior to primary repair alone.

  9. Biomechanical Evaluation of the MACSTL Internal Fixator for Thoracic Spinal Stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Veselý

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unstable fractures of the thoracic spine in humans represent a serious social and economic issue. They may lead to persistent consequences and chronic disease. The anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of the thoracic spine are different from all the other spinal parts due to its higher mobility. The vertebrae of the chest area are less mobile, conferring a higher degree of rigidity to the spine. To destabilize this relatively rigid system, a considerable force is necessary. The treatment of unstable spinal fractures is solely surgical. The decompression of the spinal canal with reposition and stabilisation of the fracture is indicated urgently. This intervention is performed mostly from the posterior approach in the first phase. However, the anterior spinal column is the structure responsible for the stability of the spine. Therefore, the recent advances in spine surgery focus on this area of expertise. For this reason, we carried out a bio-mechanical study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of two surgical tactics used. The study consisted of comparative experiments performed by computer-aided device on segments of pig cadavers (n = 5. The experiment involved a comparison of segments of the thoracic spine under the following conditions: an anatomically intact segment, a spine segment with an artificially created anterior instability, and a segment with an applied internal fixator. The experiment compared the mechanical characteristics of these segments. The experiment has demonstrated that after application of the internal fixator used for stabilisation of the injured anterior spinal column at defined pre-loading of 200 N, the stability of damaged spinal segment in torsion increased twofold. It was also verified that sufficient stability can be ensured using the Modular Anterior Construct System (MACSTL implant for ventral stabilisation of thoracic spine unstable injuries. Endoscopic application of this implant represents an

  10. Decellularization of Human Internal Mammary Artery: Biomechanical Properties and Histopathological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khorramirouz, Reza; Kameli, Seyede Maryam; Hashemi, Javad; Bagheri, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This study undertook to create small-diameter vascular grafts and assess their structure and mechanical properties to withstand arterial implantation. Twenty samples of intact human internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were collected and decellularized using detergent-based methods. To evaluate residual cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, histological analysis was performed. Moreover, collagen typing and ECM structure were analyzed by Picrosirius red and Movat's pentachrome staining. Scanning electron microscopy was also applied to assess microarchitecture of both endothelial and adventitial surfaces of native and decellularized arterial samples. Furthermore, mechanical tests were performed to evaluate the rigidity and suture strength of the arteries. Human IMAs were completely decellularized in all three segments (proximal, middle, and distal). ECM proteins such as collagen and elastic fibers were efficiently preserved and no structural distortion in intima, media, and adventitial surfaces was observed. The parameters of the mechanical tests revealed no significant differences in the mechanical properties of decellularized arteries in comparison to native arteries with considerable strength, suture retention, and stress relaxation (Young's modulus [MPa] = 0.22 ± 0.023 [native] and 0.22 ± 0.015 [acellular]; and suture strength 0.56 ± 0.19 [native] vs. 0.56 ± 0.12 [acellular], respectively). Decellularized IMA represents a potential arterial scaffold as an alternative to autologous grafts for future arterial bypass surgeries. By this technique, microarchitecture and mechanical integrity of decellularized arteries were considerably similar to native arteries. The goal of this study was to introduce an efficient method for complete decellularization of human IMA and evaluate the ECM and biomechanical properties.

  11. Hip protectors: recommendations for biomechanical testing-an international consensus statement (part I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinovitch, S.N.; Evans, S.L.; Minns, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hip protectors represent a promising strategy for preventing fall-related hip fractures. However, clinical trials have yielded conflicting results due, in part, to lack of agreement on techniques for measuring and optimizing the biomechanical performance of hip protectors as a prerequisite to cli...

  12. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  13. Biomechanical responses of PMHS in moderate-speed rear impacts and development of response targets for evaluating the internal and external biofidelity of ATDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Donnelly, Bruce; Herriott, Rodney; Mallory, Ann

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain biomechanical responses of post mortem human subjects (PMHS) by subjecting them to two moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions (8.5g, 17 km/h; 10.5g, 24 km/h) while positioned in an experimental seat system, and to create biomechanical targets for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact ATDs. The experimental seat was designed to measure external loads on the head restraint (4 load cells), seat back (6 load cells), and seat pan (4 load cells) such that subject dynamic interaction with the seat could be evaluated. This seat system was capable of simulating the dynamic characteristics of modern vehicle seat backs by considering the moment-rotation properties of a typical passenger vehicle, thus providing a more realistic test environment than using a rigid seat with a non-rotating seat back as done in previous studies. Instrumentation used to measure biomechanical responses of the PMHS included both accelerometers and angular rate sensors (ARS). A total of fourteen sled tests using eight PMHS (males 175.8 ± 6.2 cm of stature and 78.4 ± 7.2 kg of weight) provided data sets of seven PMHS for both test conditions. The biomechanical responses are described at both speeds, and cervical spine injuries are documented. Biomechanical targets are also created for internal and external biofidelity evaluation of rear impact anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs).

  14. When do anterior external or internal fixators provide additional stability in an unstable (Tile C) pelvic fracture? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, E; Theologis, A A; Horst, P; Kandemir, U; Pekmezci, M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the additional stability that is provided by anterior external and internal fixators in an unstable pelvic fracture model (OTA 61-C). An unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C) was created in 27 synthetic pelves by making a 5-mm gap through the sacral foramina (posterior injury) and an ipsilateral pubic rami fracture (anterior injury). The posterior injury was fixed with either a single iliosacral (IS) screw, a single trans-iliac, trans-sacral (TS) screw, or two iliosacral screws (S1S2). Two anterior fixation techniques were utilized: external fixation (Ex-Fix) and supra-acetabular external fixation and internal fixation (In-Fix); supra-acetabular pedicle screws connected with a single subcutaneous spinal rod. The specimens were tested using a nondestructive single-leg stance model. Peak-to-peak (P2P) displacement and rotation and conditioning displacement (CD) were calculated. The Ex-Fix group failed in 83.3 % of specimens with concomitant single-level posterior fixation (Total: 15/18-7 of 9 IS fixation, 8 of 9 TS fixation), and 0 % (0/9) of specimens with concomitant two-level (S1S2) posterior fixation. All specimens with the In-Fix survived testing except for two specimens treated with In-Fix combined with IS fixation. Trans-sacral fixation had higher pubic rotation and greater sacral and pubic displacement than S1S2 (p < 0.05). Rotation of the pubis and sacrum was not different between In-Fix constructs combined with single-level IS and TS fixation. In this model of an unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C), anterior fixation with an In-Fix was biomechanically superior to an anterior Ex-Fix in the setting of single-level posterior fixation. There was no biomechanical difference between the In-Fix and Ex-Fix when each was combined with two levels of posterior sacral fixation.

  15. [Biomechanical study of internal midface distraction after different types of maxillary osteotomy in patients with cleft lip and palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Min; Shi, Guang-Yu; Pu, Li-Chen; Song, Da-Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the biomechanical changes of internal midface distraction after different types of maxillary osteotomy in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). 3-D finite element (FEM) analysis was used. 3-D models of Le Fort I, II, III osteotomy and soft tissue were established. Based on the new pattern of internal midface distractor, the distraction of maxillary complex was simulated to advance 10 mm anteriorly. The mechanical change was studied. The maxillary complex in CLP were advanced after distraction. Constriction of alveolar crest and palate occurred in Le Fort I osteotomy, but not in Le Fort II and III osteotomy. The maxillary complex was moved anteriorly en bloc after Le Fort III osteotomy, but some degree of rotation of maxillary complex was observed during the distraction after Le Fort I and II osteotomy. In vertical direction, the maxillary complex had more counterclockwise rotation after Le Fort II osteotomy. 3-D FEM analysis can be used for the study of internal distraction. It can reflect the maxillary movement and provide the theory basis for preoperative design.

  16. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  17. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  18. Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Westermeier, Anna Sophia; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called ‘Utricularia vulgaris trap type’). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices. PMID:26602984

  19. Computational biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Computational biomechanics is a fast-growing field that integrates modern biological techniques and computer modelling to solve problems of medical and biological interest. Modelling of blood flow in the large arteries is the best-known application of computational biomechanics, but there are many others. Described here is work being carried out in the laboratory on the modelling of blood flow in the coronary arteries and on the transport of viral particles in the eye. (author)

  20. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  1. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems

  2. Biomechanical tactics of chiral growth in emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bing-Wei; Nie, Ben-Dian; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    Through natural selection, many plant organs have evolved optimal morphologies at different length scales. However, the biomechanical strategies for different plant species to optimize their organ structures remain unclear. Here, we investigate several species of aquatic macrophytes living in the same natural environment but adopting distinctly different twisting chiral morphologies. To reveal the principle of chiral growth in these plants, we performed systematic observations and measurements of morphologies, multiscale structures, and mechanical properties of their slender emergent stalks or leaves. Theoretical modeling of pre-twisted beams in bending and buckling indicates that the different growth tactics of the plants can be strongly correlated with their biomechanical functions. It is shown that the twisting chirality of aquatic macrophytes can significantly improve their survivability against failure under both internal and external loads. The theoretical predictions for different chiral configurations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:26219724

  3. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  4. [Three-dimensional finite element modeling and biomechanical simulation for evaluating and improving postoperative internal instrumentation of neck-thoracic vertebral tumor en bloc resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinghua, Zhao; Jipeng, Li; Yongxing, Zhang; He, Liang; Xuepeng, Wang; Peng, Yan; Xiaofeng, Wu

    2015-04-07

    To employ three-dimensional finite element modeling and biomechanical simulation for evaluating the stability and stress conduction of two postoperative internal fixed modeling-multilevel posterior instrumentation ( MPI) and MPI with anterior instrumentation (MPAI) with neck-thoracic vertebral tumor en bloc resection. Mimics software and computed tomography (CT) images were used to establish the three-dimensional (3D) model of vertebrae C5-T2 and simulated the C7 en bloc vertebral resection for MPI and MPAI modeling. Then the statistics and images were transmitted into the ANSYS finite element system and 20N distribution load (simulating body weight) and applied 1 N · m torque on neutral point for simulating vertebral displacement and stress conduction and distribution of motion mode, i. e. flexion, extension, bending and rotating. With a better stability, the displacement of two adjacent vertebral bodies of MPI and MPAI modeling was less than that of complete vertebral modeling. No significant differences existed between each other. But as for stress shielding effect reduction, MPI was slightly better than MPAI. From biomechanical point of view, two internal instrumentations with neck-thoracic tumor en bloc resection may achieve an excellent stability with no significant differences. But with better stress conduction, MPI is more advantageous in postoperative reconstruction.

  5. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  6. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  7. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  8. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... ... India's efforts to develop medicinal plant gathering, processing, and marketing into a ... while protecting indigenous knowledge, some based on age-old texts. ... To date, his department has helped about a million people in ...

  9. Shoulder biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, Roberto; Kung, Peter; Ma, C. Benjamin [Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, University of California, San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MU 320W-0728 San Francisco, CA 914143 (United States)], E-mail: maben@orthosurg.ucsf.edu

    2008-10-15

    The biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint depend on the interaction of both static and dynamic-stabilizing structures. Static stabilizers include the bony anatomy, negative intra-articular pressure, the glenoid labrum, and the glenohumeral ligaments along with the joint capsule. The dynamic-stabilizing structures include the rotator cuff muscles and the other muscular structures surrounding the shoulder joint. The combined effect of these stabilizers is to support the multiple degrees of motion within the glenohumeral joint. The goal of this article is to review how these structures interact to provide optimal stability and how failure of some of these mechanisms can lead to shoulder joint pathology.

  10. International construction trends for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armor, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this review of trends in new, worldwide plant construction it is apparent that the technologies being applied are often geared to the cost of money issue. In an era when interest rates can fluctuate widely, particularly in Third World countries, the need to put new power plants on-line quickly has become a key issue. For example, this has largely triggered the move to smaller, more dispersed plants, with unit sizes 400 MW and below, compared with the 1,000 MW + sizes of 10-20 years ago. It has also renewed the emphasis on modular methods of building components, and on innovative transportation procedures. It has given support to the packaged power plants, such as PFBC, which can be largely pre-assembled. In the US, it has spawned a new infrastructure of independent constructors and power generators, who have partially lifted the burden of new plant financing from the shoulders of the utilities. Yet, national needs are not always the same. Fuels may or may not be indigenous. Environmental restrictions are nationally, or even locally, imposed. Government subsidies and strategic needs can override the short-term objectives. This paper briefly surveys current approaches to new generating plants in some key areas of the world. One aspect of electric power generation seems clear. In terms of power consumption, the world is on the move again - not only in third world countries, but also in the developed nations as the memories of the oil embargo of 15 years ago fade. Trends are discussed for the US, Japan, the rest of Asia, South Africa, Western Europe, Russia, and Eastern Europe

  11. Containment/surveillance concepts for international safeguards in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck, M.E.; Cameron, C.P.; Camp, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of advanced containment/surveillance instrumentation systems for international safeguards in reprocessing plants. Several conceptual systems for the surveillance of containment boundary penetrations in a reference reprocessing plant are described and evaluated. The results of the evaluation aid in understanding the potential capabilities and limitations of containment/surveillance as an international safeguards concept in this type of facility

  12. Availability estimation of international nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation on the factors influencing the availability of nuclear power plants of the PWR type; an estimation of expected values for the availability factor and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value are given. (Author) [pt

  13. The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Announces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Announces: Registration of Plant Names, Test and Trial Phase (1998-1999). KL Wilson. Abstract. Journal of East African Natural History Vol. 85 (1&2) 1996: 91-93. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  15. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  16. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  17. Foreign Investment and International Plant Configuration: Whither the Product Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos,René; Sleuwaegen,Leo

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad in particular configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find support for a structured internationalization decision model in which the decision to produce abroad and the choice for a specific international plant configuration are treated as nested strategic options. Drivers at the industry and firm level push firms to consider overseas investment, and locational...

  18. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  19. Dinosaur biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. McNeill

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics has made large contributions to dinosaur biology. It has enabled us to estimate both the speeds at which dinosaurs generally moved and the maximum speeds of which they may have been capable. It has told us about the range of postures they could have adopted, for locomotion and for feeding, and about the problems of blood circulation in sauropods with very long necks. It has made it possible to calculate the bite forces of predators such as Tyrannosaurus, and the stresses they imposed on its skull; and to work out the remarkable chewing mechanism of hadrosaurs. It has shown us how some dinosaurs may have produced sounds. It has enabled us to estimate the effectiveness of weapons such as the tail spines of Stegosaurus. In recent years, techniques such as computational tomography and finite element analysis, and advances in computer modelling, have brought new opportunities. Biomechanists should, however, be especially cautious in their work on animals known only as fossils. The lack of living specimens and even soft tissues oblige us to make many assumptions. It is important to be aware of the often wide ranges of uncertainty that result. PMID:16822743

  20. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  1. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  2. Biomechanics in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J. F. V.

    1980-01-01

    Examines current usage of the term "biomechanics" and emphasizes the importance of differentiating between structure and material. Describes current prolects in biomechanics and lists four points about the educational significance of the field. (GS)

  3. Internal exposure in French nuclear power plants : 10 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Gonin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Collectively speaking, internal exposure in French nuclear power plants is negligible. However, some quite high individual doses have been recorded. The details of cases of significant contamination are presented here in table form. A brief discussion of a few particular cases underscores the problems involved. (author)

  4. Why National Biomechanics Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul

    2018-04-11

    National Biomechanics Day (NBD) seeks to expand the influence and impact of Biomechanics on our society by expanding the awareness of Biomechanics among young people. NBD will manifest this goal through worldwide, synchronized and coordinated celebrations and demonstrations of all things Biomechanics with high school students. NBD invites all Biomechanists to participate in NBD 2018, http://nationalbiomechanicsday.asbweb.org/. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research Techniques in Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry

    Biomechanics involves the biological human beings interacting with his/her mechanical environment. Biomechanics research is being done in connection with sport, physical education, and general motor behavior, and concerns mechanics independent of implements. Biomechanics research falls in the following two general categories: (1) that specific…

  6. Electric power plant international. 1976--1977 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    ''Electric Power Plant International'' is intended to provide a comprehensive commercial and technical information source for use by suppliers, operators, and potential purchasers of power plant, and also by suppliers of materials and services to such organizations. It contains information that will help those considering the purchase of power plant to gain a reasonable understanding of the factors that should be taken into account when making a purchasing decision. Consideration is given to the operation, maintenance, and modification of power systems that will be of relevance to those currently operating plant. The publication is designed to act as an interface between suppliers and users of power plant. As part of this function, reference sections contain listings of all the companies that have been located throughout the world, supplying prime movers, generators, generator sets, and fixed-frequency inverter systems. Details of products currently available from these companies are included wherever possible and this is being continuously up-dated and extended to give increased coverage in future editions. The Electrical Research Association Ltd. does not manufacture or supply power plant (apart from some special-purpose static inverter systems), but would be pleased to receive requirement details from any company wishing to inquire about plant purchase. These will be forwarded to appropriate suppliers throughout the world who will be able to submit tenders for suitable products. Inquiry forms are included in Chapter 6 for this purpose.

  7. Use of fuel reprocessing plant instrumentation for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has a program for developing instrumentation to be used by safeguards inspectors at reprocessing facilities. These instruments have generally been individual pieces of equipment for improving the accuracy of existing measurement instrumentation or equipment to perform nondestructive assay on a selected basis. It is proposed that greater use be made of redundant plant instrumentation and data recovery systems that could augment plant instrumentation to verify the validity of plant measurements. Use of these methods for verfication must be proven as part of an operating plant before they can be relied upon for safeguards surveillance. Inspectors must be qualified in plant operations, or have ready access to those so qualified, if the integrity of the operation is to be properly assessed. There is an immediate need for the development and in-plant proof testing of an integrated gamma, passive neutron, and active neutron measurement system for drum quantities of radioactive trash. The primary safeguards effort should be limited to plutonium and highly enriched uranium

  8. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes-from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components-the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components are intensely researched partly because of their involvement in various human diseases. While far less is known about these in plants, the last few years have seen a significant increase in research activity in this area. Plant biologists are not only catching up with the animal field, but recent findings are pushing our advances in this field globally. In recognition of this developing field, the Annual Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Salzburg kindly hosted a session co-organized by Katja Graumann and David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University) highlighting new insights into plant nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions. This session brought together leading researchers with expertise in topics such as epigenetics, meiosis, nuclear pore structure and functions, nucleoskeleton and nuclear envelope composition. An open and friendly exchange of ideas was fundamental to the success of the meeting, which resulted in founding the International Plant Nucleus Consortium. This review highlights new developments in plant nuclear envelope research presented at the conference and their importance for the wider understanding of metazoan, yeast and plant nuclear envelope functions and properties.

  9. Proceedings of the international nuclear power plant aging symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, A.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the International Nuclear Power Plant Aging Symposium that was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 30-31 and September 1, 1988. The Symposium was presented in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. There were approximately 550 participants from 16 countries at the Symposium

  10. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  11. Repair and replacement of reactor internals for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graae, T.

    1998-01-01

    Recent experience from early Swedish BWRs corroborate that all components in a nuclear power plant can be repaired or replaced with new ones. Oskarshamn 1 has gone through a thorough refurbishment project. A number of internals were repaired or replaced including the core shroud support which was welded to the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. The project verifies that it is fully possible to carry out complicated inspection and repair work inside a nuclear pressure vessel which has been in operation for more than 20 years. Along with increased capacity factor, operating nuclear power plants get the financial conditions needed for extensive repair and modernization projects. Large power output leads to short pay-back times for the investments. The FENIX project at Oskarshamn 1 is such a project. There are utilities whose policy is to keep their plants in as-new condition for an unlimited length of time. (orig.)

  12. Biomechanical in vitro evaluation of three stable internal fixation techniques used in sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus: a study in sheep mandibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Benetti de Olivera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the osteotomies performed in orthognathic surgery, the sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus (SOMR is the most common, allowing a great range of movements and stable internal fixation (SIF, therefore eliminating the need of maxillomandibular block in the postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical resistance of three national systems used for SIF in SOMR in sheep mandibles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in 30 sheep hemi-mandibles randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each containing 10 hemi-mandibles. The samples were measured to avoid discrepancies and then subjected to SOMR with 5-mm advancement. In group I, 2.0x12 mm screws were used for fixation, inserted in an inverted "L" pattern (inverted "L" group. In group II, fixation was performed with two 2.0x12 mm screws, positioned in a linear pattern and a 4-hole straight miniplate and four 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (hybrid group. In group III, fixation was performed with two 4-hole straight miniplates and eight 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (mini plate group. All materials used for SIF were supplied by Osteosin - SIN. The hemimandibles were subjected to vertical linear load test by Kratos K2000MP mechanical testing unit for loading registration and displacement. RESULTS: All groups showed similar resistance during mechanical test for loading and displacement, with no statistically significant differences between groups according to analysis of variance. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the three techniques of fixation are equally effective for clinical fixation of SOMR.

  13. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  14. The reprocessing plant as a problem of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendling, L.

    1987-01-01

    The planned construction of the reprocessing plant creates problems with regard to transfrontier environmental protection, due to the potential hazards involved, and these problems institute obligations of the Federal Republic of Germany under contractual law and under customary international law. Particularly under customary international neighbour law the F.R.G. is obliged to prevent and abstain from transfrontier activities entailing environmental effects with considerable damaging potential in the neighbouring states, which also includes the duty of providing for protection against accidents. It is, however, a clear fact that the states decided the peaceful uses of atomic energy to be admissible, and accept the risk of possible catastrophic damage. The interpretation of existing international laws has to take this fact into account. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  16. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise...

  17. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  18. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and aroun...... publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at (inter)national conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015025092....

  19. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  20. The challenge of introducing HTR plants on to the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1987-01-01

    The international power plant market today is characterized by high increase in energy consumption for developing countries with limitations of investment capital and low increase in energy consumption for industrialized countries with limitations of additional power plant capacities. As a consequence there is a low demand for large new power stations. This leads to a tendency for small and medium sized power plant units - meeting high environmental standards - for which the total investment volume is low and full load operation of a plant can be realized earlier due to the small block capacity. - For nuclear power plants the High-Temperature-Reactor (HTR)-line with spherical fuel elements and a core structure of graphite is specially suited for this small and medium sized nuclear reactor (SMSNR) capacity. The excellent safety characteristics, the high availability, the low radiation doses for the operation personnel and the environment of the HTR line has been demonstrated by 20 years of operation of the AVR-15 MWe experimental power plant in Juelich F.R.G. and since 1985 by operation of the THTR-300 MWe prototype plant at Hamm-Uentrop F.R.G. Up-dated concepts of the HTR-line are under design for electricity generation (HTR-500), for co-generation of power and heat (HTR-100) and for district heating purposes only (GHR-10). By implementing two HTR projects the Brown Boveri Group is in the position to realize the collected experiences from design, licensing, erection, commissioning and operation for the follow-on projects. This leads to practical and sound technical solutions convenient for existing manufacturing processes, well known materials, standardized components and usual manufacturing tolerances. Specific plant characteristics can be used for advantages in the competition. (author)

  1. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  2. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Pino; Bertea, Cinzia M; Temporale, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show a new, simple, and rapid SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR assay for the quantification of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. As a test plant, Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M., a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family able to induce hallucinations, changes in perception, or other psychologically induced changes with similar potency as LSD, was used. The method was tested on seven mixtures 100/0%, 80/20%, 60/40%, 40/60%, 20/80%, 10/90%, 0/100% (w/w) S. divinorum versus a non-hallucinogenic plant, Salvia officinalis. Total DNA was extracted from samples and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA was added, as internal standard, at the beginning of each extraction. A new formula for the interpretation of Real-Time PCR data, based on the relative quantification of DNA extracted from mixture versus a reference DNA extracted from a known amount of pure S. divinorum, was developed. The results of this work show an almost perfect correspondence between Real-Time PCR-calculated weight and the weight estimated by an analytical weighted method, proving the effectiveness of this method for the quantitative analysis of a given species in a plant mixture.

  3. Biomechanics of the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  4. Computational modeling in biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mofrad, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a glimpse of the diverse and important roles that modern computational technology is playing in various areas of biomechanics. It includes unique chapters on ab initio quantum mechanical, molecular dynamic and scale coupling methods..

  5. Biomechanics of Spider Silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    water and deformation conditions. Such fibres [Nexia ’ biosteel ’ silk ] were spun from recombinant silk ’cloned’ from Spidroin II and indeed show 67...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Biomechanics of Spider Silks F49620-03-1-0111 6. AUTHOR(S) Fritz Vollrath 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Perform Pro, WHSIDIOR, Oct 94 COVER SHEET FINAL (3rd Year) Report to AFOSR on: BIOMECHANICS OF SPIDER SILKS Fritz Vollrath, Oxford University, England

  6. Biomechanics and tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B

    2006-05-01

    Success in tennis requires a mix of player talent, good coaching, appropriate equipment, and an understanding of those aspects of sport science pertinent to the game. This paper outlines the role that biomechanics plays in player development from sport science and sport medicine perspectives. Biomechanics is a key area in player development because all strokes have a fundamental mechanical structure and sports injuries primarily have a mechanical cause.

  7. Refer to AP1000 for discussing the betterment of seismic design of internal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhenbang; Zhang Renyan

    2014-01-01

    As a reference technique of AP1000, This paper discussed the betterment of seismic design of nuclear power plant in three ways. (1) Establish design criteria and guidelines for protection from seismic interaction; (2) Nuclear power plant seismic design of eliminating or weaken operation-basis earthquake; (3) Develop the seismic margin analysis (SMA) of the nuclear power plant. These three aspect are frontier technology in internal seismic design of internal nuclear power plant, and also these three technology are related intimately. (authors)

  8. Ordinary Cannulated Compression Screws or Headless Cannulated Compression Screws? A Synthetic Bone Biomechanical Research in the Internal Fixation of Vertical Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to verify whether the headless cannulated compression screw (HCCS has higher biomechanical stability than the ordinary cannulated compression screw (OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods. 30 synthetic femur models were equally divided into 2 groups, with 50°, 60°, and 70° Pauwels angle of femoral neck fracture, under 3D printed guiding plates and C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. The femur molds were fixed with three parallel OCCSs as OCCS group and three parallel HCCSs as HCCS group. All specimens were tested for compressive strength and maximum load to failure with a loading rate of 2 mm/min. Results. The result showed that there was no significant difference with the compressive strength in the Pauwels angle of 50° and 60°. However, we observed that the maximum load to failure with the Pauwels angle of 50°, 60°, and 70° and the compressive strength with 70° of HCCS group showed better performance than the OCCS group. Conclusion. HCCS performs with better biomechanical stability than OCCS in the treatment of vertical femoral neck fracture, especially with the Pauwels angle of 70°.

  9. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  10. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    used to promote benefit sharing and conversation of plant genetic resources particularly in ... and Government at the World Food Summit agreed on a global plan of action ... the sustainable use of plant genetic resources by providing a flexible.

  11. Chances and risks of the international plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    Construction of large plants will in the long run become a growth branch of the German industry. As far as orders are concerned, there is now a structural change from industrialized countries to developing countries and state-trading countries. Japan will continue to be the most aggressive competitor in plant construction. The increasing cost of energy has expanded the market for energy production, energy conservation, and energy conversion plants. Plant construction will increase its importance within the investment goods industry.

  12. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  13. Dr Dapertutto's biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojmenović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the basic models of Meyerhold's biomechanics, which were used to define its theoretical principles. Professor Meyerhold, the theatrical leader of an eccentric stream, with which he changed the modern understanding of the theatre, established the technique of biomechanics by analysing the calculated type of movement. The analysis determines the answers to the questions: What kind of influence does Taylor's 'scientific management of work' have on defining the principles of Meyerhold's techniques of biomechanics? Which aesthetic models of stage movement were some of the basic subjects of Meyerhold's research? Meyerhold's theatrical work has been researched by a number of theatre theorists. However, how much does his work influence the film medium?.

  14. Do best manufacturing practices depend on the plant role in international manufacturing networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demeter, Krisztina; Szász, Levente; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    . This paper investigates the relationship between plant roles and the “goodness” of manufacturing practices using the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey. According to our results plants with higher competence (leaders and contributors) have more best practices than less competent plants. Servers can...

  15. ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Katie; Abramczyk, Joseph; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Kowsika, Murthy; Mertz, Harold J; Rouhana, Stephen W; Scherer, Risa; Shi, Yibing; Sutterfield, Aleta; Xu, Lan; Tylko, Suzanne; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2002-11-01

    This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed. Finally, this technical paper will compare the biofidelity ratings of the current adult side impact dummies with the ES-2 dummy, which received an overall dummy biofidelity rating of 4.6.

  16. Toward characterization of craniofacial biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, Tomasz D; Whyne, Cari M; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction of craniofacial deformities has advanced significantly in recent years. However, unlike orthopedic surgery of the appendicular skeleton, the biomechanical characterization of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) has yet to be elucidated. Attempts to simplify facial skeletal structure into straightforward mechanical device analogies have been insufficient in delineating craniofacial biomechanics. Advanced computational engineering analysis methods offer the potential to accurately and completely define the internal mechanical environment of the CFS. This study developed a finite element (FE) model in the I-deas 10 FEM software package of a preserved cadaveric human CFS and compared the predictions of this model against in vitro strain measurement of simulated occlusal loading forces from a single masseter muscle. The FE model applied shell element modeling to capture the behavior of the thin cortical bone that may play an important role in stabilizing the facial structures against functional loads. In vitro testing included strain measurements at 12 locations for a total of 16 independent channels with less than 150 N of tensile force applied through the masseter muscle into the zygomatic arch origin at 4 different orientations, with 3 trials of 500 recorded data points for each loading orientation. Linear regression analysis yielded a moderate prediction (r = 0.57) between the model and experimentally measured strains. Exclusion of strain comparisons in regions that required greater modeling assumptions greatly improved the correlation (r = 0.70). Future validation studies will benefit from improved placement of strain gauges as guided by FE model predicted strain patterns.

  17. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  18. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  19. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  20. Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means

  1. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  2. Biomechanics of footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, C J

    1987-07-01

    This article discusses biomechanical principles that indicate a number of basic design criteria for shoes and the properties of good footwear in terms of normal daily activities at home, at school, and at work. These properties also apply to normal occupational footwear and safety footwear.

  3. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  4. International overview: Good practices at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.; Dular, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is reported that to determine and analyze the reasons for differences in an energy availability factors observed at various nuclear power plants (NPP), the IAEA initiated two studies covering a number of plants. The article reviews the key purposes and aims of these two studies, and summarizes their major findings, including the identification of the main factors contributing to the good performance of a NPP. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Internal and External Dispersal of Plants by Animals: An Aquatic Perspective on Alien Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. A. van Leeuwen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory. If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory. However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory, interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants. This literature study addresses the following hypotheses: (1 alien plants may interfere with both internal and external animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores; (2 interference also occurs in aquatic ecosystems; (3 interference of alien plants can have both negative and positive effects on native plants. The studied literature revealed that alien species can comprise large proportions of both internally and externally transported diaspores. Because animals have limited space for ingested and adhering diaspores, alien species affect both internal and external transport of native diaspores. Alien plant species also form large proportions of all dispersed diaspores in aquatic systems and interfere with dispersal of native aquatic plants. Alien interference can be either negative (e.g., through competition with native plants or positive (e.g., increased abundance of native dispersers, changed disperser behavior or attracting additional disperser species. I propose many future research directions, because understanding whether alien plant species disrupt or facilitate animal-mediated dispersal of native plants is crucial for targeted conservation of invaded (aquatic plant communities.

  6. Proceedings of 2009 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This CD-ROM is the collection of the paper presented at the 2009 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'09) . The 365 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Using international experience to improve performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.; Csik, B.J.; Strickert, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Information on performance achievements will assist nuclear power plant operating organizations to develop initiatives for improved or continued high performance of their plants. The paper describes the activities of the IAEA in reviewing and analysing the reasons for good performance by contacting operating organizations identified by its Power Reactor Information System as showing continued good performance. Discussions with operations personnel of utilities have indicated practices which have a major positive impact on good performance and which are generally common to all well performing organizations contacted. The IAEA also promotes further activities directed primarily to the achievement of standards of excellence in nuclear power operation. These are briefly commented

  8. Internal emergency organization in the Beznau nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The successful mastering of every emergency situation is based on the strict adherence to frequently reviewed emergency instruction and practice on simulators. This is the primary duty of all plant employees. In addition, executive bodies are necessary. The highest authority in the emergency organization is the emergency staff. Under the leadership of the plant manager, this staff consists of all department heads and several specialists. Outside normal working hours, it can be expected of the emergency staff that it is fully functional within, at most, one hour. Until the emergency staff can take over, the on-duty engineer leads emergency procedures. Several other different teams are responsible to the emergency staff. There are five emergency teams: off-duty plant employees; fire fighters; radiation defence; first-aid; plant guards. Then there is the technical support center (TSC). The responsibilities of the TSC are: giving technical advise to the emergency staff; working out different options for fighting the emergency; checking up on special methods; communication with the reactor manufacturer for additional support. 1 fig

  9. The link between off-site-emergency planning and plant-internal accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.

    1995-02-01

    A variety of accident management measures has been developed and implemented in the German nuclear power plants. They constitute a fourth level of safety in the defence-in-depth concept. The containment venting system is an important example. A functioning link with well defined lines of communication between plant-internal accident management and off-site disaster emergency planning has been established.

  10. First international congress on plant oil fuels. Proceedings; Erster Internationaler Kongress zu Pflanzenoel-Kraftstoffen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The conference proceedings contain 31 contributions on the following topics: biofuels - status and perspectives; ecological evaluation; plant oils: engineering - production and quality; plant oils: international markets and economy; mobile applications - techniques and emissions; stationary applications: techniques and economy; the renewable energies law (EEG), the biofuel quoting law (BioKraftQuG) and the energy tax law (EnergieStG).

  11. The challenge of introducing high-temperature reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  12. The challenge of introducing high-temperature-reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.

  14. Development of Internal Dose Assessment Program for Nuclear Power Plant Employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Kang, Duck Won; Maeng, Sung Jun; Kim, Hee Geun; Son, Soon Whan; Lim, Young Kee; Son, Joong Kwon; Park, Keyoung Rock [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, See Young; Ha, Jong Woo; Suh, Keyoung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Oak Doo; Lee, Joong Woo; Yoon, Sung Sik [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Internal exposure monitoring based on new concept of radiation protection. Analysis and Performance test of the in vivo systems being operated in nuclear power plants in Korea. Design and fabrication of humanoid phantom for calibration of in vivo system. Development of internal dose evaluation code based on the ICRP 30 dosimetric model. (author). 44 refs., figs.

  15. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

    1980-04-01

    The first volume of this report summarizes the results and conclusions for this study of conventional and advanced nuclear materials accounting systems applicable for both large (1500 MTHM/y) and small (210 MTHM/y) spent-fuel reprocessing facilities subject to international verification

  16. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  17. Quality management in an international nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, J.; Crustin, J.

    1975-01-01

    SNR (Schneller Natriumgekuehlter Reaktor) is the fast reactor power plant being erected at Kalkar, Federal German Republic. Quality management in this project is a contractual obligation. Quality management is subdivided into quality engineering, set of actions performed before manufacturing, and quality control, set of material controls performed during fabrication. The two successive phases of the quality management are presented. The difficulties and improvment possibilities are discussed [fr

  18. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  19. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  20. Internalization and dissemination of human norovirus and Tulane virus in fresh produce is plant dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihong; Chambers, Heather; DiCaprio, Erin; Gao, Gary; Li, Jianrong

    2018-02-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks. Previous research indicates that the roots of growing leafy greens and berries internalize human NoV. However the effect of plant type and inoculum level on internalization rates has not been directly compared. In this study we compared the internalization and dissemination rates of human NoV and its surrogate, Tulane virus (TV) in green onion, radishes, and Romaine lettuce. We also evaluated the effect inoculum level and plant growth matrix on the rate of viral internalization. In the hydroponic growth system, we detected internalization and dissemination of human NoV RNA in green onions. In hydroponically growing green onions inoculated with high titer TV, we found higher rates of internalization and dissemination compared to green onions inoculated with low titer TV. In soil growth systems, no infectious TV was detected in either green onion or radishes. However, in Romaine lettuce plants grown in soil approximately 4 log 10  PFU/g was recovered from all tissues on day 14 p.i. Overall, we found that the type of plant, growth matrix, and the inoculum level influences the internalization and dissemination of human NoV and TV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  2. An international comparison of nuclear plant training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, I visited four utility companies that own and operate pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants in different countries. The purpose of my visits and associated research was to compare nuclear power plant operator and technician training programs. The companies were: Duke Power Company (DUKE) in the United States, Electricite de France (EDF) in France, Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) in Japan, and RWE Energie AG (RWE) in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to highlight selected aspects of the comparison. First, comparisons of the four subject utilities and four typical nuclear power stations operated by each company, McGuire, Paluel, Ohi, and Biblis, are provided. Then comparisons of new employee demographics and training program specific content are provided. Finally, some general observations are drawn from the comparisons. The comparisons are based on information obtained from documents, interviews, and visits to stations and training centers. However, some interpretation of the information was necessary in order to enable a comparison. For example, categorization of training modules requires judgement, interpretation, and translation. In all cases, the information is intended to be representative or typical, rather than statistically precise

  3. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  4. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance

  5. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  6. Internal dose from tritium at Wolsung nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee Geun Kim; Jeong Yull Dho; Myung Jae Song

    1995-01-01

    Tritium is produced in large quantities at heavy water nuclear power reactors via the neutron activation reaction 2 H(n,γ) 3 H. At Wolsung nuclear power plant which has a CANDU reactor, the tritium concentrations in coolant and in moderator systems are 1.5 Ci/Kg-D 2 O and 35 Ci/kg-D 2 O, respectively, after 12 years of operation. The airborne tritium concentration in main access area is normally less than 5 MPCa except short-term peaks. The average tritium concentrations in main access controlled areas are normally less than 100 MPCa. Tritium is mainly present in the air of workplace of CANDU reactors as a tritiated water vapour. Airborne tritiated water vapour enters the workers body via inhalation and absorption through skin and can result in a significant dose. The occupational doses from tritium at Wolsung NPP have been maintained below 1 man-Sv per year so far. The tritium contribution to the total plant man-Sv changes between 30 percent and 50 percent. For the mitigation of tritium inhalation, various protective equipment are being used at Wolsung NPP. The respirator system was devised at Wolsung NPP in order to remove tritiated water vapours from the inhaled air. A respirator is connected to a small plastic bottle filled with ice cubes. The system devised shows a good tritium removal efficiency. The air pressure drop through the ice cubes is minimal. The operation cost of the system is also very cheap. Further mitigation of tritium inhalation is heavily dependant on the source term reduction. One of the ultimate solutions is to introduce a tritium removal facility. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Small hook thread (Quill) and soft felt internal splint to increase the primary repair strength of lacerated rabbit Achilles tendons: biomechanical analysis and considerations for hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Feldman, Kirill; Tervoort, Theo A; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    For the prevention of re-rupture during early healing phase, the primary repair strength of repaired lacerated tendons in hand surgery should be maximal and the reconstructed diameter minimal. Two new repair methods (small hook thread and internal splint) were assessed for strength and reconstructed diameter characteristics. Achilles tendons of 43 female New Zealand White rabbits were sectioned 2 cm above the calcaneus. Specimens were divided into 7 groups and repaired as follows: Kirchmayr method 2-strand with 4.0 polypropylene thread; Becker method 4-strand; 6-strand; internal splint; Kirchmayr method small hook 2-strand; Becker method small hook 4-strand, non-modified tendon. Load until failure, load until gap formation, gap length, cross-sectional area and failure stress were determined. The small hook 2-strand suture had 1.3 fold higher loads until failure compared to a conventional 2-strand suture, P<0.05. The internal splint had a similar load until failure (22 N (SD 6)) as the conventional 2-strand suture (23 N (SD 4)); around half the load until failure of the conventional 4-strand suture (38 N (SD 9)). Load until gap formation correlated positively with load until failure (y=0.65+3.6; r(2)=0.72). The running suture increased the cross-sectional area at the repair site by a factor of 1.3. Using a small hook thread instead of a 4.0 polypropylene thread significantly increases the primary repair strength with the same number of strands. Internal splints may be an alternative to conventional 2-strand sutures for bridging large gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for internal funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, utilities have exercised sole responsibility for reinvesting capital funds collected from ratepayers. Capital provided by ratepayers, whether for recovery of invested capital or for removal costs, reduces the magnitude of future borrowings - dollar for dollar. If regulatory commissions require utilities to place these collections in separate, inaccessible investment accounts (as in external funding methods), then utilities will be denied the use of these funds. Ratepayers, in turn, will be denied both their usual interest credit and the cost-saving benefits afforded by utilities having readily accessible cash to use instead of having to resort to borrowing. Such benefits can be attained only through internal-funding methods that keep rate payer contributions under unrestricted utility control. While state regulatory commissions currently favor external funding for financial assurance, the author feels the extra cost to ratepayers and the utilities is too high a price to pay

  9. Rockwell International - Rocky Flats Plant: Occupational Health Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistine, R.W.; Petrocchi, A.; Wright, W.L.; Yoder, R.E.; Fischer, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Rockwell International-Rocky Flats Occupational Health Information System uses the FLOW GEMINI software on a VAX computer system. The system is extremely user friendly, flexible, comprehensive, and easily customized by the user. The system contains the editioned files (i.e., time organized historical data) of the Medical, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, and Safety Departments. It maintains, analyzes and reports on data from employee medical and work histories, medical exams, workplace monitoring, and health effects related to specific hazards or locations in the workplace. It identifies and reports potential individual and group problems through regular reports and responses to on-line queries. In addition, it schedules examination, sampling, produces standard user-defined reports, and provides statistical analysis capabilities. The system presently contains a file of more than 20,000 Material Data Safety Sheets. A user group provides a mechanism for sharing ideas and continual software enhancement. 11 figures

  10. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable

  11. Experience of international projects implementation at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavialov, L.A. [Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant ' Rosenergoatom' , Leningrad Region, 188540, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    During the period of 1992-2007 more than 60 different projects of different specificity and budget have been successfully implemented in frames of Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) Program, Project financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), as well as in frames of Agreements on Cooperation between Leningrad NPP and Radiation and Nuclear safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, International Co-operation Program SKI-ICP(SIP). All these projects were directed to the safety increasing of the Leningrad NPP reactor, type RBMK-1000. Implementation of the technical aid projects has been performed by different foreign companies such as Aarsleff Oy, (Finland), SGN (France), Nukem (Germany), Jergo AB (Sweden), SABAROS (Switzerland), Westinghouse (USA), Nordion (Canada), Bruel and Kjer (Denmark), Data System and Solutions (UK), SVT Braundshuz (Germany) WICOTEC (Sweden), Studsvik (Sweden) and etc. which has enough technical and organizational experience in implementation of such projects, as well as all necessary certificates and licenses for works performance. Selection of a Contractor/Supplier for a joined work performance has been carried out in accordance with the tender procedure, technical specification and a planned budget. Project financing was covered by foreign Consolidated Funds and Authorities interested in increasing of Leningrad NPP safety, which have valid intergovernmental agreements with Russian Federation on the technical assistance to be provided to the NPPs. At present time all joined international projects implemented at Leningrad NPP are financed jointly with LNPP. All projects can be divided into technical aid projects connected with development and turnkey implementation of systems and complexes and projects for supply of equipment which has no analogues in Russia but successfully used all over the world. Positive experience of the joined projects

  12. Experience of international projects implementation at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavialov, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    During the period of 1992-2007 more than 60 different projects of different specificity and budget have been successfully implemented in frames of Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) Program, Project financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), as well as in frames of Agreements on Cooperation between Leningrad NPP and Radiation and Nuclear safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, International Co-operation Program SKI-ICP(SIP). All these projects were directed to the safety increasing of the Leningrad NPP reactor, type RBMK-1000. Implementation of the technical aid projects has been performed by different foreign companies such as Aarsleff Oy, (Finland), SGN (France), Nukem (Germany), Jergo AB (Sweden), SABAROS (Switzerland), Westinghouse (USA), Nordion (Canada), Bruel and Kjer (Denmark), Data System and Solutions (UK), SVT Braundshuz (Germany) WICOTEC (Sweden), Studsvik (Sweden) and etc. which has enough technical and organizational experience in implementation of such projects, as well as all necessary certificates and licenses for works performance. Selection of a Contractor/Supplier for a joined work performance has been carried out in accordance with the tender procedure, technical specification and a planned budget. Project financing was covered by foreign Consolidated Funds and Authorities interested in increasing of Leningrad NPP safety, which have valid intergovernmental agreements with Russian Federation on the technical assistance to be provided to the NPPs. At present time all joined international projects implemented at Leningrad NPP are financed jointly with LNPP. All projects can be divided into technical aid projects connected with development and turnkey implementation of systems and complexes and projects for supply of equipment which has no analogues in Russia but successfully used all over the world. Positive experience of the joined projects

  13. Ignalina plant licensing process, international co-operation and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystedt, P.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge for Lithuania as a country with regained independence was to perform a licensing review in a way never done before in the country and in a time schedule that was extremely short. The work included establishing of the licensing base, strengthening the regulatory authority and organising the technical support, establish and implement a safety improvement program, production of the safety case and review of the safety case, and to derive a conclusion regarding whether to issue a licence or not. This was to be done together with other tasks, such as implementation of modifications included in the safety improvement programme at Ignalina, implementation of a new storage for spent fuel and, most important of all, to manage the operational safety at the plant. The achievements are impressive seen in view of the point of start and in view of the time and resources that have been available. Lithuania has put forward a unique safety documentation of an RBMK reactor and presented an in-depth safety evaluation in full openness to Western experts, giving the unique possibility to compare the safety of the Ignalina reactors to Western standards. The co-operation that has been established between Lithuania and Western experts through different assistance programmes is of outmost value, for all involved parties. Co-operation should continue as one element of the challenges for the future

  14. Influence of chronic internal and acute external irradiations on the critical tissues of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.P.; Ryasnenko, N.A.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities of chronic internal and acute external irradiations of the critical (as for irradiation influence) plants part, meristem, are studied. In particular, the investigation has aimed to evaluate the level of doses, accumulated by plant tissues, of the chronic internal irradiation from radiocaesium incorporated by them, and to compare its possible effect to one caused by the acute external irradiation. It is shown that the effects of both chronic and acute irradiations have similar features, and it is assumed that they have the very same mechanisms. We think that such a parameter of the plant ability to accumulate radiocaesium as the ratio of its content in a root tip and in the whole root system is a very sensible and useful criterion to estimate the irradiation influence on plants

  15. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants; Internationale Anforderungen zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Robert [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Abt. Festigkeit und Konstruktion, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  16. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  17. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  18. Biomechanics of far cortical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Feist, Florian

    2011-02-01

    The development of far cortical locking (FCL) was motivated by a conundrum: locked plating constructs provide inherently rigid stabilization, yet they should facilitate biologic fixation and secondary bone healing that relies on flexible fixation to stimulate callus formation. Recent studies have confirmed that the high stiffness of standard locked plating constructs can suppress interfragmentary motion to a level that is insufficient to reliably promote secondary fracture healing by callus formation. Furthermore, rigid locking screws cause an uneven stress distribution that may lead to stress fracture at the end screw and stress shielding under the plate. This review summarizes four key features of FCL constructs that have been shown to enhance fixation and healing of fractures: flexible fixation, load distribution, progressive stiffening, and parallel interfragmentary motion. Specifically, flexible fixation provided by FCL reduces the stiffness of a locked plating construct by 80% to 88% to actively promote callus proliferation similar to an external fixator. Load is evenly distributed between FCL screws to mitigate stress risers at the end screw. Progressive stiffening occurs by near cortex support of FCL screws and provides additional support under elevated loading. Finally, parallel interfragmentary motion by the S-shaped flexion of FCL screws promotes symmetric callus formation. In combination, these features of FCL constructs have been shown to induce more callus and to yield significantly stronger and more consistent healing compared with standard locked plating constructs. As such, FCL constructs function as true internal fixators by replicating the biomechanical behavior and biologic healing response of external fixators.

  19. International safeguards at the feed and withdrawal area of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at a model gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant designed for the production of low-enriched uranium; particular emphasis is placed upon the verification by the IAEA of the facility material balance accounting. 13 refs

  20. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, H.

    1996-01-01

    the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is possible...

  1. International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future prospects of nuclear power plants and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document includes 19 papers presented at the 'International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future Prospects of Nuclear Power Plants in Turkey', held between 12-15 October 1993 in Ankara (Turkey). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper prepared for each paper

  2. International outage coding system for nuclear power plants. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    The experience obtained in each individual plant constitutes the most relevant source of information for improving its performance. However, experience of the level of the utility, country and worldwide is also extremely valuable, because there are limitations to what can be learned from in-house experience. But learning from the experience of others is admittedly difficult, if the information is not harmonized. Therefore, such systems should be standardized and applicable to all types of reactors satisfying the needs of the broad set of nuclear power plant operators worldwide and allowing experience to be shared internationally. To cope with the considerable amount of information gathered from nuclear power plants worldwide, it is necessary to codify the information facilitating the identification of causes of outages, systems or component failures. Therefore, the IAEA established a sponsored Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the International Outage Coding System to develop a general, internationally applicable system of coding nuclear power plant outages, providing worldwide nuclear utilities with a standardized tool for reporting outage information. This TECDOC summarizes the results of this CRP and provides information for transformation of the historical outage data into the new coding system, taking into consideration the existing systems for coding nuclear power plant events (WANO, IAEA-IRS and IAEA PRIS) but avoiding duplication of efforts to the maximum possible extent

  3. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  4. Scale-Independent Biomechanical Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schutte, J. F; Koh, B; Reinbolt, J. A; Haftka, R. T; George, A; Fregly, B. J

    2003-01-01

    ...: the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). They apply this method to the biomechanical system identification problem of finding positions and orientations of joint axes in body segments through the processing of experimental movement data...

  5. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  6. Aging management strategy for reactor internals of Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Soung Woo; Lee, Sam Lai; Hong, Seung Mo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Dong Jin; Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Joung Soo; Jung, Man Kyo; Park, Jang Yul

    2010-01-01

    This report describes various factors on the IASCC of reactor internals in terms of fluence, stress, water chemistries and materials. Materials of each components of Korean nuclear power plants have been surveyed. A technical report for a management of reactor internals issued by EPRI was reviewed for a selection of most susceptible area among many components. Baffle former bolts are considered to be the most susceptible parts due to high irradiation level(fluence) and high tensile stress. Neutron fluence of Kori-1 and Kori-2 was calculated based on fuel exchange history, fuel performance and plant operation history. This report will be used for more advanced inspection and maintenance guidelines development by supplying inspection intervals and components (most susceptible regions) for the long term operation plants

  7. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  8. Biomechanics: basic and applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, G.; Rohlmann, A.; Koelbel, R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the state of the art in biomechanics. The most recent achievements of biomechanical research in the fields of orthopaedics, dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, hard and soft tissues, rehabilitation, sports, cardiovascular problems and research methodology have been selected and edited by a distinguished panel of reviewers. The material is such that the volume will serve as a reference for many years for bioengineers, sports scientists, clinicians and clinical researchers in rehabilitation, orthopaedics and cardiovascular surgery

  9. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  10. Technical basis for the internal dosimetry program at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Barber, J.M.; Snapp, L.M.; Turner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of plant operations. almost all work with radioactive materials has involved isotopes associated with uranium, enriched or depleted in U 235 . While limited quantities of isotopes of elements other than uranium are present, workplace monitoring and precess knowledge have established that internal exposure from these other isotopes is insignificant in comparison with uranium. While the changing plant mission may necessitate the consideration of internal exposure from other isotopes at some point in time, only enriched and depleted uranium will be considered in this basis document. The portions of the internal dosimetry technical basis which may be unique to the Y-12 Plant is considered in this manual. This manual presents the technical basis of the routine in vivo and in vitro bioassay programs including choice of frequency, participant selection criteria, and action level guidelines. Protocols for special bioassay will be presented in the chapters which described the basis for intake, uptake, and dam assessment. A discussion of the factors which led to the need to develop a special biokinetic model for uranium at the Y-12 Plant, as well as a description of the model's basic parameters, are included in this document

  11. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  13. International safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant: containment and surveillance concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    Concepts for containment/surveillance for reprocessing plants are described, conceptual designs are developed, and their effectiveness is evaluated. A technical approach to design of containment/surveillance systems is presented, and design considerations are discussed. This is the second in a series of reports. The first described the basis for the study of international safeguards for reprocessing plants. In this second report, only containment/surveillance is discussed. The third report will discuss the integration of concepts for containment/surveillance and material accountancy

  14. Japan's international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Akira

    1997-01-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  15. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  16. Japan`s international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Akira [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  17. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Baker, M.P.; Strittmatter, R.; Jain, M.; Evans, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development of each of these instruments is discussed, with supporting data, as well as the role each would play in a total international safeguards system. 5 figures

  18. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  19. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  20. Example Plant Model for an International Benchmark Study on DI and C PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Park, Jinkyun; Jang, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this context the risk quantification due to these digitalized safety systems became more important. Although there are many challenges to address about this issue, many countries agreed with the necessity of research on reliability quantification of DI and C system. Based on the agreement of several countries, one of internal research association is planning a benchmark study on this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each participating member develop its own probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model of digital I and C systems. Although the DI and C systems are being applied to NPPs, of which modeling method to quantify its reliability still ambiguous. Therefore, an internal research association is planning a benchmark study to address this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each member develop their own PSA model for DI and C systems

  1. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering (ICMMPE 2016) which was held from 23rd to 24th November, 2016 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The proceedings discuss genuine problems of joining technologies that are heart of manufacturing sectors. It discusses the findings of experimental and numerical works from soldering, arc welding to solid state joining technology that faced by current industry. .

  2. A study of the international trend and comprehensive enhancement program on the Nuclear Power Plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    The objectives of this study are as follows : overview of the international trend related to the safety of Nuclear Power Plant(NPPs), study of the present status of NPP safety in Korea in aspects of design, construction and operation, suggestion of the comprehensive program to improve NPP safety in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to improve the safety of existing and future NPPs, and to establish the severe accident policy in Korea.

  3. A study of the international trend and comprehensive enhancement program on the Nuclear Power Plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Paek, Won Phil

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows : overview of the international trend related to the safety of Nuclear Power Plant(NPPs), study of the present status of NPP safety in Korea in aspects of design, construction and operation, suggestion of the comprehensive program to improve NPP safety in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to improve the safety of existing and future NPPs, and to establish the severe accident policy in Korea

  4. UF6 test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF 6 flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized

  5. Bioreactors for plant cells: hardware configuration and internal environment optimization as tools for wider commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Weber, Jost

    2014-07-01

    Mass production of value-added molecules (including native and heterologous therapeutic proteins and enzymes) by plant cell culture has been demonstrated as an efficient alternative to classical technologies [i.e. natural harvest and chemical (semi)synthesis]. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up plant cell culture-based processes (most notably to produce paclitaxel) and several commercial processes have been established so far. The choice of a suitable bioreactor design (or modification of an existing commercially available reactor) and the optimization of its internal environment have been proven as powerful tools toward successful mass production of desired molecules. This review highlights recent progress (mostly in the last 5 years) in hardware configuration and optimization of bioreactor culture conditions for suspended plant cells.

  6. The nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The internal audit program of the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (NMCandA) Department at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, through inventory-verification audits, inventory-observation audits, procedures audits, and records audits, evaluates the adequacy of material accounting and control systems and procedures throughout the Plant; appraises and verifies the accuracy and reliability of accountability records and reports; assures the consistent application of generally accepted accounting principles in accounting for nuclear materials; and assures compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) and NMCandA procedures and requirements. The internal audit program has significantly strengthened the control and accountability of nuclear materials through improving the system of internal control over nuclear materials, increasing the awareness of materials control and accountability concerns within the Plant's material balance areas (MBAs), strengthening the existence of audit trails within the overall accounting system for nuclear materials, improving the accuracy and timeliness of data submitted to the nuclear materials accountability system, auditing the NMCandA accounting system to ensure its accuracy and reliability, and ensuring that all components of that system (general ledgers, subsidiary ledgers, inventory listings, etc.) are in agreement among themselves

  7. Increase of Internal CO2 of Cotton Plants by Methanol Application to Increase Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badron Zakaria; Darmawan; Nurlina Kasim; Joseph Saepuddin

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment has been conducted to increase internal CO 2 and Rubisco activity detected by 14 C and to determinate which factors influence this activities. Plant material used was cotton plants which internal CO 2 concentrations and Rubisco activity was observed at 35, 50, 65, 80 days after planting (DAP). Treatments applied were methanol with concentrations of 0%, 10%,20% and 30% at available water (AW) at 25-50% AW, 50-75% AW, 75-100% AW. Results obtained showed that application of methanol at concentration of 20% at 75-100% AW, increase internal CO 2 from 266.60 ppm to 295.10 ppm (11 % increase) and this will also increase Rubisco activity from 3.81 to 14.28 (μmol. CO 2 menit -1 (μmol. Rubisco -1 ). This increase is expected to push photosynthesis rate and result in increase cotton yield. The use of 14 C was satisfactorily detected the amount of carbon. (author)

  8. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  9. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, Michael H.; Johnson, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  10. International symposium on nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This document contains extended synopsis of 92 papers presented at the International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Plant Nutrient, Water, and Soil Management held in Vienna, Austria, 16-20 October 2000. The efficient use of plant nutrient and fertilizer using carbon 13 and nitrogen 15 tracers; plant water use using oxygen 18 and moisture gauges, as well as soil and plant radioactivity monitoring, are some of the major subjects covered by these papers

  11. Surface-based prostate registration with biomechanical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wendy J. M.; Hu, Yipeng; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barratt, Dean; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2013-03-01

    Adding MR-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound by using MRUS registration. A common approach is to use surface-based registration. We hypothesize that biomechanical modeling will better control deformation inside the prostate than a regular surface-based registration method. We developed a novel method by extending a surface-based registration with finite element (FE) simulation to better predict internal deformation of the prostate. For each of six patients, a tetrahedral mesh was constructed from the manual prostate segmentation. Next, the internal prostate deformation was simulated using the derived radial surface displacement as boundary condition. The deformation field within the gland was calculated using the predicted FE node displacements and thin-plate spline interpolation. We tested our method on MR guided MR biopsy imaging data, as landmarks can easily be identified on MR images. For evaluation of the registration accuracy we used 45 anatomical landmarks located in all regions of the prostate. Our results show that the median target registration error of a surface-based registration with biomechanical regularization is 1.88 mm, which is significantly different from 2.61 mm without biomechanical regularization. We can conclude that biomechanical FE modeling has the potential to improve the accuracy of multimodal prostate registration when comparing it to regular surface-based registration.

  12. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  13. An overview of reactor vessel internals segmentation for nuclear plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litka, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several nuclear plants have undergone reactor vessel (RV) internals segmentation as part of or in preparation for decommissioning the plant. In addition, several other nuclear facilities are planning for similar work efforts. The primary technology used for segmentation of RV internals, whether in-air or underwater is Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC). Metal Disintegration Machining (MDM) is also used for difficult to make cuts. PAC and MDM are deployed by various means including Long Handled Tools (LHTs), fixtures, tracks, and multi-axis manipulators. These enable remote cutting due to the radiation and/or underwater environment. A Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), and a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) have had their internals removed and segmented using PAC and MDM. The cutting technology used for each component, location of cut, cut geometry and environment had to be determined well before the actual cutting operations. This allowed for the design, fabrication, and testing of the delivery systems. The technologies, selection process, and methodology for RV internals segmentation will be discussed in this paper

  14. Absorbed Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients for Domestic Reference Animals and Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, '9{sup 5}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (muGyd{sup -1} per Bqkg{sup -1}) ranged from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc were independent of the organism

  15. Role of near-real-time accounting in international safeguards for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of conventional nuclear materials accounting systems, both national and international, is constrained by the fundamental process features of high-throughput nuclear facilities and the economic limits of effective nuclear materials management consistent with production goals. Conventional accounting, complemented by near-real-time accounting, may meet projected IAEA performance goals for detecting diversion in medium- and high-throughput reprocessing facilities projected for the late 1900's. The design of materials accounting systems for international safeguards in reprocessing plants is discussed, paying particular attention to the question of international verification. Specific problems in measurement techniques, data evaluation, and systems structure are identified, and the current status of research and development efforts is reviewed

  16. Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....

  17. Internal Flooding Probabilistic Safety Assessment of an OPR-1000 Plant during Low Power and Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the electric power research institute (EPRI) published a guideline for the development of IF-PRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME/ANS RASa-2009 PRA consensus standard. The EPRI guideline delineates a level of detail and assessment complexity that has been significantly increased with respect to the guidance for IF assessment performed for the individual plant examination (IPE) to address Generic Letter 88- 20. The main differences include: A more systematic approach to the definition of flood area. The identification, screening and analysis of flooding sources and scenarios. The calculation of the initiating-event frequency (IEF) based on the actual length and characteristics of the piping. The inclusion of spatial effects such as spray from pipe leaks. The specific documentation associated with the plant walkdowns. Among these differences, this research focused on the third and fourth items when performing the internal flooding PSA. This is done by identifying the pipe and fluid characteristics, assessing the pipe pressure, characterizing the pipe (i.e., pipe diameter, length, etc.) and determining the pressure boundary failure frequency. The results were summed for the various piping systems within a given flood area to arrive at an overall internal flood initiating frequency for a given flood mode (i.e., spray, general flood, or major flood) for that particular area by each POS (Plant Operational State). In this initiating event frequency evaluations, the POS duration time is especially considered to get the real values for LPSD state. Characterizations of spray scenarios were evaluated to determine their impact on plant risk caused by internal flooding events.

  18. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  19. Power uprates in nuclear power plants: international experiences and approaches for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig

    2008-01-01

    The greater demand for electricity and the available capacity within safety margins in some operating NPPs are prompting nuclear utilities to request license modification to enable operation at a higher power level, beyond their original license provisions. Such plant modifications require an in-depth safety analysis to evaluate the possible safety impact. The analysis must consider the thermo hydraulic, radiological and structural aspects, and the plant behavior, while taking into account the capability of the structures, systems and components, and the reactor protection and safeguard systems set points. The purpose of this paper is to introduce international experiences and approaches for implementation of power uprates related to the reactor thermal power of nuclear power plants. The paper is intended to give the reader a general overview of the major processes, work products, issues, challenges, events, and experiences in the power uprates program. The process of increasing the licensed power level of a nuclear power plants is called a power uprate. One way of increasing the thermal output from a reactor is to increase the amount of fissile material in use. It is also possible to increase the core power by increasing the performance of the high power bundles. Safety margins can be maintained by either using fuels with a higher performance, or through the use of improved methods of analysis to demonstrate that the required margins are retained even at the higher power levels. The paper will review all types of power uprates, from small to large, and across various reactor types, including light and heavy water, pressurized, and boiling water reactors. Generally, however, the content of the report focuses on power uprates of the stretch and extended type. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing a technical guideline on power uprates and side effects of power uprates in nuclear power plants

  20. An international comparison of commercial nuclear power plant staffing regulations and practice, 1980--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.; Hauth, J.; Terrill, E.; Berk, B.; Gore, B.

    1994-03-01

    In this report an international review of regulatory and industry practices is provided in the area of nuclear power plant staffing during the 1980s in Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The objective of this review is to highlight trends in staffing regulatory approaches, industry practices, and issues of concern in other countries that have potential relevance to nuclear power plant staffing issues in the United States. The decade of the 1980s was marked by a great deal of growth in nuclear power operations internationally; however, growth of nuclear power is not expected to continue in the 1990s except in France and Japan. A continuum of regulatory approaches to staffing was identified, ranging from prescribed regulations that are applied to all licensees (Germany is most similar to the United States in this regard), to indirect staffing regulations where the regulatory authority oversees plant operating practices that are agreed to in the plant operating license (most notably, France and the United Kingdom). Most of the changes observed in staffing regulations and practices in the early 1980s were made in response to the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear power plant (TMI) in 1979. These changes included the widespread issuance of new operator and licensing requirements and the establishment of national training centers. After the post-TMI changes were implemented, a period of relative stability followed. Changes in the latter half of the 1980s have focused on continuing improvements and additions to training curricula and methods, most notably increased reliance on simulator training

  1. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  2. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  3. UF/sub 6/ test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF/sub 6/ flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized. By giving the IAEA the in-house capability to evaluate LFUA inspection strategy approaches, to develop inspection procedures, to calibrate instrumentation, and to train inspectors, the UF/sub 6/ cascade header pipe test loop will contribute to the IAEA's success in implementing LFUA strategy inspections at gas centrifuge enrichment facilities subject to international safeguards inspections

  4. Cycling biomechanics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak Timmer, C A

    1991-01-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment for a Master of Science degree at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Health Related Professions, Pittsburgh, PA 1.5213 This review of current literature on cycling biomechanics emphasizes lower extremity muscle actions and joint excursions, seat height, pedal position, pedaling rate, force application, and pedaling symmetry. Guidelines are discussed for optimal seat height, pedal position, and pedaling rate. Force application in the power and recovery phases of cycling and the relationship of force application to pedaling symmetry are discussed. The need for a biomechanical approach to cycling exists since a great deal of the literature is primarily physiologic in nature. The purpose of this review is to make cyclists and their advisors aware of the biomechanics of cycling and guidelines to follow. This approach is also important because cycling is a very common form of exercise prescribed by physical therapists for clinic or home programs. Biomechanical aspects of cycling should be considered by cyclists at any level of participation and by physical therapists in order for goal-oriented, efficient cycling to occur. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;14(3):106-113.

  5. Clinical applications of biomechanics cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodle, A S

    1986-10-01

    Biomechanics cinematography is the analysis of movement of living organisms through the use of cameras, image projection systems, electronic digitizers, and computers. This article is a comparison of cinematographic systems and details practical uses of the modality in research and education.

  6. Activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the IAEA international working group on life management of nuclear power plants are outlined with emphasis on objectives, scope of activities, methods of work, organizational matters, financing

  7. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dual-cycle power plant with internal and external heating of a gas turbine circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, L.

    1976-01-01

    The present proposal, after a preceding invention by the same inventor, aims at making possible the increased use of gas turbines in nuclear and coal-fired power plants. This is to be achieved by bringing the temperature of the combustion easily from a maximum of 900 0 C, as may be supplied, e.g., by the cooling media of nuclear reactors, up to the 1,700 to 2,000 0 C required as inlet temperature for gas turbines, with the aid of a fossil-fired recuperator. In fossil and nuclear power plants, gas turbines will more and more substitute steam turbines which affect the environment because of their high waste-heat losses. In coal power plants, only that part of the coal will be gasified whose resulting gas causes internal combustion within the furnace, while the remaining part of the coal is used for external combustion in a tabular heater. In a nuclear power plant, undisturbed maximum generation of electric power is to be achieved, even at reactor outages and shutdown periods for refuelling and maintenance, by almost inertia-free increase of the fossil fuel supply to the furnace (provided an extension of the latter for the capacity of heating the combustion air from room temperature till 1,700 to 2,000 0 C). The hazard of ruptures in the primary heat exchanging system is very low, because it is operated with a relative pressure of nearly zero between reactor coolant and gas turbine circuit. (RW) [de

  9. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1976-01-01

    Due to unprecise definitions, incomplete reports and the small number of plants in operation, an analysis of the availability of nuclear power stations by international standards meets some difficulties. Especially in the classification of causes of accidents, isolated cases gain too much importance due to the statistically small number of unscheduled shutdowns and thus often distort the picture. Still, the present comparison based on statements made by the ABE committee and the IAEA presents a good picture of availability tendencies and main types of failures and gives rise to the assumption that the initial difficulties with which every new technology has to cope will soon be overcome. (orig./AK) [de

  10. International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.; Mahmood, K.

    2005-01-01

    International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants was held from 28-29 March, 2005 at Islamabad, Pakistan. Abstracts of this conference have been presented in this proceeding. There were six technical sessions like 1) Stress Physiology/Ion Transport, 2) Stress Sensing and Signaling, 3) Genomis, Metabolomics and Proteomics, 4) Genetic Engineering, 5) Gene Expression, 6) Field Studies and Management. This seminar was quite useful specially drought resistance and salinity in the soil. Researches exchange their views in the seminar. (A.B.)

  11. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  13. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  14. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  15. Structural analysis of the Upper Internals Structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) provides control of core outlet flow to prevent severe thermal transients from occuring at the reactor vessel and primary heat transport outlet piping, provides instrumentation to monitor core performance, provides support for the control rod drivelines, and provides secondary holddown of the core. All of the structural analysis aspects of assuring the UIS is structurally adequate are presented including simplified and rigorous inelastic analysis methods, elevated temperature criteria, environmental effects on material properties, design techniques, and manufacturing constraints

  16. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  17. The development of reactor vessel internal heavy forging for 1000 MW pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhifeng; Chen Yongbo; Ding Xiuping; Zhang Lingfang

    2012-01-01

    This Paper introduced the development of Reactor Vessel Internal (RVI) heavy forgings for 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant, analyzed the manufacture difficulties and technical countermeasures. The testing result of the product indicated that the performance of RVI heavy forgings manufactured by Shanghai Heavy Machinery Plant Ld. (SHMP) is outstanding and entirely satisfy the technical requirements for RVI product. (authors)

  18. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  19. Managing the development of plant subsystems for a large international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurd, D.

    2012-01-01

    ITER is an international collaborative project under development by nations representing over one half of the world's population. Major components will be supplied by 'Domestic Agencies' representing the various participating countries. While the supervisory control system, known as CODAC, will be developed 'in fund' by the International Organization at the project site in the south of France, the EPICS and PLC-based plant control subsystems are to be developed and tested locally, where the subsystems themselves are being built. This is similar to the model used for the development of the Spallation Neutron Source, which was a US national collaboration. However the much more complex constraints of an international collaboration preclude the use of many specifics of the SNS collaboration approach. Moreover, procedures for final system integration and commissioning at ITER are not yet well defined. This paper will outline the particular issues either inherent in an international collaboration or specific to ITER, and will suggest approaches to mitigate those problems with the goal of assuring a successful and timely integration and commissioning phase. (author)

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience 2012-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an essential element of the international operating experience feedback system for nuclear power plants. Its fundamental objective is to contribute to improving safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. IRS reports contain information on events of safety significance with important lessons learned which assist in reducing recurrence of events at other plants. This sixth publication, covering the period 2012 - 2014, follows the structure of the previous editions. It highlights important lessons based on a review of the approximately 240 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.

  1. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  2. International guidance on the qualifications of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operation and maintenance as well as training of operations personnel are activities where a large amount of experience is available. Though it would seem that the status of a well-established practice, requiring constant attention but no major efforts directed towards improvements, should have been reached, this is not the case. Currently, upgrading of the qualification requirements and training procedures of nuclear power plant operations personnel is a major issue and substantial efforts are being expended to this effect. The availability of international guidance in this field is perceived to be of benefit to all; therefore the Agency has undertaken to develop such guidance. In addition to earlier publications, a guidebook on this subject area is being prepared. Important problems and current issues have been identified and these are commented upon in the present paper. The specific topics referred to include: the role of the operating organization and the regulatory body; organizational aspects; staffing requirements; competence requirements for personnel; establishment and verification of competence; and personnel management. It is recognized that developing international guidance is a difficult and delicate task, especially when it is intended to go beyond stating the obvious and expressing generalities which are certain to meet a general consensus. (author)

  3. Overview of internal dose evaluation in the radiopharmaceutical production plant at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Alberto S.; Gerulis, Eduardo; Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, is accomplished in two steps: the activity measurements are performed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory and subsequently the data analysis and the dose evaluation are carried out by the Dose Calculation Group according to the ICRP models. The objective of this study is to take the whole body and thyroid monitoring results recorded from 2005 to 2015 to see whether the internal contamination control procedure for workers were suitable even with the increase in the radiopharmaceutical production. The study were based in a research called “Search of Variables” for the operations carried out in the restricted areas of radiopharmaceutical production plant, taking into account the dose distribution data for all the tasks recorded by the radioprotection service. This methodology aims to identify and determine the principal variables that impact on the worker's dose. The results were presented for the following variables: individual occupationally exposed, operation variable, area/cell, type of task of operation, which depend on the variable dose. In spite of growth rate in the production of radiopharmaceutical, this study has shown that the improvements in the plant have contributed to the dose reduction of the workers. (author)

  4. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, Roger A.; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L.; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A.L.; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented

  5. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  6. Proceedings of the 2008 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants - ICAPP '08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    ICAPP 2008 congress brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covered the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. It covered also lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program comprised 13 technical tracks: 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues: Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting near term utility needs; design issues; business, economical cost challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors: Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, impact of non electricity applications on reactor design; advanced thermal and fast reactors. 3. LMFR and Longer Term Reactor Programs: Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as super critical water reactors and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management: Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in

  7. Internal event analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant , CNSNS-TR-004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the results of the system analysis for the Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The system analysis involved the development of logical models for all the systems included in the accident sequence event tree headings, and for all the support systems required to operate the front line systems. For the Internal Event analysis for Laguna Verde, 16 front line systems and 5 support systems were included. Detailed fault trees were developed for most of the important systems. Simplified fault trees focusing on major faults were constructed for those systems that can be adequately represent,ed using this kind of modeling. For those systems where fault tree models were not constructed, actual data were used to represent the dominant failures of the systems. The main failures included in the fault trees are hardware failures, test and maintenance unavailabilities, common cause failures, and human errors. The SETS and TEMAC codes were used to perform the qualitative and quantitative fault tree analyses. (Author)

  8. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  9. Proceedings of 2017 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants (ICAPP2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-04-01

    The International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) provides a forum for leaders of the nuclear industry to exchange information, present results from their work, review the state of the industry, and discuss future directions and needs for the deployment of new nuclear power plant systems around the world. ICAPP will gather industry leaders in several invited lectures in plenary sessions. The theme for ICAPP2017 is 'A New Paradigm in Nuclear Power Safety'. Since the Fukushima Daiichi Accident in 2011, various efforts in improving nuclear safety have been initiated not only in Japan but also in other countries. Decontamination of affected soil and steps toward decommissioning Fukushima Daiichi are proceeding steadily, but many issues to be resolved still remain. Further advances in reactor decommissioning technologies are expected in light of the rising number of old nuclear power plants being closed. The congress also provides an excellent opportunity to discuss these topics. This issue is the collection of 345 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 345 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  11. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  12. Confidence crisis of results in biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2017-11-01

    Many biomechanics studies have small sample sizes and incorrect statistical analyses, so reporting of inaccurate inferences and inflated magnitude of effects are common in the field. This review examines these issues in biomechanics research and summarises potential solutions from research in other fields to increase the confidence in the experimental effects reported in biomechanics. Authors, reviewers and editors of biomechanics research reports are encouraged to improve sample sizes and the resulting statistical power, improve reporting transparency, improve the rigour of statistical analyses used, and increase the acceptance of replication studies to improve the validity of inferences from data in biomechanics research. The application of sports biomechanics research results would also improve if a larger percentage of unbiased effects and their uncertainty were reported in the literature.

  13. Sewage sludge amendment and inoculation with plant-parasitic nematodes do not facilitate the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornefeld, Eva; Baklawa, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Schikora, Adam; Smalla, Kornelia

    2018-05-01

    Contamination of fruits and vegetables with Salmonella is a serious threat to human health. In order to prevent possible contaminations of fresh produce it is necessary to identify the contributing ecological factors. In this study we investigated whether the addition of sewage sludge or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes foster the internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 into lettuce plants, posing a potential threat for human health. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate whether the amendment of sewage sludge to soil or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne hapla or Pratylenchus crenatus promote the internalization of S. Typhimurium LT2 from soil into the edible part of lettuce plants. Unexpectedly, numbers of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 decreased faster in soil with sewage sludge than in control soil but not in root samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed shifts of the soil bacterial communities in response to sewage sludge amendment and time. Infection and proliferation of nematodes inside plant roots were observed but did not influence the number of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 in the root samples or in soil. S. Typhimurium LT2 was not detected in the leaf samples 21 and 49 days after inoculation. The results indicate that addition of sewage sludge, M. hapla or P. crenatus to soil inoculated with S. Typhimurium LT2 did not result in an improved survival in soil or internalization of lettuce plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Luigi; Naveiras, Olaia; Wenzel, Pamela L.; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon; Mack, Peter J.; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Lensch, M. William; Yoder, Mervin C.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system1,2. After initiation of the heartbeat in vertebrates, cells lining the ventral aspect of the dorsal aorta, the placental vessels, and the umbilical and vitelline arteries initiate expression of the transcription factor Runx1 (refs 3–5), a master regulator of haematopoiesis, and give rise to haematopoietic cells4. It remains unknown whether the biomechanical forces imposed on the vascular wall at this developmental stage act as a determinant of haematopoietic potential6. Here, using mouse embryonic stem cells differentiated in vitro, we show that fluid shear stress increases the expression of Runx1 in CD41+c-Kit+ haematopoietic progenitor cells7,concomitantly augmenting their haematopoietic colony-forming potential. Moreover, we find that shear stress increases haematopoietic colony-forming potential and expression of haematopoietic markers in the paraaortic splanchnopleura/aorta–gonads–mesonephros of mouse embryos and that abrogation of nitric oxide, a mediator of shear-stress-induced signalling8, compromises haematopoietic potential in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role for biomechanical forces in haematopoietic development. PMID:19440194

  15. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  17. Modernization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The scope of the modernization activities described in this report includes the modernization of equipment in operating plants and partially built plants. It covers the full range of types of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including protection, safety, control and information systems. It is applicable for a plant throughout its life. The report includes appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the I and C systems supply industry and takes advantage of the activities and lessons learned in the different national approaches to develop general guidance and recommendations. An Annex includes 10 country reports which were separately indexed

  18. Modernization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The scope of the modernization activities described in this report includes the modernization of equipment in operating plants and partially built plants. It covers the full range of types of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including protection, safety, control and information systems. It is applicable for a plant throughout its life. The report includes appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the I and C systems supply industry and takes advantage of the activities and lessons learned in the different national approaches to develop general guidance and recommendations. An Annex includes 10 country reports which were separately indexed Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  20. WorldSID Prototype Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D; Compigne, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L; Takahashi, N; Page, M; Asakawa, K; Kostyniuk, G; Hautmann, E; Bortenschlager, K; Sakurai, M; Harigae, T

    2001-11-01

    The results of biomechanical testing of the WorldSID prototype dummy are presented in this paper. The WorldSID dummy is a new, advanced Worldwide Side Impact Dummy that has the anthropometry of a mid-sized adult male. The first prototype of this dummy has been evaluated by the WorldSID Task Group against previously established corridors for its critical body regions. The response corridors are defined in the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) Technical Report 9790. The prototype is the first version of the WorldSID dummy to be built and tested. This dummy has been subjected to a rigorous program of testing to evaluate, first and foremost its biofidelity, but also its repeatability. Following this initial evaluation, any required modifications will be incorporated into a pre-production version of the WorldSID dummy so that it rates "good" to "excellent" on the ISO dummy biofidelity scale - a rating exceeding that of all current side impact dummies. Also, the overall WorldSID repeatability must not exceed a coefficient of variation of 7% at injury assessment level and this has to be verified for the different body regions. The dummy's head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were evaluated against the ISO technical report requirements. Testing included drop tests, pendulum impacts, and sled tests. The biofidelity rating of the WorldSID prototype was calculated using the weighted biomechanical test response procedure developed by ISO. The paper presents the results of the testing, which give a very positive indication of the dummy's potential. Based on this evaluation of the dummy biofidelity, the WorldSID prototype dummy exhibits a biofidelity rating of 6.15 that corresponds to an ISO biofidelity classification of "fair". In addition, the dummy shows good repeatability with a global coefficient of variation of 3.30% for the pendulum and rigid sled tests.

  1. International symposium on induced mutations in plants (ISIM). Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The year 2008 will mark the 80th anniversary of mutation induction in crop plants. The application of mutation techniques, i.e. gamma rays and other physical and chemical mutagens, has generated a vast amount of genetic variability and has played a significant role in plant breeding and genetic studies. The widespread use of induced mutants in plant breeding programmes throughout the world has led to the official release of more than 2600 mutant crop varieties. A large number of these varieties (including cereals, pulses, oil, root and tuber crops, and ornamentals) have been released in developing countries, resulting in enormous positive economic impacts. The International Symposium on Induced Mutations in Plants (ISIM) will be the eighth in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme's Symposium series dedicated exclusively to harnessing and disseminating information on current trends in induced mutagenesis in plants, the first of which was held in 1969 and the last in 1995. These previous symposia dealt with themes relating to the development of efficient protocols for induced mutagenesis and their role in the enhancement of quality traits, as well as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in crops and the integration of in vitro and molecular genetic techniques in mutation induction. Since 1995, there has been an increased interest within the scientific community, not only in the use of induced mutations for developing improved crop varieties and for the discovery of genes controlling important traits and in the understanding the functions and mechanisms of actions of these genes, but also in deciphering the biological nature of DNA damage, repair and mutagenesis. A symposium that brings together the key players in basic research, as well as in the development and application of technologies relating to the efficient use of induced mutations for crop improvement and empirical genetic studies, is therefore justified and necessary. Topics addressed at the symposium

  2. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  3. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies

  4. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known mutagen responsible for causing DNA strand breaks in all living organisms. Strand breaks thus created can be repaired by different mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR), one of the key mechanisms maintaining genome stability [A. Britt, DNA damage and repair in plants, Annu. Rev. Plant. Phys. Plant Mol. Biol., 45 (1996) 75-100; H. Puchta, B. Hohn, From centiMorgans to basepairs: homologous recombination in plants, Trends Plant Sci., 1 (1996) 340-348.]. Acute or chronic exposure to IR may have different influences on the genome integrity. Although in a radioactively contaminated environment plants are mostly exposed to chronic pollution, evaluation of both kinds of influences is important. Estimation of the frequency of HR in the exposed plants may serve as an indication of genome stability. We used previously generated Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants, transgenic for non-active versions of the {beta}-glucoronidase gene (uidA) [P. Swoboda, S. Gal, B. Hohn, H. Puchta, Intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants, EMBO J., 13 (1994) 484-489; H. Puchta, P. Swoboda, B. Hohn, Induction of homologous DNA recombination in whole plants, Plant, 7 (1995) 203-210.] serving as a recombination substrate, to study the influence of acute and chronic exposure to IR on the level of HR as example of genome stability in plants. Exposure of seeds and seedlings to 0.1 to 10.0 Gy 60Co resulted in increased HR frequency, although the effect was more pronounced in seedlings. For the study of the influence of chronic exposure to IR, plants were grown on two chemically different types of soils, each artificially contaminated with equal amounts of 137Cs. We observed a strong and significant correlation between the frequency of HR in plants, the radioactivity of the soil samples and the doses of radiation absorbed by plants (in all cases r0.9, n=6, P<0.05). In addition, we noted that plants grown in soils with

  5. Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant. INSAG-26. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear power plant that is already licensed by an experienced regulator. Consequently, an option is to start development of national regulations by adopting or adapting regulations from a country that has licensed the same type of nuclear power plant. However, if the intention is to have an open technology selection process, care should be taken to establish a set of technology neutral regulations, such as by using the IAEA safety standards as the foundation. This set of technology neutral regulations can then be complemented by more design specific regulations after the technology is chosen. Since the development of technical competences requires considerable time, the regulatory body needs to plan for human resources development at a very early stage. As a first step, the essential competences required for the different phases of the nuclear power programme should be identified. Thereafter, formal training arrangements should be established between the regulatory body and one or more experienced regulators that have licensed a similar facility. This should include early interaction between senior managers of the two regulators followed by detailed training of selected staff who will form the technical core of the regulatory body. The regulatory body should also identify outside organizations that will act as its technical support organizations (TSOs) and should provide for conduct of nuclear safety R and D by these TSOs, including the appropriate research facilities and expertise. If additional nuclear power plants will be constructed in the new entrant country in the future, the new nuclear power plant units may not be of the same design as the first plant. This aspect should be kept in mind when developing both the licensing methodologies and staff. Regulatory staff can also obtain significant benefit from participation in international cooperation activities such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, technical cooperation forums of regulatory bodies of countries

  6. International style interior in the historical steam power plant in Žilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grúňová Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the examples of good interior design in Slovak functionalist architecture uncovered during recent restorational research (2016. It points out that even provincial, small but growing town, which Žilina in the northern Slovakia region was at that time, can be a place of high-quality implementation of aesthetically valuable and structurally developed architectural design. The high level of composition, choice of color scheme, quality of materials and attention to detail prove the fact, that the architect František Bednárik mastered to apply international style ideas also to a small extent reconstruction of the original steam power plant in Žilina.

  7. The international trade of nuclear power plants: the supply side - 5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, F.

    2015-01-01

    The international trade of nuclear power plants is usually studied from a demand perspective. Which new countries are willing to access to this technology? How the Fukushima Daiichi catastrophe has changed the market forecasts? What risks of proliferation new entrants entail? This paper takes an opposite direction. It looks at the structure and the organising of the supply side. Which countries are the major exporters? How their ranking has changed? Is the nuclear export industry becoming a global industry? Part 1 provides a short description of the worldwide market. Surprisingly, its size is modest and the US only plays a minor role. This part also provides a view on the relationship between domestic and export markets. Part 2 discusses the industrial organization of the nuclear industry. It compares the nuclear industry with the armament industry and the oil and gas supplies and services. Part 3 concludes in analysing the conditions nuclear industry could become a global industry. (author)

  8. Comparative biomechanics: life's physical world (second edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mech...

  9. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  10. Internal and external dose conversion coefficient for domestic reference animals and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Du Won; Choi, Young Ho

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the internal and external dose conversion coefficients for domestic reference animals and plant, which are essential to assess the radiological impact of an environmental radiation on non-human species. To calculate the dose conversion coefficients, a uniform isotropic model and a Monte Carlo method for a photon transport simulation in environmental media with different densities have been applied for aquatic and terrestrial animals, respectively. In the modeling all the target animals are defined as a simple 3D elliptical shape. To specify the external radiation source it is assumed that aquatic animals are fully immersed in infinite and uniformly contaminated water, and the on-soil animals are living on the surface of a horizontally infinite soil source, and the in-soil organisms are living at the center of a horizontally infinite and uniformly contaminated soil to a depth of 50cm. A set of internal and external dose conversion coefficients for 8 Korean reference animals and plant (rat, roe-deer, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, earthworm, and pine tree) are presented for 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu)

  11. A review of biomechanics of the shoulder and biomechanical concepts of rotator cuff repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the basic knowledge about shoulder biomechanics, which is thought to be useful for surgeons. Some clinical reports have described that the excellent outcome after cuff repair without acromioplasty and a limited acromioplasty might be enough for subacromial decompression. It was biomechanically demonstrated that a 10-mm medial shift of the tendon repair site has a minimum effect on biomechanics. Many biomechanical studies reported that the transosseous equivalent repair was superior to other techniques, although the tendon may lose its inherent elasticity. We herein introduce our recent experiment data and latest information on biomechanics.

  12. Actin gene identification from selected medicinal plants for their use as internal controls for gene expression studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, F.U.D.; Banaras, S.

    2015-01-01

    Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of 370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank (Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)). The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants. (author)

  13. Investigation of internal contamination by tritium in A-1 nuclear power plant personnel in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondris, D.; Herchl, M.; Homolova, E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of the 1974 personnel monitoring of the Bohunice A-1 nuclear power plant staff for internal contamination with tritium. Totally, 650 urine samples taken from 103 workers were analyzed using the recommended ICRP procedure. In routine examinations, the highest dose equivalent value of tritium incorporated within two weeks did not exceed 10 mrem, i.e., the maximum annual dose equivalent did not exceed 260 mrem. 8.5 μCi tritium per 1 litre urine was considered to be an alarm value. In a selected group of 21 high-risk persons analyses were conducted before and after each operation associated with tritium hazards. The limit dose was set to 5.8 μCi.l -1 , i.e., the tritium concentration equivalent to 10% of the maximum permissible annual intake. In 18 workers where tritium risk was of a more serious nature the biological half-life was followed up, with the average biological half-life being 8.5 days, with 5 days for the minimum and 12 days for the maximum values. The results show that in 1974 the tritium burden did not exceed 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose for any of the A-1 nuclear power plant workers. (L.O.)

  14. Application of the International Union of Radioecologists soil-to-plant database to Canadian settings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-12-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (IUR) has compiled a very large database of soil-to-plant transfer factors. These factors are ratios of the radionuclide concentrations in dry plants divided by the corresponding concentrations in dry soil to a specified depth or thickness. In this report the factors are called CR values, for concentration ratio. The CR values are empirical and are considered element-specific. The IUR database has a lot of data for Cs, Sr, Co, Pu and Np, and contains records for Am, Ce, Cm, I, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Po, Ra, Ru, Sb, Tc, Th, U and Zn. Where there was a large amount of data, interpolation for ranges of soil conditions was possible. The tables presented here summarize the data in a way that should be immediately useful to modellers. Values are averaged for a number of crop types and species. Correction factors are developed to facilitate interpolation among soil conditions. The data tables in this report do not substitute for site-specific measurements, but they will provide data where measurement is impossible and give a background to check more recent data. (author) 4 refs ., 48 tabs.

  15. Probabilistic reconstruction of internal exposure for nuclear power plant workers using air concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, I.; Burmistrov, D.

    2000-01-01

    Air surveys, whole-body counting, bioassays or combination of these measurements can be utilized for purposes or assessing internal doses to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits. Air sampling with a little support provided by whole body counting and/or bioassays was often relied on in dose calculations. The utility of air sampling for internal dose reconstruction is addressed in this paper through the probabilistic analysis of environmental factors and their impact on dose estimates. In this paper we attempt to reconstruct an internal dose due to inhalation of beta + gamma emitting radionuclides for a contractual electrician, Mr. X. The data available for reconstruction of internal dose for Mr. X was found to be highly variable and uncertain. Uncertainty describes a lack of knowledge about a parameter, this lack of knowledge theoretically can be reduced, e.g., if more measurements were to be taken (for example, estimated activities for alpha-emitting radionuclides are uncertain due to the influence of naturally-occurring alpha-emitters). Variability describes the existence of different values that represent different environmental conditions (for example, the air concentrations of radionuclides may vary over time because of the different tasks performed by workers in the area). Variability can not be reduced by additional data collection because the varying values reflect the variable nature of the environment, not a lack of data. The high variability in measured air concentrations in the restricted areas of a LWR nuclear power plant where he worked do not allow adequate reconstruction of his individual internal dose using deterministic methods and therefore probabilistic methods are desirable. The guidance for probabilistic assessment developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as recommendations of the National Council of Radiation Protection provide an adequate framework for probabilistic reconstruction of

  16. The Direct Internal Recycling concept to simplify the fuel cycle of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Christian; Giegerich, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The fusion fuel cycle is presented and its functions are discussed. • Tritium inventories are estimated for an early DEMO configuration. • The Direct Internal Recycling concept to reduce tritium inventories is described. • Concepts for its technical implementation are developed. -- Abstract: A new concept, the Direct Internal Recycling (DIR) concept, is proposed, which minimizes fuel cycle inventory by adding an additional short-cut between the pumped torus exhaust gas and the fuelling systems. The paper highlights quantitative modelling results derived from a simple fuel cycle spreadsheet which underline the potential benefits that can be achieved by implementation of the DIR concept into a fusion power plant. DIR requires a novel set-up of the torus exhaust pumping system, which replaces the batch-wise and cyclic operated cryogenic pumps by a continuous pumping solution and which offers at the same time an additional integral gas separation function. By that, hydrogen can be removed close to the divertor from all other gases and the main load to the fuel clean-up systems is a smaller, helium-rich gas stream. Candidate DIR relevant pump technology based on liquid metals (vapour diffusion and liquid ring pumps) and metal foils is discussed

  17. Aging management of reactor internals and license renewal of US PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H. T. [Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Age-related degradation mechanisms of key components are subject to aging management review by utilities considering plant license renewal. The management of aging effects in PWR internals must be demonstrated as specified in the US NRC Standard Review. The US NRC staff has also issued a Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report that documents the staff's basis for determining when existing generic programs are adequate to manage aging without change and when existing generic programs should be augmented for license renewal. The EPRI Materials Reliability Program (MRP) has been conducting studies to develop technical bases and guidelines to support aging management of PWR internals, with a particular attention to utility License Renewal commitments. The strategic approach taken by the MRP includes: developing an overall aging management framework, defining degradation mechanism screening values, categorizing and ranking internals components based on screening, performing functionality analyses and safety evaluation, and developing inspection and evaluation guidelines associated with each category of components. Screening criteria are developed for the following potential internals degradation mechanisms: - Stress Corrosion Cracking [Excluding Irradiation Effects]; - Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking; - Thermal Aging Embrittlement; - Irradiation Embrittlement; - Void Swelling; - Stress Relaxation and Creep [Irradiation-enhanced]; - Wear; - Fatigue. The ranking and categorization calls to bin internals components into four categories: - Category A: component items for which aging degradation significance is minimal and aging effects are below the screening criteria; - Category C: 'lead' component items for which aging degradation significance is high or moderate and aging effects are above screening levels; - Category B: component items above screening levels but are not 'lead' component items and aging degradation significance

  18. Results and insights of internal fire and internal flood analyses of the Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states (POSs) other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies (CDFs), important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a Level 3 PRA for internal events and a Level 1 PRA for seismically induced and internal fire and flood induced core damage sequences. This paper summarizes the results and highlights of the internal fire and flood analysis documented in Volumes 3 and 4 of NUREG/CR-6144 performed for the Surry plant during mid-loop operation

  19. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  20. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  1. Fukushima Nuclear Accident, the Third International Severe Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Japan is the world's third largest power user. Japan's last remaining nuclear reactor shutdown on Saturday 4 Th of May 2012 leaving the country entirely nuclear free. All of 50 of the nation's operable reactors (not counting for the four crippled reactors at Fukushima) are now offline. Before last year's Fukushima nuclear disaster, the country obtained 30% of its energy from nuclear plants, and had planned to produce up to 50% of its power from nuclear sources by 2030. Japan declared states of emergency for five nuclear reactors at two power plants after the units lost cooling ability in the aftermath of Friday 11 March 2011 powerful earthquake. Thousands of (14000) residents were immediately evacuated as workers struggled to get the reactors under control to prevent meltdowns. On March 11 Th, 2011, Japan experienced a sever earthquake resulting in the shutdown of multiple reactors. At Fukushima Daiichi site, the earthquake caused the loss of normal Ac power. In addition it appeals that the ensuing tsunami caused the loss of emergency Ac power at the site. Subsequent events caused damage to fuel and radiological releases offsite. The spent fuel problem is a wild card in the potentially catastrophic failure of Fukushima power plant. Since the Friday's 9.0 earthquake, the plant has been wracked by repeated explosions in three different reactors. Nuclear experts emphasized there are significant differences between the unfolding nuclear crisis at Fukushima and the events leading up to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The Chernobyl reactor exploded during a power surge while it was in operation and released a major cloud of radiation because the reactor had no containment structure around to. At Fukushima, each reactor has shutdown and is inside a 20 cm-thick steel pressure vessel that is designed to contain a meltdown. The pressure vessels themselves are surrounded by steel-lined, reinforced concrete shells. Chernobyl disaster was classified 7 on the International

  2. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  3. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  4. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 1: International availability data exchange for thermal generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Deschaine, R. [Black and Veatch (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 1 (WG1). WG1's primary focus is to analyse the best ways to measure, evaluate, and apply power plant performance and availability data to promote plant performance improvements worldwide. The paper explores the specific work activities of 2004-2007 to extend traditional analysis and benchmarking frameworks. It is divided into two major topics: Overview of current electric supply industry issues/trends; and, Technical Methods/Tools to evaluate performance in today's ESI.

  5. Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients of Domestic Reference Animal and Plants for Dose Assessment of Non-human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, radiation protection has been focused on a radiation exposure of human beings. In the international radiation protection community, one of the recent key issues is to establish the methodology for assessing the radiological impact of an ionizing radiation on non-human species for an environmental protection. To assess the radiological impact to non-human species dose conversion coefficients are essential. This paper describes the methodology to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficient for non-human species and presents calculated internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides for 8 domestic reference animal and plants

  6. Nuclear power plant conference 2010 (NPC 2010): International conference on water chemistry of nuclear reactor systems and 8th International radiolysis, electrochemistry and materials performance workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference was held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on October 3-7, 2010. It was hosted by the Canadian Nuclear Society and was held in Canada for the first time. This international event hosted over 300 attendees, two thirds from outside of Canada, mostly from Europe and and Far East. The conference is formally known as the International Conference on Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactor Systems and is the 15th of a series that began in 1977 in Bournemouth, UK. The conference focussed on the latest developments in the science and technology of water chemistry control in nuclear reactor systems. Utility scientists, engineers and operations people met their counterparts from research institutes, service organizations and universities to address the challenges of chemistry control and degradation management of their complex and costly plants for the many decades that they are expected to operate. Following the four day conference, the 8th International Radiolysis, Electrochemistry and Materials Performance Workshop was held as associated, but otherwise free-standing event on Friday, October 8, 2010. It was also well attended and the primary focus was the effect of radiation on corrosion. When asked about the importance of chemistry in operating nuclear power plants, the primary organizers summarized it in the following statement: 'Once a nuclear plant is in operation, chemistry improvement is the only way to increase the longevity of the plant and its equipment'. The organisers of the 2010 Workshop and the NPC 2010 conference decided that these two events would be held consecutively, as previous, but for the first time the organization and registration would be shared, which proved to be a winning combination by the attendance.

  7. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o, closed-circuit (SMFC-c, aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c. The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the

  8. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  9. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  10. Development on multifunctional phased-array fault inspection technology. Aiming at integrity on internals in nuclear power plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Ichiro; Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Naruse, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear power plants sharing an important role in Japanese energy policy, their higher safety and reliability than the other plants are required, and their non-destructive inspection occupies important position for information means to judge their integrity. And, for a part of responses to recent rationalization of the plant operation and increase of aged plants, requirements and positioning onto the non-destructive inspection technology also change. As a result, not only concept on allowable fault sizes is adopted, but also inspection on reactor internals without conventional regulation is obliged to require for size evaluation (sizing) with higher precision to use for secure detection and integrity evaluation of the faults than sizes determined for every internals. For requirement with such higher levels for fault detection and sizing, and for requirement for effective inspection, phased-array supersonic wave fault inspection method is one of the methods with high potential power. Here were introduced on principles and characteristics of the phased-array supersonic wave fault inspection method, and on various fault inspection methods and functions mainly developed for reactor internals inspection. (G.K.)

  11. THE CENTER FOR MILITARY BIOMECHANICS RESEARCH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Military Biomechanics Research is a 7,500 ft2 dedicated laboratory outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment for 3-D analysis of movement, measurement...

  12. Recent software developments for biomechanical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, John O. B.

    1990-08-01

    While much of the software developed in research laboratories is narrow in focus and suited for a specific experiment, some of it is broad enough and of high enough quality to be useful to others in solving similar problems. Several biomechanical assessment packages are now beginning to emerge, including: * 3D research biomechanics (5- and 6-DOF) with kinematics, kinetics, 32-channel analog data subsystem, and project management. * 3D full-body gait analysis with kinematics, kinetics, EMG charts, and force plate charts. * 2D dynamic rear-foot assessment. * 2D occupational biomechanics lifting task and personnel assessments. * 2D dynamic gait analysis. * Multiple 2D dynamic spine assessments. * 2D sport and biomechanics assessments with kinematics and kinetics. * 2D and 3D equine gait assessments.

  13. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical or biophysical principles can be applied to study biological structures in their modern or .... Accounting for the flow in a horizontal pipe, z1 = z2, and ..... OH, USA for providing financial assistance and academic.

  14. ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This proceedings contains articles of ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems. It was held on Aug. 24-28, 2014 in Jeju. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions. The subject titles of I and C session are sensor, modern control, diagnostics and surveillance, digital upgrades, software V and V, cyber security, safety and reliability of digital systems, risk and safety evaluation, etc. The subject titles of HMI session are Human factors engineering, human performance, human reliability assessment, control room design, operator support systems, etc. The subject titles of ISSNP session are Safety and risk studies from social, environmental and economic aspects, other general nuclear engineering (ex. Reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, reactor core and plant behavior, nuclear fuel behavior, etc.) and integrated aspects of energy systems (ex. Multipurpose utilization of nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, plant decommissioning, comparative study of nuclear energy with other energy technologies, etc.)

  15. ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    This proceedings contains articles of ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems. It was held on Aug. 24-28, 2014 in Jeju. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions. The subject titles of I and C session are sensor, modern control, diagnostics and surveillance, digital upgrades, software V and V, cyber security, safety and reliability of digital systems, risk and safety evaluation, etc. The subject titles of HMI session are Human factors engineering, human performance, human reliability assessment, control room design, operator support systems, etc. The subject titles of ISSNP session are Safety and risk studies from social, environmental and economic aspects, other general nuclear engineering (ex. Reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, reactor core and plant behavior, nuclear fuel behavior, etc.) and integrated aspects of energy systems (ex. Multipurpose utilization of nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, plant decommissioning, comparative study of nuclear energy with other energy technologies, etc.)

  16. Lingual biomechanics, case selection and success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Labh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeper understanding of lingual biomechanics is prerequisite for success with lingual appliance. The difference between labial and lingual force system must be understood and kept in mind during treatment planning, especially anchorage planning, and extraction decision-making. As point of application of force changes, it completely changes the force system in all planes. This article describes lingual biomechanics, anchorage planning, diagnostic considerations, treatment planning, and case selection criteria in lingual orthodontics.

  17. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017.

  18. Tenth meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation, Vienna, 3-5 March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of NPP control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The papers and discussions mostly dealt with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern, highly automated control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 20 presentations of the meeting

  19. Analysis of the impact of biomechanical traits of European black Poplar on riverbank flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Villani, Paolo; Rita, Angelo; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of riparian plants on river flow dynamics is fundamental for an appropriate river management. Riparian woody vegetation enhances bank cohesion and provides ecosystem services by mitigating nutrient and sediment loads to the river flow and enhancing biodiversity. However riparian trees also contribute to river flow resistance and thus can have a significant impact on flow dynamics during flood events. The flow-plant interaction mainly depends on plant morphological characters (e.g. diameter, height, canopy size, foliage density) and biomechanical properties, such as its flexural rigidity. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic behaviour of the European black Poplar (∖textit{Populus nigra} L.), a common woody riparian plant, is influenced by specific biomechanical traits developed as result of its adaptation to different river ecosystems. We examine the morphological and biomechanical properties of living stems of black Poplar sampled in two different riverine environments in Southern Italy located only a few kilometres apart. The two sample sets of living stems exhibit similar morphological traits but significantly different Young module of elasticity. We compared the drag forces that the flow would exert on these two different sets of plants for a wide range of flow velocities, by employing a numerical model that accounts for the bending behaviour of the woody plant due to the hydrodynamic load, under the hypothesis of complete submergence. A Monte Carlo approach was applied in order to account for the stochastic variability of the morphological and mechanical parameters affecting plant biomechanical behaviour. We identified a threshold value of the plant diameter, above which the two sets of European black Poplars are subjected to drag forces that differ by more than 25{∖%} on average, for flow velocities larger than 1 m/s.

  20. Brillouin microscopy: assessing ocular tissue biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyun; Chernyak, Dimitri

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic. The aim of this review is to overview the progress and discuss prospective applications of this new technology. Brillouin microscopy uses a low-power near-infrared laser beam to determine longitudinal modulus or mechanical compressibility of tissue by analyzing the return signal spectrum. Human clinical studies have demonstrated significant difference in the elastic properties of normal corneas versus corneas diagnosed with mild and severe keratoconus. Clinical data have also shown biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking treatment of keratoconus patients. Brillouin measurements of the crystalline lens and sclera have also been demonstrated. Brillouin microscopy is a promising technology under commercial development at present. The technique enables physicians to characterize the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues.

  1. Information technology impact on nuclear power plant documentation. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    As the majority of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world were designed and constructed about twenty to forty years ago, these older power plants may have shortcomings in documentation on construction, commissioning, operations, maintenance, or decommissioning. Therefore, facility documentation does not always reflect actual plant status after years of plant operation, modification, and maintenance. To deal with these shortcomings, computer and information technologies that provide sophisticated and modern design tools as well as information processing and storage facilities can offer dramatic innovation from paper-centric documentation towards data-centric documentation. This report addresses all aspects of documentation associated with various life-cycle phases of NPPs and the information technology (IT) that are relevant to the documentation process. It also provides a guide for planning, designing, and executing an IT documentation project. Examples are given to demonstrate successful implementations at plants. Finally, it discusses the issues related to the application of the IT in NPPs and the trends for applications of the IT at NPPs as well as the technology itself. It is recognized that this can also improve configuration management. reliability of data, quality of personnel work, and ultimately plant performance reliability and safety. The aspects of using the IT for NPP documentation are closely related to configuration management at NPPs. The report consists of nine sections, a reference section, and five additional appendices. The development of this report which was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in Vienna (October 1999, November 2000). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States of America. In addition, a

  2. Information technology impact on nuclear power plant documentation. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    As the majority of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world were designed and constructed about twenty to forty years ago, these older power plants may have shortcomings in documentation on construction, commissioning, operations, maintenance, or decommissioning. Therefore, facility documentation does not always reflect actual plant status after years of plant operation, modification, and maintenance. To deal with these shortcomings, computer and information technologies that provide sophisticated and modern design tools as well as information processing and storage facilities can offer dramatic innovation from paper-centric documentation towards data-centric documentation. This report addresses all aspects of documentation associated with various life-cycle phases of NPPs and the information technology (IT) that are relevant to the documentation process. It also provides a guide for planning, designing, and executing an IT documentation project. Examples are given to demonstrate successful implementations at plants. Finally, it discusses the issues related to the application of the IT in NPPs and the trends for applications of the IT at NPPs as well as the technology itself. It is recognized that this can also improve configuration management. reliability of data, quality of personnel work, and ultimately plant performance reliability and safety. The aspects of using the IT for NPP documentation are closely related to configuration management at NPPs. The report consists of nine sections, a reference section, and five additional appendices. The development of this report which was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in Vienna (October 1999, November 2000). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States of America. In addition, a

  3. Dual-task and anticipation impact lower limb biomechanics during a single-leg cut with body borne load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Cameron, Sarah E; Kaplan, Jonathan T; Ramsay, John W; Brown, Tyler N

    2017-12-08

    This study quantified how a dual cognitive task impacts lower limb biomechanics during anticipated and unanticipated single-leg cuts with body borne load. Twenty-four males performed anticipated and unanticipated cuts with and without a dual cognitive task with three load conditions: no load (∼6 kg), medium load (15% of BW), and heavy load (30% of BW). Lower limb biomechanics were submitted to a repeated measures linear mixed model to test the main and interaction effects of load, anticipation, and dual task. With body borne load, participants increased peak stance (PS) hip flexion (p = .004) and hip internal rotation (p = .001) angle, and PS hip flexion (p = .001) and internal rotation (p = .018), and knee flexion (p = .016) and abduction (p = .001) moments. With the dual task, participants decreased PS knee flexion angle (p biomechanical adaptations thought to increase risk of musculoskeletal injury, but neither anticipation nor dual task exaggerated those biomechanical adaptations. With a dual task, participants adopted biomechanics known to increase injury risk; whereas, participants used lower limb biomechanics thought to decrease injury risk during unanticipated cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An international benchmark on safety review practices at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.

    2000-02-01

    A benchmarking exercise on safety review practices at nuclear power plants in Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom has been carried out. In the exercise a comparison was made between documented practices at the Forsmark, Hinkley Point A and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. In addition a total of 28 persons at FKA, Magnox and TVO were interviewed on their views on the efficiency of the plant modification processes in the later half of 1997. One specific example of a plant modification was selected from each of the nuclear power plant sites to provide a basis for the comparison. The report gives an account of the methodology used, a description of the plant modification projects, impressions from the interviews, potential problem areas and suggestions for possible improvements. (orig.)

  5. American Nuclear Society executive conference nuclear market needs: Domestic and international future changes in operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author says the utility industry will be facing many new challenges and there will be many opportunities to develop innovative techniques to run the plants. He concentrates on four areas, where he believes there is the greatest opportunity for improvement. First, the utility organization will be in transition to provide complete support and commitment to site activities. Second, plant operating activities will be changing to improve plant operating characteristics and availability. Third, the area of plant maintenance will prove to have a significant impact on utilities. And fourth, the industry must promote an attitude where its people are striving to achieve quality in their daily work

  6. Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Kasper E; Hammer, Kathrine J; Schrameyer, Verena; Floytrup, Anja; Rasheed, Michael A; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael; Pedersen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H 2 S. Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O 2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O 2 and H 2 S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20-53 to 109-145 μmol photons m -2 s -1 . An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O 2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O 2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H 2 S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O 2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H 2 S intrusion.

  7. Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper E. Brodersen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTS:Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S.Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20–53 to 109–145 μmol photons m−2 s−1. An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H2S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H2S intrusion.

  8. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP. "Sansai" (edible wild plants in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137 were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3% samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0% samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7% registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit. The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y, at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015. Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura" and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai". Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  9. Proceedings of the 48. conference of metallurgists : international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, H. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Ryan, L. [Barrick Gold Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Kennedy, S. [Barrick Gold Corp., Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This international symposium on process control applications in mining and metallurgical plants was held to promote economic and sustainable production practices in Canadian industry applications. Topics related to process control in mining and metallurgical plants included expert systems, model-based control technology, as well as recent advances in simulation, monitoring, and optimization techniques. Methods of improving the process and energy efficiency of mining and metallurgical plants were discussed along with technologies designed to improve monitoring accuracy. The symposium was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) expert system, control, and performance monitoring, (2) flotation, (3) metallurgical processes, modelling, (4) mining applications, and (5) monitoring, analysis. The symposium featured 23 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Changes in fatigue, multiplanar knee laxity, and landing biomechanics during intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J; Cone, John R; Henson, Robert A; Montgomery, Melissa M; Pye, Michele L; Tritsch, Amanda J

    2015-05-01

    Knee laxity increases during exercise. However, no one, to our knowledge, has examined whether these increases contribute to higher-risk landing biomechanics during prolonged, fatiguing exercise. To examine associations between changes in fatigue (measured as sprint time [SPTIME]), multiplanar knee laxity (anterior-posterior [APLAX], varus-valgus [VVLAX] knee laxity, and internal-external rotation [IERLAX]) knee laxity and landing biomechanics during prolonged, intermittent exercise. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory and gymnasium. A total of 30 male (age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg) and 29 female (age = 20.5 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) competitive athletes. A 90-minute intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) designed to simulate the physiologic and biomechanical demands of a soccer match. We measured SPTIME, APLAX, and landing biomechanics before and after warm-up, every 15 minutes during the IEP, and every 15 minutes for 1 hour after the IEP. We measured VVLAX and IERLAX before and after the warm-up, at 45 and 90 minutes during the IEP, and at 30 minutes after the IEP. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine associations between exercise-related changes in SPTIME and knee laxity with exercise-related changes in landing biomechanics while controlling for initial (before warm-up) knee laxity. We found that SPTIME had a more global effect on landing biomechanics in women than in men, resulting in a more upright landing and a reduction in landing forces and out-of-plane motions about the knee. As APLAX increased with exercise, women increased their knee internal-rotation motion (P = .02), and men increased their hip-flexion motion and energy-absorption (P = .006) and knee-extensor loads (P = .04). As VVLAX and IERLAX increased, women went through greater knee-valgus motion and dorsiflexion and absorbed more energy at the knee (P ≤ .05), whereas men were positioned in greater hip

  11. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  12. Developing an international consortium to build an 800 MW coal fired power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Hashima, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the cooperative construction of a fossil-fueled power plant in Indonesia. The topics discussed in the paper include energy use and the market for electric power, fuel resources, history of business activities, the role of joint resources and government business policy, and preparing for bidding an 800MW coal-fired power plant

  13. Internal and external dispersal of plants by animals: an aquatic perspective on alien interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Casper

    2018-01-01

    Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of

  14. International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Aquatic Plants. Volume 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Yang. 1991. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative transgenic plants overexpressing peroxidase. Plant Physiol 96:577- defense systems in early leaf...Factors 3. Chandrasena, J. P. N. R. and W. H. T. Dhammika. 1988. Studies on limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpe

  15. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  16. Phase Identification and Internal Stress Analysis of Steamside Oxides on Plant Exposed Superheater Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    During long-term, high-temperature exposure of superheater tubes in thermal power plants, various oxides are formed on the inner side (steamside) of the tubes, and oxide spallation is a serious problem for the power plant industry. Most often, oxidation in a steam atmosphere is investigated...... in laboratory experiments just mimicking the actual conditions in the power plant for simplified samples. On real plant-exposed superheater tubes, the steamside oxides are solely investigated microscopically. The feasibility of X-ray diffraction for the characterization of steamside oxidation on real plant......-exposed superheater tubes was proven in the current work; the challenges for depth-resolved phase analysis and phase-specific residual stress analysis at the inner side of the tubes with concave surface curvature are discussed. Essential differences between the steamside oxides formed on two different steels...

  17. Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L H; Kautz, S A; Brown, D A; Zajac, F E

    1999-02-01

    Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    . The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The report addresses the reactor pressure vessel internals in BWRs. Maintaining the structural integrity of these reactor pressure vessel internals throughout NPP service life, in spite of several ageing mechanisms, is essential for plant safety

  19. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  20. Internal radiation dose of KURRI volunteers working at evacuation shelters after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kouta; Kinashi, Yuko; Okamoto, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We report the radiation doses encountered by 59 Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) staff members who had been dispatched to screen refugees for radiation at emergency evacuation sites 45–80 km from the Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s (TEPCO’s) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. From March 20 to April 30, 2011, 42 members in teams consisting of 2–4 staff members were dispatched 15 times to 7 emergency evacuation sites located 45–80 km from the power plant to examine the radioactive contamination affecting refugees. Continuously, from May 10 to May 23, 2011, 17 members in teams consisting of 2–5 staff members were dispatched 6 times to Fukushima Prefecture to establish the Kyoto University Radiation Mapping (KURAMA) system. Internal burdens of radioactive nuclides were estimated using a whole-body counter consisting of an iron room, NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, and a digital multichannel analyzer (MCA7600; Seiko EG and G). The calibration of the whole-body counter and the conversion of the measured body burden to the committed effective dose by internal exposure were carried out in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA) technical manual. The external radiation dose to each staff member was measured using a personal dosimeter. The first dispatched team showed 1300–1929 Bq of internal radiation activity from cesium (including "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs) and 48–118 Bq of "1"3"1I. The internal doses of four members of the first team were estimated to be 24–39 μSv. The doses from internal exposure were almost similar to the cumulative external doses for the dispatch period (March 20–22, 2011) when the radiation plumes following the explosions of Units 1 and 3 in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant had diffused around Fukushima City. The external radiation doses of members dispatched after the second team had decreased from one-third to less than one-tenth of the external doses of the first dispatched team

  1. Internal radiation dose of KURRI volunteers working at evacuation shelters after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kouta; Kinashi, Yuko; Okamoto, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We report the radiation doses encountered by 59 Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) staff members who had been dispatched to screen refugees for radiation at emergency evacuation sites 45-80 km from the Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. From March 20 to April 30, 2011, 42 members in teams consisting of 2-4 staff members were dispatched 15 times to 7 emergency evacuation sites located 45-80 km from the power plant to examine the radioactive contamination affecting refugees. Continuously, from May 10 to May 23, 2011, 17 members in teams consisting of 2-5 staff members were dispatched 6 times to Fukushima Prefecture to establish the Kyoto University Radiation Mapping (KURAMA) system. Internal burdens of radioactive nuclides were estimated using a whole-body counter consisting of an iron room, NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, and a digital multichannel analyzer (MCA7600; Seiko EG and G). The calibration of the whole-body counter and the conversion of the measured body burden to the committed effective dose by internal exposure were carried out in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA) technical manual. The external radiation dose to each staff member was measured using a personal dosimeter. The first dispatched team showed 1300-1929 Bq of internal radiation activity from cesium (including "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs) and 48-118 Bq of "1"3"1I. The internal doses of four members of the first team were estimated to be 24-39 μSv. The doses from internal exposure were almost similar to the cumulative external doses for the dispatch period (March 20-22, 2011) when the radiation plumes following the explosions of Units 1 and 3 in TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant had diffused around Fukushima City. The external radiation doses of members dispatched after the second team had decreased from one-third to less than one-tenth of the external doses of the first dispatched team. The internal

  2. Biomechanical Modeling Analysis of Loads Configuration for Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen; De Witt, John K.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to assist loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft for travel to the Moon or to Mars is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. METHODS The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim [1] software platform, consisting of open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, using biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The OpenSim Full Body Model [2] is used for all analyses. The model incorporates simplified wrap surfaces, a new knee model and updated lower body muscle parameters derived from cadaver measurements and magnetic resonance imaging of young adults. The upper body uses torque actuators at the lumbar and extremity joints. The test subjects who volunteer for this study are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while performing squat exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device (ZIN Technologies, Middleburg Heights, OH). Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet, and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include

  3. International validation of safety analyses for nuclear power plants; Mednarodno preverjanje varnostnih analiz za jedrske elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoric, N; Mavko, B [Institut ' Jozef Stefan' Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Paper describes the participation of 'J.Stefan' Institute in international standard problems for validation of modeling and programs for safety analysis. Listed are main international experimental facilities for collecting data basic for understanding of physical phenomena, code development and validation of modelling and programs. Since the results of international standard problem analyses are published in a joint final report, it is simple to asses the conformance of the results of a particular group with the experiment. Good results from three international exercises done so far, have encouraged the group to currently participate in OECD-ISP-22 which is a model of the Italian three loop PWR. (author)

  4. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G.; Menon, Anil G.; Mathias, Richard T.; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5 −/− ), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0 +/− ; homozygous KO: AQP0 −/− ; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0 +/− lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to

  6. Remote repairs and refurbishment of reactor internal structures of magnox plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.A.; Kelly, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The original designers of the UK Magnox reactor plant made provision for the then perceived time dependent processes that could have influenced the operational life of the plant. Changes in graphite properties with irradiation, particularly dimensional change, were well understood and in-core samples were provided for subsequent laboratory examination to monitor the processes throughout plant life. The tendency towards embrittlement with irradiation of the steel of the reactor pressure vessels was also acknowledged and again in-core samples were provided for monitoring changes in materials properties in-service and thus provide data in support of structural analyses to sustain the reactor safety cases. (author)

  7. Storage, handling and internal transport of radioactive materials (fuel elements excepted) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The rule applies to storage and handling as well as to transport within the plant and to the exchange of - solid radioactive wastes, - liquid radioactive wastes, except for those covered by the rule KTA 3603, - radioactive components and parts which are planned to be mounted and dismounted until shutdown of the plant, - radioactive-contaminated tools and appliances, - radioactive preparations. The rule is to be applied within the fenced-in sites of stationary nuclear power plants with LWR or HTR including their transport load halls, as fas as these are situated so as to be approachable from the nuclear power station by local transport systems. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Baaijens, Frank P.T.

    2014-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of “functional tissue engineering” has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. PMID:24818797

  9. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  10. 15. Internal symposium on recent progress of nondestructive inspection and monitoring technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At the symposium, lectures were given on the recent development of the nondestructive inspection technology for nuclear power plants, the trend regarding the nondestructive inspection in foreign countries (Japan-Germany atomic energy seminar), the present state and subjects of the monitoring technology in BWR plants, the present state and subjects of the monitoring technology in PWR plants, and the present state and the subjects for hereafter of the defect evaluation method in the equipment of light water reactors. The data on the ultrasonic flaw detection in aluminum alloy welded joints were obtained. The German inspection technology is similar to that in Japan and other countries. The research on the plant synthetic monitoring and diagnosis system is reported. The monitoring systems for abnormal state in operation, troubles and the secular change of equipment are reported. The evaluation of the flaws in nuclear piping is reported. The summaries of the lectures are collected in this book. (K.I.)

  11. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  12. Computational biomechanics for medicine from algorithms to models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joldes, Grand; Nielsen, Poul; Doyle, Barry; Miller, Karol

    2017-01-01

    This volume comprises the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, discussing topics such as: cellular mechanics; injury biomechanics; biomechanics of heart and vascular system; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations. With contributions from researchers world-wide, the Computational Biomechanics for Medicine series of titles provides an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements.

  13. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  14. Multiscale modeling in biomechanics and mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and computational models that link characteristic biomechanical phenomena, this book provides guidelines and examples for creating multiscale models in representative systems and organisms. It develops the reader's understanding of and intuition for multiscale phenomena in biomechanics and mechanobiology, and introduces a mathematical framework and computational techniques paramount to creating predictive multiscale models.   Biomechanics involves the study of the interactions of physical forces with biological systems at all scales – including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ scales. The emerging field of mechanobiology focuses on the way that cells produce and respond to mechanical forces – bridging the science of mechanics with the disciplines of genetics and molecular biology. Linking disparate spatial and temporal scales using computational techniques is emerging as a key concept in investigating some of the complex problems underlying these...

  15. Biomechanics and functional morphology of a climbing monocot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Linnea; Wagner, Sarah T.; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plants with a climbing growth habit possess unique biomechanical properties arising from adaptations to changing loading conditions connected with close attachment to mechanical supports. In monocot climbers, mechanical adaptation is restricted by the absence of a bifacial vascular cambium. Flagellaria indica was used to investigate the mechanical properties and adaptations of a monocot climber that, uniquely, attaches to the surrounding vegetation via leaf tendrils. Biomechanical methods such as three-point bending and torsion tests were used together with anatomical studies on tissue development, modification and distribution. In general, the torsional modulus was lower than the bending modulus; hence, torsional stiffness was less than flexural stiffness. Basal parts of mature stems showed the greatest stiffness while that of more apical stem segments levelled off. Mechanical properties were modulated via tissue maturation processes mainly affecting the peripheral region of the stem. Peripheral vascular bundles showed a reduction in the amount of conducting tissue while the proportion and density of the bundle sheath increased. Furthermore, adjacent bundle sheaths merged resulting in a dense ring of fibrous tissue. Although F. indica lacks secondary cambial growth, the climbing habit is facilitated by a complex interaction of tissue maturation and attachment. PMID:26819259

  16. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  17. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  18. Protection against internal fires and explosions in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. This Safety Guide supplements the requirements established in Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev. 1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants: A Safety Guide, issued in 1992.The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice

  19. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  20. Tennis elbow: a biomechanical and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, P; Steiner, C

    1993-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, one of the most common lesions of the arm, affects some 50% of tennis players. This condition poses a problem in clinical management because treatment is dependent not only on proper medical therapy but also on correction of the improper on-court biomechanics. The most common flaw is a late contact on the backhand groundstroke, forcing the player to extend the wrist with the extensor muscles. This action predisposes to trauma of the tendon fibers at the lateral epicondyle. Understanding the biomechanics will better prepare the physician to advise the patient and to communicate with a tennis teaching professional to facilitate long-term relief.

  1. The Daya Bay nuclear power plant performance. An example of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, D.

    1998-01-01

    Technology transfer is an integral part of Framatome's general approach to its Chinese partners for the Daya Bay, Ling Ao, and Qinshan phase 2 nuclear power plant projects. It has been the subject of major operations covering all activities relevant to project management, design and engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance know-how. This presentation is more particularly devoted to nuclear island maintenance knowledge, which has been extensively transferred by Framatome to the Daya Bay plant owner over a period of four years, through a program including the constitution of mixed Franco-Chinese teams to handle plant maintenance, shadow training of Chinese specialists in the maintenance work performed by Framatome or its subcontractors in France, and theoretical training sessions on equipment mockups in China and France. (author)

  2. A study on the spectrum analyzing of internal leak in valve for power plant using acoustic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jun Shin; Sohn, Seok Man

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic emission method to the internal leak of the valves at nuclear power plants. The acoustic emission method was applied to the valves at the site, and the background noise was measured for the abnormal plant condition. From the comparison of the background noise data with the experimental results as to relation between leak flow and acoustic signal, the minimum leak flow rates that can be detected by acoustic signal was suggested. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signal, the method described below was considered that the analysis the remainder among the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum become a very useful leak detection method. A few experimental examples of the spectrum analysis that varied the background noise characteristic were given

  3. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  4. Rockwell International's Critical Mass Laboratory Program at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The primary mission of the laboratory is to provide data in support of plant operations. To fulfill this task, the facility has unique capabilities for perfoming general purpose critical mass experiment. The critical mass laboratory performed over 1000 critical measurements, primarily with plutonium metal and uranium metal, oxide and solution; it worked also on the NRC program (high-enriched uranium measurements). Presently the laboratory staff prepares for a series of critical measurements on a poisoned tube tank; the laboratory intends to continue to pursue basic plant support programs in the future

  5. The volleyball athlete's shoulder: biomechanical adaptations and injury associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified. Assessment of study quality was performed using the STROBE statement. The reviewed literature supports the existence of a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and a possible (and less pronounced) external rotation gain in the dominant vs. the non-dominant shoulder of volleyball athletes. Unlike other overhead sports, the GIRD in volleyball athletes appears to be anatomical as a response to the repetitive overhead movements and not to be associated with shoulder pain/injury. Additionally, the dominant shoulder exhibits muscular imbalance, which appears to be a significant risk factor for shoulder pain. Strengthening of the external rotators should be used alongside shoulder stretching and joint mobilisations, core strengthening and optimisation of spike technique as part of injury management and prevention programmes.

  6. Multinode analysis of small breaks for B and W's 205-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with internals vent valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.C.; Dunn, B.M.; Parks, C.E.

    1976-03-01

    Multinode analyses were conducted for several small breaks in the reactor coolant system of B and W's 205-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with internals vent valves. The multinode blowdown code CRAFT was used to evaluate the hydrodynamics and transient water inventories of the reactor coolant system. The FOAM code was used to compute a swell level history for the core, and the THETA1-B code was used to perform transient fuel pin thermal calculations. Curves showing the parameters of interest are presented. The results are well within the Final Acceptance Criteria

  7. Multinode analysis of small breaks for B and W's 145-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with internals vent valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.E.; Allen, R.J.; Cartin, L.R.

    1976-03-01

    Multinode analyses were conducted for several small breaks in the reactor coolant system of B and W's 145 fuel-assembly nuclear plants with internals vent valves. The multinode blowdown code CRAFT was used to evaluate the hydrodynamics and transient water inventories of the reactor coolant system. The FOAM code was used to compute a swell level history for the core, and the THETA1-B code was used to perform transient fuel pin thermal calculations. Curves showing the parameters of interest are presented. These results are well within the Final Acceptance Criteria

  8. SMiRT 23. 14{sup th} international seminar on fire safety in nuclear power plants and installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewekamp, Marina (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In the frame of the project 3614R01575 funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit, BMUB) the meanwhile fourteenth international seminar on ''Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and Installations'' has been conducted as P ost-Conference Seminar of the 23{sup rd} International Conference on Structural Mechanics In Reactor Technology (SMiRT 23) in Salford, United Kingdom in August 2015. The following seminar proceedings contain the entire twenty-one technical contributions to the two day s seminar with in total fifty-five participants from ten countries in Asia, Europe and America.

  9. Competitive drivers and international plant configuration strategies: A product level test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Sleuwaegen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad and the choice of spatial configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find that key competitive drivers at the firm and industry levels have a critical impact on the

  10. Internal transport of alien and native plants by geese and ducks: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alberto; van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; Luque, Carlos J.; Hussner, Andreas; Velez-Martin, Alberto; Perez-Vazquez, Andres; Green, Andy J.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alien plant species are rapidly spreading in aquatic ecosystems around the world, causing major ecological effects. They are typically introduced by humans, after which natural vectors facilitate their further spread. Migratory waterbirds have long been recognised as important dispersal vectors for

  11. International measures for supporting the Ukraine in decommissioning Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    2006-01-01

    The destruction of Block 4 of the Ukranian nuclear power plant in Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 was the largest and most momentous accident in the civil use of nuclear energy. Its far-reaching and lasting ecological, heath-related and economic effects confronted the then Soviet and later the Ukraine with grave problems. Particularly after the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc and the emergence of information about the safety shortcomings of RBMK-type (Chernobyl-type) reactors the Western states pressed for the decommissioning of these reactors. At the G7 summit in Naples in 1994 the Ukraine was offered an action plan of support if it were willing to close down Chernobyl nuclear power plant. This initiative led to the signing on 20 December 1995 of a Memorandum of Understanding on the Closure of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant between the G7 states, the European Commission and the Ukraine. It contained an assurance by President Kuchma that Chernobyl nuclear power plant would be closed by the year 2000

  12. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power plant aging, availability factor and reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear power plant life extension. Topics considered at the conference included availability, accelerated aging techniques, the qualification of electrical equipment, probabilistic risk assessment, reactor maintenance, outages, reliability, computer-aided design, seismic effects, mechanical vibrations, fatigue monitoring, steam generators, and materials degradation by aging and embrittlement

  13. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the GRIN-Global Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...

  14. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank and Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the world's national genebanks, responsible for the safeguarding and availability of their country's Plant Genetic Resource (PGR) collections, have lacked access to high quality IT needed to document and manage their collections electronically. The Germplasm Resource Information System (GRI...

  15. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  16. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists

  17. Calculation of DPA in the Reactor Internal Structural Materials of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Deong; Lee, Hwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    The embrittlement is mainly caused by atomic displacement damage due to irradiations with neutrons, especially fast neutrons. The integrity of the reactor internal structural materials has to be ensured over the reactor life time, threatened by the irradiation induced displacement damage. Accurate modeling and prediction of the displacement damage is a first step to evaluate the integrity of the reactor internal structural materials. Traditional approaches for analyzing the displacement damage of the materials have relied on tradition model, developed initially for simple metals, Kinchin and Pease (K-P), and the standard formulation of it by Norgett et al. , often referred to as the 'NRT' model. An alternative and complementary strategy for calculating the displacement damage is to use MCNP code. MCNP uses detailed physics and continuous-energy cross-section data in its simulations. In this paper, we have performed the evaluation of the displacement damage of the reactor internal structural materials in Kori NPP unit 1 using detailed Monte Carlo modeling and compared with predictions results of displacement damage using the classical NRT model. The evaluation of the displacement damage of the reactor internal structural materials in Kori NPP unit 1 using detailed Monte Carlo modeling has been performed. The maximum value of the DPA rate was occurred at the baffle side of the reactor internal where the node has the maximum neutron flux

  18. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE «PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETICS – SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES», 24\\26 SEPTEMBER 2014, SOFIA, REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    F. B. Musayev; E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    24-26 September 2014 in the Republic of Bulgaria the International scientific and practical conference entitled «Plant Physiology and Genetics – Achievements and Challenges» was hold. The forum discussed the biotechnology and genetic approaches for environmental and sustainable agriculture; genetic resources and biodiversity; efficient use of plant nutrition and symbiotic interaction; regulation of plant growth and development; photosynthesis under stress conditions.

  19. Problem statement: international safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, J.P.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Darby, J.L.

    1979-03-01

    This report considers the problem of developing international safeguards for a light-water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing/conversion facility that combines the Purex process with conversion of plutonium nitrate to the oxide by means of plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation and calcination. Current international safeguards systems are based on the complementary concepts of materials accounting and containment and surveillance, which are designed to detect covert, national diversion of nuclear material. This report discusses the possible diversion threats and some types of countermeasures, and it represents the first stage in providing integrated international safeguards system concepts that make optimum use of available resources. The development of design methodology to address this problem will constitute a significant portion of the subsequent effort. Additionally, future technology development requirements are identified. 8 figures, 1 table

  20. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussev, I.A.; Moissev, A.A.; Evtichiev, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  1. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI.

  2. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  3. Neck muscle biomechanics and neural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fice, Jason Bradley; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sebastien

    2018-04-18

    The mechanics, morphometry, and geometry of our joints, segments and muscles are fundamental biomechanical properties intrinsic to human neural control. The goal of our study was to investigate if the biomechanical actions of individual neck muscles predicts their neural control. Specifically, we compared the moment direction & variability produced by electrical stimulation of a neck muscle (biomechanics) to their preferred activation direction & variability (neural control). Subjects sat upright with their head fixed to a 6-axis load cell and their torso restrained. Indwelling wire electrodes were placed into the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), splenius capitis (SPL), and semispinalis capitis (SSC) muscles. The electrically stimulated direction was defined as the moment direction produced when a current (2-19mA) was passed through each muscle's electrodes. Preferred activation direction was defined as the vector sum of the spatial tuning curve built from RMS EMG when subjects produced isometric moments at 7.5% and 15% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in 26 3D directions. The spatial tuning curves at 15% MVC were well-defined (unimodal, pbiomechanics but, as activation increases, biomechanical constraints in part dictate the activation of synergistic neck muscles.

  4. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a

  5. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical or biophysical principles can be applied to study biological structures in their modern or fossil form. Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its microstructures such as lacuna and canaliculi to ...

  6. Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M. F.; Mackay, M.T.; Schinkelshoek, D.; Huijing, P. A.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.

    For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle

  7. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilak, F.; Butler, D.L.; Goldstein, S.A.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2014-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical

  8. Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudson Duane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.

  9. Interdisciplinary Vertical Integration: The Future of Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The field of biomechanics has grown rapidly in the past 30 years in both size and complexity. As a result, the term might mean different things to different people. This article addresses the issues facing the field in the form of challenges biomechanists face in the future. Because the field is so diverse, strength within the different areas of…

  10. Biomechanical comparison of transoral and transbuccal lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the biomechanical behaviors of two different types of osteosynthesis that are used in the treatment of mandibular angle fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty synthetic polyurethane human mandible replicas, with medullar and cortical portions, were ...

  11. The Value of Biomechanical Research in Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, D. A.

    Simple observation of dance movement, while very useful, can lead to misconceptions, about the physical realities of dance movement, that make learning difficult. This gap between reality and understanding can be reduced by the application of biomechanical techniques such as cinematography, electromyography, and force-plate analysis. Biomechanical…

  12. Stop Sale, Use, or Removal Order: WellPlant, Inc. and GST International, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stop Sale, Use, or Removal Order (“Order”) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 (EPA) to WelIPlant Inc. and GST International, Inc., concerning all pesticide products bearing the name Mold Manager and any alternate brand names.

  13. Aging management of PWR reactor internals in U.S. plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberge, K.J.; Demma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development, aging management strategies and inspection results of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) vessel internals inspection and evaluation guidelines. The goal of these guidelines is to provide PWR owners with robust aging management strategies to monitor degradation of internals components to support life extension as well as the current period of operation and power up-rate activities. The implementation of these guidelines began in 2010 within the U.S. PWR fleet and several examinations have been performed since. Examples of inspection results are presented for selected vessel internals components and are compared with simulation results. In summary, to date there have been no observations of austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which is consistent with expectations based on the current understanding of the mechanism. Observations of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) have been limited and only found in baffle former bolting. Additionally, no macroscopic effects or global observations of void swelling impacts on general conditions of reactor internal hardware have been observed. (authors)

  14. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants regular meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this meeting is to review the IWG activities in 1992-1993, other relevant activities, national programmes, projects of international organizations and provide recommendations of the Agency's activities, forward programmes in this area, priority scope and content of publications and meetings to be organized and sponsored by the Agency. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  16. International efforts to reduce occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of various national programs on dose reduction is examined with a view to evaluating the most significant factors that help in reducing occupational exposure. Among the most successful of the dose reduction programs at water reactors are those of France, Sweden, and Canada where average annual plant doses are significantly less than the dose at US plants. Important research is also going on in other countries such as the UK, West Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. Some programs are directed towards hardware solutions; others are oriented towards such approaches as better work planning and procedures. The general thrust and some of the specifics of these programs are examined and factors which may be applicable to US conditions are discussed

  17. Licensing of nuclear power plants. The case of Sweden in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michanek, Gabriel; Soederholm, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient power plant licensing procedures are essential for the functioning of deregulated electricity markets. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse the licensing process for nuclear power plants in Sweden, and in part contrast the Swedish case with the corresponding approaches in a selection of other countries. This approach permits a discussion of how licensing processes can be altered and what the benefits and drawbacks of such changes are. The paper highlights and discusses a number of important legal issues and implications, including, for instance: (a) the role of political versus impartial decision-making bodies; (b) the tension between national policy goals and implementation at the local level; (c) public participation and access to justice; (d) consistency and clarity of the legal system; and (e) the introduction of license time limits. (author)

  18. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, David E

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress–strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  19. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David E.

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress-strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  20. Prototype vibration measurement program for reactor internals (177-fuel assembly plant). Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, J.C.; Post, R.C.; Thoren, D.E.

    1976-08-01

    The surveillance specimen holder tubes installed in the Babcock and Wilcox 177-fuel assembly plants have been redesigned. The structural adequacy of this design has been verified through extensive analysis. The design adequacy will be further confirmed by measuring the vibrational response of the surveillance specimen holder tube during normal and transient flow operation. This report describes the vibration measurement program that will be conducted at Toledo Edison's Davis Besse 1 site

  1. L'intégration des plantes médicinales en Inde | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 févr. 2011 ... Un nouveau programme lancé par le gouvernement de l'Inde pour intégrer les plantes médicinales aux pratiques médicales traditionnelles et aux moyens de subsistance habituels pourrait être une source de revenus pour les villageois qui en font la cueillette et rendre leur utilisation plus sécuritaire.

  2. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems.

  3. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  4. International comparison of economic and technical indexes of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Fialova, H.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of capital costs of the construction of nuclear power plants takes into consideration the following aspects: the delineation of the installation, the determination of costs and their break-down, the impact of the time factor, the conversion of the costs to a comparable unit. Power plants are always compared with roughly the same power capacity, this even when conditions for construction are not fully comparable. Construction costs may be divided into, e.g., pre-construction costs, direct capital costs, indirect capital costs, interest during construction. The time factor is manifest in the duration of construction and in the concrete year of construction for which the comparison is being made. The inflationary rise in prices and interests are increasing capital costs by roughly 5 - 8% per annum. The comparison of costs expressed in different currencies is made either by conversion using the rate of exchange or by comparing the time expended for the construction of the power plant. Various methods of comparison are discussed. (J.B.). 7 refs

  5. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  6. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Spencer, S.G.; Shaber, C.R.

    1980-05-30

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  7. Internal iron biomineralization in Imperata cylindrica, a perennial grass: chemical composition, speciation and plant localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N; Menéndez, N; Tornero, J; Amils, R; de la Fuente, V

    2005-03-01

    * The analysis of metal distribution in Imperata cylindrica, a perennial grass isolated from the banks of Tinto River (Iberian Pyritic Belt), an extreme acidic environment with high content in metals, has shown a remarkable accumulation of iron. This property has been used to study iron speciation and its distribution among different tissues and structures of the plant. * Mossbauer (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the iron species, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to locate iron biominerals among plant tissue structures, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX), X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to confirm their elemental composition. * The MS spectral analysis indicated that iron accumulated in this plant mainly as jarosite and ferritin. The presence of jarosite was confirmed by XRD and the distribution of both minerals in structures of different tissues was ascertained by SEM-EDAX analysis. * The convergent results obtained by complementary techniques suggest a complex iron management system in I. cylindrica, probably as a consequence of the environmental conditions of its habitat.

  8. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  9. Management of operational safety in nuclear power plants. INSAG-13. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities relating to nuclear safety are based upon a number of premises. First and foremost, each Member State bears full responsibility for the safety of its nuclear facilities. States can be advised, but they cannot be relieved of this responsibility. Secondly, much can be gained by exchanging experience; lessons learned can prevent accidents. Finally, the image of nuclear safety is international; a serious accident anywhere affects the public's view of nuclear power everywhere. With the intention of strengthening its contribution to ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants, the IAEA established the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), whose duties include serving as a forum for the exchange of information on nuclear safety issues of international significance and formulating, where possible, commonly shared safety principles. Engineering issues have received close attention from the nuclear community over many years. However, it is only in the last decade or so that organizational and cultural issues have been identified as vital to achieving safe operation. INSAG's publication No. 4 has been widely recognized as a milestone in advancing thinking about safety culture in the nuclear community and more widely. The present report deals with the framework for safety management that is necessary in organizations in order to promote safety culture. It deals with the general principles underlying the management of operational safety in a systematic way and provides guidance on good practices. It also draws on the results of audits and reviews to highlight how shortfalls in safety management have led to incidents at nuclear power plants. In addition, several specific issues are raised which are particularly topical in view of organizational changes that are taking place in the nuclear industry in various countries. Advice is given on how safety can be managed during organizational change, how safety

  10. Corneal biomechanical properties after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang ES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eileen S Hwang,1 Brian C Stagg,1 Russell Swan,1 Carlton R Fenzl,1 Molly McFadden,2 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Mark D Mifflin,1 Majid Moshirfar1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 3HDR Research Center, Hoopes Vision, Draper, UT, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK on corneal biomechanical properties.Methods: We used the ocular response analyzer to measure corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF before and after refractive surgery.Results: In all, 230 eyes underwent LASIK and 115 eyes underwent PRK without mitomycin C (MMC. Both procedures decreased CH and CRF from baseline. When MMC was used after PRK in 20 eyes, it resulted in lower corneal biomechanical properties at 3 months when compared to the other procedures, but all three procedures had similar values at 12 months.Conclusion: Significant but similar decreases in corneal biomechanical properties after LASIK, PRK without MMC, and PRK with MMC were noted. Keywords: corneal biomechanics, photorefractive keratectomy, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, mitomycin C

  11. Advances in the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the Conference was to provide a forum for exchange of information among around 200 attending experts from 46 Member States and five international organizations, who altogether presented around 80 papers and posters. The Conference presentations were divided into four main topics: Managing and Regulating Safe Operation; Safety Performance and Lessons Learned; Improving Operational Safety Using PSA; Enhancing Safety. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  13. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  14. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-03

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  15. Current summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of extreme load design criteria both as to rate and depth within any national jurisdiction as applied to nuclear power plant design is a function of several factors. The prime factor is the number of nuclear power plant facilities which are operating, under construction or planned in a given country. The second most important factor seems to be the degree of development of a domestic independent nuclear steam system supplier, NSSS vendor. Finally, countries whose domestic NSSS firms are active in the export market appear to have more active criteria development programs or at least they appear more visible to the foreign observer. For the purposes of this paper, extreme loads are defined as those loads having probability of occurence less than 10 -1 /yr and whose occurence could result in radiological consequences in excess of those permitted by national health standards. The specific loads considered include earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), airplane crash, detonation, and high energy system rupture. The paper identifies five national centers for extreme load criteria development; Canada, Great Britian, USA, USSR, and West Germany with both France and Japan also about to appear as independent centers of criteria development. Criteria under development by each national center are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  16. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  18. Estimation of internal exposure dose due to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Naoko; Takamura, Noboru; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Miura, Miwa; Yoshida, Masahiro; Matsuda, Naoki; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Detailed analysis of internal exposure dose in 173 people sent for dealing with the Accident and stayed nearby during the period Mar 11-Apr 10, 2011, was reported. They were 156 men and 17 women, 42.2 years old in average and stayed for average 4.8 days. Analysis was done for following 4 groups of people: in group 1, 45 people had stayed during the period of Mar 11-18 for average 4.3 days; group 2, 66 people during Mar 14-22 for 2.0 days; group 3, 31 people during Mar 28-31 for 5.8 days; and group 4, 31 people during Mar 22-Apr 10 for 10.6 days. Internal radioactivity was measured for 20 min in the whole body counter placed in a low-background, iron-surrounded room in Nagasaki University. The detector was a pair of NaI (Tl) scintillator of 8 in. (diameter) x 4 in. (thickness) equipped at upper and lower portions. Nuclides measured were I-131 (at 0.364 MeV and others), Cs-134 (0.605, 0.796 MeV), Cs-137 (0.662 MeV), of which lowest detection limits were 68 Bq for I, and 28 Bq for Cs. Overall average detection rates of the respective nuclide above were found to be 31.8% (55/173 people), 37.6% (65) and 32.4% (56). In group 1, >800 Bq of the nuclides were found in the body, but in later groups, radioactivity was lower. Detection rate and internal radioactivity were thus found to be highest in those stayed immediately after the Accident. (T.T.)

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX AND MATURATION ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACL INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigward, S. M.; Pollard, C. D.; Powers, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    During landing and cutting, females exhibit greater frontal plane moments at the knee (internal knee adductor moments or external knee abduction moments) and favor use of the knee extensors over the hip extensors to attenuate impact forces when compared to males. However, it is not known when this biomechanical profile emerges. The purpose of this study was to compare landing biomechanics between sexes across maturation levels. One hundred and nineteen male and female soccer players (9–22 years) participated. Subjects were grouped based on maturational development. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were obtained during a drop-land task. Dependent variables included the average internal knee adductor moment and sagittal plane knee/hip moment and energy absorption ratios during the deceleration phase of landing. When averaged across maturation levels, females demonstrated greater internal knee adductor moments (0.06±0.03 vs. 0.01±0.02 Nm/kg*m; Pbiomechanical pattern that increases ACL loading. This biomechanical strategy already was established in pre-pubertal female athletes. PMID:21210853

  20. Working material. IAEA seismic safety of nuclear power plants. International workshop on lessons learned from strong earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The International Workshop on Lessons Learned from Strong Earthquake was held at Kashiwazaki civic plaza, Kashiwazaki, Niigata-prefecture, Japan, for three days in June 2008. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP (KK-NPP) is located in the city of Kashiwazaki and the village of Kariwa, and owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Ltd. (TEPCO). After it experienced the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake in July 2007, IAEA dispatched experts' missions twice and held technical discussions with TEPCO. Through such activities, the IAEA secretariat and experts obtained up-dated information of plant integrity, geological and seismological evaluation and developments of the consultation in the regulatory framework of Japan. Some of the information has been shared with the member states through the reports on findings and lessons learned from the missions to Japan. The international workshop was held to discuss and share the information of lessons learned from strong earthquakes in member states' nuclear installations. It provided the opportunity for participants from abroad to share the information of the recent earthquake and experience in Japan and to visit KK-NPP. And for experts in Japan, the workshop provided the opportunity to share the international approach on seismic-safety-related measures and experiences. The workshop was organised by the IAEA as a part of an extra budgetary project, in cooperation with OECD/NEA, hosted by Japanese organisations including Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The number of the workshop participants was 70 experts from outside Japan, 27 countries and 2 international organisations, 154 Japanese experts and 81 audience and media personnel, totalling to 305 participants. The three-day workshop was open to the media including the site visit, and covered by NHK (the nation's public broadcasting corporation) and nation-wide and local television

  1. Biomechanical factors influencing the performance of elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-04-01

    Alpine ski racing is a popular international winter sport that is complex and challenging from physical, technical, and tactical perspectives. Despite the vast amount of scientific literature focusing on this sport, including topical reviews on physiology, ski-snow friction, and injuries, no review has yet addressed the biomechanics of elite alpine ski racers and which factors influence performance. In World Cup events, winning margins are often mere fractions of a second and biomechanics may well be a determining factor in podium place finishes. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the biomechanical factors that influence the performance of elite alpine ski racers, with an emphasis on slalom, giant slalom, super-G, and downhill events. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and key words, with an additional manual search of reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Articles were included if they addressed human biomechanics, elite alpine skiing, and performance. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and in the English language were reviewed. Articles that focused on skiing disciplines other than the four of primary interest were excluded (e.g., mogul, ski-cross and freestyle skiing). The articles subsequently included for review were quality assessed using a modified version of a validated quality assessment checklist. Data on the study population, design, location, and findings relating biomechanics to performance in alpine ski racers were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria, were reviewed, and scored an average of 69 ± 13% (range 40-89%) upon quality assessment. Five of the studies focused on giant slalom, four on slalom, and three on downhill disciplines, although these latter three articles were also relevant to super-G events

  2. The effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics: a cadaveric study with simulated trochlear deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haver, Annemieke; De Roo, Karel; De Beule, Matthieu; Labey, Luc; De Baets, Patrick; Dejour, David; Claessens, Tom; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Trochlear dysplasia appears in different geometrical variations. The Dejour classification is widely used to grade the severity of trochlear dysplasia and to decide on treatment. To investigate the effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics and to determine if different types of trochlear dysplasia have different effects on patellofemoral biomechanics. Controlled laboratory study. Trochlear dysplasia was simulated in 4 cadaveric knees by replacing the native cadaveric trochlea with different types of custom-made trochlear implants, manufactured with 3-dimensional printing. For each knee, 5 trochlear implants were designed: 1 implant simulated the native trochlea (control condition), and 4 implants simulated 4 types of trochlear dysplasia. The knees were subjected to 3 biomechanical tests: a squat simulation, an open chain extension simulation, and a patellar stability test. The patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability were compared between the control condition (replica implants) and the trochlear dysplastic condition and among the subgroups of trochlear dysplasia. The patellofemoral joint in the trochlear dysplastic group showed increased internal rotation, lateral tilt, and lateral translation; increased contact pressures; decreased contact areas; and decreased stability when compared with the control group. Within the trochlear dysplastic group, the implants graded as Dejour type D showed the largest deviations for the kinematical parameters, and the implants graded as Dejour types B and D showed the largest deviations for the patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. Patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability are significantly affected by trochlear dysplasia. Of all types of trochlear dysplasia, the models characterized with a pronounced trochlear bump showed the largest deviations in patellofemoral biomechanics. Investigating the relationship between the shape of the trochlea and

  3. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Iacoviello, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  4. Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedid, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is the most common progressive disorder in the aging cervical spine. It results from the process of degeneration of the intervertebral discs and facet joints of the cervical spine. Biomechanically, the disc and the facets are the connecting structures between the vertebrae for the transmission of external forces. They also facilitate cervical spine mobility. Symptoms related to myelopathy and radiculopathy are caused by the formation of osteophytes, which compromise the diameter of the spinal canal. This compromise may also be partially developmental. The developmental process, together with the degenerative process, may cause mechanical pressure on the spinal cord at one or multiple levels. This pressure may produce direct neurological damage or ischemic changes and, thus, lead to spinal cord disturbances. A thorough understanding of the biomechanics, the pathology, the clinical presentation, the radiological evaluation, as well as the surgical indications of cervical spondylosis, is essential for the management of patients with cervical spondylosis.

  5. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  6. Biomechanical study of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Huang Xianglong; Shen Tianzhen; Hu Zhou; Hong Shuizong; Mei Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stiffness of lumbar spine after the injury caused by percutaneous diskectomy and evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy by biomechanical study. Methods: Four fresh lumbar specimens were used to analyse load-displacement curves in the intact lumbar spine and vertical disc-injured lumbar spine. The concepts of average flexibility coefficient (f) and standardized average flexibility coefficient (fs) were also introduced. Results: The load-displacement curves showed a good stabilization effect of the intact lumbar spine and disc-injured lumbar spine in flexion, extension, right and left bending. The decrease of anti-rotation also can be detected (P<0.05). Conclusion: In biomechanical study, percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is one of the efficiency methods to treat lumbar diac hernia

  7. Biomechanics/risk management (Working Group 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Mariano; Naert, Ignace; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The remit of this workgroup was to update the existing knowledge base in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Five manuscripts...... were produced in five specific topics identified as areas where innovative approaches have been developed in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. RESULTS: The results and conclusions of the review process are presented...... survival and complications of implant supported restorations? * A systematic review on the accuracy and the clinical outcome of computer-guided template based implant dentistry. * What is the impact of systemic bisphosphonates on patients undergoing oral implant therapy? * What is the impact...

  8. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

  9. Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant. INSAG-26. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    features as a nuclear power plant that is already licensed by an experienced regulator. Consequently, an option is to start development of national regulations by adopting or adapting regulations from a country that has licensed the same type of nuclear power plant. However, if the intention is to have an open technology selection process, care should be taken to establish a set of technology neutral regulations, such as by using the IAEA safety standards as the foundation. This set of technology neutral regulations can then be complemented by more design specific regulations after the technology is chosen. Since the development of technical competences requires considerable time, the regulatory body needs to plan for human resources development at a very early stage. As a first step, the essential competences required for the different phases of the nuclear power programme should be identified. Thereafter, formal training arrangements should be established between the regulatory body and one or more experienced regulators that have licensed a similar facility. This should include early interaction between senior managers of the two regulators followed by detailed training of selected staff who will form the technical core of the regulatory body. The regulatory body should also identify outside organizations that will act as its technical support organizations (TSOs) and should provide for conduct of nuclear safety R and D by these TSOs, including the appropriate research facilities and expertise. If additional nuclear power plants will be constructed in the new entrant country in the future, the new nuclear power plant units may not be of the same design as the first plant. This aspect should be kept in mind when developing both the licensing methodologies and staff. Regulatory staff can also obtain significant benefit from participation in international cooperation activities such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, technical cooperation forums of regulatory bodies of

  10. Estimation of annual dose equivalent (internal and external) for new thorium plant workers of IRE OSCOM, Orissa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Tripathy, S.K.; Khan, A.H.; Maharana, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to thoron, thoron daughters and gamma radiation, the New Thorium Plant workers are exposed to long lived alpha emitters due to inhalation of thorium fine dust present in the working environment. Air samplers were used for measurement of thoron daughters and long lived alpha concentration. Each sample was counted for 3-4 hours for alpha activity and the long lived alpha concentration was calculated after taking the self absorption effect of the deposit on the filter paper into account. Internal dose of individual workers due to thoron daughter concentration and long lived alpha concentration was determined using time weighted factors. Based on the results, it is observed that contribution of thoron daughters, long lived alpha and external gamma is about 2 mSv /y, 1 mSv /y and 5 mSv/y, respectively, to total dose to the workers. (author)

  11. Report of the COG/IAEA international workshop on managing nuclear safety at CANDU (PHWR) plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop, hosted by COG and co-sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) was held in Toronto, April 28 - May 1st, 1997. The 40 participants included senior managers from IAEA member countries operating or constructing CANDU (PHWR) stations. All the offshore utilities with PHWR stations in Korea, Romania, India, Argentina, Pakistan, and China were present with their domestic counterparts from Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Hydro Quebec, New Brunswick Power, and AECL. The objectives of the workshop were to: provide a forum for exchange of ideas among nuclear safety managers operating CANDU (PHWR) stations and to learn from each other's experiences; to foster sharing of information on different operating approaches to managing safety and, in particular, to highlight the strategies for controlling the overall plant risk to a low level; to identify and discuss issues of mutual interest pertinent to PHWR stations and to define future follow-up activities. Refs, figs

  12. Report of the COG/IAEA international workshop on managing nuclear safety at CANDU (PHWR) plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The workshop, hosted by COG and co-sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) was held in Toronto, April 28 - May 1st, 1997. The 40 participants included senior managers from IAEA member countries operating or constructing CANDU (PHWR) stations. All the offshore utilities with PHWR stations in Korea, Romania, India, Argentina, Pakistan, and China were present with their domestic counterparts from Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Hydro Quebec, New Brunswick Power, and AECL. The objectives of the workshop were to: provide a forum for exchange of ideas among nuclear safety managers operating CANDU (PHWR) stations and to learn from each other`s experiences; to foster sharing of information on different operating approaches to managing safety and, in particular, to highlight the strategies for controlling the overall plant risk to a low level; to identify and discuss issues of mutual interest pertinent to PHWR stations and to define future follow-up activities. Refs, figs.

  13. Studies and design activities for implementing the international agreements on abatement of pollution from thermoelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main provisions and resulting obligations from conventions, protocols, declarations, especially the 1970 Geneva Convention on long range transboundary air pollution are presented as well as their protocols on the reduction by 30 % of sulfur emissions and the control of nitrogen emissions or transboundary fluxes. The UN/ECE draft Convention on environmental impact assessment is also considered. A framework of the related study and design activities for implementation of pollution reduction solutions in power plants with reference to national and international emission standards and environmental protection laws is also presented. The conclusion of the report is that future energy development will be strongly influenced by the resulting commitments implying important human and financial efforts. 15 refs

  14. Individual monitoring of internal exposure to uranium oxides in two fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeix, F.; Achiary, J.; Berard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Individual monitoring of personal exposure to inhalation of uranium oxides throughout the manufacture of fuel for pressurized water reactor (PWR) includes lung gamma-spectrometry, fecal analysis and urine analysis. Examination of the results shows the following: internal exposure is the consequence of repeated intake incidents as revealed by early peaks of urinary and particularly fecal elimination; a shift is often observed with the results of aerosol concentration measured through air collectors; the measured variations of uranium lung incorporations are relatively fast (apparent mean period 165 d). Correct evaluation of the effective dose equivalent from inhalation requires further information concerning the aerosol size distribution at work stations, the physico-chemical characteristics of the product leading to an estimate of its actual biological solubility, and the measurement of the fraction of aerosol liable to intake with an individual portable collector [fr

  15. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  16. Numerical Simulation of Some Biomechanical Problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedoma, Jiří; Klézl, Z.; Fousek, J.; Kestřánek, Zdeněk; Stehlík, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-6 (2003), s. 283-295 ISSN 0378-4754. [MODELLING 2001. IMACS Conference on Mathematical Modelling and Computational Methods in Mechanics, Physics , Biomechanics and Geodynamics /2./. Pilsen, 19.06.2001-25.06.2001] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-linear elasticity * contact problems * variational inequality * finite element method * wrist * spine * fracture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2003

  17. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  18. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  19. Injury Biomechanics of C2 Dens Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank; Baisden, Jamie; Gennarelli, Thomas; Maiman, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the biomechanics of dens fractures of the second cervical vertebra in the adult population due to motor vehicle crashes. Case-by-case records from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) and National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) databases were used. Variables such as change in velocity, impact direction and body habitus were extracted. Results indicated that similarities exist in the two databases despite differences in sampling...

  20. Conduct of inspections for plant modifications, event investigations and operability decisions. Proceedings of an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Preliminary planning started following the approval given by the CNRA. Formal planning for the Workshop was started at the Fifth Meeting of the WGIP in April 1993, in Lyon. Planning included taking into consideration comments made and lessons learned at the first Workshop. The first organising committee meeting for the Workshop was held in London preceding the Sixth WGIP meeting in October 1993. It was decided to remain with the same format: discussion groups with facilitators. It was also decided to have a three day programme with three Discussion Group sessions. The Announcement and Call for Participation was issued in December 1993. As part of the Announcement and Call for Participation, registrants were requested to transmit questions or issues of particular interest within the selected topics, they wanted to be addressed at the Workshop. A compilation of the these is included as Appendix H. Additionally, participants were requested to provide a short paper of one or two pages, describing the practices within their own countries related to the topics, for utilisation during the discussion sessions. These papers are attached as Appendix I. A training session was held for all facilitators on the afternoon of 22 May, to introduce methods in leading small group discussions and to complete final preparations. The Workshop programme (Appendix B) consisted of an opening plenary session, 3 discussion group sessions and a closing plenary session to review conclusions and an open question period. Following completion of the Workshop, facilitators met to evaluate and formulate final reports on the various topics. The main objectives of the Workshop were the following: To meet with inspectors from other organisations, To exchange information regarding regulatory inspections practices, To discuss the major topics: plant modifications, event investigation, and operability decisions, To discuss current issues, To develop conclusions on the topics discussed. Six discussion

  1. Conduct of inspections for plant modifications, event investigations and operability decisions. Proceedings of an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary planning started following the approval given by the CNRA. Formal planning for the Workshop was started at the Fifth Meeting of the WGIP in April 1993, in Lyon. Planning included taking into consideration comments made and lessons learned at the first Workshop. The first organising committee meeting for the Workshop was held in London preceding the Sixth WGIP meeting in October 1993. It was decided to remain with the same format: discussion groups with facilitators. It was also decided to have a three day programme with three Discussion Group sessions. The Announcement and Call for Participation was issued in December 1993. As part of the Announcement and Call for Participation, registrants were requested to transmit questions or issues of particular interest within the selected topics, they wanted to be addressed at the Workshop. A compilation of the these is included as Appendix H. Additionally, participants were requested to provide a short paper of one or two pages, describing the practices within their own countries related to the topics, for utilisation during the discussion sessions. These papers are attached as Appendix I. A training session was held for all facilitators on the afternoon of 22 May, to introduce methods in leading small group discussions and to complete final preparations. The Workshop programme (Appendix B) consisted of an opening plenary session, 3 discussion group sessions and a closing plenary session to review conclusions and an open question period. Following completion of the Workshop, facilitators met to evaluate and formulate final reports on the various topics. The main objectives of the Workshop were the following: To meet with inspectors from other organisations, To exchange information regarding regulatory inspections practices, To discuss the major topics: plant modifications, event investigation, and operability decisions, To discuss current issues, To develop conclusions on the topics discussed. Six discussion

  2. Measures to assess and to assure the integrity of RPV-internals at Isar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erve, M.; Bouecke, R.; Leibold, F.; Marschke, D.; Senski, G.; Maier, V.

    1998-01-01

    As visual examinations carried out in autumn 1994 detected cracks in a German BWR plant due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in several core shroud components manufactured from 1.4550 steel, precautionary examinations and assessments were performed for all other plants. In accordance with these analyses, it can be stated for Isar, Unit 1 that the heat treatment to which the components in question were subjected in the course of manufacture cannot have caused sensitization of the material, and that crack formation due to the damage mechanism primarily identified in the reactor pressure vessel internals at Wuergassen Nuclear Power Station need not be feared. Although the material and corrosion-chemical assessments performed to date did not give any indications for the other crack formation mechanisms that are theoretically relevant for reactor pressure vessel internals (IGSCC due to weld sensitization, IASCC), visual examinations with a limited scope will be carried out with the independent expert's agreement during the scheduled inservice inspections. The fluid-dynamic and structure-mechanical analyses showed that the individual components are subjected only to low loadings, even in the event of accidents, and that the safety objectives shutdown and residual heat removal can be fulfilled even in the case of large postulated cracks. The fracture-mechanics analyses indicated critical through-wall crack lengths which, however, can be promptly and reliably detected during random inservice inspections even when assuming stress corrosion cracking and irradiation-induced low-toughness material conditions. In addition, both the VGB and the Isar, Unit 1 licensee are pursuing further prophylactic measures such as alternative water chemistry modes and an appropriate repair and replacement concept. (author)

  3. Computational Biomechanics Theoretical Background and BiologicalBiomedical Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Masao; Nakamura, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments have taken place in biological/biomedical measurement and imaging technologies as well as in computer analysis and information technologies. The increase in data obtained with such technologies invites the reader into a virtual world that represents realistic biological tissue or organ structures in digital form and allows for simulation and what is called “in silico medicine.” This volume is the third in a textbook series and covers both the basics of continuum mechanics of biosolids and biofluids and the theoretical core of computational methods for continuum mechanics analyses. Several biomechanics problems are provided for better understanding of computational modeling and analysis. Topics include the mechanics of solid and fluid bodies, fundamental characteristics of biosolids and biofluids, computational methods in biomechanics analysis/simulation, practical problems in orthopedic biomechanics, dental biomechanics, ophthalmic biomechanics, cardiovascular biomechanics, hemodynamics...

  4. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks. 'Systems

  5. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks

  6. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  7. Advanced Computational Methods in Bio-Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Waleed M S; El-Anwar, Mohamed I

    2018-04-15

    A novel partnership between surgeons and machines, made possible by advances in computing and engineering technology, could overcome many of the limitations of traditional surgery. By extending surgeons' ability to plan and carry out surgical interventions more accurately and with fewer traumas, computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems could help to improve clinical outcomes and the efficiency of healthcare delivery. CIS systems could have a similar impact on surgery to that long since realised in computer-integrated manufacturing. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have proved tremendously successful in engineering. Computational mechanics has enabled technological developments in virtually every area of our lives. One of the greatest challenges for mechanists is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. Biomechanics has significant potential for applications in orthopaedic industry, and the performance arts since skills needed for these activities are visibly related to the human musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Although biomechanics is widely used nowadays in the orthopaedic industry to design orthopaedic implants for human joints, dental parts, external fixations and other medical purposes, numerous researches funded by billions of dollars are still running to build a new future for sports and human healthcare in what is called biomechanics era.

  8. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  9. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  10. An introduction to biomechanics solids and fluids, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Jay D

    2004-01-01

    Designed to meet the needs of undergraduate students, Introduction to Biomechanics takes the fresh approach of combining the viewpoints of both a well-respected teacher and a successful student. With an eye toward practicality without loss of depth of instruction, this book seeks to explain the fundamental concepts of biomechanics. With the accompanying web site providing models, sample problems, review questions and more, Introduction to Biomechanics provides students with the full range of instructional material for this complex and dynamic field.

  11. Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0043 TITLE: Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations PRINCIPAL...31May2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER During Simulated Military Operations 5b... Biomechanics , Cincinnati, 2015. § Website(s) or other Internet site(s) § Nothing to report § Technologies or techniques § Nothing to report

  12. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-03-11

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Radioactivity level of airplane to Guangzhou Baiyun international airport during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiqing; Chen Wentao; Cheng Xiaobo; Liao Tong; Deng Fei; Chen Fuliang; Zhang Yanjin; Li Lingjuan; Liang Guiyuan; Wu Guibiao

    2014-01-01

    The radioactivity level of airplanes to Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (GBIAC) during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was monitored by Guangdong Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (GERC) on March 15 and 16, 2011. The artificial radionuclide "1"3"1I, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs, "l"3"6Cs, "1"3"2I, "1"3"2Te were detected in the wipe samples of the outer surface of airplanes from Japan to GBIAC. The radioactivity ration of "1"3"7Cs/"1"3"4Cs was calculated as (1.12 ± 0.06) in the wipe samples, which similar to the result in the wipe sample of the outer surface of airplanes from Japan to Hangzhou airport obtained by Zhejiang Province Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (l.lO ± 0.08), but slightly higher than results in the aerosol monitoring at Guangzhou (0.99 ± 0.30) and Shenzhen (0.94 ± 0.30) by GERC, the data (0.83) published by Japan Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and the result (1.00 ± 0.13) measured by Tokyo Electric Power Company. A slight radioactive contamination was detected on the surface of outer airplanes and internal cabin. The practice suggested that the wipe sample of the outer surface of airplane was a fast , simple and sensitive approach for emergency monitoring of radioactive contamination. (authors)

  14. Faults simulation on reactor internals of Uljin 1 and 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. S.; Park, J. H.; Nam, H. Y.; Woo, J. S.; Kim, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics analysis were performed for finite element model of Uljin 1 and 2 NPP reactor internals with artificial faults on the hold-down ring and the thermal shield. To prove the validity of the modelling, the fundamental beam and shell mode frequencies of core support barrel(CSB) in normal state are compared with those from the measurement results, which shows good agreement. According to the analysis results, the fundamental natural frequency of the CSB beam decreases by 5%, 18%, 54% and 92% for 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% partial faults of the hold-down ring respectively. And the fundamental shell natural frequency is within 5.3% for 20% partial faults, but decrease by 22% and 72% for 50% and 80% partial faults. For the faults of the thermal shield with the normal hold-down ring, frequency decreases of the higher shell modes are more than the beam modes and the 5th to 8th natural frequencies decrease by 5%, 9%, 13% and 20% for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% partial faults respectively

  15. Study of internal exposure to uranium compounds in fuel fabrication plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela Souza

    2006-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 and Supporting Guidance 3) strongly recommends that specific information on lung retention parameters should be used in preference to default values wherever appropriate, for the derivation of effective doses and for bioassay interpretation of monitoring data. A group of 81 workers exposed to UO 2 at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was selected to evaluate the committed effective dose. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the urinary and faecal excretion. The contribution of intakes by ingestion and inhalation were assessed on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. For the selected workers it was concluded that inhalation dominated intake. According to ICRP 66, uranium oxide is classified as insoluble Type S compound. The ICRP Supporting Guidance 3 and some recent studies have recommended specific lung retention parameters to UO 2 . The solubility parameters of the uranium oxide compound handled by the workers at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was evaluated on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. Excretion data were corrected for dietary intakes. This paper will discuss the application of lung retention parameters recommended by the ICRP models to these data and also the dependence of the effective committed dose on the lung retention parameters. It will also discuss the problems in the interpretation of monitoring results, when the worker is exposed to several uranium compounds of different solubilities. (author)

  16. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  17. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  18. An Evidence-Based Videotaped Running Biomechanics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    Running biomechanics play an important role in the development of injuries. Performing a running biomechanics analysis on injured runners can help to develop treatment strategies. This article provides a framework for a systematic video-based running biomechanics analysis plan based on the current evidence on running injuries, using 2-dimensional (2D) video and readily available tools. Fourteen measurements are proposed in this analysis plan from lateral and posterior video. Identifying simple 2D surrogates for 3D biomechanic variables of interest allows for widespread translation of best practices, and have the best opportunity to impact the highly prevalent problem of the injured runner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Harnessing biomechanics to develop cartilage regeneration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Responte, Donald J; Brown, Wendy E; Hu, Jerry C

    2015-02-01

    As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. This article provides a review of important steps toward regeneration of articular cartilage with suitable biomechanical properties. As a first step, biomechanical and biochemical characterization studies at the tissue level were used to provide design criteria for engineering neotissues. Extending this work to the single cell and subcellular levels has helped to develop biochemical and mechanical stimuli for tissue engineering studies. This strong mechanobiological foundation guided studies on regenerating hyaline articular cartilage, the knee meniscus, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fibrocartilage. Initial tissue engineering efforts centered on developing biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. After many years of studying scaffold-based cartilage engineering, scaffoldless approaches were developed to address deficiencies of scaffold-based systems, resulting in the self-assembling process. This process was further improved by employing exogenous stimuli, such as hydrostatic pressure, growth factors, and matrix-modifying and catabolic agents, both singly and in synergistic combination to enhance neocartilage functional properties. Due to the high cell needs for tissue engineering and the limited supply of native articular chondrocytes, costochondral cells are emerging as a suitable cell source. Looking forward, additional cell sources are investigated to render these technologies more translatable. For example, dermis isolated adult stem (DIAS) cells show potential as a source of

  20. Gluteal tendinopathy and hip osteoarthritis: Different pathologies, different hip biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Hall, Michelle; Hodges, Paul W; Wrigley, Tim V; Vicenzino, Bill; Pua, Yong-Hao; Metcalf, Ben; Grimaldi, Alison; Bennell, Kim L

    2018-03-01

    Gluteal tendinopathy (GT) and hip osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common causes of hip pain and associated disability in older adults. Pain and altered walking biomechanics are common to both conditions. This study aimed to compare three-dimensional walking biomechanics between individuals with unilateral, symptomatic GT and HOA. Sixty individuals with symptomatic unilateral GT confirmed by magnetic-resonance-imaging and 73 individuals with symptomatic unilateral HOA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade ≥ 2) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. Maximum and minimum values of the external sagittal hip moment, the first peak, second peak and mid-stance minimum of the hip adduction moment (HAM), sagittal plane hip excursion and hip joint angles, pelvic obliquity and trunk lean, at the three HAM time points during stance phase of walking were compared between groups. Compared to individuals with HOA, those with GT exhibited a greater hip peak extension moment (P < 0.001) and greater HAM throughout the stance phase of walking (P = 0.01-P < 0.001), greater hip adduction (P < 0.001) and internal rotation (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) angles and lower hip flexion angles and excursion (P = 0.02 - P < 0.001). Individuals with HOA exhibited a greater forward trunk lean (P ≤ 0.001) throughout stance, and greater ipsilateral trunk lean in the frontal plane (P < 0.001) than those with GT. Despite presence of pain in both conditions, hip kinematics and kinetics differ between individuals with symptomatic unilateral GT and those with symptomatic unilateral HOA. These condition-specific impairments may be targets for optimization of management of HOA and GT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of the upper internals structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Novendstern, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) is located above the core and is supported from the head at four locations. It is designed to perform the following primary functions: provide secondary core holddown in the event of a malfunction of the core hydraulic holddown system; provide support for routing all in-vessel instrumentation to core assemblies; maintain alignment between the core assemblies, the UIS and the closure head; provide guidance and crossflow protection for the control rod drivelines; and mix/duct flow to the upper region of the vessel outlet plenum to minimize rapid temperature changes to components during a reactor trip transient. In accomplishing these functions, the UIS will experience a sodium environment with temperatures up to 1200 0 F (649 0 C), and as many as 7 x 10 8 cycles of fluid temperature fluctuations up to 250 0 F (121 0 C) at full power operation. It must be designed to survive these conditions in combination with seismic and flow-induced vibration loadings for its 30 year design life. The design program of designing to controlled functional requirements and design conditions is discussed. Included is a description of the significant parts of the design and the approach used to balance the requirement of tight joints. The thermal and hydraulic environment including the results of a comprehensive test program are discussed. The test program results establish the basis of the thermal boundary used in the structural evaluation, and the UIS vibration characteristics. A summary of the areas which have required design changes is included with a summary of the structural evaluation of these changes

  2. International experience feedback on fatigue monitoring systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1997-01-01

    From the very beginning of electro-nuclear programmes the need has become internationally obvious to develop systems aiming at automation and improvement of monitoring of the transients stressing the main mechanical components of nuclear units, by checking the conservativeness of the design no longer from a comparison of causes (temperature and pressure variations) but by directly assessing the results (stresses and linked damage). Prototypes of such systems have appeared since the middle of the 1980's mainly in France, the USA and Germany, and manufacturing them has since continued. Several years of development and on site testing of prototypes of fatigue measuring devices designed by the R and D Direction have enabled contacts with the developers of similar systems to be established and, in some cases, comparisons to be made. The experience accumulated in the use of such systems, both in France and abroad from now on makes a first experience feedback possible. The fatigue measuring device concept is based on a succession of elementary modules which enable the information received from the unit to be processed, first in the form of transient counting (transient meters), then in the form of mechanical diagnosis (fatigue monitoring systems). Among the systems in operation some provide actually only the transient meter part while others link transient meters and fatigue meters (EDF, EPRI and MITSUBISHI systems and some versions of the SIEMENS system). Moreover, numerous systems require, in addition to unit operation instrumentation, specific instrumentation located in monitored areas. The number of devices in operation has not stopped growing since the middle of the 80's to reach 53 systems working in 1996. The biggest developers are EPRI and its consultant Structural Integrity Associates (FatiguePro system), SIEMENS (FAMOS system) and EDF whose gradual implementation of SYSFAC from '96 is going to make its share particularly increase. Technical experience feedback

  3. The obscure factor analysis on the vibration reliability of the internals of nuclear power plant reactor and anti-vibration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Geyan; Zhu Qirong

    1998-11-01

    It is pointed out that the main reason making nuclear power plants reactors leak is the vibration of internals of reactors. The factors which lead the vibration all have randomness and obscureness. The obscure reliability theory is introduced to the vibration system of internals of nuclear power reactor. Based on a quantity of designing and moving data, the obscure factors effecting the vibration reliability of the internals of nuclear power plant reactor are analyzed and the anti-vibration reliability criteria and the evaluating model are given. And the anti-vibration reliability measures are advanced from different quarters of the machine design and building, the thermohydraulics design, the control of reactivity, etc.. They may benefit the theory and practice for building and perfecting the vibration obscure reliability model of the reactor internals

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of heel elevation on load transfer — experimental measurement and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luximon, Yan; Luximon, Ameersing; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Ming

    2012-02-01

    In spite of ill-effects of high heel shoes, they are widely used for women. Hence, it is essential to understand the load transfer biomechanics in order to design better fit and comfortable shoes. In this study, both experimental measurement and finite element analysis were used to evaluate the biomechanical effects of heel height on foot load transfer. A controlled experiment was conducted using custom-designed platforms. Under different weight-bearing conditions, peak plantar pressure, contact area and center of pressure were analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element foot model was used to simulate the high-heel support and to predict the internal stress distributions and deformations for different heel heights. Results from both experiment and model indicated that heel elevations had significant effects on all variables. When heel elevation increased, the center of pressure shifted from the midfoot region to the forefoot region, the contact area was reduced by 26% from 0 to 10.2 cm heel and the internal stress of foot bones increased. Prediction results also showed that the strain and total tension force of plantar fascia was minimum at 5.1 cm heel condition. This study helps to better understand the biomechanical behavior of foot, and to provide better suggestions for design parameters of high heeled shoes.

  5. Plants: An International Scientific Open Access Journal to Publish All Facets of Plants, Their Functions and Interactions with the Environment and Other Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W.G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the two major groups of living organisms that are an essential entity to the function of the biosphere. Plants can be found in all known parts of the earth, in all shapes and sizes. They include the green algae, mosses, ferns, vines, grasses, bushes, herbs, flowering plants and trees. Although some plants are parasitic, most produce their own food through photosynthesis. Most plants initiate from a seed. The importance of plants in the food chain dates back to ancient times. The first humans gathered wild plants for food. As settlements developed, food crops were cultivated, leading to selection of high-yielding cultivated varieties to feed the growing populations. Unlike plants, humans and other animals are unable to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they are dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants. Plants are found in natural ecosystems such as rain forests, and also in agricultural areas and urbanized settings. They are an essential part of our daily lives providing food, clean air, and important ecosystem functions. The study of plants and their function could be considered the most complex of interactions. From the time a seed germinates, it goes through a myriad of physiological processes that can be closely studied using modern tools and molecular biological methods. An open access journal such as Plants will give millions of readers access to that information around the world. PMID:27137635

  6. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  7. Modelling biomechanics of bark patterning in grasstrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Holly; Runions, Adam; Hobill, David; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2014-09-01

    Bark patterns are a visually important characteristic of trees, typically attributed to fractures occurring during secondary growth of the trunk and branches. An understanding of bark pattern formation has been hampered by insufficient information regarding the biomechanical properties of bark and the corresponding difficulties in faithfully modelling bark fractures using continuum mechanics. This study focuses on the genus Xanthorrhoea (grasstrees), which have an unusual bark-like structure composed of distinct leaf bases connected by sticky resin. Due to its discrete character, this structure is well suited for computational studies. A dynamic computational model of grasstree development was created. The model captures both the phyllotactic pattern of leaf bases during primary growth and the changes in the trunk's width during secondary growth. A biomechanical representation based on a system of masses connected by springs is used for the surface of the trunk, permitting the emergence of fractures during secondary growth to be simulated. The resulting fracture patterns were analysed statistically and compared with images of real trees. The model reproduces key features of grasstree bark patterns, including their variability, spanning elongated and reticulate forms. The patterns produced by the model have the same statistical character as those seen in real trees. The model was able to support the general hypothesis that the patterns observed in the grasstree bark-like layer may be explained in terms of mechanical fractures driven by secondary growth. Although the generality of the results is limited by the unusual structure of grasstree bark, it supports the hypothesis that bark pattern formation is primarily a biomechanical phenomenon.

  8. Head Impact Biomechanics in Women's College Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-09-01

    There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.

  9. Identification of minimal sequences of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian, plant and insect translation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Belsham, Graham; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2007-01-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is a member of the family Dicistroviridae. The genomes of viruses in this family contain two open reading frames, each preceded by distinct internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. The RhPV 5' IRES is functional in mammalian, insect and plant translation syste...

  10. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future prospects of nuclear power plants and Turkey; Uluslararasi Nukleer Teknoloji Kurultayi: Nukleer guc santrallarinin gelecegi ve Turkiye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document includes 19 papers presented at the `International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future Prospects of Nuclear Power Plants in Turkey`, held between 12-15 October 1993 in Ankara (Turkey). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper prepared for each paper.

  12. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Biomechanical studies: science (f)or common sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Doornberg, Job N.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; van der Zwan, A. L.; Spoor, A. B.; van Vugt, A. B.; Armstrong, A. D.; Shrivastava, A.; Wahegaonkar, A. L.; Shafritz, A. B.; Adams, J.; Ilyas, A.; Vochteloo, A. J. H.; Castillo, A. P.; Basak, A.; Andreas, P.; Barquet, A.; Kristan, A.; Berner, A.; Ranade, A. B.; Ashish, S.; Terrono, A. L.; Jubel, A.; Frieman, B.; Bamberger, H. B.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Belangero, W. D.; Hearon, B. F.; Boler, J. M.; Walter, F. L.; Boyer, M.; Wills, B. P. D.; Broekhuyse, H.; Buckley, R.; Watkins, B.; Sears, B. W.; Calfee, R. P.; Ekholm, C.; Fernandes, C. H.; Swigart, C.; Cassidy, C.; Wilson, C. J.; Bainbridge, L. C.; Wilson, C.; Eygendaal, D.; Goslings, J. C.; Schep, N.; Kloen, P.; Haverlag, R.

    2014-01-01

    It is our impression that many biomechanical studies invest substantial resources studying the obvious: that more and larger metal is stronger. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a subset of biomechanical studies comparing fixation constructs just document common sense. Using a web-based

  14. Biomechanical factors associated with the risk of knee injury when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To systematically assess the literature investigating biomechanical knee injury risk factors when an individual lands from a jump. Data sources. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed English journals containing landing biomechanical studies published over 14 years (1990 - 2003).

  15. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  16. [The development of an oral biomechanical testing instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Sun, X D; Lin, Z

    2000-03-01

    An oral biomechanical testing instrument, which is portable, powered with batteries and controlled by single chip microcomputer, was described. The instrument was characterized by its multichannel, high accuracy, low power dissipation, wide rage of force measurement and stable performance. It can be used for acquisiting, displaying and storing data. And it may be expected to be an ideal instrument for oral biomechanical measurements.

  17. Dance band on the Titanic: biomechanical signaling in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Mark A; McCulloch, Andrew; Borg, Thomas K

    2002-11-15

    Biomechanical signaling is a complex interaction of both intracellular and extracellular components. Both passive and active components are involved in the extracellular environment to signal through specific receptors to multiple signaling pathways. This review provides an overview of extracellular matrix, specific receptors, and signaling pathways for biomechanical stimulation in cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. The Undergraduate Biomechanics Experience at Iowa State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter R.

    This paper discusses the objectives of a program in biomechanics--the analysis of sports skills and movement--and the evolution of the biomechanics program at Iowa State University. The primary objective of such a course is to provide the student with the basic tools necessary for adequate analysis of human movement, with special emphasis upon…

  19. Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and the 75th Anniversary of RQES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Joseph; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the biomechanics and exercise physiology studies published in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) over the past 75 years. Studies in biomechanics, a relatively new subdiscipline that evolved from kinesiology, first appeared in the journal about 40 years ago. Exercise physiology studies have…

  20. Comparison of ex-USSR norms and current international practice in design of seismic resistant nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptenbuchner, B.; David, M.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic hazard has been estimated according to ex-USSR norms in the original designs of WWER type Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in former Soviet Union as well as in all former east European countries. For some steps of the design the national standards has been also taken into account. The original ex-USSR norms and instructions has been several times changed and improved during the time. This contribution is dealing with the development of ex-USSR norms and regulations with the aim to recognise some most important differentiations in comparison with corresponding western or international ones from point of view of civil structures. The understanding of relations of these documents is very important for seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type, NPPs. The main Soviet/Russian Standards and Regulations related to the seismic design and qualification of NPP structures as SNiP II-A.12-69, VSN 15-78, SNiP II-7-81, PiNAE G-7-002-86, NTD SEV etc. have been taken into consideration and compared with western or international standards as IAEA 50-SG-S1, IAEA 50-SG-D15, KTA 2201.1-6, ASCE 4-86 etc. The numerical examples of structural seismic qualification has been elaborated according to different standards for better understanding and in order to determine the degree of safety referring to corresponding standards. The authors has tried also to take into account the way of application of ex-USSR norms. The comparison of different norms and regulations has been analysed and corresponding conclusions and recommendations have been derived. These conclusions and recommendations can be helpful by the seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type NPPs. (author)

  1. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of the Nice knot

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Shannon W.; Chapman, Christopher R.; Adeeb, Samer; Duke, Kajsa; Beaupre, Lauren; Bouliane, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Nice knot is a bulky double-stranded knot. Biomechanical data supporting its use as well as the number of half hitches required to ensure knot security is lacking. Materials and Methods: Nice knots with, one, two, or three half-hitches were compared with the surgeon′s and Tennessee slider knots with three half hitches. Each knot was tied 10 times around a fixed diameter using four different sutures: FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL), Ultrabraid (Smith and Nephew, Andover, MA...

  3. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  4. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  5. BIOMECHANICS AND PATHOMECHANICS OF THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint is a joint that can be an area of concern for athletes of various sports and ages. The joint is somewhat complex with multiple contact points and numerous tissues that attach to the patella. Joint forces are variable and depend on the degree of knee flexion and whether the foot is in contact with the ground. The sports medicine specialist must have a good working knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in order to treat it effectively. PMID:27904787

  6. Lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanics during landing, part II: frontal-plane energy analyses and interplanar relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Marc F; Lewek, Michael D; Padua, Darin A; Shultz, Sandra J; Weinhold, Paul S; Blackburn, J Troy

    2013-01-01

    Greater sagittal-plane energy absorption (EA) during the initial impact phase (INI) of landing is consistent with sagittal-plane biomechanics that likely increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading, but it does not appear to influence frontal-plane biomechanics. We do not know whether frontal-plane INI EA is related to high-risk frontal-plane biomechanics. To compare biomechanics among INI EA groups, determine if women are represented more in the high group, and evaluate interplanar INI EA relationships. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Participants included 82 (41 men, 41 women; age = 21.0 ± 2.4 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.10 m, mass = 70.3 ± 16.1 kg) healthy, physically active volunteers. We assessed landing biomechanics with an electromagnetic motion-capture system and force plate. We calculated frontal- and sagittal-plane total, hip, knee, and ankle INI EA. Total frontal-plane INI EA was used to create high, moderate, and low tertiles. Frontal-plane knee and hip kinematics, peak vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, and peak internal knee-varus moment (pKVM) were identified and compared across groups using 1-way analyses of variance. We used a χ (2) analysis to evaluate male and female allocation to INI EA groups. We used simple, bivariate Pearson product moment correlations to assess interplanar INI EA relationships. The high-INI EA group exhibited greater knee valgus at ground contact, hip adduction at pKVM, and peak hip adduction than the low-INI EA group (P .05). Greater frontal-plane INI EA was associated with less favorable frontal-plane biomechanics that likely result in greater ACL loading. Women were more likely than men to use greater frontal-plane INI EA. The magnitudes of sagittal- and frontal-plane INI EA were largely independent.

  7. Biomechanics in dermatology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Haber, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Biomechanics is increasingly being recognized as an important research area in dermatology. To highlight only a few examples, biomechanics has contributed to the development of novel topical therapies for aesthetic and medical purposes, enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of plantar melanoma, and provided insight into the epidemiology of psoriatic disease. This article summarizes the findings from recent studies to demonstrate the important role that biomechanics may have in dermatologic disease and therapy and places these biomechanical findings in a clinical context for the practicing physician. In addition, areas for future biomechanics research and development in dermatology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Safe management of the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants. INSAG-14. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities relating to nuclear safety are based upon a number of premises. First and foremost, each Member State bears full responsibility for the safety of its nuclear facilities. States can be advised, but they cannot be relieved of this responsibility. Secondly, much can be gained by exchanging experience; lessons learned can prevent accidents. Finally, the image of nuclear safety is international; a serious accident anywhere affects the public's view of nuclear power everywhere. With the intention of strengthening its contribution to ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants, the IAEA established the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), whose duties include serving as a forum for the exchange of information on nuclear safety issues of international significance and formulating, where possible, commonly shared safety principles. The present report by INSAG deals with a general approach to the safe management of the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants. It responds to the concerns about maintaining adequate safety levels at ageing plants, even beyond their design lifetimes. Maintaining adequate safety levels implies first and foremost stringent control of equipment ageing, consistent with the design safety bases of the plants. However, as stated in the 75-INSAG-3 report, 'Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants', nuclear safety requires a continuing quest for excellence; this implies enhancinuest for excellence; this implies enhancing the safety levels of operating nuclear power plants as far as reasonably practicable, with due account taken of experience and advancement in knowledge. Moreover, in view of the present situation of the nuclear industry, it may become difficult to maintain adequate competences in many countries with nuclear power programmes. These topics are considered in this latest INSAG report and released to a wider audience

  9. Safe management of the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants. INSAG-14. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities relating to nuclear safety are based upon a number of premises. First and foremost, each Member State bears full responsibility for the safety of its nuclear facilities. States can be advised, but they cannot be relieved of this responsibility. Secondly, much can be gained by exchanging experience; lessons learned can prevent accidents. Finally, the image of nuclear safety is international; a serious accident anywhere affects the public's view of nuclear power everywhere. With the intention of strengthening its contribution to ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants, the IAEA established the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), whose duties include serving as a forum for the exchange of information on nuclear safety issues of international significance and formulating, where possible, commonly shared safety principles. The present report by INSAG deals with a general approach to the safe management of the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants. It responds to the concerns about maintaining adequate safety levels at ageing plants, even beyond their design lifetimes. Maintaining adequate safety levels implies first and foremost stringent control of equipment ageing, consistent with the design safety bases of the plants. However, as stated in the 75-INSAG-3 report, 'Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants', nuclear safety requires a continuing quest for excellence; this implies enhancing the safety levels of operating nuclear power plants as far as reasonably practicable, with due account taken of experience and advancement in knowledge. Moreover, in view of the present situation of the nuclear industry, it may become difficult to maintain adequate competences in many countries with nuclear power programmes. These topics are considered in this latest INSAG report and released to a wider audience

  10. Internal model control for industrial wireless plant using WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chung Duc; Ibrahim, Rosdiazli; Asirvadam, Vijanth Sagayan; Saad, Nordin; Sabo Miya, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of wireless technologies such as WirelessHART and ISA100 Wireless for deployment at industrial process plants has urged the need for research and development in wireless control. This is in view of the fact that the recent application is mainly in monitoring domain due to lack of confidence in control aspect. WirelessHART has an edge over its counterpart as it is based on the successful Wired HART protocol with over 30 million devices as of 2009. Recent works on control have primarily focused on maintaining the traditional PID control structure which is proven not adequate for the wireless environment. In contrast, Internal Model Control (IMC), a promising technique for delay compensation, disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking has not been investigated in the context of WirelessHART. Therefore, this paper discusses the control design using IMC approach with a focus on wireless processes. The simulation and experimental results using real-time WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator (WH-HILS) indicate that the proposed approach is more robust to delay variation of the network than the PID. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Regulatory inspection activities related to inspection planning, plant maintenance and assessment of safety. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Binnebeek, J. J. [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear - AVN, Avenue du Roi, 157, B-1060 Brussels (Belgium); Aubrey, Richard; Grandame, Melvyn [Atomic Energy Control Board - AECB, P.O. Box 1046, Station B, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada); Aro, Ilari [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety - STUK, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Balloffet, Yves [DRIRE Rhone Alpes, 146, rue Pierre Corneille, 69426 Lyon CEDEX 03 (France); Klonk, Hartmut [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Postbox 10 01 49, 38201 Salzgitter 1 (Germany); Manzella, Pietro [A.N.P.A., Via V. Brancati, 48, 1-00144 Roma EUR (Italy); Koizumi, Hiroyoshi [Tech. Stan. Dept. - JAPEIC, Shin-Toranomon Bldg., 1-5-11, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107 (Japan); Bouvrie, E.C. des [Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, Nuclear Safety Dept. KFD, P.O. Box 90804, 2509 LV The Hague (Netherlands); Forsberg, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate - SKI, Klarabergsviadukten 90, S-10658 Stockholm (Sweden); Lang, Hans-Guenter [Section Plant Coordination and Inspection, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - HSK, CH-5232 Villigen-HSK (Switzerland); Mehew, Robert; Warren, Thomas; Woodhouse, Paul [Health and Safety Executive - NII, St. Peter' s House, Balliol Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3LZ (United Kingdom); Gallo, Robert M. [Special Inspection Branch, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - US NRC, Mail Stop 0-9A1, Washington, DC 20555 (United States); Campbell, Rob [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA))

    1997-07-01

    The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established Working Groups and Groups of Experts in specialised topics. CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. This was the 3. international workshop held by the WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. The focus of this workshop was on 3 main topics; Inspection Planning, Plant Maintenance and Assessment of Safety. This document presents the proceedings from the workshop, including: workshop programme, results and conclusions, papers and presentations and the list of participants. The main purpose of the Workshop is to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities.

  12. Regulatory inspection activities related to inspection planning, plant maintenance and assessment of safety. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Aubrey, Richard; Grandame, Melvyn; Aro, Ilari; Balloffet, Yves; Klonk, Hartmut; Manzella, Pietro; Koizumi, Hiroyoshi; Bouvrie, E.C. des; Forsberg, Staffan; Lang, Hans-Guenter; Mehew, Robert; Warren, Thomas; Woodhouse, Paul; Gallo, Robert M.; Campbell, Rob; )

    1997-01-01

    The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established Working Groups and Groups of Experts in specialised topics. CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. This was the 3. international workshop held by the WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. The focus of this workshop was on 3 main topics; Inspection Planning, Plant Maintenance and Assessment of Safety. This document presents the proceedings from the workshop, including: workshop programme, results and conclusions, papers and presentations and the list of participants. The main purpose of the Workshop is to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities

  13. The IAEA's activities in safeguarding nuclear materials and in developing internationally acceptable safety codes and guides for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, Rudolf; Specter, Herschel

    1977-01-01

    Promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy and aiming at the international sharing of its benefits are objectives that guide the activities of the Agency. But this promotional work is carried out on condition that security and safety are provided for. All Agency assistance involving nuclear facilities will be subjected to standards of safety or other standards, which are proposed by a State the Agency finds essentially equivalent. Safeguards are always applied on the basis of agreement. States party to NPT are obligated to negotiate and conclude with the Agency agreements which cover all their peaceful nuclear activities. Safeguards agreements concluded outside NPT are applied to specific supplies of facilities, equipment and material. To assist countries in laying down their nuclear safety regulations the Agency's program for the developing of codesof practice and safety guides for nuclear power plants draws up guidelines for governmental organizations, siting, design, operation and quality assurance. Codes are the fundamental documents laying down the objectives of each field of nuclear safety

  14. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A; De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-08-01

    Wheelchair sports are an important tool in the rehabilitation of people with severe chronic disabilities and have been a driving force for innovation in technology and practice. In this paper, we will present an overview of the adaptive technology used in Paralympic sports with a special focus on wheeled technology and the impact of design on performance (defined as achieving the greatest level of athletic ability and minimizing the risk of injury). Many advances in manual wheelchairs trace their origins to wheelchair sports. Features of wheelchairs that were used for racing and basketball 25 or more years ago have become integral to the manual wheelchairs that people now use every day; moreover, the current components used on ultralight wheelchairs also have benefitted from technological advances developed for sports wheelchairs. For example, the wheels now used on chairs for daily mobility incorporate many of the components first developed for sports chairs. Also, advances in manufacturing and the availability of aerospace materials have driven current wheelchair design and manufacture. Basic principles of sports wheelchair design are universal across sports and include fit; minimizing weight while maintaining high stiffness; minimizing rolling resistance; and optimizing the sports-specific design of the chair. However, a well-designed and fitted wheelchair is not sufficient for optimal sports performance: the athlete must be well trained, skilled, and use effective biomechanics because wheelchair athletes face some unique biomechanical challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrative Structural Biomechanical Concepts of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS.

  16. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löberg, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna.Loberg@dentsply.com [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Mattisson, Ingela [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Ahlberg, Elisabet [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-01-30

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  17. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  18. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  19. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... conducted under APHIS oversight allowed for evaluation in a natural agricultural setting while imposing...

  20. Teaching undergraduate biomechanics with Just-in-Time Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody L

    2015-06-01

    Biomechanics education is a vital component of kinesiology, sports medicine, and physical education, as well as for many biomedical engineering and bioengineering undergraduate programmes. Little research exists regarding effective teaching strategies for biomechanics. However, prior work suggests that student learning in undergraduate physics courses has been aided by using the Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT). As physics understanding plays a role in biomechanics understanding, the purpose of study was to evaluate the use of a JiTT framework in an undergraduate biomechanics course. This two-year action-based research study evaluated three JiTT frameworks: (1) no JiTT; (2) mathematics-based JiTT; and (3) concept-based JiTT. A pre- and post-course assessment of student learning used the biomechanics concept inventory and a biomechanics concept map. A general linear model assessed differences between the course assessments by JiTT framework in order to evaluate learning and teaching effectiveness. The results indicated significantly higher learning gains and better conceptual understanding in a concept-based JiTT course, relative to a mathematics-based JiTT or no JiTT course structure. These results suggest that a course structure involving concept-based questions using a JiTT strategy may be an effective method for engaging undergraduate students and promoting learning in biomechanics courses.

  1. Artificial intelligence in sports biomechanics: new dawn or false hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Roger

    2006-12-15

    This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques') and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics. Key PointsExpert Systems remain almost unused in sports biomechanics, unlike in the similar discipline of gait analysis.Artificial Neural Networks, particularly Kohonen Maps, have been used, although their full value remains unclear.Other AI applications, including Evolutionary Computation, have received little attention.

  2. International Economic Association on organization of co-operative production and development of equipment and providing technical assistance in construction of nuclear power plants - ''INTERATOMENERGO''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    History is stated of foundation of the International Economic Association ''Interatomenergo''. Structure is given of the Association and the list of main problems to be solved by it. Project is given of the programm of co-operation in the field of scientific and technical works as well as of design and projecting works in creation of new types of equipment for nuclear power plants, in particular, creation of serial power units with improved WWER-1000 reactor. Directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of providing assistance in construction and exploitation of nuclear power plants as well as in training of operational personnel [ru

  3. The influence of the plant essential oils on internal qualitative parameters and microbiological indicators of hens eggs content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from plant material (flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wood, fruits and roots. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme and hyssop essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid ISA Brown (n = 72 were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n = 26 and fed for 41 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. In the first ex­pe­ri­men­tal group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition 0.25ml . kg−1, in the second one got hyssop essential oil the same dose of 0.25ml . kg−1. The results suggest that the supplementation of thyme essential oil into laying hens diet statistically significantly increased egg albumen weight, egg albumen percentage portion (P < 0.05 and egg yolk colour (9.07a, 9.47b, 9.06a; P < 0.01, compared to the control group and decreased egg yolk percentage ratio. However, the most of qualitative parameters of internal content egg were not with thyme and hyssop essential oils addition significantly influenced. Significant differences in microbiological indicators were found among coliforms bacteria, enterococci, total number count (P < 0.001, lactobacilli and mesophilic sporulating aerobes bacteria (P < 0.05.

  4. Biomechanical and Hemodynamic Measures of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: Translating Tissue Biomechanics to Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sae; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Avazmohammadi, Reza; Lapshin, Eugene; Bachman, Timothy N; Sacks, Michael; Simon, Marc A

    2017-09-12

    Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function has been associated with outcomes for patients with pulmonary hypertension; however, the relationship between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the right ventricle has not been studied. Rat models of RV pressure overload were obtained via pulmonary artery banding (PAB; control, n=7; PAB, n=5). At 3 weeks after banding, RV hemodynamics were measured using a conductance catheter. Biaxial mechanical properties of the RV free wall myocardium were obtained to extrapolate longitudinal and circumferential elastic modulus in low and high strain regions (E 1 and E 2 , respectively). Hemodynamic analysis revealed significantly increased end-diastolic elastance (E ed ) in PAB (control: 55.1 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 44.7-85.4 mm Hg/mL]; PAB: 146.6 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 105.8-155.0 mm Hg/mL]; P =0.010). Longitudinal E 1 was increased in PAB (control: 7.2 kPa [interquartile range: 6.7-18.1 kPa]; PAB: 34.2 kPa [interquartile range: 18.1-44.6 kPa]; P =0.018), whereas there were no significant changes in longitudinal E 2 or circumferential E 1 and E 2 . Last, wall stress was calculated from hemodynamic data by modeling the right ventricle as a sphere: stress=Pressure×radius2×thickness. RV pressure overload in PAB rats resulted in an increase in diastolic myocardial stiffness reflected both hemodynamically, by an increase in E ed , and biomechanically, by an increase in longitudinal E 1 . Modest increases in tissue biomechanical stiffness are associated with large increases in E ed . Hemodynamic measurements of RV diastolic function can be used to predict biomechanical changes in the myocardium. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. International safety standards and regulatory practices and their application to Brazilian nuclear power plants - a realistic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio; Camargo, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    An international nuclear safety regime is being established through a series of binding safety conventions, voluntarily adopted international safety standards and an accompanying peer review process. The basis for the evaluation of each country performance within this international regime should be the international practices. However, local conditions should be taken into account to avoid undue stress of the limited resources available to countries with a limited nuclear power programme. This work reviews the current international nuclear safety and discusses the application of some international practices to the Brazilian situation, considering the peculiarities of the national nuclear power programme and the limitations of the available financial and human resources. (author)

  6. Biomechanical ToolKit: Open-source framework to visualize and process biomechanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Arnaud; Armand, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    C3D file format is widely used in the biomechanical field by companies and laboratories to store motion capture systems data. However, few software packages can visualize and modify the integrality of the data in the C3D file. Our objective was to develop an open-source and multi-platform framework to read, write, modify and visualize data from any motion analysis systems using standard (C3D) and proprietary file formats (used by many companies producing motion capture systems). The Biomechanical ToolKit (BTK) was developed to provide cost-effective and efficient tools for the biomechanical community to easily deal with motion analysis data. A large panel of operations is available to read, modify and process data through C++ API, bindings for high-level languages (Matlab, Octave, and Python), and standalone application (Mokka). All these tools are open-source and cross-platform and run on all major operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS X). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying the effects of combining internal and external heat recovery on techno-economic performances of gas–steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapellucci, Roberto; Giordano, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of gas-cycle regeneration on steam–gas power plants are investigated. • Power plant performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operative parameters. • The power plant operational flexibility is assessed through an off-design analysis. • Gas-cycle regeneration improves energy and economic performance parameters. • Power increase due to regenerator by-pass depends on steam section design. - Abstract: Thermodynamic regeneration is regarded as a conventional technique to enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, by means of an internal recovery of waste heat from exhaust gases. In combined cycle power plants (CCGTs), only external heat recovery is usually applied, in order to achieve the highest steam cycle power. Combining internal and external recovery, while decreasing the power plant rated capacity, has the potential to boost the efficiency of CCGTs. This paper aims to examine the effects of thermodynamic regeneration on steam–gas power plants from the energy and economic point of view. First, a dual pressure combined cycle based on a regenerative gas turbine is designed using GateCycle software and effects on energy and economic performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operating parameters. Then, an off-design simulation of different CCGT configurations is carried out, in order to evaluate the power increase achieved by-passing the regenerator and its effects on efficiency and cost of electricity. The study has shown that the improvement of energy and economic performances of regenerative CCGTs is more and more pronounced with the increase of turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Additionally, regeneration enhances the power plant operational flexibility, allowing to obtain a 30% power increase with respect to the design value, if the regenerator is fully by-passed and the bottoming steam cycle is designed to manage the increased flue gas temperature.

  8. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  9. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  10. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.T.; Zhou, E.H.; Li, A.; Vedula, S.R.K.; Fu, H.X.

    2006-01-01

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research

  11. Research in biomechanics of occupant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A I; Yang, K H

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the biomechanical bases for occupant protection against frontal and side impact. Newton's Laws of Motion are used to illustrate the effect of a crash on restrained and unrestrained occupants, and the concept of ride down is discussed. Occupant protection through the use of energy absorbing materials is described, and the mechanism of injury of some of the more common injuries is explained. The role of the three-point belt and the airbag in frontal protection is discussed along with the potential injuries that can result from the use of these restraint systems. Side impact protection is more difficult to attain but some protection can be derived from the use of padding or a side impact airbag. It is concluded that the front seat occupants are adequately protected against frontal impact if belts are worn in an airbag equipped vehicle. Side impact protection may not be uniform in all vehicles.

  12. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  13. Integrative Role Of Cinematography In Biomechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1982-02-01

    Cinematography is an integral element in the interdisciplinary biomechanics research conducted in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. For either an isolated recording of a movement phenomenon or as a recording component which is synchronized with additional transducers and recording equipment, high speed motion picture film has been effectively incorporated into resr'arch projects ranging from two and three dimensional analyses of human movements, locomotor mechanics of cursorial mammals and primates, to the structural responses and dynamic geometries of skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The basic equipment used in these studies includes three, 16 mm high speed, pin-registered cameras which have the capacity for electronic phase-locking. Crystal oscillators provide the generator pulses to synchronize the timing lights of the cameras and the analog-to-digital recording equipment. A rear-projection system with a sonic digitizer permits quantification of film coordinates which are stored on computer disks. The capacity for synchronizing the high speed films with additional recording equipment provides an effective means of obtaining not only position-time data from film, but also electromyographic, force platform, tendon force transducer, and strain gauge recordings from tissues or moving organisms. During the past few years, biomechanics research which comprised human studies has used both planar and three-dimensional cinematographic techniques. The studies included planar analyses which range from the gait characteristics of lower extremity child amputees to the running kinematics and kinetics of highly skilled sprinters and long-distance runners. The dynamics of race cycling and kinetics of gymnastic maneuvers were studied with cinematography and either a multi-dimensional force platform or a bicycle pedal with strain gauges to determine the time histories of the applied forces. The three-dimensional technique

  14. Biomechanics trends in modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, Ray

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of biomechanical and mechanobiological modeling and simulation of soft biological tissues. Seven well-known scientists working in that particular field discuss topics such as biomolecules, networks and cells as well as failure, multi-scale, agent-based, bio-chemo-mechanical and finite element models appropriate for computational analysis. Applications include arteries, the heart, vascular stents and valve implants as well as adipose, brain, collagenous and engineered tissues. The mechanics of the whole cell and sub-cellular components as well as the extracellular matrix structure and mechanotransduction are described. In particular, the formation and remodeling of stress fibers, cytoskeletal contractility, cell adhesion and the mechanical regulation of fibroblast migration in healing myocardial infarcts are discussed. The essential ingredients of continuum mechanics are provided. Constitutive models of fiber-reinforced materials with an emphasis on arterial walls ...

  15. 3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM) for Long Term Operations (LTO). Keynotes, papers, presentations, posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30-40 years, many plants will operate in excess of their design lives, provided that nuclear power plant engineers demonstrate by analysis, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing and ageing management that the plant will operate safely. In the operation of nuclear power plants, safety should always be the prime consideration. Plant operators and regulators must always ensure that plant safety is maintained and, where possible, enhanced during its operating lifetime. Nuclear power plant life management (PLiM) has gained increased attention over the past decade, and effective ageing management of systems, structures and components (SSCs) is a key element in PLiM for the safe and reliable long term operation of nuclear power plants. A PLiM programme is an effective tool that allows an operator to safely and cost effectively manage ageing effects in SSCs for long term operation (LTO). A PLiM programme helps facilitate decisions concerning when and how to repair, replace or modify SSCs in an economically optimized way, while assuring that a high level of safety is maintained. The option for extended nuclear power plant operation has been recognized by operators and regulators alike, as evidenced in the number of licence renewal programmes that are being developed by Member States. After the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the safe operation of nuclear power plants has become even more important; not only in terms of technical or ageing issues, but also in terms of management system and qualified workforce related issues. Application of an integrated management system and structured workforce planning are needed throughout the plant life in order to ensure effective plant organization and management. The IAEA organized the first and second International Conference on Nuclear

  16. A biomechanical model of mammographic compressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J H; Rajagopal, V; Nielsen, P M F; Nash, M P

    2008-02-01

    A number of biomechanical models have been proposed to improve nonrigid registration techniques for multimodal breast image alignment. A deformable breast model may also be useful for overcoming difficulties in interpreting 2D X-ray projections (mammograms) of 3D volumes (breast tissues). If a deformable model could accurately predict the shape changes that breasts undergo during mammography, then the model could serve to localize suspicious masses (visible in mammograms) in the unloaded state, or in any other deformed state required for further investigations (such as biopsy or other medical imaging modalities). In this paper, we present a validation study that was conducted in order to develop a biomechanical model based on the well-established theory of continuum mechanics (finite elasticity theory with contact mechanics) and demonstrate its use for this application. Experimental studies using gel phantoms were conducted to test the accuracy in predicting mammographic-like deformations. The material properties of the gel phantom were estimated using a nonlinear optimization process, which minimized the errors between the experimental and the model-predicted surface data by adjusting the parameter associated with the neo-Hookean constitutive relation. Two compressions (the equivalent of cranio-caudal and medio-lateral mammograms) were performed on the phantom, and the corresponding deformations were recorded using a MRI scanner. Finite element simulations were performed to mimic the experiments using the estimated material properties with appropriate boundary conditions. The simulation results matched the experimental recordings of the deformed phantom, with a sub-millimeter root-mean-square error for each compression state. Having now validated our finite element model of breast compression, the next stage is to apply the model to clinical images.

  17. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The current status of Korea's Nuclear Power Plant Industry and the Need for International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    As an executive in charge of the nuclear power plant sector at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction ('Doosan'), which is the nation's only major supplier of nuclear power plant equipment and materials, I would like to tell you about how the nation's nuclear power plant industry has developed and in what direction it is currently expected to advance, with the focus on my company's nuclear business activities. In 1980, Doosan built a large factory in Chang won with the aim of engaging in the industrial plant business, including production of power plant equipment and materials. This factory is now capable of producing equipment and materials for large-capacity power plants, ranging from the production of casting and forging to the final assembly of power plant equipment. The Korean government took the dramatic step of integrating power plant facilities of several companies into one entity, and have Doosan take over it. The nation continued to build nuclear power plants while making efforts to achieve self-reliance in the relevant technology.

  19. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  1. Information integration in control rooms and technical offices in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The majority of the nuclear power plants in the world were designed 25 to 45 years ago. The information, instrumentation, safety, and control systems in these plant designs were based on analog, relay, and primitive digital technology. Computers that were available when most of the nuclear power plants were built were unsophisticated compared with those currently available. These less powerful machines with limited computational capabilities and memory were used to collect and store information. The main means for obtaining information from the plant were analog meters and strip chart recorders. In many cases these pieces of data had to be integrated and correlated with other data manually, in order to be usable. Procedures and plant information resided on paper only and were frequently hard to find and access in a timely manner. This report provides guidance to help with the integration of information in order to enhance the usability and usefulness of the information. It can also be used to help avoid the pitfalls that can occur when implementing new systems with respect to the information they need and produce. This reports philosophy is based on three important issues that allow the convenient structuring of the problem and to keep all of its important features. The first issue is the process of information systems integration and use. This is achieved by long term planning and the creation of the plant infrastructure plan. The second is to take care of the end users' needs in relation to their abilities. This is realized through analyses of user needs. Third is the design of the human-system interface (HSI), for example to distinguish between types of information for use in the plant control room and in technical offices. The development of this report was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is a logical follow-up to IAEA-TECDOC-1016, Modernization of Instrumentation and Control

  2. Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

      This volume focuses on the biomechanical modeling of biological tissues in the context of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). More specifically, deformable soft tissues are addressed since they are the subject of the most recent developments in this field. The pioneering works on this CAS topic date from the 1980's, with applications in orthopaedics and biomechanical models of bones. More recently, however, biomechanical models of soft tissues have been proposed since most of the human body is made of soft organs that can be deformed by the surgical gesture. Such models are much more complicated to handle since the tissues can be subject to large deformations (non-linear geometrical framework) as well as complex stress/strain relationships (non-linear mechanical framework). Part 1 of the volume presents biomechanical models that have been developed in a CAS context and used during surgery. This is particularly new since most of the soft tissues models already proposed concern Computer Assisted Planning, with ...

  3. The increasing importance of the biomechanics of impact trauma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Like most engineering subjects, impact biomechanics has evolved from early ... show that the primary deceleration forces acting in the majority of car ... the natural history of falls in old age' showed how the routine observations of a practicing.

  4. The Impact of Biomechanics in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kamm, Roger; Laurencin, Cato T.; McIntire, Larry V.; Mow, Van C.; Nerem, Robert M.; Sah, Robert L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Spilker, Robert L.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue replacements in vitro have recently begun to harness advances in understanding of how cells and tissues sense and adapt to their mechanical environment. It is clear that biomechanical considerations will be fundamental to the successful development of clinical therapies based on principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for a broad range of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, craniofacial, skin, urinary, and neural tissues. Biomechanical stimuli may in fact hold the key to producing regenerated tissues with high strength and endurance. However, many challenges remain, particularly for tissues that function within complex and demanding mechanical environments in vivo. This paper reviews the present role and potential impact of experimental and computational biomechanics in engineering functional tissues using several illustrative examples of past successes and future grand challenges. PMID:19583462

  5. Emulating facial biomechanics using multivariate partial least squares surrogate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tim; Martens, Harald; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    A detailed biomechanical model of the human face driven by a network of muscles is a useful tool in relating the muscle activities to facial deformations. However, lengthy computational times often hinder its applications in practical settings. The objective of this study is to replace precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-model (surrogate model), such that a significant speedup (to real-time interactive speed) can be achieved. Using a multilevel fractional factorial design, the parameter space of the biomechanical system was probed from a set of sample points chosen to satisfy maximal rank optimality and volume filling. The input-output relationship at these sampled points was then statistically emulated using linear and nonlinear, cross-validated, partial least squares regression models. It was demonstrated that these surrogate models can mimic facial biomechanics efficiently and reliably in real-time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Biomechanical comparison of osteosynthesis with poly‑L‑lactic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... Fractures of the mandibular condylar process are common fractures affecting the ... mandible replicas are having a medullar and a cortical portion (Synbone ... Based on the biomechanical simulations they performed Neff et al ...

  7. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-Back Biomechanics and Static Stability During Isometric Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Kevin P.; Bennett, Bradford C.

    2006-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are increasingly prevalent in industrial workplaces. Few studies have investigated low-back biomechanical risk factors associated with pushing, and we are aware of none that has quantified spinal stability during pushing exertions. Data recorded from 11 healthy participants performing isometric pushing exertions demonstrated that trunk posture, vector force direction of the applied load, and trunk moment were influenced (p pushing task, and foot position. A biomechanical model was used to analyze the posture and hand force data gathered from the pushing exertions. Model results indicate that pushing exertions provide significantly (p pushing exertions. If one maintains stability by means of cocontraction, additional spinal load is thereby created, increasing the risk of overload injury. Thus it is important to consider muscle cocontraction when evaluating the biomechanics of pushing exertions. Potential applications of this research include improved assessment of biomechanical risk factors for the design of industrial pushing tasks. PMID:16435695

  9. Impact of e-publication changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code, 2012) - did we need to "run for our lives"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Nicky; Challis, Katherine; Tucker, Allan; Knapp, Sandra

    2017-05-25

    At the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (IBC), the botanical community voted to allow electronic publication of nomenclatural acts for algae, fungi and plants, and to abolish the rule requiring Latin descriptions or diagnoses for new taxa. Since the 1st January 2012, botanists have been able to publish new names in electronic journals and may use Latin or English as the language of description or diagnosis. Using data on vascular plants from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) spanning the time period in which these changes occurred, we analysed trajectories in publication trends and assessed the impact of these new rules for descriptions of new species and nomenclatural acts. The data show that the ability to publish electronically has not "opened the floodgates" to an avalanche of sloppy nomenclature, but concomitantly neither has there been a massive expansion in the number of names published, nor of new authors and titles participating in publication of botanical nomenclature. The e-publication changes introduced in the Melbourne Code have gained acceptance, and botanists are using these new techniques to describe and publish their work. They have not, however, accelerated the rate of plant species description or participation in biodiversity discovery as was hoped.

  10. Trunk and hip biomechanics influence anterior cruciate loading mechanisms in physically active participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Barnett; Bell, David R; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2013-11-01

    Excessive trunk motion and deficits in neuromuscular control (NMC) of the lumbopelvic hip complex are risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the relationship between trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads during a sidestep cutting task has not been examined. To determine if there is an association between multiplanar trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads with ACL injury during a sidestep cutting task. Descriptive laboratory study. The hip and knee biomechanics and trunk motion of 30 participants (15 male, 15 female) were analyzed during a sidestep cutting task using an optoelectric camera system interfaced to a force plate. Trunk and lower extremity biomechanics were calculated from the kinematic and ground-reaction force data during the first 50% of the stance time during the cutting task. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between trunk and lower extremity biomechanics. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the amount of variance in triplanar knee loading explained by trunk motion and hip moments. A greater internal knee varus moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.12 N·m/kg*m) was associated with less transverse-plane trunk rotation away from the stance limb (mean, 20.25° ± 4.42°; r = -0.46, P = .011) and a greater internal hip adduction moment (mean, 0.33 ± 0.25 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.83, P < .05). A greater internal knee external rotation moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.08 N·m/kg*m) was associated with a greater forward trunk flexion (mean, 7.62° ± 5.28°; r = 0.42, P = .020) and a greater hip internal rotation moment (mean, 0.15 ± 0.16 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.59, P = .001). Trunk rotation and hip adduction moment explained 81% (P < .05) of the variance in knee varus moment. Trunk flexion and hip internal rotation moment explained 48% (P < .05) of the variance in knee external rotation moment. Limited trunk rotation displacement

  11. Report of the task group reviewing national and international activities in the area of ageing of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    After a background information on the mandate of the task group and its organisation, the longevity of nuclear power plants is first addressed: the present status of nuclear power plants in the 25 OECD Member Countries is summarised and the importance of ensuring continued safe operation of nuclear power plants described. Safety-related concrete structures (primarily containments) for several reactor concepts are briefly described as well as their materials of construction. Primary mechanisms that can produce adverse ageing of the concrete structures are described (e.g., chemical attack and corrosion of steel reinforcement). The overall performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures is described and age-related degradation incidences that have occurred are noted (e.g., corrosion of steel in water intake structures and corrosion of metal liners). National ageing management programmes of OECD Member Countries are then described with the emphasis placed on nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. Although the majority of these programmes are addressing components such as the reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, several national programmes have sophisticated activities that address the concrete structures (e.g., Canada, France, Japan, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States). International ageing management activities are then summarised, primarily addressed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (ageing management activities for concrete containment buildings) and the Commission of European Communities (CEC) (assessment of the long-term durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and buildings, and steel containments in nuclear power plants). General conclusions and recommendations are provided at the end of the report

  12. Biomechanical interpretation of a free-breathing lung motion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianyu; White, Benjamin; Lamb, James; Low, Daniel A; Moore, Kevin L; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Lu Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a biomechanical model for free-breathing motion and compare it to a published heuristic five-dimensional (5D) free-breathing lung motion model. An ab initio biomechanical model was developed to describe the motion of lung tissue during free breathing by analyzing the stress–strain relationship inside lung tissue. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model was equivalent to a heuristic 5D free-breathing lung motion model proposed by Low et al in 2005 (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921–9), in which the motion was broken down to a linear expansion component and a hysteresis component. To test the biomechanical model, parameters that characterize expansion, hysteresis and angles between the two motion components were reported independently and compared between two models. The biomechanical model agreed well with the heuristic model within 5.5% in the left lungs and 1.5% in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. The biomechanical model predicted that a histogram of angles between the two motion components should have two peaks at 39.8° and 140.2° in the left lungs and 37.1° and 142.9° in the right lungs. The data from the 5D model verified the existence of those peaks at 41.2° and 148.2° in the left lungs and 40.1° and 140° in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. Similar results were also observed for the patients with lung cancer, but with greater discrepancies. The maximum-likelihood estimation of hysteresis magnitude was reported to be 2.6 mm for the lung cancer patients. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model fit the heuristic 5D model very well. The biomechanical model provided new insights into breathing motion with specific focus on motion trajectory hysteresis.

  13. Interpreting locomotor biomechanics from the morphology of human footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Dingwall, Heather L; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Fossil hominin footprints offer unique direct windows to the locomotor behaviors of our ancestors. These data could allow a clearer understanding of the evolution of human locomotion by circumventing issues associated with indirect interpretations of habitual locomotor patterns from fossil skeletal material. However, before we can use fossil hominin footprints to understand better the evolution of human locomotion, we must first develop an understanding of how locomotor biomechanics are preserved in, and can be inferred from, footprint morphologies. In this experimental study, 41 habitually barefoot modern humans created footprints under controlled conditions in which variables related to locomotor biomechanics could be quantified. Measurements of regional topography (depth) were taken from 3D models of those footprints, and principal components analysis was used to identify orthogonal axes that described the largest proportions of topographic variance within the human experimental sample. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the influences of biomechanical variables on the first five principal axes of footprint topographic variation, thus providing new information on the biomechanical variables most evidently expressed in the morphology of human footprints. The footprint's overall depth was considered as a confounding variable, since biomechanics may be linked to the extent to which a substrate deforms. Three of five axes showed statistically significant relationships with variables related to both locomotor biomechanics and substrate displacement; one axis was influenced only by biomechanics and another only by the overall depth of the footprint. Principal axes of footprint morphological variation were significantly related to gait type (walking or running), kinematics of the hip and ankle joints and the distribution of pressure beneath the foot. These results provide the first quantitative framework for developing hypotheses regarding the

  14. Advances in Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty: Biomechanics and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy F; Rahgozar, Paymon; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis is a debilitating condition. The complexity of the joint makes management particularly challenging. Treatment of PIP arthritis requires an understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. PIP joint arthroplasty is one treatment option that has evolved over time. Advances in biomaterials have improved and expanded arthroplasty design. This article reviews biomechanics and arthroplasty design of the PIP joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomechanics of compensatory mechanisms in spinal-pelvic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, D. V.; Hominets, V. V.; Kirillova, I. V.; Kossovich, L. Yu; Kudyashev, A. L.; Teremshonok, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    3D geometric solid computer model of spinal-pelvic complex was constructed on the basis of computed tomography and full body X-ray in standing position data. The constructed model was used for biomechanical analysis of compensatory mechanisms arising in the spine with anteversion and retroversion of the pelvis. The results of numerical biomechanical 3D modeling are in good agreement with the clinical data.

  16. Emulating facial biomechanics using multivariate partial least squares surrogate models

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Harald; Wu, Tim; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Locked until 2015-05-06 A detailed biomechanical model of the human face driven by a network of muscles is a useful tool in relating the muscle activities to facial deformations. However, lengthy computational times often hinder its applications in practical settings. The objective of this study is to replace precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-mode...

  17. Lower limb biomechanics in femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew G; Lawrenson, Peter R; Semciw, Adam I; Middleton, Kane J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-05-01

    (1) Identify differences in hip and pelvic biomechanics in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) compared with controls during everyday activities (eg, walking, squatting); and (2) evaluate the effects of interventions on hip and pelvic biomechanics during everyday activities. Systematic review. Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus until February 2017. Primary aim: studies that investigated hip or pelvic kinematics and/or joint torques of everyday activities in patients with FAIS compared with the asymptomatic contralateral limb or a control group. Secondary aim: studies that evaluated effects of conservative or surgical interventions on patients with FAIS using pre-post or controlled clinical trial designs. Biomechanical data must have been collected using three-dimensional motion capture devices. Reporting quality was assessed using the Epidemiological Appraisal Instrument and data were pooled (standardised mean difference (SMD), 95% CI) where populations and primary outcomes were similar. Fourteen studies were included (11 cross-sectional and three pre/post intervention), varying between low and moderate reporting quality. Patients with FAIS walked with a lower: peak hip extension angle (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.09), peak internal rotation angle (-0.67, 95% CI -1.19 to -0.16) and external rotation joint torque (-0.71, 95% CI -1.07 to -0.35), and squatted to a lesser depth with no difference in hip flexion range. Pre/post intervention data were limited in number and quality, and to surgical cohorts. This review suggests that patients with FAIS may demonstrate hip biomechanical impairments during walking and squatting, with minimal literature available to comment on other tasks. The information presented in the review provides insight into the biomechanical differences associated with FAIS; however, the between-group differences were small to moderate. This information may aid in the development of management strategies for

  18. Gait biomechanics in the era of data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Reed; Osis, Sean T; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    Data science has transformed fields such as computer vision and economics. The ability of modern data science methods to extract insights from large, complex, heterogeneous, and noisy datasets is beginning to provide a powerful complement to the traditional approaches of experimental motion capture and biomechanical modeling. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how data science methods can be incorporated into our field to advance our understanding of gait biomechanics and improve treatment planning procedures. We provide examples of how data science approaches have been applied to biomechanical data. We then discuss the challenges that remain for effectively using data science approaches in clinical gait analysis and gait biomechanics research, including the need for new tools, better infrastructure and incentives for sharing data, and education across the disciplines of biomechanics and data science. By addressing these challenges, we can revolutionize treatment planning and biomechanics research by capitalizing on the wealth of knowledge gained by gait researchers over the past decades and the vast, but often siloed, data that are collected in clinical and research laboratories around the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanics of occlusion--implications for oral rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C

    2016-03-01

    The dental occlusion is an important aspect of clinical dentistry; there are diverse functional demands ranging from highly precise tooth contacts to large crushing forces. Further, there are dogmatic, passionate and often diverging views on the relationship between the dental occlusion and various diseases and disorders including temporomandibular disorders, non-carious cervical lesions and tooth movement. This study provides an overview of the biomechanics of the masticatory system in the context of the dental occlusion's role in function. It explores the adaptation and precision of dental occlusion, its role in bite force, jaw movement, masticatory performance and its influence on the oro-facial musculoskeletal system. Biomechanics helps us better understand the structure and function of biological systems and consequently an understanding of the forces on, and displacements of, the dental occlusion. Biomechanics provides insight into the relationships between the dentition, jaws, temporomandibular joints, and muscles. Direct measurements of tooth contacts and forces are difficult, and biomechanical models have been developed to better understand the relationship between the occlusion and function. Importantly, biomechanical research will provide knowledge to help correct clinical misperceptions and inform better patient care. The masticatory system demonstrates a remarkable ability to adapt to a changing biomechanical environment and changes to the dental occlusion or other components of the musculoskeletal system tend to be well tolerated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPORTS BIOMECHANICS: NEW DAWN OR FALSE HOPE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bartlett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques' and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics.

  1. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair of biomech......Through their biomechanical properties, pedestrians interact with the structures they occupy. Although this interaction has been recognized by researchers, pedestrians' biomechanical properties have not been fully addressed. In this paper, a spring-mass-damper (SMD) system, with a pair...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...... estimated from a known walking frequency and the pedestrian's weight, assuming that pedestrians always walk in displacement resonance and retain a constant damping ratio of 0.3. Thus, biomechanical forces were extracted using the measured SMD dynamic responses and the estimated SMD parameters. Extracted...

  2. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  3. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes; Developpement d'un modele biomecanique du rachis base sur les relations 3D internes - externes: radiographie bi-planaire et franges de Moire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-15

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  4. Proceedings of an international workshop on historic dose experience and dose reduction (ALARA) at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.R.; Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    Dose reduction data and experience from 28 foreign and 10 US nuclear power plants was examined to determine causes for the wide variations in occupational dose from country to country. Major topics discussed were: steam generator and refueling maintenance problems; utility and supplier ALARA programs; effectiveness of dose-reduction modifications; attitudes and training; current and future dose-reduction research. While many parameters contribute to differences of occupational doses between plants from different nations, it is clear that most US plants have higher collective dose equivalent per reactor per megawatt-year than most other countries, even for plants of similar size and age. Worldwide, Finnish and Swedish plants, both PWR and BWR, have achieved the lowest values. Major factors which contribute to low doses include: (1) minimization of cobalt in primary system components exposed to water; (2) careful plant design, layout and component segregation and shielding; (3) plant standardization; (4) selection of components and systems for increased reliability; (5) management interest and commitment; (6) minimum number of workers and in-depth worker training; (7) careful control of primary system oxygen and pH; (8) good primary system water purity to minimize corrosion product formation; (9) use of special tools and robotics; (10) decontamination and passivation of primary systems and components; and (11) extent of backfitting and mandated inspections

  5. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plants during mild water stress, 4: The insensitivity of soybean internal water relations to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Forseth, I.N.; Lydon, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation and water stress were investigated on the water relations of greenhouse grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Essex]. On a weighted (Caldwell 1971), total daily dose basis, plants received either 0 or 3 000 effective J m 2 UV-B BE supplied by filtered FS-40 sunlamps. The latter dose simulated the solar UV-B radiation anticipated at College Park, Maryland, U.S.A. (39°N latitude) in the event that the global stratospheric ozone column is reduced by 25%. Plants were either well-watered or preconditioned by drought stress cycles. Diurnal measurements of water potential and stomatal conductance were made on the youngest fully expanded leaf. Various internal water relations parameters were determined for detached leaves. Plants were monitored before, during and after water stress. There were no significant differences in leaf water potential or stomatal conductance between treatments before plants were preconditioned to water stress. However, drought stress resulted in significantly lower midday and afternoon leaf water potentials and lower leaf conductances as compared to well-watered plants. UV-B radiation had no additional effect on leaf water potential; however, UV did result in lower leaf conductances in plants preconditioned to water stress. Turgid weight:dry weight ratio, elastic modulus, bound water and relative water content were unaffected by UV-B radiation. Osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly lower in the drought stressed treatments as compared to well-watered plants. (author)

  7. DYNAMIC MAGNIFICATION OF BIOMECHANICAL SYSTEM MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pokatilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for estimation of dynamic magnification pertaining to motion in biomechanics have been developed and approbаted in the paper. It has been ascertained that widely-used characteristics for evaluation of motion influence on mechanisms and machinery such as a dynamic coefficient and acceleration capacity factor become irrelevant while investigating human locomotion under elastic support conditions. The reason is an impossibility to compare human motion in case when there is a contact with elastic and rigid supports because while changing rigidity of the support exercise performing technique is also changing. In this case the technique still depends on a current state of a specific sportsman. Such situation is observed in sports gymnastics. Structure of kinematic and dynamic models for human motion has been investigated in the paper. It has been established that properties of an elastic support are reflected in models within two aspects: in an explicit form, when models have parameters of dynamic deformation for a gymnastic apparatus, and in an implicit form, when we have numerically changed parameters of human motion. The first part can be evaluated quantitatively while making comparison with calculations made in accordance with complete models. For this reason notions of selected and complete models have been introduced in the paper. It has been proposed to specify models for support and models of biomechanical system that represent models pertaining only to human locomotor system. It has been revealed that the selected models of support in kinematics and dynamics have structural difference. Kinematics specifies only parameters of elastic support deformation and dynamics specifies support parameters in an explicit form and additionally in models of human motion in an explicit form as well. Quantitative estimation of a dynamic motion magnification in kinematics and dynamics models has been given while using computing experiment for grand

  8. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  9. Radiation protection for repairs of reactor's internals at the 2nd Unit of the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, P.; Konop, R.; Koc, J.; Kvasnicka, O.; Hort, M.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes the process and extent of repairs of the 2 nd unit of the Nuclear power plant Temelin during the shutdown of the reactor. All works were optimized in terms of radiation protection of workers.

  10. Biomechanics of the classic metaphyseal lesion: finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coats, Brittany [University of Utah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is strongly associated with infant abuse, but the biomechanics responsible for this injury have not been rigorously studied. Radiologic and CT-pathological correlates show that the distal tibial CML always involves the cortex near the subperiosteal bone collar, with variable extension of the fracture into the medullary cavity. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the primary site of bone failure is cortical, rather than intramedullary. This study focuses on the strain patterns generated from finite element modeling to identify loading scenarios and regions of the cortex that are susceptible to bone failure. A geometric model was constructed from a normal 3-month-old infant's distal tibia and fibula. The model's boundary conditions were set to mimic forceful manipulation of the ankle with eight load modalities (tension, compression, internal rotation, external rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, valgus bending and varus bending). For all modalities except internal and external rotation, simulations showed increased cortical strains near the subperiosteal bone collar. Tension generated the largest magnitude of cortical strain (24%) that was uniformly distributed near the subperiosteal bone collar. Compression generated the same distribution of strain but to a lesser magnitude overall (15%). Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion generated high (22%) and moderate (14%) localized cortical strains, respectively, near the subperiosteal bone collar. Lower cortical strains resulted from valgus bending, varus bending, internal rotation and external rotation (8-10%). The highest valgus and varus bending cortical strains occurred medially. These simulations suggest that the likelihood of the initial cortical bone failure of the CML is higher along the margin of the subperiosteal bone collar when the ankle is under tension, compression, valgus bending, varus bending, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, but not under internal

  11. Biomechanics of the classic metaphyseal lesion: finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.; Coats, Brittany

    2017-01-01

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is strongly associated with infant abuse, but the biomechanics responsible for this injury have not been rigorously studied. Radiologic and CT-pathological correlates show that the distal tibial CML always involves the cortex near the subperiosteal bone collar, with variable extension of the fracture into the medullary cavity. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the primary site of bone failure is cortical, rather than intramedullary. This study focuses on the strain patterns generated from finite element modeling to identify loading scenarios and regions of the cortex that are susceptible to bone failure. A geometric model was constructed from a normal 3-month-old infant's distal tibia and fibula. The model's boundary conditions were set to mimic forceful manipulation of the ankle with eight load modalities (tension, compression, internal rotation, external rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, valgus bending and varus bending). For all modalities except internal and external rotation, simulations showed increased cortical strains near the subperiosteal bone collar. Tension generated the largest magnitude of cortical strain (24%) that was uniformly distributed near the subperiosteal bone collar. Compression generated the same distribution of strain but to a lesser magnitude overall (15%). Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion generated high (22%) and moderate (14%) localized cortical strains, respectively, near the subperiosteal bone collar. Lower cortical strains resulted from valgus bending, varus bending, internal rotation and external rotation (8-10%). The highest valgus and varus bending cortical strains occurred medially. These simulations suggest that the likelihood of the initial cortical bone failure of the CML is higher along the margin of the subperiosteal bone collar when the ankle is under tension, compression, valgus bending, varus bending, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, but not under internal

  12. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation

  13. Biomechanical comments about Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Delcourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triassic dinosaurs of Brazil are found in Santa Maria and Caturrita formations, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. There are three species known from the Santa Maria Formation (Staurikosaurus pricei, Saturnalia tupiniquim and Pampadromaeus barberenai, and two from Caturrita Formation (Guaibasaurus candelariensis and Unaysaurus tolentinoi. These dinosaur materials are, for the most part, well preserved and allow for descriptions of musculature and biomechanical studies. The lateral rotation of the Saturnalia femur is corroborated through calculations of muscle moment arms. The enhanced supracetabular crest of Saturnalia, Guaibasaurus, Staurikosaurus, Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, Efraasia minor and Chormogisaurus novasi suggests that basal dinosaurs may have maintained an inclination of the trunk at least 20º on the horizontal axis. The pectoral girdle articulation of basal sauropodomorphs (Saturnalia and Unaysaurus was established using a new method, the Clavicular Ring, and the scapular blade remains near 60º on the horizontal axis. This is a plesiomorphic condition among sauropodomorphs and is also seen in the articulated plateosauridae Seitaad ruessi. The Brazilian basal dinosaurs were lightweight with a body mass estimated around 18.5 kg for Staurikosaurus, 6.5 kg for Saturnalia, and 17 kg for Guaibasaurus. Pampadromaeus probably weighed 2.5 kg, but measures of its femur are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil were diversified but shared some functional aspects that were important in an evolutionary context.

  14. Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

    2013-07-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.

  15. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1997-12-01

    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  16. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  17. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  18. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Injury biomechanics of C2 dens fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank; Baisden, Jamie; Gennarelli, Thomas; Maiman, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the biomechanics of dens fractures of the second cervical vertebra in the adult population due to motor vehicle crashes. Case-by-case records from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) and National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) databases were used. Variables such as change in velocity, impact direction and body habitus were extracted. Results indicated that similarities exist in the two databases despite differences in sampling methods between the two sources (e.g., CIREN is not population based). Trauma is predominantly associated with the frontal mode of impact. Majority of injuries occur with change in velocities below current federal guideline thresholds. No specific bias exists with respect to variables such as age, height, weight, and gender. Because similar conclusions can be drawn with regard to vehicle model years, design changes during these years may have had little effect on this injury. To ameliorate trauma, emphasis should be placed on the frontal impact mode and entire adult population. Because of clinical implications in the fracture type (II being most critical) and lack of specific coding, CIREN data demonstrates the need to improve injury coding in the AIS and application in the NASS to enhance occupant safety and treatment in the field of automotive medicine.

  20. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN BIOMECHANICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has historically been a complex and enigmatic issue. Many of the factors thought to relate to PFP remain after patients' symptoms have resolved making their clinical importance difficult to determine. The tissue homeostasis model proposed by Dye in 2005 can assist with understanding and implementing biomechanical interventions for PFP. Under this model, the goal of interventions for PFP should be to re-establish patellofemoral joint (PFJ) homeostasis through a temporary alteration of load to the offended tissue, followed by incrementally restoring the envelope of function to the baseline level or higher. High levels of PFJ loads, particularly in the presence of an altered PFJ environment, are thought to be a factor in the development of PFP. Clinical interventions often aim to alter the biomechanical patterns that are thought to result in elevated PFJ loads while concurrently increasing the load tolerance capabilities of the tissue through therapeutic exercise. Biomechanics may play a role in PFJ load modification not only when addressing proximal and distal components, but also when considering the involvement of more local factors such as the quadriceps musculature. Biomechanical considerations should consider the entire kinetic chain including the hip and the foot/ankle complex, however the beneficial effects of these interventions may not be the result of long-term biomechanical changes. Biomechanical alterations may be achieved through movement retraining, but the interventions likely need to be task-specific to alter movement patterns. The purpose of this commentary is to describe biomechanical interventions for the athlete with PFP to encourage a safe and complete return to sport. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27904791

  1. Lessons learned from the last 20 years of ACL-related in vivo-biomechanics research of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos; Zampeli, Franceska; Xergia, Sofia A; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in recent years have allowed the easy and accurate assessment of knee motion during athletic activities. Subsequently, thousands of studies have been published that greatly improved our understanding of the aetiology, surgical reconstruction techniques and prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from biomechanical studies on ACL-related research. High-impact articles that enhanced understanding of ACL injury aetiology, rehabilitation, prevention and adaptations after reconstruction were selected. The importance of restoring internal tibial rotation after ACL reconstruction has emerged in several studies. Criteria-based, individualized rehabilitation protocols have replaced the traditional time-based protocols. Excessive knee valgus, poor trunk control, excessive quadriceps forces and leg asymmetries have been identified as potential high risk biomechanical factors for ACL tear. Injury prevention programmes have emerged as low cost and effective means of preventing ACL injuries, particularly in female athletes. As a result of biomechanical research, clinicians have a better understanding of ACL injury aetiology, prevention and rehabilitation. Athletes exhibiting neuromuscular deficits predisposing them to ACL injury can be identified and enrolled into prevention programmes. Clinicians should assess ACL-reconstructed patients for excessive internal tibial rotation that may lead to poor outcomes.

  2. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  3. Trade, traffic and management of botanical resources in agriculture: review lecture presented at the international symposium on sustainable use of plant biodiversity to promote new opportunities for horticultural production development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of biological diversity is of importance for various reasons (genetic resources, ecosystem resilience, source of income, cultural heritage). The international trade in plants from wild source may have negative consequences for biodiversity (habitat alteration, introduction of

  4. Effective handling of software anomalies in computer based systems at nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This report reviews possible types of anomalies that are related to software in nuclear power plants, outlines techniques that can be used to identify anomalies throughout the entire software life-cycle, and discusses important issues that must be considered during anomaly investigation and resolution. Typically, anomalies are identified, investigated and resolved during the normal process of developing or maintaining plant software, where these activities are covered by procedures and tools that are part of this process. Nevertheless, to reduce the number and impact of anomalies under plant operating conditions, it is important to ensure that good plans, procedures and tools are in place throughout the software life-cycle. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). The report is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Austria, Canada, Germany, Hungary, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The scope of activities described in this report covers a methodology for anomaly identification, anomaly investigation and anomaly resolution. The activities to be done within these steps strongly depend on the safety category of the software, the actual life-cycle phase of the software, the type of the software and the severity of the anomaly

  5. 9{sup th} international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 9th International Workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind power plants at 18th to 19th October, 2010 in Quebec (Canada), lectures and poster papers were presented to the following themes: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) European grid integration studies; (3) Modeling; (4) Wind forecasting; (5) North American grid integration studies; (6) Voltage stability and control; (7) Grid codes and impact studies; (8) Canadian University research (WESNet); (9) Operation and dispatch; (9) Offshore wind power plants; (10) Frequency Control; (11) Methodologies to estimate wind power impacts on power systems, summaries from IEAWIND collaboration; (12) HVDC; (13) Grid codes and system impact studies; (14) Modeling and validation; (15) Regulations, markets and offshore wind energy; (16) Integration issues; (17) Wind turbine control system; (18) Energy management and IT solutions.

  6. International guidelines for fire protection at nuclear installations including nuclear fuel plants, nuclear fuel stores, teaching reactors, research establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines are recommended to designers, constructors, operators and insurers of nuclear fuel plants and other facilities using significant quantities of radioactive materials including research and teaching reactor installations where the reactors generally operate at less than approximately 10 MW(th). Recommendations for elementary precautions against fire risk at nuclear installations are followed by appendices on more specific topics. These cover: fire protection management and organization; precautions against loss during construction alterations and maintenance; basic fire protection for nuclear fuel plants; storage and nuclear fuel; and basic fire protection for research and training establishments. There are numerous illustrations of facilities referred to in the text. (U.K.)

  7. Biomechanics of the thorax - research evidence and clinical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Gail

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the biomechanics of the thorax is critical for understanding its role in multiple conditions since the thorax is part of many integrated systems including the musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiac, digestive and urogynecological. The thorax is also an integrated system within itself and an element of the whole body/person. Therefore, understanding the biomechanics of the thorax is fundamental to all forms of treatment for multiple conditions. The interpretation of movement examination findings depends on one's view of optimal biomechanics and the influential factors. This article will provide a synopsis of the current state of research evidence as well as observations from clinical experience pertaining to the biomechanics of the thorax in order to help clinicians organise this knowledge and facilitate evidence-based and informed management of the, often complex, patient with or without thoracic pain and impairment. The integrated systems model (ISM) will be introduced as a way to determine when the noted biomechanical findings are relevant to a patient's clinical presentation.

  8. Optic nerve head biomechanics in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J Crawford

    2015-04-01

    This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations (mechanobiology). We focus on how ONH responds to IOP elevations as a structural system, insofar as the acute mechanical response of the lamina cribrosa is confounded with the responses of the peripapillary sclera, prelaminar neural tissues, and retrolaminar optic nerve. We discuss the biomechanical basis for IOP-driven changes in connective tissues, blood flow, and cellular responses. We use glaucoma as the primary framework to present the important aspects of ONH biomechanics in aging and disease, as ONH biomechanics, aging, and the posterior pole extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to be centrally involved in glaucoma susceptibility, onset and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomechanics of the thorax – research evidence and clinical expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Gail

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the biomechanics of the thorax is critical for understanding its role in multiple conditions since the thorax is part of many integrated systems including the musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiac, digestive and urogynecological. The thorax is also an integrated system within itself and an element of the whole body/person. Therefore, understanding the biomechanics of the thorax is fundamental to all forms of treatment for multiple conditions. The interpretation of movement examination findings depends on one's view of optimal biomechanics and the influential factors. This article will provide a synopsis of the current state of research evidence as well as observations from clinical experience pertaining to the biomechanics of the thorax in order to help clinicians organise this knowledge and facilitate evidence-based and informed management of the, often complex, patient with or without thoracic pain and impairment. The integrated systems model (ISM) will be introduced as a way to determine when the noted biomechanical findings are relevant to a patient's clinical presentation. PMID:26309383

  10. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer treatment. Application of proper space closure biomechanics strategies is necessary to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This cases report aimed to show the space closure biomechanics strategies that effectively control the overbite as well as posterior anchorage in deep overbite patients without increasing treatment time. Two patients who presented with class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with fixed orthodontic appliance. The primary strategies included extraction space closure on segmented arch that employed two-step space closure, namely single canine retraction simultaneously with incisors intrusion followed by enmasse retraction of four incisors by using differential moment concept. These strategies successfully closed the space, corrected deep overbite and controlled posterior anchorage simultaneously so that the treatment time was shortened. Biomechanics strategies that utilized were effective to achieve the desired treatment outcome.

  11. Changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics with a heat-mouldable semi-custom foot orthotic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferber Reed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-custom foot orthoses (SCO are thought to be a cost-effective alternative to custom-made devices. However, previous biomechanical research involving either custom or SCO has only focused on rearfoot biomechanics. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine changes in multi-segment foot biomechanics during shod walking with and without an SCO. We chose to investigate an SCO device that incorporates a heat-moulding process, to further understand if the moulding process would significantly alter rearfoot, midfoot, or shank kinematics as compared to a no-orthotic condition. We hypothesized the SCO, whether moulded or non-moulded, would reduce peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, arch deformation, and plantar fascia strain as compared to the no-orthoses condition. Methods Twenty participants had retroreflective markers placed on the right limb to represent forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot and shank segments. 3D kinematics were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system while participants walked on a treadmill. Results Plantar fascia strain was reduced by 34% when participants walked in either the moulded or non-moulded SCO condition compared to no-orthoses. However, there were no significant differences in peak rearfoot eversion, tibial internal rotation, or medial longitudinal arch angles between any conditions. Conclusions A semi-custom moulded orthotic does not control rearfoot, shank, or arch deformation but does, however, reduce plantar fascia strain compared to walking without an orthoses. Heat-moulding the orthotic device does not have a measurable effect on any biomechanical variables compared to the non-moulded condition. These data may, in part, help explain the clinical efficacy of orthotic devices.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  13. Multinode analysis of small breaks for B and W's 177-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with raised loop arrangement and internals vent valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartin, L.R.; Hill, J.M.; Parks, C.E.

    1976-03-01

    Multinode analyses were conducted for several small breaks in the reactor coolant system of B and W's 177-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with a raised loop arrangement and internals vent valves. The multinode blowdown code CRAFT was used to evaluate the hydrodynamics and transient water inventories of the reactor coolant system. The FOAM code was used to compute a swell level history for the core, and THETAL-B was used to perform transient fuel pin thermal calculations. Curves showing parameters of interest are presented. The results of these analyses are acceptable within the guidelines set forth in the Final Acceptance Criteria

  14. Biomechanical and clinical evaluation of posterior malleolar fractures. A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Haverkamp, Daniel; Kloen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ankle fractures often have involvement of the posterior malleolus. Treatment guidelines exist based on limited biomechanical evidence and still is considered controversial. The objective of this article is to review the biomechanical literature concerning changes in tibiotalar contract

  15. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak.Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after surgery. These variations can provide

  16. An improved method to quantitate mature plant microRNA in biological matrices using periodate treatment and internal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) ubiquitously exist in microorganisms, plants and animals, and appear to modulate a wide range of critical biological processes. However, no definitive conclusion has been reached regarding the uptake of exogenous dietary small RNAs into mammalian circulation and organs and cross-k...

  17. Biomechanical analysis using Kinovea for sports application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaza Nor Adnan, Nor; Patar, Mohd Nor Azmi Ab; Lee, Hokyoo; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh; Jong-Young, Lee; Mahmud, Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    This paper assesses the reliability of HD VideoCam–Kinovea as an alternative tool in conducting motion analysis and measuring knee relative angle of drop jump movement. The motion capture and analysis procedure were conducted in the Biomechanics Lab, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Omiya Campus, Japan. A healthy subject without any gait disorder (BMI of 28.60 ± 1.40) was recruited. The volunteered subject was asked to per the drop jump movement on preset platform and the motion was simultaneously recorded using an established infrared motion capture system (Hawk–Cortex) and a HD VideoCam in the sagittal plane only. The capture was repeated for 5 times. The outputs (video recordings) from the HD VideoCam were input into Kinovea (an open-source software) and the drop jump pattern was tracked and analysed. These data are compared with the drop jump pattern tracked and analysed earlier using the Hawk–Cortex system. In general, the results obtained (drop jump pattern) using the HD VideoCam–Kinovea are close to the results obtained using the established motion capture system. Basic statistical analyses show that most average variances are less than 10%, thus proving the repeatability of the protocol and the reliability of the results. It can be concluded that the integration of HD VideoCam–Kinovea has the potential to become a reliable motion capture–analysis system. Moreover, it is low cost, portable and easy to use. As a conclusion, the current study and its findings are found useful and has contributed to enhance significant knowledge pertaining to motion capture-analysis, drop jump movement and HD VideoCam–Kinovea integration.

  18. ANALYSIS OF BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tiago Cavalcanti; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Euclides Dias; Kreimer, Flávio; Silva-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos de

    2016-01-01

    The use of measures in colonic anastomoses to prevent dehiscences is of great medical interest. Sugarcane molasses, which has adequate tolerability and compatibility in vivo, has not yet been tested for this purpose. To analyze the biomechanical parameters of colonic suture in rats undergoing colectomy, using sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape or gel. 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomized into three groups of 15 animals: irrigation of enteric sutures with 0.9% saline solution; application of sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape; and sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as gel. The rats underwent colon ressection, with subsequent reanastomosis using polypropylene suture; they were treated according to their respective groups. Five rats from each group were evaluated at different times after the procedure: 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively. The following variables were evaluated: maximum rupture force, modulus of elasticity and specific deformation of maximum force. The biomechanical variables among the scheduled times and treatment groups were statistically calculated. The characteristics of maximum rupture force and modulus of elasticity of the specimens remained identical, regardless of treatment with saline, polysaccharide gel or tape, and treatment time. However, it was found that the specific deformation of maximum force of the intestinal wall was higher after 180 days in the group treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel (p=0.09). Compared to control, it was detected greater elasticity of the intestinal wall in mice treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel, without changing other biomechanical characteristics, regardless of type or time of treatment. A aplicação de produtos em anastomoses colônicas que possam prevenir o surgimento de deiscências são de grande interesse médico. O emprego do polissacarídeo de melaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum), que possui adequada tolerabilidade e compatibilidade in vivo

  19. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  20. Computational biomechanics for medicine new approaches and new applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologiesand advancements. Thisvolumecomprises twelve of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, France, Spain and Switzerland. Some of the interesting topics discussed are:real-time simulations; growth and remodelling of soft tissues; inverse and meshless solutions; medical image analysis; and patient-specific solid mechanics simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.