WorldWideScience

Sample records for international plant biomechanics

  1. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  2. An overview on plant cuticle biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eva; Cuartero, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Plant biomechanics combines the principles of physics, chemistry and engineering to answer questions about plant growth, development and interaction with the environment. The epidermal-growth-control theory, postulated in 1867 and verified in 2007, states that epidermal cells determine the rate of organ elongation since they are under tension, while inner tissues are under compression. The lipid cuticle layer is deposited on the surface of outer epidermal cell walls and modifies the chemical and mechanical nature of these cell walls. Thus, the plant cuticle plays a key role in plant interaction with the environment and in controlling organ expansion. Rheological analyses indicate that the cuticle is a mostly viscoelastic and strain-hardening material that stiffens the comparatively more elastic epidermal cell walls. Cuticle stiffness can be attributed to polysaccharides and flavonoids present in the cuticle whereas a cutin matrix is mainly responsible for its extensibility. Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity have a plasticizing effect on the mechanical properties of cuticle since they lower cuticle stiffness and strength. The external appearance of agricultural commodities, especially fruits, is of great economic value. Mechanical properties of the cuticle can have a positive or negative effect on disorders like fruit cracking, fungal pathogen penetration and pest infestation. Cuticle rheology has significant variability within a species and thus can be subjected to selection in order to breed cultivars resistant to pests, infestation and disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  4. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  5. Global models for the biomechanics of green plants: 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    As a result of dehydration, there are daily changes in the stem diameter of green plants. This transient phenomenon is addressed in this paper. It is assumed that a small time perturbation is superimposed on an otherwise constant radius. By employing the Laplace transforms, analytical solutions are developed for this peculiar phenomenon. These results are discussed quantitatively. (author). 6 refs

  6. The power and control of gravitropic movements in plants: a biomechanical and systems biology view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulia, Bruno; Fournier, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    The study of gravitropic movements in plants has enjoyed a long history of research going back to the pioneering works of the 19th century and the famous book entitled 'The power of movement in plants' by Charles and Francis Darwin. Over the last few decades, the emphasis has shifted towards the cellular and molecular biology of gravisensing and the onset of auxin gradients across the organs. However, our understanding of plant movement cannot be completed before quantifying spatio-temporal changes in curvature and how they are produced through the motor process of active bending and controlled by gravisensing. This review sets out to show how combining approaches borrowed from continuum mechanics (kinematic imaging, structural modelling) with approaches from physiology and modern molecular biology has made it possible to generate integrative biomechanical models of the processes involved in gravitropism at several levels. The physiological and biomechanical bases are reviewed and two of the most complete integrative models of the gravireaction organ available are then compared, highlighting how the comparison between movements driven by differential growth and movements driven by reaction wood formation in woody organs has provided highly informative key insights. The advantages of these models as tools for analysing genetic control through quantitative process-based phenotyping as well as for identifying target traits for ecological studies are discussed. It is argued that such models are tools for a systems biology approach to gravitropic movement that has the potential to resolve at least some of the research questions raised 150 years ago.

  7. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Peter; Mente, Peter; Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments.

  8. Biomechanical Evaluation of the MACSTL Internal Fixator for Thoracic Spinal Stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Veselý

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unstable fractures of the thoracic spine in humans represent a serious social and economic issue. They may lead to persistent consequences and chronic disease. The anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of the thoracic spine are different from all the other spinal parts due to its higher mobility. The vertebrae of the chest area are less mobile, conferring a higher degree of rigidity to the spine. To destabilize this relatively rigid system, a considerable force is necessary. The treatment of unstable spinal fractures is solely surgical. The decompression of the spinal canal with reposition and stabilisation of the fracture is indicated urgently. This intervention is performed mostly from the posterior approach in the first phase. However, the anterior spinal column is the structure responsible for the stability of the spine. Therefore, the recent advances in spine surgery focus on this area of expertise. For this reason, we carried out a bio-mechanical study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of two surgical tactics used. The study consisted of comparative experiments performed by computer-aided device on segments of pig cadavers (n = 5. The experiment involved a comparison of segments of the thoracic spine under the following conditions: an anatomically intact segment, a spine segment with an artificially created anterior instability, and a segment with an applied internal fixator. The experiment compared the mechanical characteristics of these segments. The experiment has demonstrated that after application of the internal fixator used for stabilisation of the injured anterior spinal column at defined pre-loading of 200 N, the stability of damaged spinal segment in torsion increased twofold. It was also verified that sufficient stability can be ensured using the Modular Anterior Construct System (MACSTL implant for ventral stabilisation of thoracic spine unstable injuries. Endoscopic application of this implant represents an

  9. Biomechanical Properties of the Internal Limiting Membrane after Intravitreal Ocriplasmin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    To assess the stiffness of the human internal limiting membrane (ILM) and evaluate potential changes of mechanical properties following intravitreal ocriplasmin injection for vitreomacular traction. This is an interventional comparative case series of 12 surgically excised ILM specimens consecutively obtained from 9 eyes of 9 patients after unsuccessful pharmacologic vitreolysis with ocriplasmin. During the same time period, 16 specimens from 13 other eyes without ocriplasmin treatment were harvested during vitrectomy and served as controls. All patients presented with macular holes or vitreomacular traction and underwent vitrectomy with ILM peeling either with or without brilliant blue (BB) staining. All specimens were analyzed using atomic force microscopy with scan regions of 25 × 25 μm. In all specimens, both the retinal side and vitreal side of the ILM were analyzed. Atomic force microscopy revealed no significant differences in elasticity of ILM specimens removed from eyes with or without ocriplasmin treatment. Undulated areas of the retinal side presented stiffer than the vitreal side of the ILM. Topographical mapping of both the vitreal and retinal side of the ILM showed no apparent alteration of the morphology in ocriplasmin-treated eyes compared to untreated eyes. Staining with BB resulted in an increase of tissue stiffness. Intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin does not change biomechanical properties of the human ILM. There is no evidence of a potential enzymatic effect of ocriplasmin interfering with the stiffness of this basement membrane. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hip protectors: recommendations for biomechanical testing-an international consensus statement (part I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinovitch, S.N.; Evans, S.L.; Minns, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hip protectors represent a promising strategy for preventing fall-related hip fractures. However, clinical trials have yielded conflicting results due, in part, to lack of agreement on techniques for measuring and optimizing the biomechanical performance of hip protectors as a prerequisite to cli...

  11. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  12. The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, from August 11-14, 2013, under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science. The town of Fort Collins is home to the USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservati...

  13. A novel fixation system for sacroiliac dislocation fracture: internal fixation system design and biomechanics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawei, Tian; Na, Liu; Jun, Lei; Wei, Jin; Lin, Cai

    2013-02-01

    Although there were many different types of fixation techniques for sacroiliac dislocation fracture, the treat remained challenging in posterior pelvic ring injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a novel fixation system we designed. 12 human cadavers (L3-pelvic-femora) were used to compare biomechanical stability after reconstruction on the same specimens in four conditions: (1) intact, (2) cable system, (3) plate-pedicle screw system, and (4) cable system and plate-pedicle screw combination system (combination system). Biomechanical testing was performed on a material testing machine for evaluating the stiffness of the pelvic fixation construct in compression and torsion. The cable system and plate-pedicle screw system alone may be insufficient to resist vertical shearing and rotational loads; however the combination system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures provided significantly greater stability than single plate-pedicle or cable fixation system. The novel fixation system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures produced sufficient stability in axial compression and axial rotation test in type C pelvic ring injuries. It may also offer a better solution for sacroiliac dislocation fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Midfoot fusion: a biomechanical comparison of plantar planting vs intramedullary screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ernest J; Takemoto, Richelle C; Kummer, Frederick J; Mroczek, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    Numerous reconstructive techniques for midfoot collapse secondary to Charcot neuroarthropathy have been described, but few have been studied biomechanically. The purpose of this study was to biomechanically compare 2 of the most common techniques. Seven paired below-knee specimens were amputated through the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints. The nonligamentous soft tissue was stripped proximal to the metatarsal heads and disarticulated through the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints. For each paired specimen, the TMT joints were fused by plantar plating or intramedullary screw fixation for the contralateral side. The specimens were mounted, loaded, and cycled, and fixation stiffness was determined. Load versus displacement graphs were used to calculate overall construct stiffness, and data were analyzed by Student t tests. There was no failure of hardware. All failures were at the bone-implant interface. Failure was either by screw pull-out, bone fracture, or a combination of the two. There were no notable differences between the 2 fixation techniques with respect to stiffness or loads to failure. There was a trend toward a stiffer first TMT construct using the plantar plating method. Five of the 7 screw fixations failed by pullout of the base of the first metatarsal and the other 2 by pullout of screws from all MT bases. Seven of the 7 plantar plate fixations failed by separation of the fifth to third MT bases originating at the fifth, and 3 showed fracture of the fifth metatarsal base. There was no notable biomechanical difference between the 2 techniques. There was a trend toward a stiffer construct at the first TMT with plantar plating. This study biomechanically analyzes two common Charcot midfoot reconstruction techniques and highlights the need for further study of both techniques and combinations of these techniques.

  15. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  16. When do anterior external or internal fixators provide additional stability in an unstable (Tile C) pelvic fracture? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, E; Theologis, A A; Horst, P; Kandemir, U; Pekmezci, M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the additional stability that is provided by anterior external and internal fixators in an unstable pelvic fracture model (OTA 61-C). An unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C) was created in 27 synthetic pelves by making a 5-mm gap through the sacral foramina (posterior injury) and an ipsilateral pubic rami fracture (anterior injury). The posterior injury was fixed with either a single iliosacral (IS) screw, a single trans-iliac, trans-sacral (TS) screw, or two iliosacral screws (S1S2). Two anterior fixation techniques were utilized: external fixation (Ex-Fix) and supra-acetabular external fixation and internal fixation (In-Fix); supra-acetabular pedicle screws connected with a single subcutaneous spinal rod. The specimens were tested using a nondestructive single-leg stance model. Peak-to-peak (P2P) displacement and rotation and conditioning displacement (CD) were calculated. The Ex-Fix group failed in 83.3 % of specimens with concomitant single-level posterior fixation (Total: 15/18-7 of 9 IS fixation, 8 of 9 TS fixation), and 0 % (0/9) of specimens with concomitant two-level (S1S2) posterior fixation. All specimens with the In-Fix survived testing except for two specimens treated with In-Fix combined with IS fixation. Trans-sacral fixation had higher pubic rotation and greater sacral and pubic displacement than S1S2 (p pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C), anterior fixation with an In-Fix was biomechanically superior to an anterior Ex-Fix in the setting of single-level posterior fixation. There was no biomechanical difference between the In-Fix and Ex-Fix when each was combined with two levels of posterior sacral fixation.

  17. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  18. Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Westermeier, Anna Sophia; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-11-24

    Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called 'Utricularia vulgaris trap type'). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Biomechanical comparison of three types of internal fixation in a type C zone II pelvic fracture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Zhang, Qi; Lv, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the stability of Tile C pelvic fractures fixed with two iliosacral (IS) screws, tension band plate (TBP), and minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP). Methods: Six embalmed specimens of adult pelvis were used. The soft tissue was removed from the specimens, but spines from the fourth lumbar vertebra to the proximal one-third of both femurs were retained. The pubic symphysis, bilateral sacroiliac joints and ligaments, bilateral hip joints, bilateral sacrotuberous ligaments, and bilateral sacrospinous ligaments were intact. Tile C pelvic fractures were created on the specimens. The symphysis pubis was fixed with a plate, and the fracture on the posterior pelvic ring was fixed with three types of internal fixation in a randomized block design. The specimens were placed in a biomechanical machine at a standing neutral posture. A cyclic vertical load of up to 500N was applied, and displacement was recorded. Shifts in the fracture gap were measured by a grating displacement sensor. Results: Under different vertical loads, the shift in the fracture gap and displacement of the pelvic fractures fixed with two IS screws were similar to those in fractures fixed with MIAP. However, the shift in the fracture gap and displacement of fractures fixed with MIAP was significantly smaller than those of fractures fixed with TBP. Conclusion: The stability of the Tile C pelvic fractures fixed with MIAP was similar to that of fractures fixed with IS screws. MIAP performed better than TBP under vertical load. PMID:25932113

  20. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  1. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems

  2. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J.; Bilheux, H.; Kang, M.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C.; Horita, J.; Perfect, E.

    2011-12-01

    In situ quantification of soil-plant water fluxes have not been fully successful due to a lack of non-destructive techniques capable of revealing roots or water fluxes at relevant spatial scales. Neutron imaging is a unique non-invasive tool that can assess sub-millimeter scale material properties and transport in situ, and which has been successfully applied to characterize soil and plant water status. Here, we have applied neutron radiography and tomography to quantify water transport through individual maize roots in response to internal plant demand. Zea mays seedlings were grown for 10 days in Flint silica sand within 2.6 cm diameter Al chambers. Using a reactor-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (HFIR), water fluxes were tracked through the maize soil-root systems by collecting consecutive neutron radiographs over a 12 h period following irrigation with D2O. D has a much lower neutron attenuation than H, thus D2O displacement of existing H2O within the plant vascular system, or influx of D2O into previously dry tissue or soil is readily tracked by changes in image intensity through time. Plant water release and uptake was regulated by periodically cycling on a high-intensity grow light. From each maize replicate, selected regions of interest (ROI) were delineated around individual roots, root free soil, stem and leaf segments. Changes in ROI were tracked through time to reveal patterns of water flux. The hydration of root and stem tissue cycled in response to illumination; root water content often increased during darkness, then decreased with illumination as water was transported from the root into the stem. Relative root-shoot hydration through time illustrates the balance between demand, storage capacity and uptake, which varies depending on root characteristics and its localized soil environment. The dynamic transport of water between soil, individual roots, stems and leaves was readily visualized and quantified illustrating the value

  3. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is renewed international effort to address challenges associated with sustainable agriculture and food security. The key international framework is the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for food and. Agriculture. Through it, is established a Multilateral System (MS) of facilitated access to key plant genetic ...

  4. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  5. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... The program is partly sponsored by IDRC's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program in Asia (MAPPA). IDRC has supported medicinal plant research in the region since 1992. Improving quality control. R.B.S. Rawat, CEO of India's National Medicinal Plants Board, said people in Chhattisgarh and other ...

  6. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  7. The Use of Common Weeds and Garden Plants for Teaching Internal Plant Structure in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, June R.

    1972-01-01

    Literature suitable for teaching internal plant structure in Nigerian schools is scarce. Author provides list of plants which could be used by teachers in Nigeria for teaching plant anatomy. All plants described are available in abundance in the Nigerian climate. (PS)

  8. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  9. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  10. International regulations regarding exchange of Rubus plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes the international quarantine regulations regarding plant material exchange for Rubus. US federal importation regulations are summarized along with aspects of Rubus that presented as noxious weed. Requirements for exporting Rubus to foreign countries are also described. Proper...

  11. Availability estimation of international nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation on the factors influencing the availability of nuclear power plants of the PWR type; an estimation of expected values for the availability factor and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value are given. (Author) [pt

  12. Plant tropisms: from Darwin to the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah E; Kiss, John Z

    2013-01-01

    Plant tropisms play a fundamental role in shaping the growth form of plants, and these fascinating movements are the focus of this thematic issue of the American Journal of Botany. The issue includes 16 reviews of the current literature and eight original manuscripts written by a diverse group of international experts in their respective fields. This special issue emphasizes tropistic responses to three fundamental stimuli governing plant growth: water, light, and gravity. We hope this issue will inform the current generation and inspire the next generation of plant biologists.

  13. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  14. Colonization and Internalization of Salmonella enterica in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system. PMID:23377940

  15. Shoulder biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, Roberto; Kung, Peter; Ma, C. Benjamin [Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, University of California, San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MU 320W-0728 San Francisco, CA 914143 (United States)], E-mail: maben@orthosurg.ucsf.edu

    2008-10-15

    The biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint depend on the interaction of both static and dynamic-stabilizing structures. Static stabilizers include the bony anatomy, negative intra-articular pressure, the glenoid labrum, and the glenohumeral ligaments along with the joint capsule. The dynamic-stabilizing structures include the rotator cuff muscles and the other muscular structures surrounding the shoulder joint. The combined effect of these stabilizers is to support the multiple degrees of motion within the glenohumeral joint. The goal of this article is to review how these structures interact to provide optimal stability and how failure of some of these mechanisms can lead to shoulder joint pathology.

  16. Dinosaur biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R. McNeill

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics has made large contributions to dinosaur biology. It has enabled us to estimate both the speeds at which dinosaurs generally moved and the maximum speeds of which they may have been capable. It has told us about the range of postures they could have adopted, for locomotion and for feeding, and about the problems of blood circulation in sauropods with very long necks. It has made it possible to calculate the bite forces of predators such as Tyrannosaurus, and the stresses they imp...

  17. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  18. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  19. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  20. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Morrow, R. C.; Levine, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The 'Veggie' vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nm), blue, (455 nm) and green (530 nm) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows/baseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  1. Internal and external regulation of plant organ stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V; Kleyer, M

    2014-09-01

    Internal differences between plant organs are caused by the functional differentiation of plant tissue, whereas external supply rates of elements constrain nutrient uptake. Previous studies have concentrated on foliar or whole-plant stoichiometric response to the environment, whereas investigation of organ-specific comparisons is still pending. We explore C:N:P ratios of stems, leaves, diaspores and belowground organs in marsh plants, and evaluate the influence of environmental constraints using standardised major axis regression (SMA). For a pooled dataset, SMA resulted in distinct patterns of isometric and anisometric slopes between plant organs. Bivariate line-fitting for a split dataset of four ecological groups revealed that species of the frequently inundated marsh had higher N:C ratios than those of the infrequently inundated marsh. The influence of nutrient availability was detectable in decreased P:C and increased N:P ratios in P-poor sites. Across ecological groups, leaves and diaspores showed higher elemental homeostasis than stems and belowground organs. Any change in N:C ratios of belowground organs and diaspores in response to the environment was accompanied by an even stronger internal change in stem N:C ratios, indicating a pivotal role of stems of herbaceous plants in ecosystem processes. We found distinct patterns of C:N:P ratios in plant organs related to their internal function and external environmental constraints. Leaves and diaspores showed a higher degree of homeostasis than stems and belowground organs. We detected a clear external signal in element:element ratios of plant organs, with low soil P translating into lower tissue P:C ratio and stronger N retention in leaves as a response to salt stress. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Internal exposure in French nuclear power plants : 10 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Gonin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Collectively speaking, internal exposure in French nuclear power plants is negligible. However, some quite high individual doses have been recorded. The details of cases of significant contamination are presented here in table form. A brief discussion of a few particular cases underscores the problems involved. (author)

  3. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw Internal Fixation device (INFIX vs External Fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdorchik Jonathan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX. This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Methods Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation. Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons Results The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01 at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017 at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Conclusions Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  4. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  5. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  6. A biomechanic comparison of an internal radiocarpal-spanning 2.4-mm locking plate and external fixation in a model of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jonathon C; Weil, Wayne M; Hanel, Douglas P; Trumble, Thomas E

    2006-12-01

    To compare the biomechanic stability of distal radius fracture fixation with a new internal radiocarpal-spanning 2.4-mm locking plate, which acts as an internal distal radius fixator, versus a standard distal radius external fixator. The number of locking screws necessary for adequate fracture fixation was also assessed. Ten cadaveric specimens were mounted in a loading fixture with cables attached to the 2 flexor and 3 extensor wrist tendons. A 1-cm osteotomy was created to simulate an unstable distal radius fracture. The radiocarpal-spanning locking plate was fixed to the radius and index metacarpal with 4 screws proximally and 4 distally. The specimen was incrementally loaded through the tendons. Motion at the fracture site was determined. Screws were sequentially removed from the construct, the specimen was again incrementally loaded, and fracture motion was measured. The fixation was then changed to an external fixator, and the loading tests were repeated. Fracture fixation with the radiocarpal-spanning 2.4-mm locking plate was significantly more stable with 4 screws proximally and 4 screws distally (4 x 4) and with the 3 x 3 configuration than with the external fixator in both flexion and extension. The 4 x 4 screw configuration was not significantly different from the 3 x 3 screw configuration. The 4 x 4 screw configuration was significantly more stable than the 2 x 2 and 1 x 1 screw configurations in both flexion and extension. All internal fixator configurations and the external fixator showed more fracture displacement at increasingly higher loads. Fracture fixation with the new internal radiocarpal-spanning 2.4-mm locking plate is more stable than with a standard distal radius external fixator. Only three 2.4-mm locking screws proximally and three 2.4-mm locking screws distally are required for adequate fixation of the locking spanning plate.

  7. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (Penterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  8. Use of fuel reprocessing plant instrumentation for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has a program for developing instrumentation to be used by safeguards inspectors at reprocessing facilities. These instruments have generally been individual pieces of equipment for improving the accuracy of existing measurement instrumentation or equipment to perform nondestructive assay on a selected basis. It is proposed that greater use be made of redundant plant instrumentation and data recovery systems that could augment plant instrumentation to verify the validity of plant measurements. Use of these methods for verfication must be proven as part of an operating plant before they can be relied upon for safeguards surveillance. Inspectors must be qualified in plant operations, or have ready access to those so qualified, if the integrity of the operation is to be properly assessed. There is an immediate need for the development and in-plant proof testing of an integrated gamma, passive neutron, and active neutron measurement system for drum quantities of radioactive trash. The primary safeguards effort should be limited to plutonium and highly enriched uranium

  9. Proceedings of the international nuclear power plant aging symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, A.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the International Nuclear Power Plant Aging Symposium that was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 30-31 and September 1, 1988. The Symposium was presented in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. There were approximately 550 participants from 16 countries at the Symposium

  10. Dinosaur biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R McNeill

    2006-08-07

    Biomechanics has made large contributions to dinosaur biology. It has enabled us to estimate both the speeds at which dinosaurs generally moved and the maximum speeds of which they may have been capable. It has told us about the range of postures they could have adopted, for locomotion and for feeding, and about the problems of blood circulation in sauropods with very long necks. It has made it possible to calculate the bite forces of predators such as Tyrannosaurus, and the stresses they imposed on its skull; and to work out the remarkable chewing mechanism of hadrosaurs. It has shown us how some dinosaurs may have produced sounds. It has enabled us to estimate the effectiveness of weapons such as the tail spines of Stegosaurus. In recent years, techniques such as computational tomography and finite element analysis, and advances in computer modelling, have brought new opportunities. Biomechanists should, however, be especially cautious in their work on animals known only as fossils. The lack of living specimens and even soft tissues oblige us to make many assumptions. It is important to be aware of the often wide ranges of uncertainty that result.

  11. The reprocessing plant as a problem of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendling, L.

    1987-01-01

    The planned construction of the reprocessing plant creates problems with regard to transfrontier environmental protection, due to the potential hazards involved, and these problems institute obligations of the Federal Republic of Germany under contractual law and under customary international law. Particularly under customary international neighbour law the F.R.G. is obliged to prevent and abstain from transfrontier activities entailing environmental effects with considerable damaging potential in the neighbouring states, which also includes the duty of providing for protection against accidents. It is, however, a clear fact that the states decided the peaceful uses of atomic energy to be admissible, and accept the risk of possible catastrophic damage. The interpretation of existing international laws has to take this fact into account. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Biomechanics in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J. F. V.

    1980-01-01

    Examines current usage of the term "biomechanics" and emphasizes the importance of differentiating between structure and material. Describes current prolects in biomechanics and lists four points about the educational significance of the field. (GS)

  13. 2000 Volvo Award winner in biomechanical studies: Monitoring in vivo implant loads with a telemeterized internal spinal fixation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlmann, A; Graichen, F; Weber, U; Bergmann, G

    2000-12-01

    Implant loads were measured in 10 patients using telemeterized internal spinal fixation devices. To determine the postoperative temporal course of implant loads. Little information exists regarding the temporal course of loads on internal spinal fixation devices. The telemeterized internal spinal fixator allows the measurement of three force components and three moments acting in the fixator. Implant loads were determined in up to 20 measuring sessions for different activities, including walking, standing, sitting, lying in the supine position, and lifting an extended leg while in the supine position. Implant loads often increased shortly after anterior interbody fusion was performed. Several patients retained the same high level even after fusion had taken place. This explains the reason why screw breakage sometimes occurs more than half a year after implantation. The time of fusion could not be pinpointed from the loading curves. The results show that fixators may be highly loaded even after fusion has occurred. A flexion bending moment acts on the implant even with the body in a relaxed lying position. This means that already shortly after the anterior procedure, the shape of the spine is not neutral and unloaded, but slightly deformed, which loads the fixators. Pedicle screw breakage more than half a year after insertion does not prove that anterior interbody fusion has not occurred.

  14. Research Techniques in Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry

    Biomechanics involves the biological human beings interacting with his/her mechanical environment. Biomechanics research is being done in connection with sport, physical education, and general motor behavior, and concerns mechanics independent of implements. Biomechanics research falls in the following two general categories: (1) that specific…

  15. The influence of internal and external tibial rotation offsets on knee joint and ligament biomechanics during simulated athletic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2018-02-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction transverse plane tibiofemoral rotation becomes underconstrained and overconstrained, respectively. Conflicting reports exist on how rotations influence loading at the knee. This investigation aimed to determine the mechanical effects of internal and external tibial rotation offsets on knee kinematics and ligament strains during in vitro simulations of in vivo recorded kinematics. A 6-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator arm was used to articulate 11 cadaveric tibiofemoral joint specimens through simulations of four athletic tasks produced from in vivo recorded kinematics. These simulations were then repeated with 4° tibial rotation offsets applied to the baseline joint orientation. Rotational offsets had a significant effect on peak posterior force for female motion simulations (P  0.05) or medial collateral ligament strain (P > 0.05) for any task. Transverse plane rotational offsets comparable to those observed in anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed patients alter knee kinetics without significantly altering anterior cruciate ligament strain. As knee degeneration is attributed to abnormal knee loading profiles, altered transverse plane kinematics may contribute to this. However, altered transverse plane rotations likely play a limited role in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk as physiologic offsets failed to significantly influence anterior cruciate ligament strain during athletic tasks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  17. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  18. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Pino; Bertea, Cinzia M; Temporale, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show a new, simple, and rapid SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR assay for the quantification of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. As a test plant, Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M., a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family able to induce hallucinations, changes in perception, or other psychologically induced changes with similar potency as LSD, was used. The method was tested on seven mixtures 100/0%, 80/20%, 60/40%, 40/60%, 20/80%, 10/90%, 0/100% (w/w) S. divinorum versus a non-hallucinogenic plant, Salvia officinalis. Total DNA was extracted from samples and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA was added, as internal standard, at the beginning of each extraction. A new formula for the interpretation of Real-Time PCR data, based on the relative quantification of DNA extracted from mixture versus a reference DNA extracted from a known amount of pure S. divinorum, was developed. The results of this work show an almost perfect correspondence between Real-Time PCR-calculated weight and the weight estimated by an analytical weighted method, proving the effectiveness of this method for the quantitative analysis of a given species in a plant mixture.

  19. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  20. International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO

  1. Biomechanics of corneal ectasia and biomechanical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Cynthia J; Dupps, William J

    2014-06-01

    Many algorithms exist for the topographic/tomographic detection of corneas at risk for post-refractive surgery ectasia. It is proposed that the reason for the difficulty in finding a universal screening tool based on corneal morphologic features is that curvature, elevation, and pachymetric changes are all secondary signs of keratoconus and post-refractive surgery ectasia and that the primary abnormality is in the biomechanical properties. It is further proposed that the biomechanical modification is focal in nature, rather than a uniform generalized weakening, and that the focal reduction in elastic modulus precipitates a cycle of biomechanical decompensation that is driven by asymmetry in the biomechanical properties. This initiates a repeating cycle of increased strain, stress redistribution, and subsequent focal steepening and thinning. Various interventions are described in terms of how this cycle of biomechanical decompensation is interrupted, such as intrastromal corneal ring segments, which redistribute the corneal stress, and collagen crosslinking, which modifies the basic structural properties. Proprietary or commercial disclosures are listed after the references. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings.

  3. Do best manufacturing practices depend on the plant role in international manufacturing networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demeter, Krisztina; Szász, Levente; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades several companies have become manufacturing networks of plants, usually in an international context. These plants can serve different purposes and have different level of competences. This diversity has to affect the use and pay off of various operations management practices. ...... build their competences through interplant networking activities, while offshore plants utilize servitization to improve performance....

  4. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  5. Computational modeling in biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mofrad, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a glimpse of the diverse and important roles that modern computational technology is playing in various areas of biomechanics. It includes unique chapters on ab initio quantum mechanical, molecular dynamic and scale coupling methods..

  6. Biomechanics of the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from scientists at major institutions, this book presents an introduction to brain anatomy for engineers and scientists. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive resource in the field of brain biomechanics.

  7. Biomechanics and tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B

    2006-05-01

    Success in tennis requires a mix of player talent, good coaching, appropriate equipment, and an understanding of those aspects of sport science pertinent to the game. This paper outlines the role that biomechanics plays in player development from sport science and sport medicine perspectives. Biomechanics is a key area in player development because all strokes have a fundamental mechanical structure and sports injuries primarily have a mechanical cause.

  8. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  9. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  10. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  11. Internal and External Dispersal of Plants by Animals: An Aquatic Perspective on Alien Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.

    2018-01-01

    Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory). However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory), interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants. This literature study addresses the following hypotheses: (1) alien plants may interfere with both internal and external animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores; (2) interference also occurs in aquatic ecosystems; (3) interference of alien plants can have both negative and positive effects on native plants. The studied literature revealed that alien species can comprise large proportions of both internally and externally transported diaspores. Because animals have limited space for ingested and adhering diaspores, alien species affect both internal and external transport of native diaspores. Alien plant species also form large proportions of all dispersed diaspores in aquatic systems and interfere with dispersal of native aquatic plants. Alien interference can be either negative (e.g., through competition with native plants) or positive (e.g., increased abundance of native dispersers, changed disperser behavior or attracting additional disperser species). I propose many future research directions, because understanding whether alien plant species disrupt or facilitate animal-mediated dispersal of native plants is crucial for targeted conservation of invaded (aquatic) plant communities. PMID:29487609

  12. Internal and External Dispersal of Plants by Animals: An Aquatic Perspective on Alien Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. A. van Leeuwen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory. If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory. However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory, interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants. This literature study addresses the following hypotheses: (1 alien plants may interfere with both internal and external animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores; (2 interference also occurs in aquatic ecosystems; (3 interference of alien plants can have both negative and positive effects on native plants. The studied literature revealed that alien species can comprise large proportions of both internally and externally transported diaspores. Because animals have limited space for ingested and adhering diaspores, alien species affect both internal and external transport of native diaspores. Alien plant species also form large proportions of all dispersed diaspores in aquatic systems and interfere with dispersal of native aquatic plants. Alien interference can be either negative (e.g., through competition with native plants or positive (e.g., increased abundance of native dispersers, changed disperser behavior or attracting additional disperser species. I propose many future research directions, because understanding whether alien plant species disrupt or facilitate animal-mediated dispersal of native plants is crucial for targeted conservation of invaded (aquatic plant communities.

  13. Proceedings of 2009 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This CD-ROM is the collection of the paper presented at the 2009 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'09) . The 365 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Dr Dapertutto's biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojmenović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the basic models of Meyerhold's biomechanics, which were used to define its theoretical principles. Professor Meyerhold, the theatrical leader of an eccentric stream, with which he changed the modern understanding of the theatre, established the technique of biomechanics by analysing the calculated type of movement. The analysis determines the answers to the questions: What kind of influence does Taylor's 'scientific management of work' have on defining the principles of Meyerhold's techniques of biomechanics? Which aesthetic models of stage movement were some of the basic subjects of Meyerhold's research? Meyerhold's theatrical work has been researched by a number of theatre theorists. However, how much does his work influence the film medium?.

  15. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise....... The forces applied to bring the tooth back into the alveolar process generate opposite reactive forces, which can direct the adjacent teeth out towards the boundary of the bony envelope. A different force system can be achieved with a segmented appliance: The reaction forces from the root movement...

  16. The link between off-site-emergency planning and plant-internal accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.

    1995-02-01

    A variety of accident management measures has been developed and implemented in the German nuclear power plants. They constitute a fourth level of safety in the defence-in-depth concept. The containment venting system is an important example. A functioning link with well defined lines of communication between plant-internal accident management and off-site disaster emergency planning has been established.

  17. First international congress on plant oil fuels. Proceedings; Erster Internationaler Kongress zu Pflanzenoel-Kraftstoffen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The conference proceedings contain 31 contributions on the following topics: biofuels - status and perspectives; ecological evaluation; plant oils: engineering - production and quality; plant oils: international markets and economy; mobile applications - techniques and emissions; stationary applications: techniques and economy; the renewable energies law (EEG), the biofuel quoting law (BioKraftQuG) and the energy tax law (EnergieStG).

  18. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    incorporate materials from the multilateral system into commercial products must deposit a percentage of their profits in a trust account which will be used to promote benefit sharing and conversation of plant genetic resources particularly in regard to farmers in developing countries as those in Africa as they are the world's ...

  19. Employment Protection and Misallocation of Resources across Plants : International Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2013-01-01

    Employment protection affects aggregate productivity via several channels in potentially contradicting ways, which makes it difficult to establish the relationship between the two. This study focuses on the misallocation of production factors across plants, which has been shown in past studies to

  20. The challenge of introducing high-temperature reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  1. ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Katie; Abramczyk, Joseph; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Kowsika, Murthy; Mertz, Harold J; Rouhana, Stephen W; Scherer, Risa; Shi, Yibing; Sutterfield, Aleta; Xu, Lan; Tylko, Suzanne; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2002-11-01

    This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed. Finally, this technical paper will compare the biofidelity ratings of the current adult side impact dummies with the ES-2 dummy, which received an overall dummy biofidelity rating of 4.6.

  2. Development of Internal Dose Assessment Program for Nuclear Power Plant Employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Kang, Duck Won; Maeng, Sung Jun; Kim, Hee Geun; Son, Soon Whan; Lim, Young Kee; Son, Joong Kwon; Park, Keyoung Rock [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, See Young; Ha, Jong Woo; Suh, Keyoung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Oak Doo; Lee, Joong Woo; Yoon, Sung Sik [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Internal exposure monitoring based on new concept of radiation protection. Analysis and Performance test of the in vivo systems being operated in nuclear power plants in Korea. Design and fabrication of humanoid phantom for calibration of in vivo system. Development of internal dose evaluation code based on the ICRP 30 dosimetric model. (author). 44 refs., figs.

  3. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

    1980-04-01

    The first volume of this report summarizes the results and conclusions for this study of conventional and advanced nuclear materials accounting systems applicable for both large (1500 MTHM/y) and small (210 MTHM/y) spent-fuel reprocessing facilities subject to international verification

  4. Quality management in an international nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, J.; Crustin, J.

    1975-01-01

    SNR (Schneller Natriumgekuehlter Reaktor) is the fast reactor power plant being erected at Kalkar, Federal German Republic. Quality management in this project is a contractual obligation. Quality management is subdivided into quality engineering, set of actions performed before manufacturing, and quality control, set of material controls performed during fabrication. The two successive phases of the quality management are presented. The difficulties and improvment possibilities are discussed [fr

  5. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  6. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  7. Biomechanics of footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, C J

    1987-07-01

    This article discusses biomechanical principles that indicate a number of basic design criteria for shoes and the properties of good footwear in terms of normal daily activities at home, at school, and at work. These properties also apply to normal occupational footwear and safety footwear.

  8. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  9. Second international symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    and transferred throughout a plant's life. The IAEA recognizes the safety and cost considerations of extended nuclear power operation and has organized a major international symposium on the newest developments, best practices and issues surrounding the extended operation of older plants. The IAEA also recognizes that new plants will be operated for extended periods of time and that efficient PLiM is important for maintaining and increasing nuclear power plant operational safety, availability and reliability. The IAEA organized the First International Symposium on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management in Budapest, Hungary, from 4 to 8 November 2002. Participants at that symposium placed a high value on information exchange during the symposium and recommended that another symposium be organized within the next four to five years. Therefore, the IAEA organized the Second International Symposium on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management. This symposium focused on topical issues affecting nuclear power PLiM and thus is expected to be of particular interest to managers and technical managers involved in the operation or regulation of nuclear power plants and research reactors. The objectives of the second international symposium on PLiM are to: Emphasize the role of PLiM programmes in assuring safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation; Provide a forum for information exchange on national and international policies, regulatory practices and safety culture and to demonstrate strategies, including application in an ageing management and PLiM programme; Provide key elements and good practices related to the safety aspects of ageing, ageing management and long term operation; Identify the progress on ageing management and PLiM processes since the first international symposium; Help Member States further develop their PLiM programmes based on the newest technology available

  10. Internalization and dissemination of human norovirus and Tulane virus in fresh produce is plant dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihong; Chambers, Heather; DiCaprio, Erin; Gao, Gary; Li, Jianrong

    2018-02-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks. Previous research indicates that the roots of growing leafy greens and berries internalize human NoV. However the effect of plant type and inoculum level on internalization rates has not been directly compared. In this study we compared the internalization and dissemination rates of human NoV and its surrogate, Tulane virus (TV) in green onion, radishes, and Romaine lettuce. We also evaluated the effect inoculum level and plant growth matrix on the rate of viral internalization. In the hydroponic growth system, we detected internalization and dissemination of human NoV RNA in green onions. In hydroponically growing green onions inoculated with high titer TV, we found higher rates of internalization and dissemination compared to green onions inoculated with low titer TV. In soil growth systems, no infectious TV was detected in either green onion or radishes. However, in Romaine lettuce plants grown in soil approximately 4 log 10  PFU/g was recovered from all tissues on day 14 p.i. Overall, we found that the type of plant, growth matrix, and the inoculum level influences the internalization and dissemination of human NoV and TV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal transfer of Cs 137 and K 40 in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchyulenene, D.

    2006-01-01

    The root - aboveground part transfer factor and distribution of artificial Cs 137 and natural K 40 in the higher plants from the ecosystems of Ignalina NPP vicinity were estimated. Obtained data showed that distribution of Cs 137 in plant depends on the plant species and distribution of K 40 in it; as well as on the physicochemical form in which this radionuclide got into the environment. Results of this study can be applied in the future investigations or modelling of the internal transfer of Cs 137 in higher plants from natural and anthropogenic ecosystems. (authors)

  12. An international comparison of nuclear plant training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, I visited four utility companies that own and operate pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants in different countries. The purpose of my visits and associated research was to compare nuclear power plant operator and technician training programs. The companies were: Duke Power Company (DUKE) in the United States, Electricite de France (EDF) in France, Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) in Japan, and RWE Energie AG (RWE) in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to highlight selected aspects of the comparison. First, comparisons of the four subject utilities and four typical nuclear power stations operated by each company, McGuire, Paluel, Ohi, and Biblis, are provided. Then comparisons of new employee demographics and training program specific content are provided. Finally, some general observations are drawn from the comparisons. The comparisons are based on information obtained from documents, interviews, and visits to stations and training centers. However, some interpretation of the information was necessary in order to enable a comparison. For example, categorization of training modules requires judgement, interpretation, and translation. In all cases, the information is intended to be representative or typical, rather than statistically precise

  13. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  14. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  15. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance

  16. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  17. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable

  18. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for internal funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, utilities have exercised sole responsibility for reinvesting capital funds collected from ratepayers. Capital provided by ratepayers, whether for recovery of invested capital or for removal costs, reduces the magnitude of future borrowings - dollar for dollar. If regulatory commissions require utilities to place these collections in separate, inaccessible investment accounts (as in external funding methods), then utilities will be denied the use of these funds. Ratepayers, in turn, will be denied both their usual interest credit and the cost-saving benefits afforded by utilities having readily accessible cash to use instead of having to resort to borrowing. Such benefits can be attained only through internal-funding methods that keep rate payer contributions under unrestricted utility control. While state regulatory commissions currently favor external funding for financial assurance, the author feels the extra cost to ratepayers and the utilities is too high a price to pay

  19. Experience of international projects implementation at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavialov, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    During the period of 1992-2007 more than 60 different projects of different specificity and budget have been successfully implemented in frames of Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) Program, Project financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), as well as in frames of Agreements on Cooperation between Leningrad NPP and Radiation and Nuclear safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, International Co-operation Program SKI-ICP(SIP). All these projects were directed to the safety increasing of the Leningrad NPP reactor, type RBMK-1000. Implementation of the technical aid projects has been performed by different foreign companies such as Aarsleff Oy, (Finland), SGN (France), Nukem (Germany), Jergo AB (Sweden), SABAROS (Switzerland), Westinghouse (USA), Nordion (Canada), Bruel and Kjer (Denmark), Data System and Solutions (UK), SVT Braundshuz (Germany) WICOTEC (Sweden), Studsvik (Sweden) and etc. which has enough technical and organizational experience in implementation of such projects, as well as all necessary certificates and licenses for works performance. Selection of a Contractor/Supplier for a joined work performance has been carried out in accordance with the tender procedure, technical specification and a planned budget. Project financing was covered by foreign Consolidated Funds and Authorities interested in increasing of Leningrad NPP safety, which have valid intergovernmental agreements with Russian Federation on the technical assistance to be provided to the NPPs. At present time all joined international projects implemented at Leningrad NPP are financed jointly with LNPP. All projects can be divided into technical aid projects connected with development and turnkey implementation of systems and complexes and projects for supply of equipment which has no analogues in Russia but successfully used all over the world. Positive experience of the joined projects

  20. Experience of international projects implementation at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavialov, L.A. [Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant ' Rosenergoatom' , Leningrad Region, 188540, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    During the period of 1992-2007 more than 60 different projects of different specificity and budget have been successfully implemented in frames of Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) Program, Project financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), as well as in frames of Agreements on Cooperation between Leningrad NPP and Radiation and Nuclear safety Authority of Finland (STUK) and Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, International Co-operation Program SKI-ICP(SIP). All these projects were directed to the safety increasing of the Leningrad NPP reactor, type RBMK-1000. Implementation of the technical aid projects has been performed by different foreign companies such as Aarsleff Oy, (Finland), SGN (France), Nukem (Germany), Jergo AB (Sweden), SABAROS (Switzerland), Westinghouse (USA), Nordion (Canada), Bruel and Kjer (Denmark), Data System and Solutions (UK), SVT Braundshuz (Germany) WICOTEC (Sweden), Studsvik (Sweden) and etc. which has enough technical and organizational experience in implementation of such projects, as well as all necessary certificates and licenses for works performance. Selection of a Contractor/Supplier for a joined work performance has been carried out in accordance with the tender procedure, technical specification and a planned budget. Project financing was covered by foreign Consolidated Funds and Authorities interested in increasing of Leningrad NPP safety, which have valid intergovernmental agreements with Russian Federation on the technical assistance to be provided to the NPPs. At present time all joined international projects implemented at Leningrad NPP are financed jointly with LNPP. All projects can be divided into technical aid projects connected with development and turnkey implementation of systems and complexes and projects for supply of equipment which has no analogues in Russia but successfully used all over the world. Positive experience of the joined projects

  1. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, H.

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the upgrading of the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the Copenhagen area to nutrient removal special attention has been paid to the nitrification process regarding inhibition effects. Inhibitory substances in the wastewater could be identified by simple batch tests......, and the long-term effects on the nitrification process were tested in pilot plants or at full-scale. A distinction could be made between effects produced by wastewater from external sources in the catchment area and internally circulated flows in the wastewater treatment plant. Results from programmes...

  2. Potential improvements in materials accounting for an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of improved materials accounting was evaluated using computer modeling, simulation, and analysis techniques for two model reprocessing plants. One plant, sized to 210 MTHM/yr, represents the small plants currently under international safeguards and the other, sized to 1500 MTHM/yr, represents the large plants expected in the future. The study indicates that conventional accounting may meet IAEA goal quantities and detection times for low-enriched uranium in these facilities. Dynamic materials accounting can meet the IAEA goal for detecting abrupt (1 to 3 wk) diversion of 8 kg of plutonium. Current materials accounting techniques probably cannot meet the protracted diversion goal of detecting 8 kg for plutonium in 1 yr. Facility design features that can improve the effectiveness of materials accounting in future plants are discussed

  3. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  4. Small hook thread (Quill) and soft felt internal splint to increase the primary repair strength of lacerated rabbit Achilles tendons: biomechanical analysis and considerations for hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Feldman, Kirill; Tervoort, Theo A; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    For the prevention of re-rupture during early healing phase, the primary repair strength of repaired lacerated tendons in hand surgery should be maximal and the reconstructed diameter minimal. Two new repair methods (small hook thread and internal splint) were assessed for strength and reconstructed diameter characteristics. Achilles tendons of 43 female New Zealand White rabbits were sectioned 2 cm above the calcaneus. Specimens were divided into 7 groups and repaired as follows: Kirchmayr method 2-strand with 4.0 polypropylene thread; Becker method 4-strand; 6-strand; internal splint; Kirchmayr method small hook 2-strand; Becker method small hook 4-strand, non-modified tendon. Load until failure, load until gap formation, gap length, cross-sectional area and failure stress were determined. The small hook 2-strand suture had 1.3 fold higher loads until failure compared to a conventional 2-strand suture, P<0.05. The internal splint had a similar load until failure (22 N (SD 6)) as the conventional 2-strand suture (23 N (SD 4)); around half the load until failure of the conventional 4-strand suture (38 N (SD 9)). Load until gap formation correlated positively with load until failure (y=0.65+3.6; r(2)=0.72). The running suture increased the cross-sectional area at the repair site by a factor of 1.3. Using a small hook thread instead of a 4.0 polypropylene thread significantly increases the primary repair strength with the same number of strands. Internal splints may be an alternative to conventional 2-strand sutures for bridging large gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future prospects of nuclear power plants and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document includes 19 papers presented at the 'International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future Prospects of Nuclear Power Plants in Turkey', held between 12-15 October 1993 in Ankara (Turkey). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper prepared for each paper

  6. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  7. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  8. Biomechanics of the upper limb

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Jaworski; Robert Karpiński; Angelika Dobrowolska

    2016-01-01

    The article presents basics of the human upper limb’s anatomy, including skeletal system, joints and basic division of muscles in the limb. The biomechanics of the upper limb is introduced. The range of performed motions is depicted. The possible applications of anatomy and biomechanics of the upper limb are shown.

  9. Biomechanics in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusinger, R H

    1984-12-01

    Evidence from dynamic biomechanical analyses of physical activities has greatly expanded our knowledge about the mechanical bases for human movement function with potential implications for further understanding movement dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to relate these findings to present knowledge about the effect on human joints during movement, the role of muscle action on human skeletal levers during movement, and the application of this information to functional tasks by physical therapy clinicians. Also presented are some thoughts regarding what must be accomplished so that this material can be generalized to clinical practice.

  10. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  11. Microscopy, culture, and quantitative real-time PCR examination confirm internalization of mycobacteria in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, M; Lvoncik, S; Slana, I; Kulich, P; Kralik, P

    2014-07-01

    The environment is a reservoir of nontuberculous mycobacteria and is considered a source of infection for animals and humans. Mycobacteria can persist in different types of environments for a relatively long time. We have studied their possible internalization into plant tissue through intact, as well as damaged, root systems of different types of plants grown in vitro and under field conditions. The substrate into which plants were seeded was previously contaminated with different strains of Mycobacterium avium (10(8) to 10(10) cells/g of soil) and feces from animals with paratuberculosis. We detected M. avium subsp. avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in the stems and leaves of the plants by both culture and real-time quantitative PCR. The presence of mycobacteria in the plant tissues was confirmed by microscopy. The concentration of mycobacteria found inside plant tissue was several orders of magnitude lower (up to 10(4) cells/g of tissue) than the initial concentration of mycobacteria present in the culture medium or substrate. These findings led us to the hypothesis that plants may play a role in the spread and transmission of mycobacteria to other organisms in the environment. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. International Instruments for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: An Historical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sonnino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews the evolution of concepts and principles that inspired the adoption and enforcement of international instruments related to the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including agreements, governance and programs. The review spans from the pioneering attempts to regulate this matter, to the negotiations that led to the current regulatory framework, covering the creation of the Panel of Experts on Plant Exploration and Introduction of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO in 1965, the establishment of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR in 1974 and the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in 1983, the adoption of the International Undertaking in 1983 and, more recently (2001, the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The conceptual contribution, offered by Prof. Scarascia Mugnozza and other visionary scholars, to the establishment of these international instruments, is highlighted.

  13. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  14. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  15. Japan`s international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Akira [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  16. Japan's international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Akira

    1997-01-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  17. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  18. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  19. Internal dose assessment for environmental monitoring in nuclear power plant accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianji Fereidoun A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for exploiting human's internal contamination data for radioactive release estimation in nuclear power plant accidents is proposed. Nevertheless, such data is often very rough and uncertain; it is accessible even in toughest situations when most of the active and passive monitors are damaged by the accident. These data can be used in combination with other collectable data for estimating the event scale in severe nuclear power plan accidents. The rationale behind the method is that nuclear power plant accidents are often associated with internal contamination of radiation workers involved in the early stages of emergency response activities mainly due to the release of 131I in atmosphere. The proposed inverse analytical approach uses the 131I intake of contaminated workers, their working conditions, chronology of events, and applied personal safety measures during the first hours or days of the emergency response activities to estimate the magnitude of 131I concentration in the air.

  20. Aeronautical Inspirations in Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroński Ryszard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of the paper is to show that some problems formulated in the dynamics of atmospheric flight are very similar to the problems formulated in the biomechanics of motion and medicine. Three problems were compared: minimumheat transfer from the boundary layer to the ballistic missile skin, minimum-time ski descent, and the minimisation of the negative cumulated effect of the drug in cancer chemotherapy. Material and methods. All these problems are solved using the same method originally developed for aerospace systems - the method of Miele (the extremisation method of linear integrals via Green’s theorem. Results. It is shown that the problems arising in different branches of knowledge are very similar in problem formulations, mathematical models, and solution methods used. Conclusions. There are no barriers between different disciplines.

  1. A study of the international trend and comprehensive enhancement program on the Nuclear Power Plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1990-12-15

    The objectives of this study are as follows : overview of the international trend related to the safety of Nuclear Power Plant(NPPs), study of the present status of NPP safety in Korea in aspects of design, construction and operation, suggestion of the comprehensive program to improve NPP safety in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to improve the safety of existing and future NPPs, and to establish the severe accident policy in Korea.

  2. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering (ICMMPE 2016) which was held from 23rd to 24th November, 2016 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The proceedings discuss genuine problems of joining technologies that are heart of manufacturing sectors. It discusses the findings of experimental and numerical works from soldering, arc welding to solid state joining technology that faced by current industry. .

  3. Reviewing the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Symposium on Reviewing the Safety of Existing Nuclear Power Plants was held from 8 to 11 October 1996 at the Austria Center in Vienna. It was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA). About 160 experts from 37 countries and three international organizations took part. The participants represented nuclear power plant owners, operators, regulators, technical support organizations, designers and manufacturers. The Symposium was a follow-up to the 1991 International Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. This Conference will be remembered as the initiating force behind the Convention on Nuclear Safety, which entered into force on 24 October 1996. The Conference also formulated recommendations for future actions by both national and international organizations aimed at ensuring the safety of nuclear power. The goal of the present Symposium was to review the progress made in implementing the recommendations of the 1991 Conference relating to the safety of existing nuclear power plants, and to make available to all those involved in maintaining the safety of nuclear power plants information on effective methods, practices and criteria for safety review and operating experience feedback systems. The main Symposium sessions addressed the following topics: elements of the nuclear power safety strategy; ongoing safety reviews; periodic safety reviews; safety reviews of special issues and feedback of operating experience. In addition to the main sessions, two poster sessions illustrated safety assessment methods and experience; and information databases and operating experience feedback. In the closing Panel, the basis for continued safe operation of nuclear power plants was discussed

  4. The nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The internal audit program of the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (NMCandA) Department at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, through inventory-verification audits, inventory-observation audits, procedures audits, and records audits, evaluates the adequacy of material accounting and control systems and procedures throughout the Plant; appraises and verifies the accuracy and reliability of accountability records and reports; assures the consistent application of generally accepted accounting principles in accounting for nuclear materials; and assures compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) and NMCandA procedures and requirements. The internal audit program has significantly strengthened the control and accountability of nuclear materials through improving the system of internal control over nuclear materials, increasing the awareness of materials control and accountability concerns within the Plant's material balance areas (MBAs), strengthening the existence of audit trails within the overall accounting system for nuclear materials, improving the accuracy and timeliness of data submitted to the nuclear materials accountability system, auditing the NMCandA accounting system to ensure its accuracy and reliability, and ensuring that all components of that system (general ledgers, subsidiary ledgers, inventory listings, etc.) are in agreement among themselves

  5. Increase of Internal CO2 of Cotton Plants by Methanol Application to Increase Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badron Zakaria; Darmawan; Nurlina Kasim; Joseph Saepuddin

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment has been conducted to increase internal CO 2 and Rubisco activity detected by 14 C and to determinate which factors influence this activities. Plant material used was cotton plants which internal CO 2 concentrations and Rubisco activity was observed at 35, 50, 65, 80 days after planting (DAP). Treatments applied were methanol with concentrations of 0%, 10%,20% and 30% at available water (AW) at 25-50% AW, 50-75% AW, 75-100% AW. Results obtained showed that application of methanol at concentration of 20% at 75-100% AW, increase internal CO 2 from 266.60 ppm to 295.10 ppm (11 % increase) and this will also increase Rubisco activity from 3.81 to 14.28 (μmol. CO 2 menit -1 (μmol. Rubisco -1 ). This increase is expected to push photosynthesis rate and result in increase cotton yield. The use of 14 C was satisfactorily detected the amount of carbon. (author)

  6. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, Michael H.; Johnson, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  7. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  8. International symposium on nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This document contains extended synopsis of 92 papers presented at the International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Plant Nutrient, Water, and Soil Management held in Vienna, Austria, 16-20 October 2000. The efficient use of plant nutrient and fertilizer using carbon 13 and nitrogen 15 tracers; plant water use using oxygen 18 and moisture gauges, as well as soil and plant radioactivity monitoring, are some of the major subjects covered by these papers

  9. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  10. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  11. Scale-Independent Biomechanical Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schutte, J. F; Koh, B; Reinbolt, J. A; Haftka, R. T; George, A; Fregly, B. J

    2003-01-01

    ...: the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). They apply this method to the biomechanical system identification problem of finding positions and orientations of joint axes in body segments through the processing of experimental movement data...

  12. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  13. Absorbed Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients for Domestic Reference Animals and Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ( 3 H, 7 Be, 14 C, 40 K, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, '9 5 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Tc, 106 Ru, 129 I, 131 I, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 144 Ce, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (μGyd -1 per Bqkg -1 ) ranged from 10 -6 to 10 -2 according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as 238 U, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 238 U, 14 C, 3 H and 99 Tc were independent of the organism

  14. Absorbed Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients for Domestic Reference Animals and Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, '9{sup 5}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (muGyd{sup -1} per Bqkg{sup -1}) ranged from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc were independent of the organism

  15. Role of near-real-time accounting in international safeguards for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of conventional nuclear materials accounting systems, both national and international, is constrained by the fundamental process features of high-throughput nuclear facilities and the economic limits of effective nuclear materials management consistent with production goals. Conventional accounting, complemented by near-real-time accounting, may meet projected IAEA performance goals for detecting diversion in medium- and high-throughput reprocessing facilities projected for the late 1900's. The design of materials accounting systems for international safeguards in reprocessing plants is discussed, paying particular attention to the question of international verification. Specific problems in measurement techniques, data evaluation, and systems structure are identified, and the current status of research and development efforts is reviewed

  16. Internal Flooding Probabilistic Safety Assessment of an OPR-1000 Plant during Low Power and Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the electric power research institute (EPRI) published a guideline for the development of IF-PRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME/ANS RASa-2009 PRA consensus standard. The EPRI guideline delineates a level of detail and assessment complexity that has been significantly increased with respect to the guidance for IF assessment performed for the individual plant examination (IPE) to address Generic Letter 88- 20. The main differences include: A more systematic approach to the definition of flood area. The identification, screening and analysis of flooding sources and scenarios. The calculation of the initiating-event frequency (IEF) based on the actual length and characteristics of the piping. The inclusion of spatial effects such as spray from pipe leaks. The specific documentation associated with the plant walkdowns. Among these differences, this research focused on the third and fourth items when performing the internal flooding PSA. This is done by identifying the pipe and fluid characteristics, assessing the pipe pressure, characterizing the pipe (i.e., pipe diameter, length, etc.) and determining the pressure boundary failure frequency. The results were summed for the various piping systems within a given flood area to arrive at an overall internal flood initiating frequency for a given flood mode (i.e., spray, general flood, or major flood) for that particular area by each POS (Plant Operational State). In this initiating event frequency evaluations, the POS duration time is especially considered to get the real values for LPSD state. Characterizations of spray scenarios were evaluated to determine their impact on plant risk caused by internal flooding events.

  17. Power uprates in nuclear power plants: international experiences and approaches for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig

    2008-01-01

    The greater demand for electricity and the available capacity within safety margins in some operating NPPs are prompting nuclear utilities to request license modification to enable operation at a higher power level, beyond their original license provisions. Such plant modifications require an in-depth safety analysis to evaluate the possible safety impact. The analysis must consider the thermo hydraulic, radiological and structural aspects, and the plant behavior, while taking into account the capability of the structures, systems and components, and the reactor protection and safeguard systems set points. The purpose of this paper is to introduce international experiences and approaches for implementation of power uprates related to the reactor thermal power of nuclear power plants. The paper is intended to give the reader a general overview of the major processes, work products, issues, challenges, events, and experiences in the power uprates program. The process of increasing the licensed power level of a nuclear power plants is called a power uprate. One way of increasing the thermal output from a reactor is to increase the amount of fissile material in use. It is also possible to increase the core power by increasing the performance of the high power bundles. Safety margins can be maintained by either using fuels with a higher performance, or through the use of improved methods of analysis to demonstrate that the required margins are retained even at the higher power levels. The paper will review all types of power uprates, from small to large, and across various reactor types, including light and heavy water, pressurized, and boiling water reactors. Generally, however, the content of the report focuses on power uprates of the stretch and extended type. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing a technical guideline on power uprates and side effects of power uprates in nuclear power plants

  18. An international comparison of commercial nuclear power plant staffing regulations and practice, 1980--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.; Hauth, J.; Terrill, E.; Berk, B.; Gore, B.

    1994-03-01

    In this report an international review of regulatory and industry practices is provided in the area of nuclear power plant staffing during the 1980s in Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The objective of this review is to highlight trends in staffing regulatory approaches, industry practices, and issues of concern in other countries that have potential relevance to nuclear power plant staffing issues in the United States. The decade of the 1980s was marked by a great deal of growth in nuclear power operations internationally; however, growth of nuclear power is not expected to continue in the 1990s except in France and Japan. A continuum of regulatory approaches to staffing was identified, ranging from prescribed regulations that are applied to all licensees (Germany is most similar to the United States in this regard), to indirect staffing regulations where the regulatory authority oversees plant operating practices that are agreed to in the plant operating license (most notably, France and the United Kingdom). Most of the changes observed in staffing regulations and practices in the early 1980s were made in response to the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear power plant (TMI) in 1979. These changes included the widespread issuance of new operator and licensing requirements and the establishment of national training centers. After the post-TMI changes were implemented, a period of relative stability followed. Changes in the latter half of the 1980s have focused on continuing improvements and additions to training curricula and methods, most notably increased reliance on simulator training

  19. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  20. Activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the IAEA international working group on life management of nuclear power plants are outlined with emphasis on objectives, scope of activities, methods of work, organizational matters, financing

  1. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  3. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  4. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  5. FEBio: finite elements for biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Ateshian, Gerard A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    In the field of computational biomechanics, investigators have primarily used commercial software that is neither geared toward biological applications nor sufficiently flexible to follow the latest developments in the field. This lack of a tailored software environment has hampered research progress, as well as dissemination of models and results. To address these issues, we developed the FEBio software suite (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software/febio), a nonlinear implicit finite element (FE) framework, designed specifically for analysis in computational solid biomechanics. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical basis of FEBio and its main features. FEBio offers modeling scenarios, constitutive models, and boundary conditions, which are relevant to numerous applications in biomechanics. The open-source FEBio software is written in C++, with particular attention to scalar and parallel performance on modern computer architectures. Software verification is a large part of the development and maintenance of FEBio, and to demonstrate the general approach, the description and results of several problems from the FEBio Verification Suite are presented and compared to analytical solutions or results from other established and verified FE codes. An additional simulation is described that illustrates the application of FEBio to a research problem in biomechanics. Together with the pre- and postprocessing software PREVIEW and POSTVIEW, FEBio provides a tailored solution for research and development in computational biomechanics.

  6. The development of reactor vessel internal heavy forging for 1000 MW pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhifeng; Chen Yongbo; Ding Xiuping; Zhang Lingfang

    2012-01-01

    This Paper introduced the development of Reactor Vessel Internal (RVI) heavy forgings for 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant, analyzed the manufacture difficulties and technical countermeasures. The testing result of the product indicated that the performance of RVI heavy forgings manufactured by Shanghai Heavy Machinery Plant Ld. (SHMP) is outstanding and entirely satisfy the technical requirements for RVI product. (authors)

  7. Managing the development of plant subsystems for a large international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurd, D.

    2012-01-01

    ITER is an international collaborative project under development by nations representing over one half of the world's population. Major components will be supplied by 'Domestic Agencies' representing the various participating countries. While the supervisory control system, known as CODAC, will be developed 'in fund' by the International Organization at the project site in the south of France, the EPICS and PLC-based plant control subsystems are to be developed and tested locally, where the subsystems themselves are being built. This is similar to the model used for the development of the Spallation Neutron Source, which was a US national collaboration. However the much more complex constraints of an international collaboration preclude the use of many specifics of the SNS collaboration approach. Moreover, procedures for final system integration and commissioning at ITER are not yet well defined. This paper will outline the particular issues either inherent in an international collaboration or specific to ITER, and will suggest approaches to mitigate those problems with the goal of assuring a successful and timely integration and commissioning phase. (author)

  8. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  9. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  10. Biomechanics and the wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, C A; Brubaker, C E

    1991-04-01

    Wheelchair biomechanics involves the study of how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility. Because a wheelchair can coast, power input need not be continuous, but each power strike can be followed by a period of recovery, with the stroking frequency depending on user preferences and the coasting characteristics of the wheelchair. The latter is described in terms of rolling resistance, wind resistance and the slope of the surface. From these three factors the power required to propel the wheelchair is determined, and must be matched by the power output of the user. The efficiency of propulsion is the ratio of this power output to the metabolic cost and is typically in the order of 5% in normal use. The features required in a wheelchair depend upon user characteristics and intended activities. The ideal wheelchair for an individual will have the features that closely match these characteristics and activities. Thus prescription is not just choosing a wheelchair, but choosing the components of the wheelchair that best serve the intended purpose. In this paper, each component is examined for available options and how these options effect the performance of the wheelchair for the individual. The components include wheels, tyres, castors, frames, bearings, materials, construction details, seats, backrests, armrests, foot and legrests, headrests, wheel locks, running brakes, handrims, levers, accessories, adjustments and detachable parts. Each component is considered in relation to performance characteristics including rolling resistance, versatility, weight, comfort, stability, maneouvrability, transfer, stowage, durability and maintenance. Where they exist, wheelchair standards are referred to as a source of information regarding these characteristics.

  11. Biomechanical Perspectives on Concussion in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Bland, Megan L.; Campolettano, Eamon T.; Press, Jaclyn N.; Rowson, Bethany; Smith, Jake A.; Sproule, David W.; Tyson, Abigail M.; Duma, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Concussions can occur in any sport. Often, clinical and biomechanical research efforts are disconnected. This review paper analyzes current concussion issues in sports from a biomechanical perspective and is geared towards Sports Med professionals. Overarching themes of this review include: the biomechanics of the brain during head impact, role of protective equipment, potential population-based differences in concussion tolerance, potential intervention strategies to reduce the incidence of injury, and common biomechanical misconceptions. PMID:27482775

  12. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  13. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, Roger A.; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L.; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A.L.; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented

  14. Proceedings of the 2008 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants - ICAPP '08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    ICAPP 2008 congress brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covered the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. It covered also lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program comprised 13 technical tracks: 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues: Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting near term utility needs; design issues; business, economical cost challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors: Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, impact of non electricity applications on reactor design; advanced thermal and fast reactors. 3. LMFR and Longer Term Reactor Programs: Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as super critical water reactors and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management: Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in

  15. Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....

  16. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  17. Internal event analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis of Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant , CNSNS-TR-004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR-004 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the results of the system analysis for the Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. The system analysis involved the development of logical models for all the systems included in the accident sequence event tree headings, and for all the support systems required to operate the front line systems. For the Internal Event analysis for Laguna Verde, 16 front line systems and 5 support systems were included. Detailed fault trees were developed for most of the important systems. Simplified fault trees focusing on major faults were constructed for those systems that can be adequately represent,ed using this kind of modeling. For those systems where fault tree models were not constructed, actual data were used to represent the dominant failures of the systems. The main failures included in the fault trees are hardware failures, test and maintenance unavailabilities, common cause failures, and human errors. The SETS and TEMAC codes were used to perform the qualitative and quantitative fault tree analyses. (Author)

  18. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the I nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  19. Morphological and biomechanical response to eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guorong; Yuan, Changbo; Di, Guilan; Zhang, Meng; Ni, Leyi; Cao, Te; Fang, Rongting; Wu, Gongguo

    2018-05-01

    Eutrophication and hydrodynamics determine the final distribution patterns of aquatic macrophytes; however, there is limited available knowledge regarding their interactive effects. Morphological and biomechanical responses to eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses were assessed by sampling five abundant and dominant species, Potamogeton maackianus, P. pectinatus, P. lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum, in three macrophyte beds in Lake Erhai, Yunnan Province, China: one exposed to eutrophication and moderate southeast (SE) wind; one with mesotrophication, but sheltered by the lakeshore, with weak wind disturbance; and one with meso-eutrophication and strong SE wind. The results showed significant interactive effects of eutrophication and hydrodynamics on most biomechanical traits and some morphological traits, suggesting that aquatic macrophytes preferentially undergo biomechanical adjustments to resist the coexisting eutrophication and hydrodynamic stresses. In particular, hydrodynamics increased both the tensile force and tensile strain of P. maackianus under meso-eutrophication and dramatically decreased them in eutrophic areas, suggesting that eutrophication triggers mechanical failure in this species. Additionally, P. pectinatus, C. demersum and M. spicatum showed the lowest and highest values for the biomechanical variables (greater values for M. spicatum) in the most eutrophic and hydrodynamic areas, respectively, implying that increases in hydrodynamics primarily induce mechanical damage in eutrophic species. The plants generally exhibited greater tensile strain in both shallow and deep waters and the greatest tensile force at moderate depths. The stem cross-sectional area, plant height, stem length, internode length, and branch traits were all responsible for determining the biomechanical variables. This study reveals that hydrodynamic changes primarily induce mechanical damage in eutrophic species, whereas eutrophication triggers

  20. Sewage sludge amendment and inoculation with plant-parasitic nematodes do not facilitate the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornefeld, Eva; Baklawa, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Schikora, Adam; Smalla, Kornelia

    2018-05-01

    Contamination of fruits and vegetables with Salmonella is a serious threat to human health. In order to prevent possible contaminations of fresh produce it is necessary to identify the contributing ecological factors. In this study we investigated whether the addition of sewage sludge or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes foster the internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 into lettuce plants, posing a potential threat for human health. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate whether the amendment of sewage sludge to soil or the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne hapla or Pratylenchus crenatus promote the internalization of S. Typhimurium LT2 from soil into the edible part of lettuce plants. Unexpectedly, numbers of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 decreased faster in soil with sewage sludge than in control soil but not in root samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed shifts of the soil bacterial communities in response to sewage sludge amendment and time. Infection and proliferation of nematodes inside plant roots were observed but did not influence the number of cultivable S. Typhimurium LT2 in the root samples or in soil. S. Typhimurium LT2 was not detected in the leaf samples 21 and 49 days after inoculation. The results indicate that addition of sewage sludge, M. hapla or P. crenatus to soil inoculated with S. Typhimurium LT2 did not result in an improved survival in soil or internalization of lettuce plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of accumulated 137Cs and 60Co for terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Kiponas, D.; Plukiene, R.

    2004-01-01

    Our investigations were performed in Plunge region, the one of most polluted area in Lithuania with 137 Cs after Chernobyl NPP accident and in Ignalina NPP vicinity. 137 Cs and 60 Co specific activity in terrestrial plants were established by gamma spectrometry. The distribution of these radionuclides in separate parts (steam with lops and leaves) of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinus) and dwarf bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) as well as mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) was investigated. Internal exposure dose caused by 137 Cs and 60 Co ionizing radiation for terrestrial plants over the all vegetation period (190 days) was estimated. Results of investigations suggest uneven distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in separate parts of plants. Distribution of 137 Cs activity in separate parts of plants depends on plant species and on potassium distribution in these parts. The main amount of 60 Co in plants was accumulated in their root system. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of 137 Cs for terrestrial plants in Plunge region was 0,5-32 μSv while in Ignalina NPP vicinity - 0,1-9 μSv. Internal exposure dose caused by ionizing radiation of 60 Co for terrestrial plants growing in Ignalina NPP vicinity was 0,02-6 μSv. (author)

  2. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  3. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  4. Modernization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The scope of the modernization activities described in this report includes the modernization of equipment in operating plants and partially built plants. It covers the full range of types of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including protection, safety, control and information systems. It is applicable for a plant throughout its life. The report includes appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the I and C systems supply industry and takes advantage of the activities and lessons learned in the different national approaches to develop general guidance and recommendations. An Annex includes 10 country reports which were separately indexed

  5. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  6. Clinical applications of biomechanics cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodle, A S

    1986-10-01

    Biomechanics cinematography is the analysis of movement of living organisms through the use of cameras, image projection systems, electronic digitizers, and computers. This article is a comparison of cinematographic systems and details practical uses of the modality in research and education.

  7. Measurement of internal radiation exposure among decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nihei, Masahiko; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu; Kato, Shigeaki; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Matsumura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Hayano, Ryugo; Shibuya, Kenji; Kami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Taro

    2013-10-01

    Decontamination workers may face a high risk of exposure to internal irradiation through inhalation during decontamination activities; there is, however, little previous research on the levels of internal contamination during decontamination procedures. The authors reviewed the medical records, including whole body counter measurements, of decontamination workers in villages near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to assess their levels of internal radiation exposure. In total, 83 decontamination workers were enrolled in this study. They were regularly engaged in decontamination activities in highly contaminated areas where surface 137Cs deposition density was over 100 kBq m-2. The present study showed low levels of internal exposure among the decontamination workers near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The cesium burdens of all the decontamination workers were below detection limits. They had reported no acute health problems. The resuspension of radioactive materials may cause minimal internal contamination during decontamination activities.

  8. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  9. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies

  10. Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant. INSAG-26. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear power plant that is already licensed by an experienced regulator. Consequently, an option is to start development of national regulations by adopting or adapting regulations from a country that has licensed the same type of nuclear power plant. However, if the intention is to have an open technology selection process, care should be taken to establish a set of technology neutral regulations, such as by using the IAEA safety standards as the foundation. This set of technology neutral regulations can then be complemented by more design specific regulations after the technology is chosen. Since the development of technical competences requires considerable time, the regulatory body needs to plan for human resources development at a very early stage. As a first step, the essential competences required for the different phases of the nuclear power programme should be identified. Thereafter, formal training arrangements should be established between the regulatory body and one or more experienced regulators that have licensed a similar facility. This should include early interaction between senior managers of the two regulators followed by detailed training of selected staff who will form the technical core of the regulatory body. The regulatory body should also identify outside organizations that will act as its technical support organizations (TSOs) and should provide for conduct of nuclear safety R and D by these TSOs, including the appropriate research facilities and expertise. If additional nuclear power plants will be constructed in the new entrant country in the future, the new nuclear power plant units may not be of the same design as the first plant. This aspect should be kept in mind when developing both the licensing methodologies and staff. Regulatory staff can also obtain significant benefit from participation in international cooperation activities such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, technical cooperation forums of regulatory bodies of countries

  11. Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  12. Solar power plants - State of the art and prospects from the international point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faninger, G.

    Solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems are discussed. The possibilities for solar production of electricity is compared with those for alternative energy sources: running water, wind, waves, and heat gradients in oceans. Solar ponds are briefly discussed. The components of solar-thermal power plants are treated, including concentrators, refractors, collectors, and heliostats. The state of international cooperation and goal-setting is examined along with ways of optimizing solar-thermal systems. The tower and farm concepts of such systems are evaluated. For photovoltaic systems, the state of the art in solar cells, the structure of solar generators, cost factors, and system tests are discussed. The possible contributions of energy satellites are noted.

  13. International style interior in the historical steam power plant in Žilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grúňová Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the examples of good interior design in Slovak functionalist architecture uncovered during recent restorational research (2016. It points out that even provincial, small but growing town, which Žilina in the northern Slovakia region was at that time, can be a place of high-quality implementation of aesthetically valuable and structurally developed architectural design. The high level of composition, choice of color scheme, quality of materials and attention to detail prove the fact, that the architect František Bednárik mastered to apply international style ideas also to a small extent reconstruction of the original steam power plant in Žilina.

  14. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  15. Internal and external dose conversion coefficient for domestic reference animals and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Du Won; Choi, Young Ho

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the internal and external dose conversion coefficients for domestic reference animals and plant, which are essential to assess the radiological impact of an environmental radiation on non-human species. To calculate the dose conversion coefficients, a uniform isotropic model and a Monte Carlo method for a photon transport simulation in environmental media with different densities have been applied for aquatic and terrestrial animals, respectively. In the modeling all the target animals are defined as a simple 3D elliptical shape. To specify the external radiation source it is assumed that aquatic animals are fully immersed in infinite and uniformly contaminated water, and the on-soil animals are living on the surface of a horizontally infinite soil source, and the in-soil organisms are living at the center of a horizontally infinite and uniformly contaminated soil to a depth of 50cm. A set of internal and external dose conversion coefficients for 8 Korean reference animals and plant (rat, roe-deer, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, earthworm, and pine tree) are presented for 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu)

  16. Physiopathology and biomechanics of hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors seem to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of hip osteoarthritis. Among these, an altered biomechanic and neuromuscular integrity of the hip joint should be considered. This is a review of the recent international literature concerning the role of loads and strengths acting on the hip joint, in order to better understand the pathogenesis and the physiopathology of the hip osteoarthritis. The study of these factors might be important to prevent the development of the osteoarthritis and might suggest the conservative treatment. In particular, the role of the balance among the muscles working in maintaining the equilibrium of the acting strengths is matter of discussion. The articular and neuromuscular dysfunction might induce an altered load distribution in the hip, particularly on the articular cartilage surface, and seems to favour the development of hip osteoarthritis...

  17. Actin gene identification from selected medicinal plants for their use as internal controls for gene expression studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, F.U.D.; Banaras, S.

    2015-01-01

    Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of 370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank (Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)). The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants. (author)

  18. Results and insights of internal fire and internal flood analyses of the Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states (POSs) other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies (CDFs), important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a Level 3 PRA for internal events and a Level 1 PRA for seismically induced and internal fire and flood induced core damage sequences. This paper summarizes the results and highlights of the internal fire and flood analysis documented in Volumes 3 and 4 of NUREG/CR-6144 performed for the Surry plant during mid-loop operation

  19. Fukushima Nuclear Accident, the Third International Severe Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Japan is the world's third largest power user. Japan's last remaining nuclear reactor shutdown on Saturday 4 Th of May 2012 leaving the country entirely nuclear free. All of 50 of the nation's operable reactors (not counting for the four crippled reactors at Fukushima) are now offline. Before last year's Fukushima nuclear disaster, the country obtained 30% of its energy from nuclear plants, and had planned to produce up to 50% of its power from nuclear sources by 2030. Japan declared states of emergency for five nuclear reactors at two power plants after the units lost cooling ability in the aftermath of Friday 11 March 2011 powerful earthquake. Thousands of (14000) residents were immediately evacuated as workers struggled to get the reactors under control to prevent meltdowns. On March 11 Th, 2011, Japan experienced a sever earthquake resulting in the shutdown of multiple reactors. At Fukushima Daiichi site, the earthquake caused the loss of normal Ac power. In addition it appeals that the ensuing tsunami caused the loss of emergency Ac power at the site. Subsequent events caused damage to fuel and radiological releases offsite. The spent fuel problem is a wild card in the potentially catastrophic failure of Fukushima power plant. Since the Friday's 9.0 earthquake, the plant has been wracked by repeated explosions in three different reactors. Nuclear experts emphasized there are significant differences between the unfolding nuclear crisis at Fukushima and the events leading up to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The Chernobyl reactor exploded during a power surge while it was in operation and released a major cloud of radiation because the reactor had no containment structure around to. At Fukushima, each reactor has shutdown and is inside a 20 cm-thick steel pressure vessel that is designed to contain a meltdown. The pressure vessels themselves are surrounded by steel-lined, reinforced concrete shells. Chernobyl disaster was classified 7 on the International

  20. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  1. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 1: International availability data exchange for thermal generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Deschaine, R. [Black and Veatch (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 1 (WG1). WG1's primary focus is to analyse the best ways to measure, evaluate, and apply power plant performance and availability data to promote plant performance improvements worldwide. The paper explores the specific work activities of 2004-2007 to extend traditional analysis and benchmarking frameworks. It is divided into two major topics: Overview of current electric supply industry issues/trends; and, Technical Methods/Tools to evaluate performance in today's ESI.

  2. Evaluation of a Particle Swarm Algorithm For Biomechanical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Jaco F.; Koh, Byung; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; George, Alan D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    Optimization is frequently employed in biomechanics research to solve system identification problems, predict human movement, or estimate muscle or other internal forces that cannot be measured directly. Unfortunately, biomechanical optimization problems often possess multiple local minima, making it difficult to find the best solution. Furthermore, convergence in gradient-based algorithms can be affected by scaling to account for design variables with different length scales or units. In this study we evaluate a recently-developed version of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to address these problems. The algorithm’s global search capabilities were investigated using a suite of difficult analytical test problems, while its scale-independent nature was proven mathematically and verified using a biomechanical test problem. For comparison, all test problems were also solved with three off-the-shelf optimization algorithms—a global genetic algorithm (GA) and multistart gradient-based sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and quasi-Newton (BFGS) algorithms. For the analytical test problems, only the PSO algorithm was successful on the majority of the problems. When compared to previously published results for the same problems, PSO was more robust than a global simulated annealing algorithm but less robust than a different, more complex genetic algorithm. For the biomechanical test problem, only the PSO algorithm was insensitive to design variable scaling, with the GA algorithm being mildly sensitive and the SQP and BFGS algorithms being highly sensitive. The proposed PSO algorithm provides a new off-the-shelf global optimization option for difficult biomechanical problems, especially those utilizing design variables with different length scales or units. PMID:16060353

  3. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  4. Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed.

  5. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression. PMID:22400120

  6. Confidence crisis of results in biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2017-11-01

    Many biomechanics studies have small sample sizes and incorrect statistical analyses, so reporting of inaccurate inferences and inflated magnitude of effects are common in the field. This review examines these issues in biomechanics research and summarises potential solutions from research in other fields to increase the confidence in the experimental effects reported in biomechanics. Authors, reviewers and editors of biomechanics research reports are encouraged to improve sample sizes and the resulting statistical power, improve reporting transparency, improve the rigour of statistical analyses used, and increase the acceptance of replication studies to improve the validity of inferences from data in biomechanics research. The application of sports biomechanics research results would also improve if a larger percentage of unbiased effects and their uncertainty were reported in the literature.

  7. WorldSID Prototype Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D; Compigne, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L; Takahashi, N; Page, M; Asakawa, K; Kostyniuk, G; Hautmann, E; Bortenschlager, K; Sakurai, M; Harigae, T

    2001-11-01

    The results of biomechanical testing of the WorldSID prototype dummy are presented in this paper. The WorldSID dummy is a new, advanced Worldwide Side Impact Dummy that has the anthropometry of a mid-sized adult male. The first prototype of this dummy has been evaluated by the WorldSID Task Group against previously established corridors for its critical body regions. The response corridors are defined in the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) Technical Report 9790. The prototype is the first version of the WorldSID dummy to be built and tested. This dummy has been subjected to a rigorous program of testing to evaluate, first and foremost its biofidelity, but also its repeatability. Following this initial evaluation, any required modifications will be incorporated into a pre-production version of the WorldSID dummy so that it rates "good" to "excellent" on the ISO dummy biofidelity scale - a rating exceeding that of all current side impact dummies. Also, the overall WorldSID repeatability must not exceed a coefficient of variation of 7% at injury assessment level and this has to be verified for the different body regions. The dummy's head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were evaluated against the ISO technical report requirements. Testing included drop tests, pendulum impacts, and sled tests. The biofidelity rating of the WorldSID prototype was calculated using the weighted biomechanical test response procedure developed by ISO. The paper presents the results of the testing, which give a very positive indication of the dummy's potential. Based on this evaluation of the dummy biofidelity, the WorldSID prototype dummy exhibits a biofidelity rating of 6.15 that corresponds to an ISO biofidelity classification of "fair". In addition, the dummy shows good repeatability with a global coefficient of variation of 3.30% for the pendulum and rigid sled tests.

  8. [BIOMECHANICS STUDY ON ACETABULAR POSTERIOR WALL FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Hu Xiaopeng; Lu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Yuntong; Zhang, Chuncai; Wang, Panfeng; Zhao, Xue

    2015-08-01

    To study the experimental biomechanics of acetabular posterior wall fractures so as to provide theoretical basis for its clinical treatment. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were divided into groups A and B (n=3). The fracture models of superior-posterior wall and inferior-posterior wall of the acetabulum were created on both hips in group A; fractures were fixed with two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction plate. The fracture models of superior-posterior wall of acetabulum were created on both hips in group B; fractures were fixed with two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction plate at one side, and with acetabular tridimensional memory fixation system (ATMFS) at the other side. The biomechanical testing machine was used to load to 1 500 N at 10 mm/min speed for 30 seconds. The displacement of superior and inferior fracture sites was analyzed with the digital image correlation technology. No fracture or internal fixation breakage occurred during loading and measuring; the displacement valuess of the upper and lower fracture lines were below 2 mm (the clinically tolerable maximum value) in 2 groups. In group A, the displacement values of the upper and lower fracture lines at superior-posterior wall fracture site were significantly higher than those at inferior-posterior wall fracture site (P fracture line were significantly higher than those of lower fracture line (P fracture types. In group B, the displacement values of the upper and lower fracture lines at the side fixed with screws and a locking reconstruction plate were similar to the values at the side fixed with ATMFS, all being close to 2 mm; the displacement values of the upper fracture line were significantly higher than those of lower fracture line (P acetabulum is much greater than that of the inferior-posterior wall of acetabulum and they should be discriminated, which might be the reasons of reduction loss, femoral head subluxation, and traumatic arthritis

  9. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o, closed-circuit (SMFC-c, aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c. The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the

  10. Prosthetic abutment influences bone biomechanical behavior of immediately loaded implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana de Villa CAMARGOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the type of prosthetic abutment associated to different implant connection on bone biomechanical behavior of immediately and delayed loaded implants. Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a mandible with a single molar implant were created with different types of prosthetic abutment (UCLA or conical, implant connection (external hexagon, EH or internal hexagon, IH, and occlusal loading (axial or oblique, for both immediately and delayed loaded implants. Analysis of variance at 95%CI was used to evaluate the peak maximum principal stress and strain in bone after applying a 100 N occlusal load. The results showed that the type of prosthetic abutment influences bone stress/strain in only immediately loaded implants. Attachment of conical abutments to IH implants exhibited the best biomechanical behavior, with optimal distribution and dissipation of the load in peri-implant bone.

  11. Comparative biomechanics: life's physical world (second edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mech...

  12. A review of biomechanics of the shoulder and biomechanical concepts of rotator cuff repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the basic knowledge about shoulder biomechanics, which is thought to be useful for surgeons. Some clinical reports have described that the excellent outcome after cuff repair without acromioplasty and a limited acromioplasty might be enough for subacromial decompression. It was biomechanically demonstrated that a 10-mm medial shift of the tendon repair site has a minimum effect on biomechanics. Many biomechanical studies reported that the transosseous equivalent repair was superior to other techniques, although the tendon may lose its inherent elasticity. We herein introduce our recent experiment data and latest information on biomechanics.

  13. Reinforced fixation of distal fibula fractures in elderly patients; A meta-analysis of biomechanical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Siem A; Lodeizen, Olivia A P; Goslings, J Carel; Schepers, Tim

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing incidence of fragility fractures of the ankle in the elderly population. The open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures is challenging, due to reduced bone stock quality as a result of osteoporosis. Biomechanical studies have shown contradicting results using reinforced constructions in the fixation of fibular fractures. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of biomechanical studies on reinforced fixation of distal fibular fractures. A literature search was conducted utilizing three online databases considering biomechanical testing of different fixation techniques of distal fibular fractures. A meta-analysis was performed on two biomechanical outcome measures; torsional stiffness and torque to failure. In a total number of 13 studies 8 different reinforcement techniques were identified. Of these studies, six compared locked lateral plating with conventional lateral plating. There were no statistically significant differences between the locking and non-locking lateral plate for torque to failure or torsional stiffness. Locked plating strength was independent from bone mineral density in four studies. An antiglide plate proved to be biomechanically superior compared to a lateral plate in one study and to a locked plate in another. Locked lateral plates are not biomechanically superior to conventional lateral plates. However the strength of locked plating may be independent of bone mineral density and could make this technique more suitable in the fixation of severe osteoporotic fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomechanics of the human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kristin M; Elad, David

    2017-09-01

    The appropriate biomechanical function of the uterus is required for the execution of human reproduction. These functions range from aiding the transport of the embryo to the implantation site, to remodeling its tissue walls to host the placenta, to protecting the fetus during gestation, to contracting forcefully for a safe parturition and postpartum, to remodeling back to its nonpregnant condition to renew the cycle of menstruation. To serve these remarkably diverse functions, the uterus is optimally geared with evolving and contractile muscle and tissue layers that are cued by chemical, hormonal, electrical, and mechanical signals. The relationship between these highly active biological signaling mechanisms and uterine biomechanical function is not completely understood for normal reproductive processes and pathological conditions such as adenomyosis, endometriosis, infertility and preterm labor. Animal studies have illuminated the rich structural function of the uterus, particularly in pregnancy. In humans, medical imaging techniques in ultrasound and magnetic resonance have been combined with computational engineering techniques to characterize the uterus in vivo, and advanced experimental techniques have explored uterine function using ex vivo tissue samples. The collective evidence presented in this review gives an overall perspective on uterine biomechanics related to both its nonpregnant and pregnant function, highlighting open research topics in the field. Additionally, uterine disease and infertility are discussed in the context of tissue injury and repair processes and the role of computational modeling in uncovering etiologies of disease. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1388. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1388 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationships between physical and biomechanical parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proficient golf swing is composed of a sequence of highly complex biomechanical movements and requires precisely timed and coordinated body movements to achieve great distance and accuracy. The aim of the current study was to identify the key physiological and biomechanical variables that relate to golf drive ...

  16. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    1996. Worthen, L., Hamill, J. Biomechanical issues in ballet : ankle alignment in pointe shoes. 15d, Annual Symposium on Medical Problems of Musicians... Mexico Race Walkers Association, Albuquerque, New Mexico , June, 1987. Biomechanics of fitness walking. American Diabetes Association, St. Louis, Missouri

  17. Biomechanical benefits of symmetrical strengthening of hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is abundant literature encouraging athletes to engage in concurrent strength training. However, little emphasis is placed on the value of biomechanics with regard to symmetrical strengthening of force-couple relationships. A review of literature reveals 565 biomechanical papers versus 2085 physiological papers ...

  18. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  19. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  20. ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This proceedings contains articles of ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems. It was held on Aug. 24-28, 2014 in Jeju. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions. The subject titles of I and C session are sensor, modern control, diagnostics and surveillance, digital upgrades, software V and V, cyber security, safety and reliability of digital systems, risk and safety evaluation, etc. The subject titles of HMI session are Human factors engineering, human performance, human reliability assessment, control room design, operator support systems, etc. The subject titles of ISSNP session are Safety and risk studies from social, environmental and economic aspects, other general nuclear engineering (ex. Reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, reactor core and plant behavior, nuclear fuel behavior, etc.) and integrated aspects of energy systems (ex. Multipurpose utilization of nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, plant decommissioning, comparative study of nuclear energy with other energy technologies, etc.)

  1. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017.

  2. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  3. Tenth meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation, Vienna, 3-5 March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of NPP control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The papers and discussions mostly dealt with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern, highly automated control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 20 presentations of the meeting

  4. Information technology impact on nuclear power plant documentation. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    As the majority of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world were designed and constructed about twenty to forty years ago, these older power plants may have shortcomings in documentation on construction, commissioning, operations, maintenance, or decommissioning. Therefore, facility documentation does not always reflect actual plant status after years of plant operation, modification, and maintenance. To deal with these shortcomings, computer and information technologies that provide sophisticated and modern design tools as well as information processing and storage facilities can offer dramatic innovation from paper-centric documentation towards data-centric documentation. This report addresses all aspects of documentation associated with various life-cycle phases of NPPs and the information technology (IT) that are relevant to the documentation process. It also provides a guide for planning, designing, and executing an IT documentation project. Examples are given to demonstrate successful implementations at plants. Finally, it discusses the issues related to the application of the IT in NPPs and the trends for applications of the IT at NPPs as well as the technology itself. It is recognized that this can also improve configuration management. reliability of data, quality of personnel work, and ultimately plant performance reliability and safety. The aspects of using the IT for NPP documentation are closely related to configuration management at NPPs. The report consists of nine sections, a reference section, and five additional appendices. The development of this report which was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in Vienna (October 1999, November 2000). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States of America. In addition, a

  5. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kathryn M.; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Internalization of food?borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E.?coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10?day time?course. The plant species, tis...

  6. Characterization of the internal resistance of a plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to clarify the internal resistance of the PMFC. To characterize internal resistances of the PMFC current interrupt and polarization were used, and partial resistances were calculated. The internal resistance consisted mainly of anode resistance and membrane

  7. An international benchmark on safety review practices at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.

    2000-02-01

    A benchmarking exercise on safety review practices at nuclear power plants in Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom has been carried out. In the exercise a comparison was made between documented practices at the Forsmark, Hinkley Point A and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. In addition a total of 28 persons at FKA, Magnox and TVO were interviewed on their views on the efficiency of the plant modification processes in the later half of 1997. One specific example of a plant modification was selected from each of the nuclear power plant sites to provide a basis for the comparison. The report gives an account of the methodology used, a description of the plant modification projects, impressions from the interviews, potential problem areas and suggestions for possible improvements. (orig.)

  8. Sediment Resuspension and Deposition on Seagrass Leaves Impedes Internal Plant Aeration and Promotes Phytotoxic H2S Intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper E. Brodersen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTS:Sedimentation of fine sediment particles onto seagrass leaves severely hampers the plants' performance in both light and darkness, due to inadequate internal plant aeration and intrusion of phytotoxic H2S.Anthropogenic activities leading to sediment re-suspension can have adverse effects on adjacent seagrass meadows, owing to reduced light availability and the settling of suspended particles onto seagrass leaves potentially impeding gas exchange with the surrounding water. We used microsensors to determine O2 fluxes and diffusive boundary layer (DBL thickness on leaves of the seagrass Zostera muelleri with and without fine sediment particles, and combined these laboratory measurements with in situ microsensor measurements of tissue O2 and H2S concentrations. Net photosynthesis rates in leaves with fine sediment particles were down to ~20% of controls without particles, and the compensation photon irradiance increased from a span of 20–53 to 109–145 μmol photons m−2 s−1. An ~2.5-fold thicker DBL around leaves with fine sediment particles impeded O2 influx into the leaves during darkness. In situ leaf meristematic O2 concentrations of plants exposed to fine sediment particles were lower than in control plants and exhibited long time periods of complete meristematic anoxia during night-time. Insufficient internal aeration resulted in H2S intrusion into the leaf meristematic tissues when exposed to sediment resuspension even at relatively high night-time water-column O2 concentrations. Fine sediment particles that settle on seagrass leaves thus negatively affect internal tissue aeration and thereby the plants' resilience against H2S intrusion.

  9. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP. "Sansai" (edible wild plants in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137 were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3% samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0% samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7% registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit. The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y, at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015. Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura" and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai". Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  10. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rimi; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuukou; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). “Sansai” (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents’ risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (“Koshiabura”) and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, “Zenmai”). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the “satoyama” (countryside) culture of ingesting “sansai,” also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster. PMID:29240794

  11. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rimi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuukou; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura") and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai"). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside) culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  12. American Nuclear Society executive conference nuclear market needs: Domestic and international future changes in operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author says the utility industry will be facing many new challenges and there will be many opportunities to develop innovative techniques to run the plants. He concentrates on four areas, where he believes there is the greatest opportunity for improvement. First, the utility organization will be in transition to provide complete support and commitment to site activities. Second, plant operating activities will be changing to improve plant operating characteristics and availability. Third, the area of plant maintenance will prove to have a significant impact on utilities. And fourth, the industry must promote an attitude where its people are striving to achieve quality in their daily work

  13. Gait biomechanics and hip muscular strength in patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Michael B; Patel, Chirag; Wiley, J Preston; Ferber, Reed

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) have described a history of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). This leads to speculation that the underpinning mechanical causes of PFPS and PFOA may be similar. Although alterations in gait biomechanics and hip strength have been reported in PFPS, this relationship has not yet been explored in PFOA. Therefore the purpose of this study was compare gait biomechanics and hip muscular strength between PFOA patients and a healthy control group. Fifteen patients with symptomatic, radiographic PFOA and 15 controls participated. All patients underwent a walking gait analysis and maximal hip strength testing. Biomechanical variables of interest included the peak angular values of contra-lateral pelvic drop, hip adduction and hip internal rotation during the stance phase. Hip abduction and external rotation strength were assessed using maximal voluntary isometric contractions. The PFOA group demonstrated significantly lower hip abduction strength compared to controls but no difference in hip external rotation strength. There were no statistical differences between the PFOA and control groups for contra-lateral pelvic drop, hip adduction and hip internal rotation angles during walking. Despite patients with PFOA exhibiting weaker hip abductor muscle strength compared to their healthy counterparts they did not demonstrate alterations in pelvis or hip biomechanics during gait. These preliminary data suggests that weaker hip abductor strength does not result in biomechanical alterations during gait in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  15. Biomechanics in Paralympics: Implications for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriën, Floor; Taylor, Matthew J D; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-05-01

    To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. The search terms paralympic biomechanics, paralympic sport performance, paralympic athlete performance, and paralympic athlete were entered into the electronic database PubMed. Thirty-four studies were found. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n = 32) and/or injury prevention (n = 6). In addition, biomechanics was found to be important in understanding activity limitation caused by various impairments, which is relevant for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports (n = 6). Distinctions were made between biomechanical studies in sitting (41%), standing (38%), and swimming athletes (21%). In sitting athletes, mostly kinematics and kinetics in wheelchair propulsion were studied, mainly in athletes with spinal-cord injuries. In addition, kinetics and/or kinematics in wheelchair basketball, seated discus throwing, stationary shot-putting, hand-cycling, sit-skiing, and ice sledge hockey received attention. In standing sports, primarily kinematics of athletes with amputations performing jump sports and running and the optimization of prosthetic devices were investigated. No studies were reported on other standing sports. In swimming, mainly kick rate and resistance training were studied. Biomechanical research is important for performance by gaining insight into technical optimization, injury prevention, and evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports. In future studies it is advised to also include physiological and biomechanical measures, allowing the assessment of the capability of the human body, as well as the resulting movement.

  16. Internal and external dispersal of plants by animals: an aquatic perspective on alien interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Casper

    2018-01-01

    Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of

  17. Phase Identification and Internal Stress Analysis of Steamside Oxides on Plant Exposed Superheater Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    During long-term, high-temperature exposure of superheater tubes in thermal power plants, various oxides are formed on the inner side (steamside) of the tubes, and oxide spallation is a serious problem for the power plant industry. Most often, oxidation in a steam atmosphere is investigated in la...

  18. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance.

  19. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    . The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The report addresses the reactor pressure vessel internals in BWRs. Maintaining the structural integrity of these reactor pressure vessel internals throughout NPP service life, in spite of several ageing mechanisms, is essential for plant safety

  1. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  2. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhokwe, Marcia; Mupangwa, Johnfisher; Masika, Patrick J; Maphosa, Viola; Muchenje, Voster

    2016-04-29

    The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003), and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22%) was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%). The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.

  3. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  4. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Marjolein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help meeting the increasing energy demand. Power output of the P-MFC, however, needs to be increased to make it attractive as a renewable and sustainable energy source. To increase power output of the P-MFC internal resistances need to be reduced. With a flat-plate P-MFC design we tried to minimize internal resistances compared to the previously used tubular P-MFC design. With the flat-plate design current and power density per geometric planting area were increased (from 0.15 A/m2 to 1.6 A/m2 and from 0.22 W/m2 to and 0.44 W/m2as were current and power output per volume (from 7.5 A/m3 to 122 A/m3 and from 1.3 W/m3 to 5.8 W/m3. Internal resistances times volume were decreased, even though internal resistances times membrane surface area were not. Since the membrane in the flat-plate design is placed vertically, membrane surface area per geometric planting area is increased, which allows for lower internal resistances times volume while not decreasing internal resistances times membrane surface area. Anode was split into three different sections on different depths of the system, allowing to calculate internal resistances on different depths. Most electricity was produced where internal resistances were lowest and where most roots were present; in the top section of the system. By measuring electricity production on different depths in the system, electricity production could be linked to root growth. This link offers opportunities for material-reduction in new designs. Concurrent reduction in material use and increase in power output brings the P-MFC a step closer to usable energy density and economic feasibility.

  5. Biomechanics-Hot Topics Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkemeier, Christopher; Adams, John D; Bernstein, Mitchell; Lee, Mark A; Harvey, Ed; Crist, Brett D

    2018-03-01

    Orthopaedic surgery and biomechanics are intimately partnered topics in medicine. Biomechanical principles are used to design implants and fashion treatment protocols. Although it would seem that biomechanical principles in the design of fixation devices and fracture repair constructs have been already finalized, there are several points of controversy remaining. New technology has raised new questions, while at the same time, we still do not fully understand simple clinical principles such as time of fracture healing depending on the construct used. This review looks at several of these current controversies to better understand what work is needed in fracture care going forward.

  6. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  7. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  9. NCERA-101 STATION REPORT - KENNEDY SPACE CENTER: Large Plant Growth Hardware for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2013-01-01

    This is the station report for the national controlled environments meeting. Topics to be discussed will include the Veggie and Advanced Plant Habitat ISS hardware. The goal is to introduce this hardware to a potential user community.

  10. Analysis of the impact of biomechanical traits of European black Poplar on riverbank flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Villani, Paolo; Rita, Angelo; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of riparian plants on river flow dynamics is fundamental for an appropriate river management. Riparian woody vegetation enhances bank cohesion and provides ecosystem services by mitigating nutrient and sediment loads to the river flow and enhancing biodiversity. However riparian trees also contribute to river flow resistance and thus can have a significant impact on flow dynamics during flood events. The flow-plant interaction mainly depends on plant morphological characters (e.g. diameter, height, canopy size, foliage density) and biomechanical properties, such as its flexural rigidity. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic behaviour of the European black Poplar (∖textit{Populus nigra} L.), a common woody riparian plant, is influenced by specific biomechanical traits developed as result of its adaptation to different river ecosystems. We examine the morphological and biomechanical properties of living stems of black Poplar sampled in two different riverine environments in Southern Italy located only a few kilometres apart. The two sample sets of living stems exhibit similar morphological traits but significantly different Young module of elasticity. We compared the drag forces that the flow would exert on these two different sets of plants for a wide range of flow velocities, by employing a numerical model that accounts for the bending behaviour of the woody plant due to the hydrodynamic load, under the hypothesis of complete submergence. A Monte Carlo approach was applied in order to account for the stochastic variability of the morphological and mechanical parameters affecting plant biomechanical behaviour. We identified a threshold value of the plant diameter, above which the two sets of European black Poplars are subjected to drag forces that differ by more than 25{∖%} on average, for flow velocities larger than 1 m/s.

  11. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  12. THE CENTER FOR MILITARY BIOMECHANICS RESEARCH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Military Biomechanics Research is a 7,500 ft2 dedicated laboratory outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment for 3-D analysis of movement, measurement...

  13. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Iren Kittang Jost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days on single cells (plant protoplasts. Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  14. FUNDAMENTA LS OF BIOMECHANIC BIOMEDICAL ENGINERING

    OpenAIRE

    Sriwijaya, Rachmat

    2017-01-01

    Studi tentang biomechanics telah berkembang pesat dari awalnya hanya aplikasi studi mekanika teknik yang sederhana kemudian meluas dengan pelibatan berbagai bidang studi. Dalam bidang biomechanics buku ini sangat membantu mahasiswa ataupun peneliti untuk memahami dasar-dasar mekanika dan dinamika tubuh manusia, yang menjadi bidang kajian penting dalam studi rekayasa biomedik. Buku ini memberikan pengetahuan yang memadai tentang konsep statika, gerak, dinamika, pemodelan, dan aplikasinya dikai...

  15. Lingual biomechanics, case selection and success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Labh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeper understanding of lingual biomechanics is prerequisite for success with lingual appliance. The difference between labial and lingual force system must be understood and kept in mind during treatment planning, especially anchorage planning, and extraction decision-making. As point of application of force changes, it completely changes the force system in all planes. This article describes lingual biomechanics, anchorage planning, diagnostic considerations, treatment planning, and case selection criteria in lingual orthodontics.

  16. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  17. External and internal radiation doses from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident received by residents of Chiba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Ohta, Yuji; Banba, Shigeru; Maeyama, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) first reached the Chiba-City on March 15, 2011. Atmospheric and tap water samples were collected from March 2011 to August 2012 to measure of radioactivity in the Chiba-City, about 220 km SSE of the Fukushima NPP. We then used the data to analyze the external and internal (from inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated drinking water) radiation doses received by the residents of the Chiba-City after the accident. (author)

  18. Inducing resistance: a summary of papers presented at the First International Symposium on Induced Resistance to Plant Diseases, Corfu, May 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschmidt, R.; Métraux, J.-P.; Loon, L.C. van

    2000-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Induced Resistance to Plant Diseases, organized by Eris Tjamos, brought together over 150 participants to discuss the complexities, questions and future direction of research on the mechanisms by which plants can become better able to defend themselves

  19. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  20. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists

  1. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the GRIN-Global Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...

  2. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank and Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the world's national genebanks, responsible for the safeguarding and availability of their country's Plant Genetic Resource (PGR) collections, have lacked access to high quality IT needed to document and manage their collections electronically. The Germplasm Resource Information System (GRI...

  3. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE «PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETICS – SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES», 24\\26 SEPTEMBER 2014, SOFIA, REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    F. B. Musayev; E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    24-26 September 2014 in the Republic of Bulgaria the International scientific and practical conference entitled «Plant Physiology and Genetics – Achievements and Challenges» was hold. The forum discussed the biotechnology and genetic approaches for environmental and sustainable agriculture; genetic resources and biodiversity; efficient use of plant nutrition and symbiotic interaction; regulation of plant growth and development; photosynthesis under stress conditions.

  4. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE «PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETICS – SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES», 24\\26 SEPTEMBER 2014, SOFIA, REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Musayev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 24-26 September 2014 in the Republic of Bulgaria the International scientific and practical conference entitled «Plant Physiology and Genetics – Achievements and Challenges» was hold. The forum discussed the biotechnology and genetic approaches for environmental and sustainable agriculture; genetic resources and biodiversity; efficient use of plant nutrition and symbiotic interaction; regulation of plant growth and development; photosynthesis under stress conditions.

  5. Problem statement: international safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, J.P.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Darby, J.L.

    1979-03-01

    This report considers the problem of developing international safeguards for a light-water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing/conversion facility that combines the Purex process with conversion of plutonium nitrate to the oxide by means of plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation and calcination. Current international safeguards systems are based on the complementary concepts of materials accounting and containment and surveillance, which are designed to detect covert, national diversion of nuclear material. This report discusses the possible diversion threats and some types of countermeasures, and it represents the first stage in providing integrated international safeguards system concepts that make optimum use of available resources. The development of design methodology to address this problem will constitute a significant portion of the subsequent effort. Additionally, future technology development requirements are identified. 8 figures, 1 table

  6. Biomechanics of single cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernick, Kristin B; Prevost, Thibault P; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-03-01

    This study presents experimental results and computational analysis of the large strain dynamic behavior of single neurons in vitro with the objective of formulating a novel quantitative framework for the biomechanics of cortical neurons. Relying on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, novel testing protocols are developed to enable the characterization of neural soma deformability over a range of indentation rates spanning three orders of magnitude, 10, 1, and 0.1 μm s(-1). Modified spherical AFM probes were utilized to compress the cell bodies of neonatal rat cortical neurons in load, unload, reload and relaxation conditions. The cell response showed marked hysteretic features, strong non-linearities, and substantial time/rate dependencies. The rheological data were complemented with geometrical measurements of cell body morphology, i.e. cross-diameter and height estimates. A constitutive model, validated by the present experiments, is proposed to quantify the mechanical behavior of cortical neurons. The model aimed to correlate empirical findings with measurable degrees of (hyper)elastic resilience and viscosity at the cell level. The proposed formulation, predicated upon previous constitutive model developments undertaken at the cortical tissue level, was implemented in a three-dimensional finite element framework. The simulated cell response was calibrated to the experimental measurements under the selected test conditions, providing a novel single cell model that could form the basis for further refinements. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussev, I.A.; Moissev, A.A.; Evtichiev, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  8. Aging management of PWR reactor internals in U.S. plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberge, K.J.; Demma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development, aging management strategies and inspection results of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) vessel internals inspection and evaluation guidelines. The goal of these guidelines is to provide PWR owners with robust aging management strategies to monitor degradation of internals components to support life extension as well as the current period of operation and power up-rate activities. The implementation of these guidelines began in 2010 within the U.S. PWR fleet and several examinations have been performed since. Examples of inspection results are presented for selected vessel internals components and are compared with simulation results. In summary, to date there have been no observations of austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which is consistent with expectations based on the current understanding of the mechanism. Observations of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) have been limited and only found in baffle former bolting. Additionally, no macroscopic effects or global observations of void swelling impacts on general conditions of reactor internal hardware have been observed. (authors)

  9. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  10. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants regular meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this meeting is to review the IWG activities in 1992-1993, other relevant activities, national programmes, projects of international organizations and provide recommendations of the Agency's activities, forward programmes in this area, priority scope and content of publications and meetings to be organized and sponsored by the Agency. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Stop Sale, Use, or Removal Order: WellPlant, Inc. and GST International, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stop Sale, Use, or Removal Order (“Order”) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9 (EPA) to WelIPlant Inc. and GST International, Inc., concerning all pesticide products bearing the name Mold Manager and any alternate brand names.

  12. International efforts to reduce occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of various national programs on dose reduction is examined with a view to evaluating the most significant factors that help in reducing occupational exposure. Among the most successful of the dose reduction programs at water reactors are those of France, Sweden, and Canada where average annual plant doses are significantly less than the dose at US plants. Important research is also going on in other countries such as the UK, West Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. Some programs are directed towards hardware solutions; others are oriented towards such approaches as better work planning and procedures. The general thrust and some of the specifics of these programs are examined and factors which may be applicable to US conditions are discussed

  13. Licensing of nuclear power plants: The case of Sweden in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michanek, Gabriel; Soederholm, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient power plant licensing procedures are essential for the functioning of deregulated electricity markets. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse the licensing process for nuclear power plants in Sweden, and in part contrast the Swedish case with the corresponding approaches in a selection of other countries. This approach permits a discussion of how licensing processes can be altered and what the benefits and drawbacks of such changes are. The paper highlights and discusses a number of important legal issues and implications, including, for instance: (a) the role of political versus impartial decision-making bodies; (b) the tension between national policy goals and implementation at the local level; (c) public participation and access to justice; (d) consistency and clarity of the legal system; and (e) the introduction of license time limits.

  14. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  15. L'intégration des plantes médicinales en Inde | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 févr. 2011 ... Un nouveau programme lancé par le gouvernement de l'Inde pour intégrer les plantes médicinales aux pratiques médicales traditionnelles et aux moyens de subsistance habituels pourrait être une source de revenus pour les villageois qui en font la cueillette et rendre leur utilisation plus sécuritaire.

  16. Prototype vibration measurement program for reactor internals (177-fuel assembly plant). Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, J.C.; Post, R.C.; Thoren, D.E.

    1976-08-01

    The surveillance specimen holder tubes installed in the Babcock and Wilcox 177-fuel assembly plants have been redesigned. The structural adequacy of this design has been verified through extensive analysis. The design adequacy will be further confirmed by measuring the vibrational response of the surveillance specimen holder tube during normal and transient flow operation. This report describes the vibration measurement program that will be conducted at Toledo Edison's Davis Besse 1 site

  17. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  18. International comparison of economic and technical indexes of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Fialova, H.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of capital costs of the construction of nuclear power plants takes into consideration the following aspects: the delineation of the installation, the determination of costs and their break-down, the impact of the time factor, the conversion of the costs to a comparable unit. Power plants are always compared with roughly the same power capacity, this even when conditions for construction are not fully comparable. Construction costs may be divided into, e.g., pre-construction costs, direct capital costs, indirect capital costs, interest during construction. The time factor is manifest in the duration of construction and in the concrete year of construction for which the comparison is being made. The inflationary rise in prices and interests are increasing capital costs by roughly 5 - 8% per annum. The comparison of costs expressed in different currencies is made either by conversion using the rate of exchange or by comparing the time expended for the construction of the power plant. Various methods of comparison are discussed. (J.B.). 7 refs

  19. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  20. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Spencer, S.G.; Shaber, C.R.

    1980-05-30

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  1. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Baaijens, Frank P.T.

    2014-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of “functional tissue engineering” has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. PMID:24818797

  2. SPORT AND EXERCISE BIOMECHANICS (BIOS INSTANT NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grimshaw

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION Instant Notes on Sport and Exercise Biomechanics provides a broad overview of the fundamental concepts in exercise and sport biomechanics. PURPOSE The book aims to provide instant notes on essential information about biomechanics, and is designed to help undergraduate students to grasp the corresponding subjects in physical effort rapidly and easily. AUDIENCE The book provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students as a fundamental reference book. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a starting point to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in the field of exercise and sport biomechanics. It would also be interest to anyone who wonders the concepts like momentum possessed, whole body angular momentum, opposite parallel forces, superman position, parabolic flight path, joint/normal reaction force, etc. FEATURES This textbook is divided into following sections from A to F: kinematics of motion, kinetics of linear motion, kinetics of angular motion, special topics, applications and measurement techniques, respectively. In sub-sections the kinematics of motion are reviewed in detail, outlining the physics of motion. Furthermore, the discussions of mechanical characteristics of motion, the mechanisms of injury, and the analysis of the sport technique provide a source of valuable information for both students and lecturers in appropriate fields. ASSESSMENT This book is an important reading for biomechanics students, teachers and even researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion.

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  4. Results of the international survey on: 'Surveillance and diagnostic practices in nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An international survey has been conducted by the organizers of the meeting on the use of surveillance systems for the nuclear steam supply systems. The questionnaire prepared consisted of four parts: The surveillance systems that you use; the organisation of the surveillance on your reactor; the experiences gained from surveillance systems; how do you perceive surveillance? Forty-two answers have been received, and the results of responses received to the questionnaire are summarized. (K.A.)

  5. Advances in the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the Conference was to provide a forum for exchange of information among around 200 attending experts from 46 Member States and five international organizations, who altogether presented around 80 papers and posters. The Conference presentations were divided into four main topics: Managing and Regulating Safe Operation; Safety Performance and Lessons Learned; Improving Operational Safety Using PSA; Enhancing Safety. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Internal active power reserve management in Large scale PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Spataru, Sergiu; Kerekes, Tamas

    Active Power Reserves (APRs) provided through curtailment (iAPRs) or through auxiliary storage systems (aAPR) with Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) becomes a reality in the near future with high penetration levels of Photovoltaic (PV) power into the grid. Therefore, this paper analyses...... the solutions for iAPR fulfilment in central inverter based - LPVPPs in terms of their layout, configuration and control architecture. During iAPR supply, the LPVPP has to operate under its Maximum Power Point (MPP), which means that the MPP algorithm has to undergo several changes. For this purpose, the paper...

  7. Computational biomechanics for medicine from algorithms to models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joldes, Grand; Nielsen, Poul; Doyle, Barry; Miller, Karol

    2017-01-01

    This volume comprises the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, discussing topics such as: cellular mechanics; injury biomechanics; biomechanics of heart and vascular system; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations. With contributions from researchers world-wide, the Computational Biomechanics for Medicine series of titles provides an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements.

  8. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  9. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  10. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-03

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  11. Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Poul MF; Miller, Karol; Computational Biomechanics for Medicine : Deformation and Flow

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for mechanical engineers is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, biomedical sciences, and medicine. This book is an opportunity for computational biomechanics specialists to present and exchange opinions on the opportunities of applying their techniques to computer-integrated medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Deformation and Flow collects the papers from the Sixth Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop held in Toronto in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention conference. The topics covered include: medical image analysis, image-guided surgery, surgical simulation, surgical intervention planning, disease prognosis and diagnostics, injury mechanism analysis, implant and prostheses design, and medical robotics.

  12. Multiscale modeling in biomechanics and mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and computational models that link characteristic biomechanical phenomena, this book provides guidelines and examples for creating multiscale models in representative systems and organisms. It develops the reader's understanding of and intuition for multiscale phenomena in biomechanics and mechanobiology, and introduces a mathematical framework and computational techniques paramount to creating predictive multiscale models.   Biomechanics involves the study of the interactions of physical forces with biological systems at all scales – including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ scales. The emerging field of mechanobiology focuses on the way that cells produce and respond to mechanical forces – bridging the science of mechanics with the disciplines of genetics and molecular biology. Linking disparate spatial and temporal scales using computational techniques is emerging as a key concept in investigating some of the complex problems underlying these...

  13. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  14. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  15. The volleyball athlete's shoulder: biomechanical adaptations and injury associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Antonio; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified. Assessment of study quality was performed using the STROBE statement. The reviewed literature supports the existence of a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and a possible (and less pronounced) external rotation gain in the dominant vs. the non-dominant shoulder of volleyball athletes. Unlike other overhead sports, the GIRD in volleyball athletes appears to be anatomical as a response to the repetitive overhead movements and not to be associated with shoulder pain/injury. Additionally, the dominant shoulder exhibits muscular imbalance, which appears to be a significant risk factor for shoulder pain. Strengthening of the external rotators should be used alongside shoulder stretching and joint mobilisations, core strengthening and optimisation of spike technique as part of injury management and prevention programmes.

  16. Report of the COG/IAEA international workshop on managing nuclear safety at CANDU (PHWR) plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop, hosted by COG and co-sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) was held in Toronto, April 28 - May 1st, 1997. The 40 participants included senior managers from IAEA member countries operating or constructing CANDU (PHWR) stations. All the offshore utilities with PHWR stations in Korea, Romania, India, Argentina, Pakistan, and China were present with their domestic counterparts from Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Hydro Quebec, New Brunswick Power, and AECL. The objectives of the workshop were to: provide a forum for exchange of ideas among nuclear safety managers operating CANDU (PHWR) stations and to learn from each other's experiences; to foster sharing of information on different operating approaches to managing safety and, in particular, to highlight the strategies for controlling the overall plant risk to a low level; to identify and discuss issues of mutual interest pertinent to PHWR stations and to define future follow-up activities. Refs, figs

  17. Estimation of annual dose equivalent (internal and external) for new thorium plant workers of IRE OSCOM, Orissa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Tripathy, S.K.; Khan, A.H.; Maharana, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to thoron, thoron daughters and gamma radiation, the New Thorium Plant workers are exposed to long lived alpha emitters due to inhalation of thorium fine dust present in the working environment. Air samplers were used for measurement of thoron daughters and long lived alpha concentration. Each sample was counted for 3-4 hours for alpha activity and the long lived alpha concentration was calculated after taking the self absorption effect of the deposit on the filter paper into account. Internal dose of individual workers due to thoron daughter concentration and long lived alpha concentration was determined using time weighted factors. Based on the results, it is observed that contribution of thoron daughters, long lived alpha and external gamma is about 2 mSv /y, 1 mSv /y and 5 mSv/y, respectively, to total dose to the workers. (author)

  18. Protection against internally generated missiles and their secondary effects in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This safety guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards). It is not so much intended as a handbook for designs as an aid in the assessment of a reactor design. The paper contains the general philosophy and general design requirements for protection against internally generated missiles and their primary and secondary effects. The various types of missile sources which should be considered are discussed, and an attempt is made to summarize key considerations where practice is sufficiently consistent. Secondary effects and an example of a simple procedure for making a comprehensive assessment of the protection against such effects are discussed as soon as a number of techniques which can be used to provide missile protection

  19. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  20. Conduct of inspections for plant modifications, event investigations and operability decisions. Proceedings of an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary planning started following the approval given by the CNRA. Formal planning for the Workshop was started at the Fifth Meeting of the WGIP in April 1993, in Lyon. Planning included taking into consideration comments made and lessons learned at the first Workshop. The first organising committee meeting for the Workshop was held in London preceding the Sixth WGIP meeting in October 1993. It was decided to remain with the same format: discussion groups with facilitators. It was also decided to have a three day programme with three Discussion Group sessions. The Announcement and Call for Participation was issued in December 1993. As part of the Announcement and Call for Participation, registrants were requested to transmit questions or issues of particular interest within the selected topics, they wanted to be addressed at the Workshop. A compilation of the these is included as Appendix H. Additionally, participants were requested to provide a short paper of one or two pages, describing the practices within their own countries related to the topics, for utilisation during the discussion sessions. These papers are attached as Appendix I. A training session was held for all facilitators on the afternoon of 22 May, to introduce methods in leading small group discussions and to complete final preparations. The Workshop programme (Appendix B) consisted of an opening plenary session, 3 discussion group sessions and a closing plenary session to review conclusions and an open question period. Following completion of the Workshop, facilitators met to evaluate and formulate final reports on the various topics. The main objectives of the Workshop were the following: To meet with inspectors from other organisations, To exchange information regarding regulatory inspections practices, To discuss the major topics: plant modifications, event investigation, and operability decisions, To discuss current issues, To develop conclusions on the topics discussed. Six discussion

  1. Waves and high nutrient loads jointly decrease survival and separately affect morphological and biomechanical properties in the seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Nafie, Y.A.; de los Santos, C.B.; Brun, F.G.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    In an 8-week aquarium experiment, we investigated the interactive effects of waves (present vs. absent) and water-column nutrient level (high vs. low) on the survival, growth, morphology, and biomechanics of the seagrass, Zostera noltii. Survival was reduced when plants were exposed to both waves

  2. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks. 'Systems

  3. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks

  4. Biomechanical, anthropometrical and physical profile of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature indicates that deficiencies of certain parameters such as biomechanics, anthropometry, physical and motor abilities, may influence a netball players susceptibility to injury, as well as the players physical performance during a game. The primary aim of this study was to determine the physical profile of elite netball ...

  5. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...

  6. The Value of Biomechanical Research in Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, D. A.

    Simple observation of dance movement, while very useful, can lead to misconceptions, about the physical realities of dance movement, that make learning difficult. This gap between reality and understanding can be reduced by the application of biomechanical techniques such as cinematography, electromyography, and force-plate analysis. Biomechanical…

  7. Biomechanical Concepts for the Physical Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeyer, H. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The concepts and principles of biomechanics are familiar to the teacher of physical science as well as to the physical educator. The difference between the two instructors, however, is that one knows the language of science and the other provides an experientially rich environment to support acquisition of these concepts and principles. Use of…

  8. Biomechanical pulping : a mill-scale evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood. Akhtar; Gary M. Scott; Ross E. Swaney; Mike J. Lentz; Eric G. Horn; Marguerite S. Sykes; Gary C. Myers

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory...

  9. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... biomechanical studies now tend to use FEA. However, despite its use in .... the cross sectional area of each concentric annular region,. i.e. lamella, increases with ...

  10. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of

  11. Incidence of Bacterial Pathogens following Biomechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A correlation exists between endodontic microflora in pulpal disease and endodontic treatment failure. This study presents data on the recoverable bacterial pathogens following biomechanical treatment of infected root canals. Standard endodontic procedure were used to access tooth pulp cavity, processed and fluid ...

  12. In vivo biomechanics of cruciate ligament injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring biomechanics of the knee with an acceptable degree of accuracy is difficult. When the in vivo knee joint motion is analyzed in all its six degrees-of-freedom without compromising on physiological loading conditions, the task becomes even more challenging. This thesis offers a brief

  13. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Karate Chop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Landa, Jean

    Although the sport of karate has been somewhat neglected by scientists, the following two isolated biomechanical studies exist in literature: (1) tracings of a karate chop in two planes were presented, but no data was given concerning the rates of movement of the limb segments, and (2) pre- and postimpact phenomena of five subjects were studied,…

  14. Biomechanics Scholar Citations across Academic Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudson Duane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: citations to the publications of a scholar have been used as a measure of the quality or influence of their research record. A world-wide descriptive study of the citations to the publications of biomechanics scholars of various academic ranks was conducted.

  15. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  16. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a

  17. Injury incidence and selected biomechanical, postural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strongest predictors for lower extremity injuries (I>0.3) were uneven hips, pronated feet, tight hamstrings, anatomical leg length differences, gait pronation and a tall stature. It was concluded that certain postural and biomechanical imbalances in the lower extremities could contribute to injury among rugby union players.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M. F.; Mackay, M.T.; Schinkelshoek, D.; Huijing, P. A.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.

    For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle

  19. Biomechanical comparison of transoral and transbuccal lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the biomechanical behaviors of two different types of osteosynthesis that are used in the treatment of mandibular angle fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty synthetic polyurethane human mandible replicas, with medullar and cortical portions, were ...

  20. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David E.

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress-strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  1. Study of internal exposure to uranium compounds in fuel fabrication plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela Souza

    2006-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 and Supporting Guidance 3) strongly recommends that specific information on lung retention parameters should be used in preference to default values wherever appropriate, for the derivation of effective doses and for bioassay interpretation of monitoring data. A group of 81 workers exposed to UO 2 at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was selected to evaluate the committed effective dose. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the urinary and faecal excretion. The contribution of intakes by ingestion and inhalation were assessed on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. For the selected workers it was concluded that inhalation dominated intake. According to ICRP 66, uranium oxide is classified as insoluble Type S compound. The ICRP Supporting Guidance 3 and some recent studies have recommended specific lung retention parameters to UO 2 . The solubility parameters of the uranium oxide compound handled by the workers at the fuel fabrication facility in Brazil was evaluated on the basis of the ratios of urinary to fecal excretion. Excretion data were corrected for dietary intakes. This paper will discuss the application of lung retention parameters recommended by the ICRP models to these data and also the dependence of the effective committed dose on the lung retention parameters. It will also discuss the problems in the interpretation of monitoring results, when the worker is exposed to several uranium compounds of different solubilities. (author)

  2. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L; Goldstein, Steven A; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2014-06-27

    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of "functional tissue engineering" has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Biomechanical study on the posterior screw fixation in the lower cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua-jie; Xu, Rong-min; Liu, Guan-yi

    2011-06-01

    So far, the fixation in the lower cervical spine through posterior approach technology has commonly been used, besides the lateral screw and pedicle screw techniques, transarticular screw and laminar screw techniques have being paid more attention recently. This article introduced four screw fixation ways in the lower cervical spine through posterior approach and reviewed the recent biomechanics studies of four screw fixation techniques. The biomechanics study includes stabilization, pollout strength, insertion technique, and screw characteristic and so on. Lateral screw and pedicle screw techniques have become an effective internal fixation way for the lower cervical spine instability because of their superior stabilization and higher pollout strength. Transarticular screw fixation has become a new way to fix the lower cervical spine through posterior approach, which has widely surgical indications. Besides, this technique is relatively safe, simple and has achieved favorable curative effect in clinic. Laminar screw fixation technique is rarely used in clinic, but the study of anatomy and biomechanics confirmed that this technique can be applied as a salvage technique in clinic. Above four techniques of the screw fixation in the lower cervical spine through posterior approach have advantages and disadvantages, respectively, and the application in clinic is different. Through the biomechanics study of these techniques will contribute to the development of the techniques of the screw fixation in the lower cervical spine through posterior approach and guide the clinical work effectively.

  4. The obscure factor analysis on the vibration reliability of the internals of nuclear power plant reactor and anti-vibration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Geyan; Zhu Qirong

    1998-11-01

    It is pointed out that the main reason making nuclear power plants reactors leak is the vibration of internals of reactors. The factors which lead the vibration all have randomness and obscureness. The obscure reliability theory is introduced to the vibration system of internals of nuclear power reactor. Based on a quantity of designing and moving data, the obscure factors effecting the vibration reliability of the internals of nuclear power plant reactor are analyzed and the anti-vibration reliability criteria and the evaluating model are given. And the anti-vibration reliability measures are advanced from different quarters of the machine design and building, the thermohydraulics design, the control of reactivity, etc.. They may benefit the theory and practice for building and perfecting the vibration obscure reliability model of the reactor internals

  5. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant...

  6. Plants: An International Scientific Open Access Journal to Publish All Facets of Plants, Their Functions and Interactions with the Environment and Other Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W.G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the two major groups of living organisms that are an essential entity to the function of the biosphere. Plants can be found in all known parts of the earth, in all shapes and sizes. They include the green algae, mosses, ferns, vines, grasses, bushes, herbs, flowering plants and trees. Although some plants are parasitic, most produce their own food through photosynthesis. Most plants initiate from a seed. The importance of plants in the food chain dates back to ancient times. The first humans gathered wild plants for food. As settlements developed, food crops were cultivated, leading to selection of high-yielding cultivated varieties to feed the growing populations. Unlike plants, humans and other animals are unable to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they are dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants. Plants are found in natural ecosystems such as rain forests, and also in agricultural areas and urbanized settings. They are an essential part of our daily lives providing food, clean air, and important ecosystem functions. The study of plants and their function could be considered the most complex of interactions. From the time a seed germinates, it goes through a myriad of physiological processes that can be closely studied using modern tools and molecular biological methods. An open access journal such as Plants will give millions of readers access to that information around the world. PMID:27137635

  7. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    www.peosoldier.army.mil/equipment/eyewear/ Bailoor S, Bhardwaj R, and Nguyen TD . Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading. Biomechanics and...section force (CSF), cross section moment ( CSM ) and cross section centroid (CSC) data were output at 0.1-ms increments for each *DCSS. The CSF is the...interface is calculated as the cross product of the internal nodal force and the vector from the CSC to the location of this force. The CSM is the

  8. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  9. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also included...... a draft plant controller model in an informative annex. In a second step, parallel activities have been going on in WECC and IEC TC88 WG 27 to create plant models that can include a number of wind turbines, a plant controller and optional equipment. The WECC models are intended to be finalized in 2015...

  10. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  11. Biomechanical factors influencing the performance of elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-04-01

    Alpine ski racing is a popular international winter sport that is complex and challenging from physical, technical, and tactical perspectives. Despite the vast amount of scientific literature focusing on this sport, including topical reviews on physiology, ski-snow friction, and injuries, no review has yet addressed the biomechanics of elite alpine ski racers and which factors influence performance. In World Cup events, winning margins are often mere fractions of a second and biomechanics may well be a determining factor in podium place finishes. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the biomechanical factors that influence the performance of elite alpine ski racers, with an emphasis on slalom, giant slalom, super-G, and downhill events. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and key words, with an additional manual search of reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Articles were included if they addressed human biomechanics, elite alpine skiing, and performance. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and in the English language were reviewed. Articles that focused on skiing disciplines other than the four of primary interest were excluded (e.g., mogul, ski-cross and freestyle skiing). The articles subsequently included for review were quality assessed using a modified version of a validated quality assessment checklist. Data on the study population, design, location, and findings relating biomechanics to performance in alpine ski racers were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria, were reviewed, and scored an average of 69 ± 13% (range 40-89%) upon quality assessment. Five of the studies focused on giant slalom, four on slalom, and three on downhill disciplines, although these latter three articles were also relevant to super-G events

  12. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. The effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics: a cadaveric study with simulated trochlear deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haver, Annemieke; De Roo, Karel; De Beule, Matthieu; Labey, Luc; De Baets, Patrick; Dejour, David; Claessens, Tom; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Trochlear dysplasia appears in different geometrical variations. The Dejour classification is widely used to grade the severity of trochlear dysplasia and to decide on treatment. To investigate the effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics and to determine if different types of trochlear dysplasia have different effects on patellofemoral biomechanics. Controlled laboratory study. Trochlear dysplasia was simulated in 4 cadaveric knees by replacing the native cadaveric trochlea with different types of custom-made trochlear implants, manufactured with 3-dimensional printing. For each knee, 5 trochlear implants were designed: 1 implant simulated the native trochlea (control condition), and 4 implants simulated 4 types of trochlear dysplasia. The knees were subjected to 3 biomechanical tests: a squat simulation, an open chain extension simulation, and a patellar stability test. The patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability were compared between the control condition (replica implants) and the trochlear dysplastic condition and among the subgroups of trochlear dysplasia. The patellofemoral joint in the trochlear dysplastic group showed increased internal rotation, lateral tilt, and lateral translation; increased contact pressures; decreased contact areas; and decreased stability when compared with the control group. Within the trochlear dysplastic group, the implants graded as Dejour type D showed the largest deviations for the kinematical parameters, and the implants graded as Dejour types B and D showed the largest deviations for the patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. Patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability are significantly affected by trochlear dysplasia. Of all types of trochlear dysplasia, the models characterized with a pronounced trochlear bump showed the largest deviations in patellofemoral biomechanics. Investigating the relationship between the shape of the trochlea and

  15. Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassas, Spiros; Kwon, Young-Hoo; Sands, William A

    2006-07-01

    Biomechanical research into artistic gymnastics has grown substantially over the years. However, most research is still skill oriented with few tries at generalization. Consequently, our understanding of the principles and bases of the sport, although improved, is still marginal with gaps in knowledge about technique attributes throughout the sport. For that reason, this review begins with an attempt to identify important variables contributing to successful performance. The review is presented in clusters of work in similar apparatuses culminating in Tables offering an 'at a glance' summary of knowledge in each cluster. The last section of the review tries to give some direction to future biomechanical research in gymnastics in issues relating to data collection--two-dimensional or three-dimensional, image size, frame rate--and analysis, such as descriptive or explanatory, simulation and optimization, and statistical issues.

  16. Biomedical Imaging and Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Iacoviello, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This book collects the state-of-art and new trends in image analysis and biomechanics. It covers a wide field of scientific and cultural topics, ranging from remodeling of bone tissue under the mechanical stimulus up to optimizing the performance of sports equipment, through the patient-specific modeling in orthopedics, microtomography and its application in oral and implant research, computational modeling in the field of hip prostheses, image based model development and analysis of the human knee joint, kinematics of the hip joint, micro-scale analysis of compositional and mechanical properties of dentin, automated techniques for cervical cell image analysis, and iomedical imaging and computational modeling in cardiovascular disease.   The book will be of interest to researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to image analysis and understanding, medical imaging, biomechanics, simulation and modeling, experimental analysis.

  17. Biomechanical study of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Huang Xianglong; Shen Tianzhen; Hu Zhou; Hong Shuizong; Mei Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stiffness of lumbar spine after the injury caused by percutaneous diskectomy and evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy by biomechanical study. Methods: Four fresh lumbar specimens were used to analyse load-displacement curves in the intact lumbar spine and vertical disc-injured lumbar spine. The concepts of average flexibility coefficient (f) and standardized average flexibility coefficient (fs) were also introduced. Results: The load-displacement curves showed a good stabilization effect of the intact lumbar spine and disc-injured lumbar spine in flexion, extension, right and left bending. The decrease of anti-rotation also can be detected (P<0.05). Conclusion: In biomechanical study, percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is one of the efficiency methods to treat lumbar diac hernia

  18. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

  19. Biomechanics/risk management (Working Group 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Mariano; Naert, Ignace; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    survival and complications of implant supported restorations? * A systematic review on the accuracy and the clinical outcome of computer-guided template based implant dentistry. * What is the impact of systemic bisphosphonates on patients undergoing oral implant therapy? * What is the impact......INTRODUCTION: The remit of this workgroup was to update the existing knowledge base in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Five manuscripts...... were produced in five specific topics identified as areas where innovative approaches have been developed in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. RESULTS: The results and conclusions of the review process are presented...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Some Biomechanical Problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedoma, Jiří; Klézl, Z.; Fousek, J.; Kestřánek, Zdeněk; Stehlík, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-6 (2003), s. 283-295 ISSN 0378-4754. [MODELLING 2001. IMACS Conference on Mathematical Modelling and Computational Methods in Mechanics, Physics , Biomechanics and Geodynamics /2./. Pilsen, 19.06.2001-25.06.2001] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-linear elasticity * contact problems * variational inequality * finite element method * wrist * spine * fracture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2003

  1. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  2. [Fundamental biomechanic problems on osteosynthesis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labitzke, R

    1976-02-26

    By means of compression plate osteosynthesis, of the lateral tension band and of the treatment with external chucks the main demand for stability of osteosynthesises is derivated: by adjustified, in the resultant axial tension of the metal implantats is to produce only pressure in the entire fracture zone without detrimental osteosynthesis induced excentric powers. The joint biomechanic aspects of the three methods are worked out.

  3. Biomechanical Factors in Planning of Periacetabular Osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin eNiknafs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the effects of cartilage thickness distribution and compressive properties in the context of optimal alignment planning for periacetabular osteotomy (PAO. The Biomechanical Guidance System (BGS is a computer-assisted surgical suite assisting surgeon’s in determining the most beneficial new alignment of a patient’s acetabulum. The BGS uses biomechanical analysis of the hip to find this optimal alignment. Articular cartilage is an essential component of this analysis and its physical properties can affect contact pressure outcomes. Patient-specific hip joint models created from CT scans of a cohort of 29 dysplastic subjects were tested with four different cartilage thickness profiles (one uniform and threenonuniform and two sets of compressive characteristics. For each combination of thickness distribution and compressive properties, the optimal alignment of the acetabulum was found; the resultant geometric and biomechanical characterization of the hip were compared among the optimal alignments. There was an average decrease of 49.2 +/- 22.27% in peak contact pressure from the preoperative to the optimal alignment over all patients. We observed an average increase of 19 +/- 7.7 degrees in center-edge angle and an average decrease of 19.5 +/- 8.4 degrees in acetabular index angle from the preoperative case to the optimized plan. The optimal alignment increased the lateral coverage of the femoral head and decreased the obliqueness of the acetabular roof in all patients. These anatomical observations were independent of the choice for either cartilage thickness profile, or compressive properties. While patient-specific acetabular morphology is essential for surgeons in planning PAO, the predicted optimal alignment of the acetabulum was not significantly sensitive to the choice of cartilage thickness distribution over the acetabulum. However, in all groups the biomechanically predicted optimal alignment resulted in decreased

  4. Integrative Structural Biomechanical Concepts of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonse T. Masi; Kalyani Nair; Brian J. Andonian; Kristina M. Prus; Joseph Kelly; Jose R. Sanchez; Jacqueline Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally...

  5. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a very complex muscular structure. It is largely responsible for supporting both pelvic and abdominal organs and acts synergistically with the striated muscle of the anterior abdominal wall to generate ...

  6. Regulatory inspection activities related to inspection planning, plant maintenance and assessment of safety. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Aubrey, Richard; Grandame, Melvyn; Aro, Ilari; Balloffet, Yves; Klonk, Hartmut; Manzella, Pietro; Koizumi, Hiroyoshi; Bouvrie, E.C. des; Forsberg, Staffan; Lang, Hans-Guenter; Mehew, Robert; Warren, Thomas; Woodhouse, Paul; Gallo, Robert M.; Campbell, Rob; )

    1997-01-01

    The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established Working Groups and Groups of Experts in specialised topics. CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. This was the 3. international workshop held by the WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. The focus of this workshop was on 3 main topics; Inspection Planning, Plant Maintenance and Assessment of Safety. This document presents the proceedings from the workshop, including: workshop programme, results and conclusions, papers and presentations and the list of participants. The main purpose of the Workshop is to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities

  7. Computational Biomechanics Theoretical Background and BiologicalBiomedical Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Masao; Nakamura, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments have taken place in biological/biomedical measurement and imaging technologies as well as in computer analysis and information technologies. The increase in data obtained with such technologies invites the reader into a virtual world that represents realistic biological tissue or organ structures in digital form and allows for simulation and what is called “in silico medicine.” This volume is the third in a textbook series and covers both the basics of continuum mechanics of biosolids and biofluids and the theoretical core of computational methods for continuum mechanics analyses. Several biomechanics problems are provided for better understanding of computational modeling and analysis. Topics include the mechanics of solid and fluid bodies, fundamental characteristics of biosolids and biofluids, computational methods in biomechanics analysis/simulation, practical problems in orthopedic biomechanics, dental biomechanics, ophthalmic biomechanics, cardiovascular biomechanics, hemodynamics...

  8. Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Ferrer, Gerald A; Debski, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a gold standard for objective quantification of injury and subsequent repair, has not been demonstrated. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that novel anatomic structures may play a significant role in knee stability. The use of biomechanical principles and testing techniques provides essential objective/quantitative information on the function of bone, ligaments, joint capsule, and other contributing soft tissues in response to various loading conditions. This review discusses the principles of biomechanics in relation to knee stability, with a focus on the objective quantification of knee stability, the individual contributions of specific knee structures to stability, and the most recent technological advances in the biomechanical evaluation of the knee joint.

  9. Morphology and biomechanics of human heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Polienko, Asel V.; Ivanov, Dmitry V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: A study of the biomechanical characteristics of the human heart ventricles was performed. 80 hearts were extracted during autopsy of 80 corpses of adults (40 women and 40 men) aged 31-70 years. The samples were investigated in compliance with the recommendations of the ethics committee. Methods: Tension and compression tests were performed with help of the uniaxial testing machine Instron 5944. Cardiometry was also performed. Results: In this work, techniques for human heart ventricle wall biomechanical properties estimation were developed. Regularities of age and gender variability in deformative and strength properties of the right and left ventricle walls were found. These properties were characterized by a smooth growth of myocardial tissue stiffness and resistivity at a relatively low strain against reduction in their strength and elasticity from 31-40 to 61-70 years. It was found that tissue of the left ventricle at 61-70 years had a lower stretchability and strength compared with tissues of the right ventricle and septum. These data expands understanding of the morphological organization of the heart ventricles, which is very important for the development of personalized medicine. Taking into account individual, age and gender differences of the heart ventricle tissue biomechanical characteristics allows to rationally choosing the type of patching materials during reconstructive operations on heart.

  10. An introduction to biomechanics solids and fluids, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Jay D

    2004-01-01

    Designed to meet the needs of undergraduate students, Introduction to Biomechanics takes the fresh approach of combining the viewpoints of both a well-respected teacher and a successful student. With an eye toward practicality without loss of depth of instruction, this book seeks to explain the fundamental concepts of biomechanics. With the accompanying web site providing models, sample problems, review questions and more, Introduction to Biomechanics provides students with the full range of instructional material for this complex and dynamic field.

  11. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  12. Biomechanical Studies and Optical Digitizer Development for Enhanced Orthopedic Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houston, Vern

    2001-01-01

    .... Custom designed and manufactured orthopedic footwear is also an essential component in treatment and rehabilitative care of persons with neuromusculoskeletal foot/ankle pathologies, biomechanical...

  13. The biomechanics of soccer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A; Nolan, L

    1998-04-01

    This review considers the biomechanical factors that are relevant to success in the game of soccer. Three broad areas are covered: (1) the technical performance of soccer skills; (2) the equipment used in playing the game; and (3) the causative mechanisms of specific soccer injuries. Kicking is the most widely studied soccer skill. Although there are many types of kick, the variant most widely reported in the literature is the maximum velocity instep kick of a stationary ball. In contrast, several other skills, such as throwing-in and goalkeeping, have received little attention; some, for example passing and trapping the ball, tackling, falling behaviour, jumping, running, sprinting, starting, stopping and changing direction, have not been the subject of any detailed biomechanical investigation. The items of equipment reviewed are boots, the ball, artificial and natural turf surfaces and shin guards. Little of the research conducted by equipment manufacturers is in the public domain; this part of the review therefore concentrates on the mechanical responses of equipment, player-equipment interaction, and the effects of equipment on player performance and protection. Although the equipment has mechanical characteristics that can be reasonably well quantified, the player-equipment interaction is more difficult to establish; this makes its efficacy for performance or protection difficult to predict. Some soccer injuries may be attributable to the equipment used. The soccer boot has a poor protective capability, but careful design can have a minor influence on reducing the severity of ankle inversion injuries. Performance requirements limit the scope for reducing these injuries; alternative methods for providing ankle stability are necessary. Artificial surfaces result in injury profiles different from those on natural turf pitches. There is a tendency for fewer serious injuries, but more minor injuries, on artificial turf than on natural turf pitches. Players adapt to

  14. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yue; Berger, Uta; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms’ internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model....... Slopes were significantly shallower than 24/3 if competition was size-symmetric. We conclude that when the size of survivors is influenced by strong ecological interactions, these can override predictions of MST, whereas when surviving plants are less affected by interactions, individual-level metabolic...... processes can scale up to the population level. MST, like thermodynamics or biomechanics, sets limits within which organisms can live and function, but there may be stronger limits determined by ecological interactions. In such cases MST will not be predictive....

  15. The influence of the plant essential oils on internal qualitative parameters and microbiological indicators of hens eggs content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from plant material (flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wood, fruits and roots. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme and hyssop essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid ISA Brown (n = 72 were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n = 26 and fed for 41 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. In the first ex­pe­ri­men­tal group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition 0.25ml . kg−1, in the second one got hyssop essential oil the same dose of 0.25ml . kg−1. The results suggest that the supplementation of thyme essential oil into laying hens diet statistically significantly increased egg albumen weight, egg albumen percentage portion (P < 0.05 and egg yolk colour (9.07a, 9.47b, 9.06a; P < 0.01, compared to the control group and decreased egg yolk percentage ratio. However, the most of qualitative parameters of internal content egg were not with thyme and hyssop essential oils addition significantly influenced. Significant differences in microbiological indicators were found among coliforms bacteria, enterococci, total number count (P < 0.001, lactobacilli and mesophilic sporulating aerobes bacteria (P < 0.05.

  16. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  17. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  18. 3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM) for Long Term Operations (LTO). Keynotes, papers, presentations, posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30-40 years, many plants will operate in excess of their design lives, provided that nuclear power plant engineers demonstrate by analysis, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing and ageing management that the plant will operate safely. In the operation of nuclear power plants, safety should always be the prime consideration. Plant operators and regulators must always ensure that plant safety is maintained and, where possible, enhanced during its operating lifetime. Nuclear power plant life management (PLiM) has gained increased attention over the past decade, and effective ageing management of systems, structures and components (SSCs) is a key element in PLiM for the safe and reliable long term operation of nuclear power plants. A PLiM programme is an effective tool that allows an operator to safely and cost effectively manage ageing effects in SSCs for long term operation (LTO). A PLiM programme helps facilitate decisions concerning when and how to repair, replace or modify SSCs in an economically optimized way, while assuring that a high level of safety is maintained. The option for extended nuclear power plant operation has been recognized by operators and regulators alike, as evidenced in the number of licence renewal programmes that are being developed by Member States. After the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the safe operation of nuclear power plants has become even more important; not only in terms of technical or ageing issues, but also in terms of management system and qualified workforce related issues. Application of an integrated management system and structured workforce planning are needed throughout the plant life in order to ensure effective plant organization and management. The IAEA organized the first and second International Conference on Nuclear

  19. Modelling biomechanics of bark patterning in grasstrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Holly; Runions, Adam; Hobill, David; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2014-09-01

    Bark patterns are a visually important characteristic of trees, typically attributed to fractures occurring during secondary growth of the trunk and branches. An understanding of bark pattern formation has been hampered by insufficient information regarding the biomechanical properties of bark and the corresponding difficulties in faithfully modelling bark fractures using continuum mechanics. This study focuses on the genus Xanthorrhoea (grasstrees), which have an unusual bark-like structure composed of distinct leaf bases connected by sticky resin. Due to its discrete character, this structure is well suited for computational studies. A dynamic computational model of grasstree development was created. The model captures both the phyllotactic pattern of leaf bases during primary growth and the changes in the trunk's width during secondary growth. A biomechanical representation based on a system of masses connected by springs is used for the surface of the trunk, permitting the emergence of fractures during secondary growth to be simulated. The resulting fracture patterns were analysed statistically and compared with images of real trees. The model reproduces key features of grasstree bark patterns, including their variability, spanning elongated and reticulate forms. The patterns produced by the model have the same statistical character as those seen in real trees. The model was able to support the general hypothesis that the patterns observed in the grasstree bark-like layer may be explained in terms of mechanical fractures driven by secondary growth. Although the generality of the results is limited by the unusual structure of grasstree bark, it supports the hypothesis that bark pattern formation is primarily a biomechanical phenomenon.

  20. Head Impact Biomechanics in Women's College Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-09-01

    There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.

  1. Biomechanical study of the funnel technique applied in thoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Funnel technique is a method used for the insertion of screw into thoracic pedicle. Aim: To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of thoracic pedicle screw placement using the Funnel technique, trying to provide biomechanical basis for clinical application of this technology. Methods: 14 functional spinal ...

  2. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  3. Biomechanical effects of trees on soil and regolith: beyond treethrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion

    2006-01-01

    Forest soils are profoundly influenced by the biomechanical as well as the chemical and biological effects of trees. Studies of biomechanical impacts have focused mainly on uprooting (treethrow), but this study shows that at least two other effects are significant: physical displacement of soil by root growth, and infilling of stump rot pits. Rocky soils in the...

  4. The Undergraduate Biomechanics Experience at Iowa State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter R.

    This paper discusses the objectives of a program in biomechanics--the analysis of sports skills and movement--and the evolution of the biomechanics program at Iowa State University. The primary objective of such a course is to provide the student with the basic tools necessary for adequate analysis of human movement, with special emphasis upon…

  5. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    motivating examples of biological systems. Vogel's books are different. He truly talks about biomechanics or rather comparative bio- mechanics. The book is perfect for teaching biomechan- ics to biology students. It will surely sensitize them to mechanics. But what about engineer- ing students who presumably know mechan ...

  6. Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and the 75th Anniversary of RQES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Joseph; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the biomechanics and exercise physiology studies published in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) over the past 75 years. Studies in biomechanics, a relatively new subdiscipline that evolved from kinesiology, first appeared in the journal about 40 years ago. Exercise physiology studies have…

  7. Biomechanical studies: science (f)or common sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Doornberg, Job N.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; van der Zwan, A. L.; Spoor, A. B.; van Vugt, A. B.; Armstrong, A. D.; Shrivastava, A.; Wahegaonkar, A. L.; Shafritz, A. B.; Adams, J.; Ilyas, A.; Vochteloo, A. J. H.; Castillo, A. P.; Basak, A.; Andreas, P.; Barquet, A.; Kristan, A.; Berner, A.; Ranade, A. B.; Ashish, S.; Terrono, A. L.; Jubel, A.; Frieman, B.; Bamberger, H. B.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Belangero, W. D.; Hearon, B. F.; Boler, J. M.; Walter, F. L.; Boyer, M.; Wills, B. P. D.; Broekhuyse, H.; Buckley, R.; Watkins, B.; Sears, B. W.; Calfee, R. P.; Ekholm, C.; Fernandes, C. H.; Swigart, C.; Cassidy, C.; Wilson, C. J.; Bainbridge, L. C.; Wilson, C.; Jones, C. M.; Cornell, C.; Crist, B. D.; van Deurzen, D. F. P.; Beingessner, D.; Rowland, D. J.; Della Rocca, G. J.; Eygendaal, D.; McKee, D. M.; Verbeek, D. O. F.; Kalainov, D. M.; Polatsch, D.; Barreto, C. J. R.; Merchant, M.; Brilej, D.; Bijlani, N.; Silva, D. M.; Maman, E.; Ibrahim, I. M.; Nyszkiewicz, R.; Henry, P. D. G.; Ruchelsman, D.; Vishwanath, I. M.; Scott, D. F.; Harvey, E.; Grosso, E.; Stojkovska, E.; Pemovska, N. N.; Tolo, E. T.; Schumer, E. D.; Suarez, F.; Frihagen, F.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Rodríguez, F. M.; Caro, G. C. Zambrano; Garnavos, C.; Athwal, G. S.; DeSilva, G.; Dyer, G. S. M.; Babis, G. C.; Gradl, G.; Frykman, G. K.; Gaston, R. G.; Garrigues, G.; Bayne, G. J.; Merrell, G.; Hernandez, G. R.; Gadbled, G.; Campinhos, L. A. B.; Balfour, G. W.; van der Heide, H.; Nancollas, M.; Young, C.; Pess, G. M.; Goost, H.; Alonso, H.; Villamizar, N. N.; Awan, H.; Routman, H. D.; Kimball, H. L.; Hofmeister, E.; McGraw, I.; Erol, K.; Biert, J.; Goslings, J. C.; Di Giovanni, J. F.; Bishop, J.; Abzug, J. M.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ahn, J.; McAuliffe, J.; Fanuele, J. C.; Boretto, J. G.; Choueka, J.; Murachovsky, J.; Ribeiro Filho, J. E. G.; Isaacs, J.; Izzi, J. A.; Kellam, J.; Giuffre, J. L.; Conflitti, J. M.; Wolf, J. M.; Scheer, J. H.; Capo, J. T.; Rubio, J.; Taras, J.; Wint, J.; Wolkenfelt, J.; Kakar, S.; Chivers, K.; Zyto, K.; Keener, J. D.; Eng, K.; Jeray, K.; Lee, K.; Malone, K. J.; Kabir, K.; Kraan, G. A.; Radcliff, K.; Dickson, K.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; Mica, L.; Weiss, L.; Adolfsson, L. E.; Borris, L. C.; Lasanianos, N. G.; Schulte, L. M.; Paz, L.; Felipe, N. E. L.; Verhofstad, N. N.; van de Sande, M. A. J.; Mormino, M.; Richard, M. J.; Bonczar, M.; Hammerberg, E. M.; Menon, M.; Mazzocca, A. D.; Bronkhorst, M. W. G. A.; McKee, M.; Soong, M.; Costanzo, R. M.; Wood, M. M.; Abdel-Ghany, M. I.; Baskies, M.; Behrman, M.; Quell, M.; Kessler, M. W.; Palmer, M. J.; Prayson, M.; Pirpiris, M.; Ragsdell, M. M.; Krijnen, M. R.; Tyllianakis, M.; Grafe, M. W.; Schep, N.; Nelson, E.; Akabudike, N. M.; Shortt, N. L.; Horangic, N. J.; Leung, N. L.; Gummerson, N. W.; Kanakaris, N. K.; Wilson, N.; Calandruccio, J.; Semenkin, O. M.; Omid, R.; Veillette, C. J. H.; Richardson, M.; Ortiz, J. A.; Forigua, J. E.; Brink, P. R. G.; Kloen, P.; van Eerten, P. V.; Prashanth, I.; Althausen, P.; Lygdas, P.; Parnes, N.; Martineau, P. A.; Benhaim, P.; Blazar, P.; Schandelmaier, N. N.; Petrisor, B.; Jebson, P.; Levin, P.; Batson, W. A.; García, F.; Owens, P. W.; Guenter, L.; Haverlag, R.; Peters, R. W.; de Bedout, R.; Shatford, R.; Rowinski, S.; Verhagen, R. A. W.; Babst, R. H.; Hauck, R.; Papandrea, R.; Gilbert, R. S.; Rizzo, M.; Jenkinson, R.; Hutchison, R. L.; Liem, R.; Smith, R. M.; Tashijan, R.; Zura, R. D.; Page, R. S.; Pesantez, R.; Wagenmakers, R.; Abrams, J.; Spruijt, S.; Kennedy, S. A.; Mehta, S.; Beldner, S.; Schmidt, A.; Mitchell, S.; Fischer, S. T.; Checchia, S. L.; Dodds, S.; Nolan, B. M.; Kaplan, S.; Kaar, S. G.; Kronlage, S.; Meylaerts, S. A.; Steinmann, S.; McCabe, S. J.; Streubel, P. N.; Omara, T.; Swiontkowski, M.; Gosens, T.; DeCoster, T.; Taitsman, L.; Baxamusa, T.; Dienstknecht, T.; Kaplan, F. T. D.; Siff, T.; Begue, T.; Higgins, T.; Mittlmeier, T.; Apard, T.; Hughes, T.; Havliček, T.; Wyrick, T.; Rozental, N. N.; Stackhouse, T. G.; Giordano, V.; Varecka, T. F.; Nikolaou, V. S.; Jokhi, V.; Philippe, V.; Wall, C. J.; Walsh, C. J.; Hammert, W. C.; Weil, Y.; Satora, W.; Wright, T.; Zalavras, C.

    2014-01-01

    It is our impression that many biomechanical studies invest substantial resources studying the obvious: that more and larger metal is stronger. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a subset of biomechanical studies comparing fixation constructs just document common sense. Using a web-based

  8. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  9. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  10. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimungu, Joseph G; Loades, Kenneth W; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-06-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength were evaluated in plant roots grown in the greenhouse and in the field. Root anatomical phenes were found to be better predictors of root penetrability than root diameter per se and associated with smaller distal cortical region cell size. Smaller outer cortical region cells play an important role in stabilizing the root against ovalization and reducing the risk of local buckling and collapse during penetration, thereby increasing root penetration of hard layers. The use of stele diameter was found to be a better predictor of root tensile strength than root diameter. Cortical thickness, cortical cell count, cortical cell wall area and distal cortical cell size were stronger predictors of root bend strength than root diameter. Our results indicate that root anatomical phenes are important predictors for root penetrability of high-strength layers and root biomechanical properties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  13. Biomechanical factors associated with the development of tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tunen, Joyce A C; Dell'Isola, Andrea; Juhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered biomechanics, increased joint loading and tissue damage, might be related in a vicious cycle within the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We have defined biomechanical factors as joint-related factors that interact with the forces, moments and kinematics in and around...... a synovial joint. Although a number of studies and systematic reviews have been performed to assess the association of various factors with the development of KOA, a comprehensive overview focusing on biomechanical factors that are associated with the development of KOA is not available. The aim...... of this review is (1) to identify biomechanical factors that are associated with (the development of) KOA and (2) to identify the impact of other relevant risk factors on this association. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies investigating the association of a biomechanical...

  14. Information integration in control rooms and technical offices in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The majority of the nuclear power plants in the world were designed 25 to 45 years ago. The information, instrumentation, safety, and control systems in these plant designs were based on analog, relay, and primitive digital technology. Computers that were available when most of the nuclear power plants were built were unsophisticated compared with those currently available. These less powerful machines with limited computational capabilities and memory were used to collect and store information. The main means for obtaining information from the plant were analog meters and strip chart recorders. In many cases these pieces of data had to be integrated and correlated with other data manually, in order to be usable. Procedures and plant information resided on paper only and were frequently hard to find and access in a timely manner. This report provides guidance to help with the integration of information in order to enhance the usability and usefulness of the information. It can also be used to help avoid the pitfalls that can occur when implementing new systems with respect to the information they need and produce. This reports philosophy is based on three important issues that allow the convenient structuring of the problem and to keep all of its important features. The first issue is the process of information systems integration and use. This is achieved by long term planning and the creation of the plant infrastructure plan. The second is to take care of the end users' needs in relation to their abilities. This is realized through analyses of user needs. Third is the design of the human-system interface (HSI), for example to distinguish between types of information for use in the plant control room and in technical offices. The development of this report was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is a logical follow-up to IAEA-TECDOC-1016, Modernization of Instrumentation and Control

  15. Impact of e-publication changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code, 2012) - did we need to "run for our lives"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Nicky; Challis, Katherine; Tucker, Allan; Knapp, Sandra

    2017-05-25

    At the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (IBC), the botanical community voted to allow electronic publication of nomenclatural acts for algae, fungi and plants, and to abolish the rule requiring Latin descriptions or diagnoses for new taxa. Since the 1st January 2012, botanists have been able to publish new names in electronic journals and may use Latin or English as the language of description or diagnosis. Using data on vascular plants from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) spanning the time period in which these changes occurred, we analysed trajectories in publication trends and assessed the impact of these new rules for descriptions of new species and nomenclatural acts. The data show that the ability to publish electronically has not "opened the floodgates" to an avalanche of sloppy nomenclature, but concomitantly neither has there been a massive expansion in the number of names published, nor of new authors and titles participating in publication of botanical nomenclature. The e-publication changes introduced in the Melbourne Code have gained acceptance, and botanists are using these new techniques to describe and publish their work. They have not, however, accelerated the rate of plant species description or participation in biodiversity discovery as was hoped.

  16. Report of the task group reviewing national and international activities in the area of ageing of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    After a background information on the mandate of the task group and its organisation, the longevity of nuclear power plants is first addressed: the present status of nuclear power plants in the 25 OECD Member Countries is summarised and the importance of ensuring continued safe operation of nuclear power plants described. Safety-related concrete structures (primarily containments) for several reactor concepts are briefly described as well as their materials of construction. Primary mechanisms that can produce adverse ageing of the concrete structures are described (e.g., chemical attack and corrosion of steel reinforcement). The overall performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures is described and age-related degradation incidences that have occurred are noted (e.g., corrosion of steel in water intake structures and corrosion of metal liners). National ageing management programmes of OECD Member Countries are then described with the emphasis placed on nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. Although the majority of these programmes are addressing components such as the reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, several national programmes have sophisticated activities that address the concrete structures (e.g., Canada, France, Japan, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States). International ageing management activities are then summarised, primarily addressed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (ageing management activities for concrete containment buildings) and the Commission of European Communities (CEC) (assessment of the long-term durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and buildings, and steel containments in nuclear power plants). General conclusions and recommendations are provided at the end of the report

  17. Highlights of the International Symposium on Plant Lipids, 18th ISPL 2008, Bordeaux July 20–25th, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant lipids are of considerable interest in economic sectors such as agriculture, food, health and the cosmetics industry. In addition, the sector of renewable energies is showing increasing interest in the field of plant lipids. Our society is highly dependent on raw fossil materials whose reserve...

  18. Integrative Structural Biomechanical Concepts of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS.

  19. Biomechanical metrics of aesthetic perception in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Shippen, James

    2015-12-01

    The brain may be tuned to evaluate aesthetic perception through perceptual chunking when we observe the grace of the dancer. We modelled biomechanical metrics to explain biological determinants of aesthetic perception in dance. Eighteen expert (EXP) and intermediate (INT) dancers performed développé arabesque in three conditions: (1) slow tempo, (2) slow tempo with relevé, and (3) fast tempo. To compare biomechanical metrics of kinematic data, we calculated intra-excursion variability, principal component analysis (PCA), and dimensionless jerk for the gesture limb. Observers, all trained dancers, viewed motion capture stick figures of the trials and ranked each for aesthetic (1) proficiency and (2) movement smoothness. Statistical analyses included group by condition repeated-measures ANOVA for metric data; Mann-Whitney U rank and Friedman's rank tests for nonparametric rank data; Spearman's rho correlations to compare aesthetic rankings and metrics; and linear regression to examine which metric best quantified observers' aesthetic rankings, p dance movements revealed differences between groups and condition, p brain combines sensory motor elements into integrated units of behaviour. In this representation, the chunk of information which is remembered, and to which the observer reacts, is the elemental mode shape of the motion rather than physical displacements. This suggests that reduction in redundant information to a simplistic dimensionality is related to the experienced observer's aesthetic perception.

  20. Biomechanics of running with rocker shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bredeweg, Steef W; Hijmans, Juha M

    2017-01-01

    Load reduction is an important consideration in conservative management of tendon overuse injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy. Previous research has shown that the use of rocker shoes can reduce the positive ankle power and plantar flexion moment which might help in unloading the Achilles tendon. Despite this promising implication of rocker shoes, the effects on hip and knee biomechanics remain unclear. Moreover, the effect of wearing rocker shoes on different running strike types is unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanics of the ankle, knee and hip joints and the role of strike type on these outcomes. Randomized cross-over study. In this study, 16 female endurance runners underwent three-dimensional gait analysis wearing rocker shoes and standard shoes. We examined work, moments, and angles of the ankle, knee and hip during the stance phase of running. In comparison with standard shoes, running with rocker shoes significantly (pshoes significantly increased the positive work (14%), extension moment peak (6%), and extension moment impulse (12%). These findings indicate that although running with rocker shoes might lower mechanical load on the Achilles tendon, it could increase the risk of overuse injuries of the knee joint. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrative structural biomechanical concepts of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T; Nair, Kalyani; Andonian, Brian J; Prus, Kristina M; Kelly, Joseph; Sanchez, Jose R; Henderson, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not fully explained by inflammatory processes. Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and course of disease features indicate additional host-related risk processes and predispositions. Collectively, the pattern of predisposition to onset in adolescent and young adult ages, male preponderance, and widely varied severity of AS is unique among rheumatic diseases. However, this pattern could reflect biomechanical and structural differences between the sexes, naturally occurring musculoskeletal changes over life cycles, and a population polymorphism. During juvenile development, the body is more flexible and weaker than during adolescent maturation and young adulthood, when strengthening and stiffening considerably increase. During middle and later ages, the musculoskeletal system again weakens. The novel concept of an innate axial myofascial hypertonicity reflects basic mechanobiological principles in human function, tissue reactivity, and pathology. However, these processes have been little studied and require critical testing. The proposed physical mechanisms likely interact with recognized immunobiological pathways. The structural biomechanical processes and tissue reactions might possibly precede initiation of other AS-related pathways. Research in the combined structural mechanobiology and immunobiology processes promises to improve understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of AS than prevailing concepts. The combined processes might better explain characteristic enthesopathic and inflammatory processes in AS.

  2. How few? Bayesian statistics in injury biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Schmidt, Allison L; Lucas, Joseph E; Bass, Cameron R

    2012-10-01

    In injury biomechanics, there are currently no general a priori estimates of how few specimens are necessary to obtain sufficiently accurate injury risk curves for a given underlying distribution. Further, several methods are available for constructing these curves, and recent methods include Bayesian survival analysis. This study used statistical simulations to evaluate the fidelity of different injury risk methods using limited sample sizes across four different underlying distributions. Five risk curve techniques were evaluated, including Bayesian techniques. For the Bayesian analyses, various prior distributions were assessed, each incorporating more accurate information. Simulated subject injury and biomechanical input values were randomly sampled from each underlying distribution, and injury status was determined by comparing these values. Injury risk curves were developed for this data using each technique for various small sample sizes; for each, analyses on 2000 simulated data sets were performed. Resulting median predicted risk values and confidence intervals were compared with the underlying distributions. Across conditions, the standard and Bayesian survival analyses better represented the underlying distributions included in this study, especially for extreme (1, 10, and 90%) risk. This study demonstrates that the value of the Bayesian analysis is the use of informed priors. As the mean of the prior approaches the actual value, the sample size necessary for good reproduction of the underlying distribution with small confidence intervals can be as small as 2. This study provides estimates of confidence intervals and number of samples to allow the selection of the most appropriate sample sizes given known information.

  3. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A; De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-08-01

    Wheelchair sports are an important tool in the rehabilitation of people with severe chronic disabilities and have been a driving force for innovation in technology and practice. In this paper, we will present an overview of the adaptive technology used in Paralympic sports with a special focus on wheeled technology and the impact of design on performance (defined as achieving the greatest level of athletic ability and minimizing the risk of injury). Many advances in manual wheelchairs trace their origins to wheelchair sports. Features of wheelchairs that were used for racing and basketball 25 or more years ago have become integral to the manual wheelchairs that people now use every day; moreover, the current components used on ultralight wheelchairs also have benefitted from technological advances developed for sports wheelchairs. For example, the wheels now used on chairs for daily mobility incorporate many of the components first developed for sports chairs. Also, advances in manufacturing and the availability of aerospace materials have driven current wheelchair design and manufacture. Basic principles of sports wheelchair design are universal across sports and include fit; minimizing weight while maintaining high stiffness; minimizing rolling resistance; and optimizing the sports-specific design of the chair. However, a well-designed and fitted wheelchair is not sufficient for optimal sports performance: the athlete must be well trained, skilled, and use effective biomechanics because wheelchair athletes face some unique biomechanical challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards an ideal rowing technique for performance : the contributions from biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Clara; Hume, Patria Anne

    2004-01-01

    At international standard, sculling (two oars) and rowing (one oar) are competed on-water over 2000 m. Race time is the critical measure of performance and is determined from mean skiff velocity during a race. Although a high proportion of race training is completed on-water, rowing ergometers are commonly used for performance testing, technique coaching, crew selection or for training during poor weather. Rowing biomechanics research has aimed to identify characteristics of successful sculling and sweep rowing strokes; however, biomechanical predictors of 2000 m rowing performance are indistinct in the literature. If specific biomechanical parameters distinguish between ability levels and successful or unsuccessful techniques, these attributes can be considered when modifying technique or predicting future rowing performance. The kinematics and kinetics of the sculling and rowing movements have been described on ergometers, on-water and for novice and elite male and female rowers, but there is limited research on the ideal technique or how a rower's anthropometry or boat set-up could help improve/optimise their rowing performance. Currently viewing the technique and providing verbal feedback is the primary tool used by a coach to help improve a rower's technique and performance. The greater use of customised telemetered sensors on the rowing skiff can assist the coach and biomechanist with judging when performance (skiff velocity) improves with some form of intervention.

  5. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathryn M; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J

    2017-05-01

    Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome. A combination of low inoculum dose (~10 2 CFU) together with light microscopy imaging highlighted marked differences in the fate of endophytic E. coli O157:H7 Sakai. In the fresh produce species, bacterial growth was restricted but viable cells persisted over 20 days, whereas there was > 400-fold (~2.5 Log 10 ) increase in growth in N. benthamiana. Colony formation occurred adjacent to epidermal cells and mesophyll cells or close to vascular bundles of N. benthamiana and contained components of a biofilm matrix, including curli expression and elicitation, extracellular DNA and a limited presence of cellulose. Together the data show that internalization is a relevant issue in crop production and that crop species and tissue need to be considered as food safety risk parameters. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Internal radiation dose of KURRI volunteers working at evacuation shelters after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kouta; Kinashi, Yuko; Okamoto, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We report the radiation doses encountered by 59 Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) staff members who had been dispatched to screen refugees for radiation at emergency evacuation sites 45–80 km from the Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s (TEPCO’s) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. From March 20 to April 30, 2011, 42 members in teams consisting of 2–4 staff members were dispatched 15 times to 7 emergency evacuation sites located 45–80 km from the power plant to examine the radioactive contamination affecting refugees. Continuously, from May 10 to May 23, 2011, 17 members in teams consisting of 2–5 staff members were dispatched 6 times to Fukushima Prefecture to establish the Kyoto University Radiation Mapping (KURAMA) system. Internal burdens of radioactive nuclides were estimated using a whole-body counter consisting of an iron room, NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, and a digital multichannel analyzer (MCA7600; Seiko EG and G). The calibration of the whole-body counter and the conversion of the measured body burden to the committed effective dose by internal exposure were carried out in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA) technical manual. The external radiation dose to each staff member was measured using a personal dosimeter. The first dispatched team showed 1300–1929 Bq of internal radiation activity from cesium (including 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 48–118 Bq of 131 I. The internal doses of four members of the first team were estimated to be 24–39 μSv. The doses from internal exposure were almost similar to the cumulative external doses for the dispatch period (March 20–22, 2011) when the radiation plumes following the explosions of Units 1 and 3 in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant had diffused around Fukushima City. The external radiation doses of members dispatched after the second team had decreased from one-third to less than one-tenth of the external doses of the first dispatched team. The

  7. Internal radiation dose of KURRI volunteers working at evacuation shelters after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kouta; Kinashi, Yuko; Okamoto, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We report the radiation doses encountered by 59 Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) staff members who had been dispatched to screen refugees for radiation at emergency evacuation sites 45-80 km from the Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. From March 20 to April 30, 2011, 42 members in teams consisting of 2-4 staff members were dispatched 15 times to 7 emergency evacuation sites located 45-80 km from the power plant to examine the radioactive contamination affecting refugees. Continuously, from May 10 to May 23, 2011, 17 members in teams consisting of 2-5 staff members were dispatched 6 times to Fukushima Prefecture to establish the Kyoto University Radiation Mapping (KURAMA) system. Internal burdens of radioactive nuclides were estimated using a whole-body counter consisting of an iron room, NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, and a digital multichannel analyzer (MCA7600; Seiko EG and G). The calibration of the whole-body counter and the conversion of the measured body burden to the committed effective dose by internal exposure were carried out in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA) technical manual. The external radiation dose to each staff member was measured using a personal dosimeter. The first dispatched team showed 1300-1929 Bq of internal radiation activity from cesium (including 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 48-118 Bq of 131 I. The internal doses of four members of the first team were estimated to be 24-39 μSv. The doses from internal exposure were almost similar to the cumulative external doses for the dispatch period (March 20-22, 2011) when the radiation plumes following the explosions of Units 1 and 3 in TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant had diffused around Fukushima City. The external radiation doses of members dispatched after the second team had decreased from one-third to less than one-tenth of the external doses of the first dispatched team. The internal

  8. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  9. The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Fabio; Scippa, G S; Lasserre, B; Montagnoli, A; Tognetti, R; Marchetti, M; Chiatante, D

    2017-05-01

    Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.

  10. Artificial intelligence in sports biomechanics: new dawn or false hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Roger

    2006-12-15

    This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques') and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics. Key PointsExpert Systems remain almost unused in sports biomechanics, unlike in the similar discipline of gait analysis.Artificial Neural Networks, particularly Kohonen Maps, have been used, although their full value remains unclear.Other AI applications, including Evolutionary Computation, have received little attention.

  11. Teaching undergraduate biomechanics with Just-in-Time Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody L

    2015-06-01

    Biomechanics education is a vital component of kinesiology, sports medicine, and physical education, as well as for many biomedical engineering and bioengineering undergraduate programmes. Little research exists regarding effective teaching strategies for biomechanics. However, prior work suggests that student learning in undergraduate physics courses has been aided by using the Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT). As physics understanding plays a role in biomechanics understanding, the purpose of study was to evaluate the use of a JiTT framework in an undergraduate biomechanics course. This two-year action-based research study evaluated three JiTT frameworks: (1) no JiTT; (2) mathematics-based JiTT; and (3) concept-based JiTT. A pre- and post-course assessment of student learning used the biomechanics concept inventory and a biomechanics concept map. A general linear model assessed differences between the course assessments by JiTT framework in order to evaluate learning and teaching effectiveness. The results indicated significantly higher learning gains and better conceptual understanding in a concept-based JiTT course, relative to a mathematics-based JiTT or no JiTT course structure. These results suggest that a course structure involving concept-based questions using a JiTT strategy may be an effective method for engaging undergraduate students and promoting learning in biomechanics courses.

  12. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  13. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation

  14. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation.

  15. Biomechanical ToolKit: Open-source framework to visualize and process biomechanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Arnaud; Armand, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    C3D file format is widely used in the biomechanical field by companies and laboratories to store motion capture systems data. However, few software packages can visualize and modify the integrality of the data in the C3D file. Our objective was to develop an open-source and multi-platform framework to read, write, modify and visualize data from any motion analysis systems using standard (C3D) and proprietary file formats (used by many companies producing motion capture systems). The Biomechanical ToolKit (BTK) was developed to provide cost-effective and efficient tools for the biomechanical community to easily deal with motion analysis data. A large panel of operations is available to read, modify and process data through C++ API, bindings for high-level languages (Matlab, Octave, and Python), and standalone application (Mokka). All these tools are open-source and cross-platform and run on all major operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS X). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.T.; Zhou, E.H.; Li, A.; Vedula, S.R.K.; Fu, H.X.

    2006-01-01

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research

  17. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomito, Matthew J; Ferreira, Joel V; Nissen, Carl W

    2017-06-01

    Left-handed baseball pitchers are thought to have a number of theoretical advantages compared to right-handed pitchers; however, there is limited scientific research detailing differences in the pitching mechanics of right- and left-handed pitchers. Therefore, this study sought to understand whether any kinematic and kinetic differences existed between right- and left-handed baseball pitchers. A total of 52 collegiate pitchers were included in this study; 26 left-handed pitchers were compared to 26 age-, height-, weight- and ball velocity-matched right-handed pitchers. Demographic information, passive shoulder range of motion and kinematic and kinetic data were obtained for each pitcher participating in the study. Results indicated that left-handed pitchers did not have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit as compared to right-handed pitchers. Kinematic analysis indicated that elbow flexion, horizontal glenohumeral abduction and wrist coronal plane motion were significantly different between the two study cohorts. It was also noted that left-handed pitchers had increased elbow varus moments. The findings of this study suggest that pitching coaches should be aware that there are biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed pitchers.

  18. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  19. Biomechanics trends in modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, Ray

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of biomechanical and mechanobiological modeling and simulation of soft biological tissues. Seven well-known scientists working in that particular field discuss topics such as biomolecules, networks and cells as well as failure, multi-scale, agent-based, bio-chemo-mechanical and finite element models appropriate for computational analysis. Applications include arteries, the heart, vascular stents and valve implants as well as adipose, brain, collagenous and engineered tissues. The mechanics of the whole cell and sub-cellular components as well as the extracellular matrix structure and mechanotransduction are described. In particular, the formation and remodeling of stress fibers, cytoskeletal contractility, cell adhesion and the mechanical regulation of fibroblast migration in healing myocardial infarcts are discussed. The essential ingredients of continuum mechanics are provided. Constitutive models of fiber-reinforced materials with an emphasis on arterial walls ...

  20. Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbulut, D U; Zafarparandeh, I; Ozer, A F; Goel, V K

    2013-01-01

    Spinal rigid instrumentations have been used to fuse and stabilize spinal segments as a surgical treatment for various spinal disorders to date. This technology provides immediate stability after surgery until the natural fusion mass develops. At present, rigid fixation is the current gold standard in surgical treatment of chronic back pain spinal disorders. However, such systems have several drawbacks such as higher mechanical stress on the adjacent segment, leading to long-term degenerative changes and hypermobility that often necessitate additional fusion surgery. Dynamic stabilization systems have been suggested to address adjacent segment degeneration, which is considered to be a fusion-associated phenomenon. Dynamic stabilization systems are designed to preserve segmental stability, to keep the treated segment mobile, and to reduce or eliminate degenerative effects on adjacent segments. This paper aimed to describe the biomechanical aspect of dynamic stabilization systems as an alternative treatment to fusion for certain patients.

  1. Biomechanics of Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. U. Erbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal rigid instrumentations have been used to fuse and stabilize spinal segments as a surgical treatment for various spinal disorders to date. This technology provides immediate stability after surgery until the natural fusion mass develops. At present, rigid fixation is the current gold standard in surgical treatment of chronic back pain spinal disorders. However, such systems have several drawbacks such as higher mechanical stress on the adjacent segment, leading to long-term degenerative changes and hypermobility that often necessitate additional fusion surgery. Dynamic stabilization systems have been suggested to address adjacent segment degeneration, which is considered to be a fusion-associated phenomenon. Dynamic stabilization systems are designed to preserve segmental stability, to keep the treated segment mobile, and to reduce or eliminate degenerative effects on adjacent segments. This paper aimed to describe the biomechanical aspect of dynamic stabilization systems as an alternative treatment to fusion for certain patients.

  2. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed.

  3. A biomechanical model of mammographic compressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J H; Rajagopal, V; Nielsen, P M F; Nash, M P

    2008-02-01

    A number of biomechanical models have been proposed to improve nonrigid registration techniques for multimodal breast image alignment. A deformable breast model may also be useful for overcoming difficulties in interpreting 2D X-ray projections (mammograms) of 3D volumes (breast tissues). If a deformable model could accurately predict the shape changes that breasts undergo during mammography, then the model could serve to localize suspicious masses (visible in mammograms) in the unloaded state, or in any other deformed state required for further investigations (such as biopsy or other medical imaging modalities). In this paper, we present a validation study that was conducted in order to develop a biomechanical model based on the well-established theory of continuum mechanics (finite elasticity theory with contact mechanics) and demonstrate its use for this application. Experimental studies using gel phantoms were conducted to test the accuracy in predicting mammographic-like deformations. The material properties of the gel phantom were estimated using a nonlinear optimization process, which minimized the errors between the experimental and the model-predicted surface data by adjusting the parameter associated with the neo-Hookean constitutive relation. Two compressions (the equivalent of cranio-caudal and medio-lateral mammograms) were performed on the phantom, and the corresponding deformations were recorded using a MRI scanner. Finite element simulations were performed to mimic the experiments using the estimated material properties with appropriate boundary conditions. The simulation results matched the experimental recordings of the deformed phantom, with a sub-millimeter root-mean-square error for each compression state. Having now validated our finite element model of breast compression, the next stage is to apply the model to clinical images.

  4. Development of a biomechanical energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingguo; Naing, Veronica; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2009-06-23

    Biomechanical energy harvesting-generating electricity from people during daily activities-is a promising alternative to batteries for powering increasingly sophisticated portable devices. We recently developed a wearable knee-mounted energy harvesting device that generated electricity during human walking. In this methods-focused paper, we explain the physiological principles that guided our design process and present a detailed description of our device design with an emphasis on new analyses. Effectively harvesting energy from walking requires a small lightweight device that efficiently converts intermittent, bi-directional, low speed and high torque mechanical power to electricity, and selectively engages power generation to assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work. To achieve this, our device used a one-way clutch to transmit only knee extension motions, a spur gear transmission to amplify the angular speed, a brushless DC rotary magnetic generator to convert the mechanical power into electrical power, a control system to determine when to open and close the power generation circuit based on measurements of knee angle, and a customized orthopaedic knee brace to distribute the device reaction torque over a large leg surface area. The device selectively engaged power generation towards the end of swing extension, assisting knee flexor muscles by producing substantial flexion torque (6.4 Nm), and efficiently converted the input mechanical power into electricity (54.6%). Consequently, six subjects walking at 1.5 m/s generated 4.8 +/- 0.8 W of electrical power with only a 5.0 +/- 21 W increase in metabolic cost. Biomechanical energy harvesting is capable of generating substantial amounts of electrical power from walking with little additional user effort making future versions of this technology particularly promising for charging portable medical devices.

  5. Development of a biomechanical energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelan J Maxwell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting–generating electricity from people during daily activities–is a promising alternative to batteries for powering increasingly sophisticated portable devices. We recently developed a wearable knee-mounted energy harvesting device that generated electricity during human walking. In this methods-focused paper, we explain the physiological principles that guided our design process and present a detailed description of our device design with an emphasis on new analyses. Methods Effectively harvesting energy from walking requires a small lightweight device that efficiently converts intermittent, bi-directional, low speed and high torque mechanical power to electricity, and selectively engages power generation to assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work. To achieve this, our device used a one-way clutch to transmit only knee extension motions, a spur gear transmission to amplify the angular speed, a brushless DC rotary magnetic generator to convert the mechanical power into electrical power, a control system to determine when to open and close the power generation circuit based on measurements of knee angle, and a customized orthopaedic knee brace to distribute the device reaction torque over a large leg surface area. Results The device selectively engaged power generation towards the end of swing extension, assisting knee flexor muscles by producing substantial flexion torque (6.4 Nm, and efficiently converted the input mechanical power into electricity (54.6%. Consequently, six subjects walking at 1.5 m/s generated 4.8 ± 0.8 W of electrical power with only a 5.0 ± 21 W increase in metabolic cost. Conclusion Biomechanical energy harvesting is capable of generating substantial amounts of electrical power from walking with little additional user effort making future versions of this technology particularly promising for charging portable medical devices.

  6. Laryngeal biomechanics of the singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufman, J A; Radomski, T A; Joharji, G M; Russell, G B; Pillsbury, D C

    1996-12-01

    By transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy, patients with functional voice often demonstrate abnormal laryngeal biomechanics, commonly supraglottic contraction. Appropriately, such conditions are sometimes termed muscle tension dysphonias. Singers working at the limits of their voice may also transiently demonstrate comparable tension patterns. However, the biomechanics of normal singing, particularly for different singing styles, have not been previously well characterized. We used transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy to study 100 healthy singers to assess patterns of laryngeal tension during normal singing and to determine whether factors such as sex, occupation, and style of singing influence laryngeal muscle tension. Thirty-nine male and 61 female singers were studied; 48 were professional singers, and 52 were amateurs. Examinations of study subjects performing standardized and nonstandardized singing tasks were recorded on a laser disk and subsequently analyzed in a frame-by-frame fashion by a blinded otolaryngologist. Each vocal task was graded for muscle tension by previously established criteria, and objective muscle tension scores were computed. The muscle tension score was expressed as a percentage of frames for each task with one of the laryngeal muscle tension patterns shown. The lowest muscle tension scores were seen in female professional singers, and the highest muscle tension scores were seen in amateur female singers. Male singers (professional and amateur) had intermediate muscle tension scores. Classical singers had lower muscle tension scores than nonclassical singers, with the lowest muscle tension scores being seen in those singing choral music (41%), art song (47%), and opera (57%), and the highest being seen in those singing jazz/pop (65%), musical theater (74%), bluegrass/country and western (86%), and rock/gospel (94%). Analyzed also were the influences of vocal nodules, prior vocal training, number of performance and practice hours per week

  7. Trade, traffic and management of botanical resources in agriculture: review lecture presented at the international symposium on sustainable use of plant biodiversity to promote new opportunities for horticultural production development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of biological diversity is of importance for various reasons (genetic resources, ecosystem resilience, source of income, cultural heritage). The international trade in plants from wild source may have negative consequences for biodiversity (habitat alteration, introduction of

  8. Effective handling of software anomalies in computer based systems at nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This report reviews possible types of anomalies that are related to software in nuclear power plants, outlines techniques that can be used to identify anomalies throughout the entire software life-cycle, and discusses important issues that must be considered during anomaly investigation and resolution. Typically, anomalies are identified, investigated and resolved during the normal process of developing or maintaining plant software, where these activities are covered by procedures and tools that are part of this process. Nevertheless, to reduce the number and impact of anomalies under plant operating conditions, it is important to ensure that good plans, procedures and tools are in place throughout the software life-cycle. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). The report is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Austria, Canada, Germany, Hungary, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The scope of activities described in this report covers a methodology for anomaly identification, anomaly investigation and anomaly resolution. The activities to be done within these steps strongly depend on the safety category of the software, the actual life-cycle phase of the software, the type of the software and the severity of the anomaly

  9. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes; Developpement d'un modele biomecanique du rachis base sur les relations 3D internes - externes: radiographie bi-planaire et franges de Moire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-15

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  10. Keratoconus: A biomechanical perspective on loss of corneal stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sinha Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is progressive disease of corneal thinning, steepening and collagen degradation. Biomechanics of the cornea is maintained by the intricate collagen network, which is responsible for its unique shape and function. With the disruption of this collagen network, the cornea loses its shape and function, resulting in progressive visual degradation. While KC is essentially a stromal disease, there is evidence that the epithelium undergoes significant thinning similar to the stroma. Several topographical approaches have been developed to detect KC early. However, it is now hypothesized that biomechanical destabilization of the cornea may precede topographic evidence of KC. Biomechanics of KC has been investigated only to a limited extent due to lack of in vivo measurement techniques and/or devices. In this review, we focus on recent work performed to characterize the biomechanical characteristics of KC.

  11. Recent microfluidic devices for studying gamete and embryo biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Smith, Gary D

    2015-06-25

    The technical challenges of biomechanic research such as single cell analysis at a high monetary cost, labor, and time for just a small number of measurements is a good match to the strengths of microfluidic devices. New scientific discoveries in the fertilization and embryo development process, of which biomechanics is a major subset of interest, is crucial to fuel the continual improvement of clinical practice in assisted reproduction. The following review will highlight some recent microfluidic devices tailored for gamete and embryo biomechanics where biomimicry arises as a major theme of microfluidic device design and function, and the application of fundamental biomechanic principles are used to improve outcomes of cryopreservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

      This volume focuses on the biomechanical modeling of biological tissues in the context of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). More specifically, deformable soft tissues are addressed since they are the subject of the most recent developments in this field. The pioneering works on this CAS topic date from the 1980's, with applications in orthopaedics and biomechanical models of bones. More recently, however, biomechanical models of soft tissues have been proposed since most of the human body is made of soft organs that can be deformed by the surgical gesture. Such models are much more complicated to handle since the tissues can be subject to large deformations (non-linear geometrical framework) as well as complex stress/strain relationships (non-linear mechanical framework). Part 1 of the volume presents biomechanical models that have been developed in a CAS context and used during surgery. This is particularly new since most of the soft tissues models already proposed concern Computer Assisted Planning, with ...

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  14. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    OpenAIRE

    Harryanto Wijaya; Isnani Jenie; Himawan Halim

    2013-01-01

    Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer tre...

  15. Hand biomechanics in skilled pianists playing a scale in thirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie

    2010-12-01

    Pianists, who attend to the integral relationship of their particular musculoskeletal characteristics to the piano technique at hand, discover an efficient path to technical advancement and, consequently, to injury prevention. Thus, a study of pianist's hand biomechanics in relation to different piano techniques is highly relevant, as hand features may influence various techniques in different ways. This study addressed relationships between pianists' hand biomechanics and the performance of a scale in thirds, as a part of an ongoing series of studies examining relationships between hand biomechanics and performance data of primary techniques. The biomechanics of hand length and width, finger length, hand span, hand and arm weights, and ulnar deviation at the wrist were compared with tempo, articulation, and dynamic voicing (tone balance between two notes of the thirds). Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive association between ulnar deviation and tempo; the other biomechanical features showed no relationships with any of the performance criteria. Qualitative cross-sectional observation of individual profiles showed that experienced pianists perform with a higher degree of synchrony in two-note descent while pianists with organ training background play with a lesser degree of synchrony. All biomechanical features were closely related among one another with one exception: wrist ulnar deviation was not associated with any other biomechanical features; rather, data suggest possible negative associations. This study underscores the importance of wrist mobility in piano skills development. Further research using a complete set of prototype piano techniques and multiple-level pianist-subjects could provide substantive biomechanical information that may be used to develop efficient pedagogy and prevention strategies for playing-related injuries as well as rehabilitation.

  16. An improved method to quantitate mature plant microRNA in biological matrices using periodate treatment and internal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) ubiquitously exist in microorganisms, plants and animals, and appear to modulate a wide range of critical biological processes. However, no definitive conclusion has been reached regarding the uptake of exogenous dietary small RNAs into mammalian circulation and organs and cross-k...

  17. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help

  18. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPORTS BIOMECHANICS: NEW DAWN OR FALSE HOPE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bartlett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements ('techniques' and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics.

  19. Gait biomechanics in the era of data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Reed; Osis, Sean T; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    Data science has transformed fields such as computer vision and economics. The ability of modern data science methods to extract insights from large, complex, heterogeneous, and noisy datasets is beginning to provide a powerful complement to the traditional approaches of experimental motion capture and biomechanical modeling. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how data science methods can be incorporated into our field to advance our understanding of gait biomechanics and improve treatment planning procedures. We provide examples of how data science approaches have been applied to biomechanical data. We then discuss the challenges that remain for effectively using data science approaches in clinical gait analysis and gait biomechanics research, including the need for new tools, better infrastructure and incentives for sharing data, and education across the disciplines of biomechanics and data science. By addressing these challenges, we can revolutionize treatment planning and biomechanics research by capitalizing on the wealth of knowledge gained by gait researchers over the past decades and the vast, but often siloed, data that are collected in clinical and research laboratories around the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Report of the IPERS (International Peer Review Service) pre-review mission for the Cernavoda nuclear power plant probabilistic safety evaluation (CPSE - PHASE B) in Romania 31 October to 3 November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of the IAEA international peer review services pre-review mission which reviewed the status of the present version of the Cernavoda probabilistic safety evaluation, a Level 1 internal events Probabilistic Safety Assessment for the Cernavoda, Unit 1, nuclear power plant. 2 refs

  1. Report of the IPERS (International Peer Review Service) review mission for the Cernavoda nuclear power plant probabilistic safety evaluation (CPSE -PHASE B) in Romania 3 to 14 July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the IAEA International Peer Review Services review of the internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Cernavoda, Unit 1 NPP. The review was based on the PSA documentation available and on intensive communications with the analysis team and representatives from the utility and the plant operator. 7 refs, figs, tabs

  2. The value and adaptation of plant uptake models in international trade of produce treated with crop protection products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, C.; Anderson, J.; Snyder, N.

    2010-01-01

    Crop Protection Product (CPP) national registrations and/or international trade require magnitude and decline of residue data for treated produce. These data are used to assess human dietary risk and establish legal limits (Maximum Residue Limits, MRLs) for traded produce. The ability to predict...

  3. Evaluation of the physical work load and biomechanical of workers at manual and semi-mechanized mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Martins de Oliveir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of the physical work load and biomechanical of workers at manual and semi-mechanized mowing activities for the planting the forests. The physical work load was evaluated in a survery of the workers cardiac frequency in different stages of the work using a Polar Oy monitor. To the biomechanic evaluation the workers were filmed in the execution of the work, defined the typical postures adopted and the date analyzed in program 3DSSPP (3D Static Strength Prediction Program developed for University of Michigan, USA. The results showed that the activity of manual mowing required greater physical effort, with cardiac frequency above the maximum limit recommended of 40% and the activity was classified as heavy. In this method of working the various joints of the workers showed injurie risks. The hip joint articulation was the most affected, with capable percentage varying between 88 and 92%.

  4. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. Working material. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    National programs of Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Czech Republic, Canada, France and Germany related to nuclear power plants life management presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are published in this volume. Finnish report VTT-TIED-1843 included in this volume was already included separately in the INIS Database. The main features of the reports are oriented towards extension of NPP lifetime and conditions indispensable to achieve in order to fulfil the safety requirements including testing the mechanical properties of relevant reactor components

  5. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. Working material. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    National programs of Hungary, Japan, Korea, Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom and USA, related to nuclear power plants life management presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are published in this volume. The main features of the reports are oriented towards extension of NPP lifetime and conditions indispensable to achieve in order to fulfil the safety requirements including testing the mechanical properties of relevant reactor components

  6. Biomechanics of the classic metaphyseal lesion: finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coats, Brittany [University of Utah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is strongly associated with infant abuse, but the biomechanics responsible for this injury have not been rigorously studied. Radiologic and CT-pathological correlates show that the distal tibial CML always involves the cortex near the subperiosteal bone collar, with variable extension of the fracture into the medullary cavity. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the primary site of bone failure is cortical, rather than intramedullary. This study focuses on the strain patterns generated from finite element modeling to identify loading scenarios and regions of the cortex that are susceptible to bone failure. A geometric model was constructed from a normal 3-month-old infant's distal tibia and fibula. The model's boundary conditions were set to mimic forceful manipulation of the ankle with eight load modalities (tension, compression, internal rotation, external rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, valgus bending and varus bending). For all modalities except internal and external rotation, simulations showed increased cortical strains near the subperiosteal bone collar. Tension generated the largest magnitude of cortical strain (24%) that was uniformly distributed near the subperiosteal bone collar. Compression generated the same distribution of strain but to a lesser magnitude overall (15%). Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion generated high (22%) and moderate (14%) localized cortical strains, respectively, near the subperiosteal bone collar. Lower cortical strains resulted from valgus bending, varus bending, internal rotation and external rotation (8-10%). The highest valgus and varus bending cortical strains occurred medially. These simulations suggest that the likelihood of the initial cortical bone failure of the CML is higher along the margin of the subperiosteal bone collar when the ankle is under tension, compression, valgus bending, varus bending, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, but not under internal

  7. DYNAMIC MAGNIFICATION OF BIOMECHANICAL SYSTEM MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pokatilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for estimation of dynamic magnification pertaining to motion in biomechanics have been developed and approbаted in the paper. It has been ascertained that widely-used characteristics for evaluation of motion influence on mechanisms and machinery such as a dynamic coefficient and acceleration capacity factor become irrelevant while investigating human locomotion under elastic support conditions. The reason is an impossibility to compare human motion in case when there is a contact with elastic and rigid supports because while changing rigidity of the support exercise performing technique is also changing. In this case the technique still depends on a current state of a specific sportsman. Such situation is observed in sports gymnastics. Structure of kinematic and dynamic models for human motion has been investigated in the paper. It has been established that properties of an elastic support are reflected in models within two aspects: in an explicit form, when models have parameters of dynamic deformation for a gymnastic apparatus, and in an implicit form, when we have numerically changed parameters of human motion. The first part can be evaluated quantitatively while making comparison with calculations made in accordance with complete models. For this reason notions of selected and complete models have been introduced in the paper. It has been proposed to specify models for support and models of biomechanical system that represent models pertaining only to human locomotor system. It has been revealed that the selected models of support in kinematics and dynamics have structural difference. Kinematics specifies only parameters of elastic support deformation and dynamics specifies support parameters in an explicit form and additionally in models of human motion in an explicit form as well. Quantitative estimation of a dynamic motion magnification in kinematics and dynamics models has been given while using computing experiment for grand

  8. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in soil and internalization into Romaine lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, April M; Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Niemira, Brendan A; Douds, David D

    2015-01-02

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of a symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on persistence of Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) within soil, and survival within Romaine lettuce. Romaine seedlings were grown with or without AM fungi. Soil surrounding plants was inoculated with ca. 8 log CFU/plant of either Salmonella enterica or E. coli EHEC composites. Samples (soil, root, and shoot) were analyzed on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 for Salmonella and EHEC by direct plating and selective enrichment. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, populations of Salmonella and EHEC, respectively, were 4.20 and 3.24 log CFU/root, 2.52 and 1.17 log CFU/shoot, and 5.46 and 5.17 log CFU/g soil. By selective enrichment, samples tested positive for Salmonella or EHEC at day 22 at rates of 94 and 68% (shoot), 97 and 56% (root), and 100 and 75% (soil), respectively, suggesting that Salmonella has a greater propensity for survival than EHEC. Salmonella populations in soil remained as high as 4.35 log CFU/g by day 22, while EHEC populations dropped to 1.12 log CFU/g in the same amount of time. Ninety-two percent of all Romaine leaves in our study were positive for internalized Salmonella from days 8 to 22 and remained as high as 1.26 log CFU/shoot on day 22 in AM fungi+Romaine plants. There were no differences (P>0.05) between the survival of either pathogen based on the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Results of this study suggest that AM fungi do not affect the internalization and/or survival of either S. enterica or E. coli O157:H7 in Romaine lettuce seedlings. Our results should provide Romaine lettuce farmers confidence that the presence and/or application of AM fungi to crop soil is not a contributing factor to the internalization and survival of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 within Romaine lettuce plants. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Microsome-associated proteome modifications of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on board the International Space Station reveal the possible effect on plants of space stresses other than microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, Christian; Brière, Christian; Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco-Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-07-16

    Growing plants in space for using them in bioregenerative life support systems during long-term human spaceflights needs improvement of our knowledge in how plants can adapt to space growth conditions. In a previous study performed on board the International Space Station (GENARA A experiment STS-132) we evaluate the global changes that microgravity can exert on the membrane proteome of Arabidopsis seedlings. Here we report additional data from this space experiment, taking advantage of the availability in the EMCS of a centrifuge to evaluate the effects of cues other than microgravity on the relative distribution of membrane proteins. Among the 1484 membrane proteins quantified, 227 proteins displayed no abundance differences between µ g and 1 g in space, while their abundances significantly differed between 1 g in space and 1 g on ground. A majority of these proteins (176) were over-represented in space samples and mainly belong to families corresponding to protein synthesis, degradation, transport, lipid metabolism, or ribosomal proteins. In the remaining set of 51 proteins that were under-represented in membranes, aquaporins and chloroplastic proteins are majority. These sets of proteins clearly appear as indicators of plant physiological processes affected in space by stressful factors others than microgravity.

  10. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  11. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1997-12-01

    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  12. Biomechanical origin of the Denonvilliers' fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M M; Alsaid, B; Droupy, S; Benoit, G; Prudhomme, M

    2014-01-01

    Since 1836 and the first description of the recto-genital fascia by Charles Denonvilliers, many anatomists have shown interest in this subject. Recently, pelvic surgeons have in turn shown similar interest, for they consider that perfect knowledge of this anatomical domain is crucial for optimal nerve conservation during surgery. Thanks to new anatomical description techniques, fascia location and relationships with pelvic nerves now appear clearer. To describe and represent Denonvilliers' fascia and its relationships in the female foetus at different stages of gestation and in three-dimensional space (3D). Computer-assisted anatomical dissection technique was used. Serial histological sections were made from four human female foetuses. Sections were treated with conventional staining, as well as with nerve and smooth muscle immunostaining. Finally, the sections were digitalized and reconstructed in 3D. Denonvilliers' fascia was clearly located and visualized in three dimensions. It was present in the female foetus, being distinct from the fascia propria of the rectum. It appeared to be composed of multiple parallel layers situated between the vagina and the rectum. From a lateral view, it had an asymmetrical "Y-shaped" aspect that seemed to play the role of a protective sheet for the neurovascular bundles. This study betters our comprehension of the Denonvilliers' fascia in the female foetus and of its connections with pelvic nerves. It also provides a better understanding of safe planes during pelvic dissection. These findings also suggest a biomechanical theory for embryological origin of the Denonvilliers' fascia.

  13. Biomechanic Factors Associated With Orbital Floor Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sagar; Andrecovich, Christopher; Silverman, Michael; Zhang, Liying; Shkoukani, Mahdii

    2017-07-01

    Orbital floor fractures are commonly seen in clinical practice, yet the etiology underlying the mechanism of fracture is not well understood. Current research focuses on the buckling theory and hydraulic theory, which implicate trauma to the orbital rim and the globe, respectively. To elucidate and define the biomechanical factors involved in an orbital floor fracture. A total of 10 orbits from 5 heads (3 male and 2 female) were used for this study. These came from fresh, unfixed human postmortem cadavers that were each selected so that the cause of death did not interfere with the integrity of orbital walls. Using a drop tower with an accelerometer, we measured impact force on the globe and rim of cadaver heads affixed with strain gauges. The mean impacts for rim and globe trauma were 3.9 J (95% CI, 3.4-4.3 J) and 3.9 J (95% CI, 3.5-4.3 J), respectively. Despite similar impact forces to the globe and rim, strain-gauge data displayed greater mean strain for globe impact (6563 μS) compared with rim impact (3530 μS); however, these data were not statistically significant (95% CI, 3598-8953 μS; P = .94). Our results suggest that trauma directly to the globe predisposes a patient to a more posterior fracture while trauma to the rim demonstrates an anterior predilection. Both the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms of fracture exist and demonstrate similar fracture thresholds. NA.

  14. Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

    2013-07-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.

  15. Biomechanical comments about Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Delcourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triassic dinosaurs of Brazil are found in Santa Maria and Caturrita formations, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. There are three species known from the Santa Maria Formation (Staurikosaurus pricei, Saturnalia tupiniquim and Pampadromaeus barberenai, and two from Caturrita Formation (Guaibasaurus candelariensis and Unaysaurus tolentinoi. These dinosaur materials are, for the most part, well preserved and allow for descriptions of musculature and biomechanical studies. The lateral rotation of the Saturnalia femur is corroborated through calculations of muscle moment arms. The enhanced supracetabular crest of Saturnalia, Guaibasaurus, Staurikosaurus, Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, Efraasia minor and Chormogisaurus novasi suggests that basal dinosaurs may have maintained an inclination of the trunk at least 20º on the horizontal axis. The pectoral girdle articulation of basal sauropodomorphs (Saturnalia and Unaysaurus was established using a new method, the Clavicular Ring, and the scapular blade remains near 60º on the horizontal axis. This is a plesiomorphic condition among sauropodomorphs and is also seen in the articulated plateosauridae Seitaad ruessi. The Brazilian basal dinosaurs were lightweight with a body mass estimated around 18.5 kg for Staurikosaurus, 6.5 kg for Saturnalia, and 17 kg for Guaibasaurus. Pampadromaeus probably weighed 2.5 kg, but measures of its femur are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The Triassic dinosaurs from Brazil were diversified but shared some functional aspects that were important in an evolutionary context.

  16. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  18. Lessons learned from the last 20 years of ACL-related in vivo-biomechanics research of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos; Zampeli, Franceska; Xergia, Sofia A; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in recent years have allowed the easy and accurate assessment of knee motion during athletic activities. Subsequently, thousands of studies have been published that greatly improved our understanding of the aetiology, surgical reconstruction techniques and prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from biomechanical studies on ACL-related research. High-impact articles that enhanced understanding of ACL injury aetiology, rehabilitation, prevention and adaptations after reconstruction were selected. The importance of restoring internal tibial rotation after ACL reconstruction has emerged in several studies. Criteria-based, individualized rehabilitation protocols have replaced the traditional time-based protocols. Excessive knee valgus, poor trunk control, excessive quadriceps forces and leg asymmetries have been identified as potential high risk biomechanical factors for ACL tear. Injury prevention programmes have emerged as low cost and effective means of preventing ACL injuries, particularly in female athletes. As a result of biomechanical research, clinicians have a better understanding of ACL injury aetiology, prevention and rehabilitation. Athletes exhibiting neuromuscular deficits predisposing them to ACL injury can be identified and enrolled into prevention programmes. Clinicians should assess ACL-reconstructed patients for excessive internal tibial rotation that may lead to poor outcomes.

  19. Contribution of the Pubofemoral Ligament to Hip Stability: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal D; Khoury, Anthony N; Schröder, Ricardo; Johnson, Eric; Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Campos, Salvador; Palmer, Ian J

    2017-02-01

    To determine the isolated function of the pubofemoral ligament of the hip capsule and its contribution to hip stability in external/internal rotational motion during flexion greater than 30° and abduction. Thirteen hips from 7 fresh-frozen pelvis-to-toe cadavers were skeletonized from the lumbar spine to the distal femur with the capsular ligaments intact. Computed tomographic imaging was performed to ensure no occult pathological state existed, and assess bony anatomy. Specimens were placed on a surgical table in supine position with lower extremities resting on a custom-designed polyvinylchloride frame. Hip internal and external rotation was measured with the hip placed into a combination of the following motions: 30°, 60°, 110° hip flexion and 0°, 20°, 40° abduction. Testing positions were randomized. The pubofemoral ligament was released and measurements were repeated, followed by releasing the ligamentum teres. Analysis of the 2,106 measurements recorded demonstrates the pubofemoral ligament as a main controller of hip internal rotation during hip flexion beyond 30° and abduction. Hip internal rotation was increased up to 438.9% (P ligament was released and 412.9% (P ligament were released, compared with the native state. The hypothesis of the pubofemoral ligament as one of the contributing factors of anterior inferior hip stability by controlling external rotation of the hip in flexion beyond 30° and abduction was disproved. The pubofemoral ligament maintains a key function in limiting internal rotation in the position of increasing hip flexion beyond 30° and abduction. This cadaveric study concludes previous attempts at understanding the anatomical and biomechanical function of the capsular ligaments and their role in hip stability. The present study contributes to the understanding of hip stability and biomechanical function of the pubofemoral ligament. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Systematic review of the most important medicinal plants and place them in the international treatment of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azadeh Khonsari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine, a complementary and alternative medical system has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in many countries and the use of herbal medicine is growing in all of the world. Exploring the most frequently used herbs and herbal products in alternative and complementary medicine worldwide is a challenging issue because herbal medicine has been increased popularity among physicians and patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review literature reporting on the use of the herbal medicine to determine the genus of the most frequently used herbs in alternative medicine and the diseases under treatment. Material and Methods: Systematic searches were carried out in the databases Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect and Springer. Each databases was searched from Jan 2000 until Jan 2008 with the keywords of herbal medicine, herb medicine, phytotherapy and extract medicine. Systematic reviews and meta – analysis were included and no language restrictions were imposed, to find the genus of commonly used herbs and studied diseases. The findings were evaluated according to frequency of usage. Results: In this paper we have reported 8 plants which are the most common ones and have been in vogue from ancient time in the world. These most frequently used plants are Ginseng, Salvia, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum, Garlic, Ginger, Aloe vera and Marijuana. According to findings neurologic, inflammatory – immunogenic, digestive and urinary – kidney diseases are the most interested fields in herbal medicine. Although most of the reviewed articles (89.2% showed a positive effect but side effects of herbal medicine are reported in the others and also need to furthermore works was mentioned as a necessity in 49.7% of them. Discussion: According to the present findings, herbal medicine has historically been efficacious in the treatment and management of many health problems. The ultimate purpose of the herbal medicine is to

  1. Numerical Investigation on the Biomechanical Performance of Laparoscopic-Assisted Plate Used for Fixing Pelvic Anterior Ring Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqian He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the minimal soft tissue injury, the laparoscopic-assisted internal fixation is a promising technique in fixing the pelvic anterior ring fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical performance of the laparoscopic-assisted plate by the finite element method. Four kinds of implants were investigated, that is, the laparoscopic-assisted plate (LAP, the percutaneous anterior pelvic bridge (PAPB, the transramus intraosseous screw (TIS, and the open reduction (OR. The stability of the implants was investigated under three loading cases, showing that when the LAP was used, the stress at the fracture site was smaller than that at other parts, while for other implants, the high stress was always around the fracture site. In conclusion, the LAP demonstrated a good biomechanical performance in fixing the pelvic anterior ring fracture and is a promising technique in clinical applications.

  2. Management of ageing of I and C equipment in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Experience has shown that ageing and obsolescence have the potential to cause the maintainability and operability of many instrumentation and control (I and C) systems to deteriorate well before the end of plant life. An I and C ageing management strategy is therefore required to control and minimize this threat. This report gives guidance on how to develop such a strategy and provides examples and supporting information on how established and recently developed maintenance, surveillance, and testing techniques may be employed to support the strategy. In some cases, equipment refurbishment may be necessary and guidance on this subject is given in a companion publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1016, Modernization of Instrumentation and Control in Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA, Vienna, 1998). The International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) of the IAEA proposed in 1995 that a technical report be prepared to provide general guidelines on the management of ageing of important I and C equipment in nuclear power plants. The purpose of the report would be to guide the worldwide nuclear industry on potential effects of I and C ageing on plant safety and economy, and the means that are available to help minimize or eliminate any detrimental consequences of ageing. In response, a consultants meeting of five experts from Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the USA was held by the IAEA in Vienna in September 1997 to exchange national experience on the subject and to discuss the possible content of the report. The group of experts was tasked with bringing together all the information that is available on I and C ageing and ageing management methods. After a thorough discussion and analysis of the available information, an extended outline of the report on the subject was produced. The purpose of the extended outline was to identify a structure of the report, bring together information available at the moment and to provide guidance

  3. Deriving injury risk curves using survival analysis from biomechanical experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bass, Cameron R; Voo, Liming; Pintar, Frank A; Gayzik, F Scott

    2016-10-03

    Injury risk curves from biomechanical experimental data analysis are used in automotive studies to improve crashworthiness and advance occupant safety. Metrics such as acceleration and deflection coupled with outcomes such as fractures and anatomical disruptions from impact tests are used in simple binary regression models. As an improvement, the International Standards Organization suggested a different approach. It was based on survival analysis. While probability curves for side-impact-induced thorax and abdominal injuries and frontal impact-induced foot-ankle-leg injuries are developed using this approach, deficiencies are apparent. The objective of this study is to present an improved, robust and generalizable methodology in an attempt to resolve these issues. It includes: (a) statistical identification of the most appropriate independent variable (metric) from a pool of candidate metrics, measured and or derived during experimentation and analysis processes, based on the highest area under the receiver operator curve, (b) quantitative determination of the most optimal probability distribution based on the lowest Akaike information criterion, (c) supplementing the qualitative/visual inspection method for comparing the selected distribution with a non-parametric distribution with objective measures, (d) identification of overly influential observations using different methods, and (e) estimation of confidence intervals using techniques more appropriate to the underlying survival statistical model. These clear and quantified details can be easily implemented with commercial/open source packages. They can be used in retrospective analysis and prospective design of experiments, and in applications to different loading scenarios such as underbody blast events. The feasibility of the methodology is demonstrated using post mortem human subject experiments and 24 metrics associated with thoracic/abdominal injuries in side-impacts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Quality assurance for nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an international symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Paris, 11-15 May 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The International Symposium on Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held in Paris from 11 to 15 May 1981. The main objectives of the symposium were the following: (1) To review the present requirements and practices in implementing quality assurance (QA) in nuclear power projects in Member States; (2) To identify the existing similarities and differences and to highlight those aspects of QA in Member States which are controversial and in need of harmonization; (3) To assess the practical use of the established requirements and recommendations of the IAEA Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and the relevant Safety Guides. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of QA and the rather broad scope of its activities, only seven topics of QA were selected for review and discussion. They included, besides a general comparison of QA requirements and practices in IAEA Member States, methodologies for the selection of appropriate QA programme levels for specific items and services; the role of independent inspection in verification activities; economic aspects of QA; manpower requirements for QA in nuclear power projects; training, qualification and certification of QA personnel; and specific aspects of the implementation of QA in countries embarking on nuclear power projects. Each of these topics was treated in a separate session. These Proceedings include the full text of all invited papers and of a large part of the contributed papers. The contributed papers that are not published in full are represented by abstracts in the session summaries. The summaries of the sessions as prepared by the working groups appear at the end of the appropriate sessions. The holding of an international symposium on quality assurance appeared well timed. The importance of QA in the nuclear industry is constantly growing with the increasing requirements for safety and availability of nuclear

  5. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease....... The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...... in the tissue structure that determine a specific motor dysfunction. Therefore, biomechanical data on the GI wall are important to understand the pathogenesis to the GI motor-sensory function and dysfunction. Moreover, biomechanical studies of the GI tract pave the way for further mathematical and computational...

  6. Biomechanics and functionality of hepatocytes in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Song, Zhenyuan; Cotler, Scott J; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-27

    Cirrhosis is a life-threatening condition that is generally attributed to overproduction of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix that mechanically stiffens the liver. Chronic liver injury due to causes including viral hepatitis, inherited and metabolic liver diseases and external factors such as alcohol abuse can result in the development of cirrhosis. Progression of cirrhosis leads to hepatocellular dysfunction. While extensive studies to understand the complexity underlying liver fibrosis have led to potential application of anti-fibrotic drugs, no such FDA-approved drugs are currently available. Additional studies of hepatic fibrogenesis and cirrhosis primarily have focused on the extracellular matrix, while hepatocyte biomechanics has received limited attention. The role of hepatocyte biomechanics in liver cirrhosis remains elusive, and how the cell stiffness is correlated with biological functions of hepatocytes is also unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of hepatocytes are correlated with their functions (e.g., glucose metabolism), and that hepatic dysfunction can be restored through modulation of the cellular biomechanics. Furthermore, our results indicate the hepatocyte functionality appears to be regulated through a crosstalk between the Rho and Akt signaling. These novel findings may lead to biomechanical intervention of hepatocytes and the development of innovative tissue engineering for clinical treatment to target liver cells rather than exclusively focusing on the extracellular matrix alone in liver cirrhosis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Biomechanics Strategies for Space Closure in Deep Overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Space closure is an interesting aspect of orthodontic treatment related to principles of biomechanics. It should be tailored individually based on patient’s diagnosis and treatment plan. Understanding the space closure biomechanics basis leads to achieve the desired treatment objective. Overbite deepening and losing posterior anchorage are the two most common unwanted side effects in space closure. Conventionally, correction of overbite must be done before space closure resulted in longer treatment. Application of proper space closure biomechanics strategies is necessary to achieve the desired treatment outcome. This cases report aimed to show the space closure biomechanics strategies that effectively control the overbite as well as posterior anchorage in deep overbite patients without increasing treatment time. Two patients who presented with class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with fixed orthodontic appliance. The primary strategies included extraction space closure on segmented arch that employed two-step space closure, namely single canine retraction simultaneously with incisors intrusion followed by enmasse retraction of four incisors by using differential moment concept. These strategies successfully closed the space, corrected deep overbite and controlled posterior anchorage simultaneously so that the treatment time was shortened. Biomechanics strategies that utilized were effective to achieve the desired treatment outcome.

  8. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background/Methodology Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak. Principal Findings/Conclusions Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after

  9. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown

  10. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lin

    Full Text Available Metabolic scaling theory (MST is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of -4/3 between mean individual biomass and density during density-dependent mortality (self-thinning. Empirical tests have produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms' internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric, and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories. Slopes were significantly shallower than -4/3 if competition was size-symmetric. We conclude that when the size of survivors is influenced by strong ecological interactions, these can override predictions of MST, whereas when surviving plants are less affected by interactions, individual-level metabolic processes can scale up to the population level. MST, like thermodynamics or biomechanics, sets limits within which organisms can live and function, but there may be stronger limits determined by ecological interactions. In such cases MST will not be predictive.

  11. BIOMECHANICAL MODEL OF THE SPRINT START

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Čoh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed and identifi ed the major kinematic parameters of the phases of sprint start and block acceleration that infl uence the results of sprint running. The biomechanical measurements and kinematic analysis were performed on the best world’s best sprinters during his preparation for the European Athletics Championship in Geteborg 2006. In this competition Matic Osovnikar won the bronze medal in a 100- metre run set the Slovenian national record with 10.14 s. The kinematic parameters of the sprint start were established on the basis of a 2-D kinematic analysis, using a high-speed camera with a frequency of 200 F/s. The measurements of block acceleration were made by means of the OPTO TRACK technology and an infra-red photo cell system. The athlete performed fi ve, 20m low-start sprints in constant and controlled measurement conditions. The subject of the study was the set position from the point of view of the height of the total body centre of gravity (TBCG, the block time at the front and rear blocks, block velocity, the block face angle, the velocity of the TBCG in the fi rst three metres and the kinematic parameters of block acceleration in the fi rst ten steps. The study showed the following were the key performance factors in the two phases of sprint running: medium start block distance, block velocity, low block face angles, fi rst step length, low vertical rise in the TBCG in the fi rst three metres of block acceleration, contact phase/fl ight phase index in the fi rst ten steps and the optimal ratio between the length and frequency of steps.

  12. Biomechanical Behavior of the Dental Implant Macrodesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Andrade, Camila; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Bordin, Dimorvan; da Silva, Wander José; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of implant macrodesign when using different types of collar and thread designs on stress/strain distributions in a maxillary bone site. Six groups were obtained from the combination of two collar designs (smooth and microthread) and three thread shapes (square, trapezoidal, and triangular) in external hexagon implants (4 × 10 mm) supporting a single zirconia crown in the maxillary first molar region. A 200-N axial occlusal load was applied to the crown, and measurements were made of the von Mises stress (σ vM ) for the implant, and tensile stress (σ max ), shear stress (τ max ), and strain (ε max ) for the surrounding bone using tridimensional finite element analysis. The main effects of each level of the two factors investigated (collar and thread designs) were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 5% significance level. Collar design was the main factor of influence on von Mises stress in the implant and stresses/strain in the cortical bone, while thread design was the main factor of influence on stresses in the trabecular bone (P design able to produce more favorable stress/strain distribution was the microthreaded design for the cortical bone. For the trabecular bone, the triangular thread shape had the lowest stresses and strain values among the square and trapezoidal implants. Stress/strain distribution patterns were influenced by collar design in the implant and cortical bone, and by thread design in the trabecular bone. Microthreads and triangular thread-shape designs presented improved biomechanical behavior in posterior maxillary bone when compared with the smooth collar design and trapezoidal and square-shaped threads.

  13. Biomechanics and pathophysiology of flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boerum, Drew H; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2003-09-01

    When the foot works properly it is an amazing, adaptive, powerful aid during walking, running, jumping, and in locomotion up or down hill and over uneven ground. Dysfunction of the foot can often arise from the foot losing its normal structural support, thus altering is shape. An imbalance in the forces that tend to flatten the arch and those that support the arch can lead to loss of the medial longitudinal arch. An increase in the arch-flattening effects of the triceps surae or an increase in the weight of the body will tend to flatten the arch. Weakness of the muscular, ligamentous, or bony arch supporting structures will lead to collapse of the arch. The main factors that contribute to an acquired flat foot deformity are excessive tension in the triceps surae, obesity, PTT dysfunction, or ligamentous laxity in the spring ligament, plantar fascia, or other supporting plantar ligaments. Too little support for the arch or too much arch flattening effect will lead to collapse of the arch. Acquired flat foot most often arises from a combination of too much force flattening the arch in the face of too little support for the arch. Treatment of the adult acquired flat foot is often difficult. The clinician should remember the biomechanics of the normal arch and respond with a treatment that strengthens the supporting structures of the arch or weakens the arch-flattening effects on the arch. After osteotomies or certain hindfoot fusions, the role of the supporting muscles of the arch, in particular the PTT, play less of a role in supporting the arch. Rebalancing the forces that act on the arch can improve function and lessen the chance for further or subsequent development of deformity.

  14. Biomechanical analysis using Kinovea for sports application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaza Nor Adnan, Nor; Patar, Mohd Nor Azmi Ab; Lee, Hokyoo; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh; Jong-Young, Lee; Mahmud, Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    This paper assesses the reliability of HD VideoCam–Kinovea as an alternative tool in conducting motion analysis and measuring knee relative angle of drop jump movement. The motion capture and analysis procedure were conducted in the Biomechanics Lab, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Omiya Campus, Japan. A healthy subject without any gait disorder (BMI of 28.60 ± 1.40) was recruited. The volunteered subject was asked to per the drop jump movement on preset platform and the motion was simultaneously recorded using an established infrared motion capture system (Hawk–Cortex) and a HD VideoCam in the sagittal plane only. The capture was repeated for 5 times. The outputs (video recordings) from the HD VideoCam were input into Kinovea (an open-source software) and the drop jump pattern was tracked and analysed. These data are compared with the drop jump pattern tracked and analysed earlier using the Hawk–Cortex system. In general, the results obtained (drop jump pattern) using the HD VideoCam–Kinovea are close to the results obtained using the established motion capture system. Basic statistical analyses show that most average variances are less than 10%, thus proving the repeatability of the protocol and the reliability of the results. It can be concluded that the integration of HD VideoCam–Kinovea has the potential to become a reliable motion capture–analysis system. Moreover, it is low cost, portable and easy to use. As a conclusion, the current study and its findings are found useful and has contributed to enhance significant knowledge pertaining to motion capture-analysis, drop jump movement and HD VideoCam–Kinovea integration.

  15. A review of cancer mortality data of radiation workers of Nuclear Power Plant, Paks, Hungary, in the light the international radiation epidemiology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Kerekes, A.; Otos, M.; Veress, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: To give a review of cancer mortality data among Hungarian radiation workers in nuclear industry in comparison with the results of the international nuclear workers' study prevailing the size of the study group of all former studies. Methods: Retrospective cohort study including 598,068 workers of 154 nuclear establishments in 15 countries (AUS, BEL, CAN, FIN, FRA, GER, HUN, JAP, LIT, ROK, SLK, SPA, SWE, UK, USA) coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, Lyon, France). The national study was extended for an additional 4-year period. Results: In the international study 407,391 persons in 13 years of average employment received 19.4 mSv mean cumulative dose, while in the national study 3322 radiation workers of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Paks, Hungary, in 14 years of follow-up period accumulated in average 5.13 mSv, only. There were 5233 cancer deaths registered in the international study, associated with an estimated ERR of 0.97 per Sv. Thus, 19.4 mSv recorded cumulative dose can explain 1 to 2% of cancer death cases. In radiation workers of NPP, Paks, during the period of 1985-1998 there were 40 cancer deaths observed against the expected 58.8 cases. In a further four year period (1999-2002) 29 cancer death cases were identified vs. the expected 65.5 cases. The SMR for the cancer death cases registered in recent and former radiation workers of NPP, Paks in the 18-year follow-up period is 56%. The SMR from all causes was even lower, 40% only. Conclusions: In the international study the mean accumulated radiation dose received by nuclear workers in 13 years is below of the recent annual dose limit (20 mSv/yr of the effective dose). The average value for the whole of radiation workers in 15 countries is almost 4-times higher of that registered in Hungary. The 'healthy worker effect' in the nuclear industry, and particularly in Hungary has been proven, once again. Nevertheless, the results

  16. Selection, specification, design and use of various nuclear power plant training simulators. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Several IAEA publications consider the role of training and particularly the role of simulator training to enhance the safety of NPP operations. Initially, the focus was on full scope simulators for the training of main control room operators. Experience shows that other types of simulator are also effective tools that allow simulator training for a broader range of target groups and training objectives. This report provides guidance to training centers and suppliers on the proper selection, specification, design and use of various forms of simulators. In addition, it provides examples of their use in several Member States. This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) in 1995-1996

  17. ANALYSIS OF BIOMECHANICAL PARAMETERS IN COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tiago Cavalcanti; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Euclides Dias; Kreimer, Flávio; Silva-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos de

    2016-01-01

    The use of measures in colonic anastomoses to prevent dehiscences is of great medical interest. Sugarcane molasses, which has adequate tolerability and compatibility in vivo, has not yet been tested for this purpose. To analyze the biomechanical parameters of colonic suture in rats undergoing colectomy, using sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape or gel. 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomized into three groups of 15 animals: irrigation of enteric sutures with 0.9% saline solution; application of sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as tape; and sugarcane molasses polysaccharide as gel. The rats underwent colon ressection, with subsequent reanastomosis using polypropylene suture; they were treated according to their respective groups. Five rats from each group were evaluated at different times after the procedure: 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively. The following variables were evaluated: maximum rupture force, modulus of elasticity and specific deformation of maximum force. The biomechanical variables among the scheduled times and treatment groups were statistically calculated. The characteristics of maximum rupture force and modulus of elasticity of the specimens remained identical, regardless of treatment with saline, polysaccharide gel or tape, and treatment time. However, it was found that the specific deformation of maximum force of the intestinal wall was higher after 180 days in the group treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel (p=0.09). Compared to control, it was detected greater elasticity of the intestinal wall in mice treated with sugarcane polysaccharide gel, without changing other biomechanical characteristics, regardless of type or time of treatment. A aplicação de produtos em anastomoses colônicas que possam prevenir o surgimento de deiscências são de grande interesse médico. O emprego do polissacarídeo de melaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum), que possui adequada tolerabilidade e compatibilidade in vivo

  18. Modeling and rational determination of the main biomechanical characteristics in javelin throwing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of the use of biomechanical models in training athletes. The approaches in the construction of biomechanical models. A biomechanical model of throwing the javelin. An solution to the problem of dynamic influence on flight range spear absolute initial rate of departure, departure angle, height of release of the spear. The most important biomechanical characteristics of the "athlete-spear. " The possibilities of using individual features of the athlete to achieve better results.

  19. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  20. The activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) in 1994 and plans for 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the IAEA's International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) is to provide the Member States with information and guidance on design aspects, material selection, testing, maintenance, monitoring and mitigation of degradation related to major components with the aim to assure high availability and safe operation of NPPs. Technical documents and reports on proceedings of specialists meetings on many of these topics have been produced or are in preparation. Coordination of research aimed at understanding the phenomena which occur and the consequent degradation mechanisms is an extensive field of the IWG-LMNPP activities. Radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels has been a major subject of concern. Thermal degradation, corrosion and fatigue are also considered to be very significant. In the monitoring field, non-destructive examination techniques and fracture mechanics are areas included in the IWG-LMNPP plans

  1. Intestinal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Previously we demonstrated pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling in the rat intestine during physiological growth up to 32 weeks of age. The aim of the present study is to study intestinal geometric and biomechanical changes in aging rats. Materials and methods...... in the circumferential direction. In conclusion pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling occurred in the rat intestine during aging. The observed changes likely reflect the changes of the physiological function of the intestine during ageing, similar to other tissues where function, mechanical loading......: Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of duodenal and ileal segments were measured at the termination of experiment. Morphometric data were obtained by measuring the wall thickness and wall cross-sectional area...

  2. Biomechanical analysis technique choreographic movements (for example, "grand battman jete"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Batieieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical analysis of the execution of choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Material : the study involved students (n = 7 of the department of classical choreography faculty of choreography. Results : biomechanical analysis of choreographic movement "grand battman jete" (classic exercise, obtained kinematic characteristics (path, velocity, acceleration, force of the center of mass (CM bio parts of the body artist (foot, shin, thigh. Built bio kinematic model (phase. The energy characteristics - mechanical work and kinetic energy units legs when performing choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Conclusions : It was found that the ability of an athlete and coach-choreographer analyze the biomechanics of movement has a positive effect on the improvement of choreographic training of qualified athletes in gymnastics (sport, art, figure skating and dance sports.

  3. Computational biomechanics for medicine new approaches and new applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologiesand advancements. Thisvolumecomprises twelve of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, France, Spain and Switzerland. Some of the interesting topics discussed are:real-time simulations; growth and remodelling of soft tissues; inverse and meshless solutions; medical image analysis; and patient-specific solid mechanics simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  4. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  5. Computational biomechanics for medicine imaging, modeling and computing

    CERN Document Server

    Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam; Nielsen, Poul; Miller, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The Computational Biomechanics for Medicine titles provide an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements. This volume comprises eighteen of the newest approaches and applications of computational biomechanics, from researchers in Australia, New Zealand, USA, UK, Switzerland, Scotland, France and Russia. Some of the interesting topics discussed are: tailored computational models; traumatic brain injury; soft-tissue mechanics; medical image analysis; and clinically-relevant simulations. One of the greatest challenges facing the computational engineering community is to extend the success of computational mechanics to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. We hope the research presented within this book series will contribute to overcoming this grand challenge.

  6. Biomechanical Profile of Danish Elite and Sub-elite Soccer Goalkeepers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Thomassen, Martin; Zacho, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define a biomechanical profile of the soccer goalkeeper. We tested whether the skill level of 6 goalkeepers correlated with a number of biomechanical tests. The skill level of each goalkeeper was defined as the league he played in. The biomechanical tests were...

  7. Wide adaptation of Green Revolution wheat: international roots and the Indian context of a new plant breeding ideal, 1960-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci R

    2015-04-01

    Indian wheat cultivation changed radically in the 1960s due to new technologies and policy reforms introduced during the Green Revolution, and farmers' adoption of 'packages' of modern seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation. Just prior to the Green Revolution, Indian scientists adopted a new plant breeding philosophy--that varieties should have as wide an adaptation as possible, meaning high and stable yields across different environments. But scientists also argued that wide adaptation could be achieved by selecting only plants that did well in high fertility and irrigated environments. Scientists claimed that widely adapted varieties still produce high yields in marginal areas. Many people have criticized the Green Revolution for its unequal spread of benefits, but none of these critiques address wide adaptation-the core tenant held by Indian agricultural scientists to justify their focus on highly productive land while ignoring marginal or rainfed agriculture. This paper also describes Norman Borlaug's and the Rockefeller Foundation's research program in wide adaptation, Borlaug's involvement in the Indian wheat program, and internal debates about wide adaptation and selection under ideal conditions among Indian scientists. It argues that scientists leveraged the concept of wide adaptation to justify a particular regime of research focused on high production agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation study among the International Atomic Energy Agency standards and market standards on management system applicable to a UF6 conversion plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de

    2008-01-01

    The Agency - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), following the market trend of the management system integration, has decided to revise the quality assurance standards - IAEA 50-C/SG-Q publishing, in 2006, the standard on Management System (MS). IAEA GS-R-3 and its IAEA GS-G-3.1 guide. Also, the IAEA is about to publish a supplementary guide - IAEA DS349, which consider the integration of several functions involved in management of nuclear facilities, such as: safety, health, environmental and quality, ensuring that nuclear safety is not compromised. Conversion plants of 'Yellowcake' in UF 6 use and process radioactive materials, as well as other substances normally found in the chemical conventional industry, inserting themselves in the organization profile that require a high pattern of definition, implementation and continuous improvement of their MS and, therefore, should consider an approach of management integrated system (MIS). Taking a UF 6 conversion plant as focus, the correlation was performed among the Agency MS standards and those of the market - ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, as well as with the Agency drafts standards on safety (DS316 and DS344), concluding that, in structuring an MIS, in compliance with the Agency MS standards, except for some adjustments, the ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001 are going to be met. On the other hand, the structuring of MIS should identify other requirements on safety, health and environmental, which also consider the conventional chemical and industrial characteristics that are out of the scope (ionizing radiation) of the safety standards of the Agency. The research proposes a documental procedure for a MIS applicable to this plant, providing elements for rationalization and contents of the identified documentation, for the promotion of the integration of the considered MS functions. (author)

  9. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    of biomechanical forces, was used to model a pedestrian for application in vertical human-structure interaction (HSI). Tests were undertaken in a gait laboratory, where a three-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record a pedestrian's walking motions at various frequencies. The motion-capture system...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...

  10. Biomechanical Response and Behavior of Users under Emergency Buffer Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miralbes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the biomechanical effects on elevator users and the injuries sustained should an elevator crash happen. The analysis will focus on buffer impact, signaling that the earlier mentioned buffer is usually located at the bottom of the pit. In order to carry out this analysis, a numerical technique based on finite element method will be used, while elevator users will be simulated by means of automotive dummies. Two crash factors will be studied, namely, location of dummy and fall velocity. The analysis criteria will be damages sustained by the dummy, based on biomechanical index such as HIC, CSI, forces, and accelerations.

  11. The modern biomechanics technology in practice of preparedness athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmetov R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized information about directions of application of biomechanics technologies in modern sport is resulted. Some aspects of the use of biomechanics ergogenical tools of the moved delayed action in the system of preparation of athletes-jumpers are considered. Presents the possibility of using training complex «easy leading» for perfection of structure of motive actions of sportsmen, specialized in high jumps. The introduction of a vast arsenal of technical tools in practice the training process open new prospects associated with increased efficiency in the preparation of athletes.

  12. Biomechanical constraints and optimal posture of a human operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffard, V.; Chedmail, P. [Ecole entrale de Nantes-LAN, Nantes Cedex (France)

    1995-12-31

    In complex mechanical systems, an important feature of concurrent engineering is to take into account the operators accessibility for assembly operations and maintenance checking in the earliest phases of assembly design. Accessibility can be viewed from geometric and biomechanical points of view. The first one was described in a previous paper. The object of this paper is to integrate the biomechanical aspects of finding optimal postures of a human operator in an encumbered environment. Research on mechanical modeling of human operators deals with (1) geometric and kinematics models; (2) inertial characterizations; (3) static and muscular efforts; and (4) human-gesture characterization.

  13. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  14. Development of esMOCA Biomechanic, Motion Capture Instrumentation for Biomechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendra, A.; Akhmad, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to build motion capture instruments using inertial measurement unit sensors to assist in the analysis of biomechanics. Sensors used are accelerometer and gyroscope. Estimation of orientation sensors is done by digital motion processing in each sensor nodes. There are nine sensor nodes attached to the upper limbs. This sensor is connected to the pc via a wireless sensor network. The development of kinematics and inverse dynamamic models of the upper limb is done in simulink simmechanic. The kinematic model receives streaming data of sensor nodes mounted on the limbs. The output of the kinematic model is the pose of each limbs and visualized on display. The dynamic inverse model outputs the reaction force and reaction moment of each joint based on the limb motion input. Model validation in simulink with mathematical model of mechanical analysis showed results that did not differ significantly

  15. INSTRUMENTATION AND BIOMECHANICAL MODEL FOR KINEMATIC AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF UPPER LIMBS DURING GAIT WITH CRUTCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez-Rizo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic model of the right upper extremity and a Lofstrand crutch in order to analyze joint displacements and loads during crutch-assisted gait. A Lofstrand crutch was instrumented with a six-component load cell to measure forces and moments at the crutch tip. The crutch and the right upper extremity of a subject were instrumented with markers to obtain kinematic data. A biomechanical model based on rigid bodies was implemented in biomechanical analysis software. To demonstrate the functionality of the model, a pilot test was conducted on one healthy individual during Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait. The shoulder extended during the support phase and flexed in the swing phase, the elbow flexed during the swing, and the wrist remained in extension throughout the cycle. In the shoulder and elbow joints, the predominant reaction forces were upward, whereas the internal force moments were flexion and extension, respectively. This tool will be useful when it comes to identifying risk factors for joint pathology associated with pattern gait, aid design or crutch overuse.

  16. Dynamic ultra high speed Scheimpflug imaging for assessing corneal biomechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel technique for clinical characterization of corneal biomechanics using non-invasive dynamic imaging. METHODS: Corneal deformation response during non contact tonometry (NCT is monitored by ultra-high-speed (UHS photography. The Oculus Corvis ST (Scheimpflug Technology; Wetzlar, Germany has a UHS Scheimpflug camera, taking over 4,300 frames per second and of a single 8mm horizontal slit, for monitoring corneal deformation response to NCT. The metered collimated air pulse or puff has a symmetrical configuration and fixed maximal internal pump pressure of 25 kPa. The bidirectional movement of the cornea in response to the air puff is monitored. RESULTS: Measurement time is 30ms, with 140 frames acquired. Advanced algorithms for edge detection of the front and back corneal contours are applied for every frame. IOP is calculated based on the first applanation moment. Deformation amplitude (DA is determined as the highest displacement of the apex in the highest concavity (HC moment. Applanation length (AL and corneal velocity (CVel are recorded during ingoing and outgoing phases. CONCLUSION: Corneal deformation can be monitored during non contact tonometry. The parameters generated provide clinical in vivo characterization of corneal biomechanical properties in two dimensions, which is relevant for different applications in Ophthalmology.

  17. Biomechanical model of the thorax under blast loading: a three dimensional numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Thoral-Pierre, Karine; Roth, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    Injury mechanisms due to high speed dynamic loads, such as blasts, are not well understood. These research fields are widely investigated in the literature, both at the experimental and numerical levels, and try to answer questions about the safety and efficiency of protection devices or biomechanical traumas. At a numerical level, the development of powerful mathematical models tends to study tolerance limits and injury mechanisms in order to avoid experimental tests which cannot be easily conducted. In a military framework, developing a fighter/soldier numerical model can help to the understanding of many traumas which are specific to soldier injuries, like mines, ballistic impacts or blast traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the consequences of violent loads in terms of human body response, submitting a developed and validated three-dimensional thorax finite element (FE) model to blast loadings. Specific formulations of FE methods are used to simulate this loading, and its consequence on the biomechanical model. Mechanical parameters such as pressure in the air field and also in internal organs are observed, and these values are compared to the experimental data in the literature. This study gives encouraging results and allows going further in soldier trauma investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Jaw biomechanics and the evolution of biting performance in theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    Despite the great diversity in theropod craniomandibular morphology, the presence and distribution of biting function types across Theropoda has rarely been assessed. A novel method of biomechanical profiling using mechanical advantage computed for each biting position along the entirety of the tooth row was applied to 41 extinct theropod taxa. Multivariate ordination on the polynomial coefficients of the profiles reveals the distribution of theropod biting performance in function space. In particular, coelophysoids are found to occupy a unique region of function space, while tetanurans have a wide but continuous function space distribution. Further, the underlying phylogenetic structure and evolution of biting performance were investigated using phylogenetic comparative methods. There is a strong phylogenetic signal in theropod biomechanical profiles, indicating that evolution of biting performance does not depart from Brownian motion evolution. Reconstructions of ancestral function space occupation conform to this pattern, but phylogenetically unexpected major shifts in function space occupation can be observed at the origins of some clades. However, uncertainties surround ancestor estimates in some of these internal nodes, so inferences on the nature of these evolutionary changes must be viewed with caution. PMID:20534620

  19. Ex vivo biomechanical analysis of two methods of osteosynthesis in canine mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Jose Eigio Isaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures represent an orthopedic challenge in veterinary medicine consideringthe large number of fixation methods that could be used depending on the location and manner in which the fracture occurs. Bone plates are a method of internal fixation that allows the correction of single or bilateral fractures, simple or comminuted; which appropriate material and technical knowledge for their use. Recent studies have demonstrated the superior strength that the locked plates present in relation to the neutralization plates, especially when used in flat bones or with lower bone density. The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical strength of neutralization plates and locked plates in oblique mandibular fractures in dogs. Sixteen hemimandibles from mesocephalic dogs were selected, weighing between 15 and 25 kg, without mandibular pathological alterations. Unfavorable fractures were performed between the 2nd and 3rd premolar teeth. The hemimandibles were allocated to two groups and stabilized with neutralization (Group 1 and locked (Group 2 plates. Both groups were subjected to the vertical compression test using the EMIC DL500 machine, sought to note the difference of maximum resistance between the implants. The statistical analysis used was the t-test and showed no difference (P = 0.135 between the strength of the group receiving neutralization plates (21.08±9.766kgf and the group that received locked plates (25.96±7.029kgf. From the point of view of resistance to vertical compression, the neutralized and locked plates have the same biomechanical strength.

  20. Radial Head Subluxation After Malalignment of the Proximal Ulna: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Emilie; Canet, Fanny; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y; Athwal, George S; Rouleau, Dominique M

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the anatomy of proximal ulna is important when treating complex injuries, since nonanatomic reconstruction may lead to malunion, arthrosis, and instability. The proximal ulna has a sagittal bow, termed the proximal ulna dorsal angulation (PUDA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of angular malalignment at the PUDA that would lead to radial head subluxation. This biomechanical study was conducted on 6 fresh frozen upper extremities with an elbow movement simulator. An osteotomy was performed at the PUDA and stabilized with internal fixation at 5 angles. Lateral elbow fluoroscopic images were taken in 4 elbow and 3 forearm positions, with the annular ligament intact and then released. The displacement of the radial head was quantified with the radiocapitellar ratio measurement. A significant interaction exists between elbow positions, angles of malalignment, and annular ligament integrity (P subluxation were with annular ligament tear, ranging from -4% to 88% (P subluxation increased as malalignment was fixed into extension and with progressive elbow flexion. Posterior subluxation increased as malalignment advanced into flexion and decreased with elbow flexion. Proximal ulna malalignment combined with an annular ligament tear affect the biomechanics of the elbow and can lead to radial head subluxation. This study demonstrates the importance of an anatomic reconstruction, specifically recreation of each individual's unique PUDA. Thus, in the setting of a comminuted proximal ulna fracture with associated annular ligament insufficiency, radiographs of the contralateral elbow may assist with the restoration of the normal anatomy to limit radial head instability.

  1. Efficacy of an Osteopathic Treatment Coupled With Lactation Consultations for Infants' Biomechanical Sucking Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzhaft-Le Roy, Juliette; Xhignesse, Marianne; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    Despite well-known recommendations from national and international bodies including the World Health Organization, few mothers achieve the goal of breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months. Half of mothers stop breastfeeding due to biomechanical issues in the first month, despite increasing support from lactation consultants. Osteopaths worldwide work with these babies, but there is little empirical evidence for this type of treatment. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an osteopathic treatment coupled with usual lactation consultations on infants' ability to latch. Secondary objectives included assessment of nipple pain and mothers' perceptions of the effect of treatment. We conducted a single blind, randomized controlled trial at a mother-to-mother support group between January and December 2015. Data were collected at four different times over a 10-day period (T0-T10) from 97 mother-infant dyads using the LATCH assessment tool, a visual analog scale (VAS) to document mothers' nipple pain, and a de novo questionnaire for breastfeeding management and potential treatment side effects. There were consistent statistical and clinical differences in the mean LATCH scores between the treatment and the control groups ( p consultants and osteopaths to address infants with biomechanical sucking difficulties. Findings support the hypothesis that the addition of osteopathy to regular lactation consultations is beneficial and safe.

  2. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body- An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Internal Organization of the Plant Body...

  3. Masticatory System Biomechanical Photoelastic Simulation fot the Comparision of the Conventional and Uni-Lock Systems in Mandibular Osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Cebrian Carretero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical consequences of the interaction between titanium trauma plates and screws and the fractured mandible are still a matter of investigation. The mathematical and biomechanical models that have been developed show limitations and the experimental studies are not able to reproduce muscle forces and internal stress distributions in the bone-implant interface and mandibular structure. In the present article we show a static simulator of the masticatory system to demonstrate in epoxy resin mandibular models, by means of 3D (three-dimensional photoelasticity, the stress distribution using different osteosynthesis methods in the mandibular angle fractures. The results showed that the simulator and 3D photoelasticity were a useful method to study interactions between bone and osteosynthesis materials. The “Lock” systems can be considered the most favourable method due to their stress distribution in the epoxy resin mandible. 3D photoelasticity in epoxy resin models is a useful method to evaluate stress distribution for biomechanical studies. Regarding to mandibular osteosynthesis, “lock” plates offer the most favourable stress distribution due to being less aggressive to the bone

  4. The effect of high intensity exercise and anticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; O'connor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of high intensity, intermittent exercise (HIIP) and anticipation on trunk, pelvic and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre. Twenty-eight male, varsity athletes performed crossover cutting manoeuvres in anticipated and unanticipated conditions pre- and post-HIIP. Kinematic and kinetic variables were captured using a motion analysis system. Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used to identify differences in biomechanical patterns. Results demonstrated that both unanticipation and fatigue (HIIP) altered the biomechanics of the crossover cutting manoeuvre, whereas no interactions effects were observed. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk and pelvic side flexion in the direction of cut (d = 0.70 - 0.79). This led to increased hip abductor and external rotator moments and increased knee extensor and valgus moments with small effects (d = 0.24-0.42), potentially increasing ACL strain. The HIIP resulted in trivial to small effects only with a decrease in internal knee rotator and extensor moment and decreased knee power absorption (d = 0.35), reducing potential ACL strain. The effect of trunk and hip control exercises in unanticipated conditions on the crossover cutting manoeuvre should be investigated with a view to refining ACL injury prevention programmes.

  5. Effects of Sub-Sensory Noise and Fatigue on Knee Landing and Cross-Over Cutting Biomechanics in Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Xinyao

    2018-01-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sub-sensory noise and fatigue on knee biomechanics during the athletic task of landing followed by cross-over cutting. Thirty-two healthy male athletes participated in the study. They were evenly divided into two groups: no fatigue group and fatigue group. Fatigue was induced to the lower extremity by a repetitive squatting exercise in the fatigue group. Sub-sensory noise was generated by linear miniature vibrators bilaterally placed around the knee joints. During data collection, the participants were instructed to perform landing followed by crossover cutting in both the sub-sensory on and off conditions. Dependent variables were selected to assess knee biomechanics in the phases of landing and crossover cutting, separately. Results showed that fatigue resulted in larger knee flexion during landing and larger knee internal rotation during crossover cutting. Sub-sensory noise was found to reduce knee rotation impulse during crossover cutting. These findings suggests that crossover cutting is more dangerous than landing in the fatigue condition, and sub-sensory noise may lead to changes in knee biomechanics consistent with reduced risk of ACL injuries, but the changes may be task-specific.

  6. Left ventricular biomechanics in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K

    2018-01-01

    Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, P<.01). Diastolic untwisting rate (UTWR) was higher in players (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both P<.05). Untwisting/twisting ratio (-1.48±0.05 vs -1.11±0.08; P<.001) and untwisting performance (=UTR/TW; -9.25±0.34 vs -7.38±0.40 s -1 , P<.01) were increased in players. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of transtibial amputee and non-amputee biomechanics during a common turning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Orendurff, Michael S; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Schoen, Jason; Klute, Glenn K

    2011-01-01

    The biomechanics of amputee turning gait has been minimally studied, in spite of its integral relationship with the more complex gait required for household or community ambulation. This study compares the biomechanics of unilateral transtibial amputees and non-amputees completing a common turning task. Full body gait analysis was completed for subjects walking at comparable self-selected speeds around a 1m radius circular path. Peak internal and external rotation moments of the hip, knee and ankle, mediolateral ground reaction impulse (ML GRI), peak effective limb length, and stride length were compared across conditions (non-amputee, amputee prosthetic limb, amputee sound limb). Amputees showed decreased internal rotation moments at the prosthetic limb hip and knee compared to non-amputees, perhaps as a protective mechanism to minimize stress on the residual limb. There was also an increase in amputee sound limb hip external rotation moment in early stance compared to non-amputees, which may be a compensation for the decrease in prosthetic limb internal rotation moment during late stance of the prior step. ML GRI was decreased for the amputee inside limb compared to non-amputee, possibly to minimize the body's acceleration in the direction of the turn. Amputees also exhibited a shorter inside limb stride length compared to non-amputees. Both decreased ML GRI and stride length indicate a COM that is more centered over the base of support, which may minimize the risk of falling. Finally, a longer effective limb length was found for the amputee inside limb turning, possibly due to excessive trunk shift. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Physiological and biomechanical in different swimming intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes de Melo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physiological and biomechanical responses of swimmers at different swimming intensities. The intentionally selected sample was composed by seven athletes with swimming times for qualifying on the Brazilian Swimming Championship. A series of 8x200 free style swimming at speeds of 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% and 100% of individual maximum effort was used as the task. A film camera of 60 Hz and an Accusport mMol lactimeter were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA with “post-hoc” Tukey test and Spearman’s correlation were used for statistical analyses to identify the differences between athletes for the variables blood lactate, crawl stroke frequency (FB and dimension (BR at different intensities. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Based on the results, there were significant differences on swimming technique among effort intensities, for both the physiological and mechanical responses, especially at levels above 95% individual maximum effort. The high correlation between blood lactate and crawl stroke frequency and length, and between crawl stroke frequency and length, with the last two correlations being negative, indicated that the proposed series was adequate to analyze physiological and biomechanical response. It was concluded that as the intensity increases, there is a need for mechanical adjustments to enable the athletes to endure different speeds. It was also possible to establish the ideal swimming speed for each energetic zone, providing data for coaches and athletes to train both speed and technique within the specific energetic zones. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as respostas fisiológicas e biomecânicas de nadadores em diferentes intensidades de nado. A amostra, intencionalmente escolhida, foi composta por sete atletas que possuíam índices de participação em campeonato brasileiro absoluto. Foi utilizada como tarefa de

  9. Presentation of a new plant design, based on an internally circulating fluidized bed system for catalytic cracking; Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Entwicklung einer neuartigen FCC-Anlage mit intern zirkulierendem Wirbelschichtsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhold, A.; Fimberger, W.; Hofbauer, H. [Technische Univ. Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Brennstofftechnik und Umwelttechnik

    1998-09-01

    An internally circulating fluidized bed system was developed for use as a catalytic cracking system. The plant (hot unit) was conceived for a feed rate of 1 to 4 kg/h. The hot unit was developed based on data obtained from literature (e.g. temperature, cat to oil ratio and contact time). Important fluid dynamic parameters, such as the circulation rate and the gas separation efficiency between reaction and regeneration zone were determined in an acrylic model (cold unit) at room temperature. Scaling relationships based on the theory of Glicksman were used as much as possible to design the cold unit in order to give similitude between cold and hot unit. Important parameters influencing the catalyst circulation rate could be determined exactly. Gas separation efficiency measurements between reaction and regeneration zone proved the safety of the system. The setting of the parameters during the trials was determined based on data from the cold unit and literature (e.g. temperature, cat to oil ratio, and contact time). The trials in the hot unit were carried out with vacuum gas oil and FCC-equilibrium catalyst. The experiments ran successfully and the analysis of the cracking products matched expectations. Furthermore the new system can also be used as a plant for other reactions such as catalytic alkylation and isomerisation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein intern zirkulierendes Wirbelschichtsystem zur Durchfuehrung des Fluid Catalytic Cracking Verfahrens wurde entwickelt. Die Technikumsanlage wurde fuer eine Feedrate von ca. 1 bis 4 kg/h ausgelegt. Basierend auf Daten aus der Literatur (z.B. Temperatur, Kat-Oel-Verhaeltnis und Kontaktzeit) wurde das Heissmodell aus einer Spezialstahllegierung gefertigt und aufgebaut. Wichtige stroemungsmechanische Parameter, wie die Umlaufrate und Gastrenneffizienz zwischen dem Reaktor und dem Regenerator, wurden in einem Modell aus Acrylglas (sogenanntes Kaltmodell) bei Raumtemperatur bestimmt. Um die Aehnlichkeit zwischen dem Kalt- und dem

  10. Biomechanical research on bowed string musicians: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Leila K; Campbell, Kody R; Dickey, James P

    2013-12-01

    Performing arts biomechanics is concerned with quantifying the musculoskeletal demands of artistic tasks. The growing body of related research has prompted this scoping study, solely focused on quantitative research, to summarize the state of the science, identify knowledge gaps, and identify opportunities for future research. To identify, summarize, and categorize quantitative research on the biomechanics of violin, viola, cello, and double bass players, using scoping study methodology. Established scoping study methodology was used to identify and categorize existing research. We identified 74 articles for review. Of these, 34 met our scoping study criteria and were included in this study. Twenty-one of the 34 articles that met the scoping criteria were published since 2000. Investigations using electromyography (16 studies) and kinematics (15 studies) comprise the bulk of the research. Two studies employed force transducers for data collection. Violinists were the most frequently studied musicians (22 studies) and double bass players were the least (1 study). Fewer than half of the studies used solely professional musicians as their subjects (13 studies). This scoping study confirmed that quantitative biomechanical research into bowed string musicians has been performed with increasing frequency and that there are voids in the research, particularly in investigating mechanisms of injury and protective strategies. Currently, arts biomechanics research is largely descriptive in nature. There are few studies that investigate protective strategies, although it is expected that the field will progress to incorporate this type of research.

  11. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 5. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics. Book Review Volume 21 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 467-471. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/05/0467-0471. Abstract ...

  12. Quantitative modelling of the biomechanics of the avian syrinx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Coen P. H.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Hoffmann, Marc R.

    2003-01-01

    We review current quantitative models of the biomechanics of bird sound production. A quantitative model of the vocal apparatus was proposed by Fletcher (1988). He represented the syrinx (i.e. the portions of the trachea and bronchi with labia and membranes) as a single membrane. This membrane acts...

  13. The history of biomechanics in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Houcke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanics of the hip joint describes how the complex combination of osseous, ligamentous, and muscular structures transfers the weight of the body from the axial skeleton into the appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs. Throughout history, several biomechanical studies based on theoretical mathematics, in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models have been successfully performed. The insights gained from these studies have improved our understanding of the development of mechanical hip pathologies such as osteoarthritis, hip fractures, and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The main treatment of end-stage degeneration of the hip is total hip arthroplasty (THA. The increasing number of patients undergoing this surgical procedure, as well as their demand for more than just pain relief and leading an active lifestyle, has challenged surgeons and implant manufacturers to deliver higher function as well as longevity with the prosthesis. The science of biomechanics has played and will continue to play a crucial and integral role in achieving these goals. The aim of this article, therefore, is to present to the readers the key concepts in biomechanics of the hip and their application to THA.

  14. Early Specialization in Youth Sport: A Biomechanical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeffrey M.; Richards, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines, from a biomechanical perspective, three issues related to early specialization: overuse injuries, the developmental aspects, and the performance aspects. It concludes that "there is no evidence that early specialization causes overuse injuries or hinders growth and maturation." At the same time, early specialization has…

  15. Biomechanical, microvascular, and cellular factors promote muscle and bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Georg N; Taylor, William R; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Georg; Heller, Markus O; Haas, Norbert P; Perka, Carsten; Schaser, Klaus-D

    2008-04-01

    It is becoming clear that the long-term outcome of complex bone injuries benefits from approaches that selectively target biomechanical, vascular, and cellular pathways. The typically held view of either biological or mechanical aspects of healing is oversimplified and does not correspond to clinical reality. The fundamental mechanisms of soft tissue regeneration most likely hold the key to understanding healing response.

  16. How to Assess the Biomechanical Risk Levels in Beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, G; Rossi, F; Baracco, A

    2016-01-01

    Beekeepers are at particular risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders, but many of the studies lack detailed exposure assessment. To evaluate the biomechanical overload exposure in a specific farming activity, a multitasking model has been developed through the characterization of 37 basic operational tasks typical of the beekeeping activity. The Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Index methodologies have been applied to these elementary tasks to evaluate the exposure, and the resulting risk indices have been time-weighted averaged. Finally, an easy access, computer-assisted toolkit has been developed to help the beekeepers in the biomechanical risk assessment process. The risk of biomechanical overload for the upper limbs ranges from acceptable (maintenance and recovery of woody material and honey packaging with dosing machine tasks) to high (distribution of the top supers) risk level. The risk for back injury is always borderline in women and increases with exposure time, whereas it ranges from acceptable to borderline in men. The definition of the biomechanical risk levels allows for planning of corrective actions aimed at preventing and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders through engineering, administrative, and behavioral interventions. The methodology can be used for risk assessment in other mainly manual agricultural activities.

  17. The biomechanical and physiological effect of two dynamic workstations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botter, J.; Burford, E.M.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Mastrigt, S.H.V.; Ellegast, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research paper was to investigate the effect, both biomechanically and physiologically, of two dynamic workstations currently available on the commercial market. The dynamic workstations tested, namely the Treadmill Desk by LifeSpan and the LifeBalance Station by RightAngle, were

  18. Focusing on the Hard parts: A Biomechanics Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Orbe, Kristina; Flynn, Daniel; Habdas, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at both upper-division Biology and Physics majors, this laboratory exercise introduces students to the ingenious ways in which organisms vary the composition and form of support and defensive structures such as bone and shell to maximize their strength while minimizing the energetic cost needed to produce…

  19. Biomechanics Curriculum: Its Content and Relevance to Movement Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    While the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has outlined a number of learning outcomes for undergraduate biomechanics, there are a number of factors that can influence the curriculum in such courses. These factors create a situation that indeed can influence students and their attitude towards these classes.…

  20. Future of crash dummies and biomechanical mathematical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the characteristics of the human body and its behaviour under extreme loading conditions is essential in order to prevent the serious consequences of road and other accidents. This field of research is called injury or impact biomechanics. In order to study the human body

  1. Biomechanics research in ski jumping, 1991-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameder, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I review biomechanics research in ski jumping with a specific focus on publications presented between 1991 and 2006 on performance enhancement, limiting factors of the take-off, specific training and conditioning, aerodynamics, and safety. The first section presents a brief description of ski jumping phases (in-run, take-off, early flight, stable flight, and landing) regarding the biomechanical and functional fundamentals. The most important and frequently used biomechanical methods in ski jumping (kinematics, ground reaction force analyses, muscle activation patterns, aerodynamics) are summarized in the second section. The third section focuses on ski jumping articles and research findings published after the establishment of the V-technique in 1991, as the introduction of this technique has had a major influence on performance enhancement, ski jumping regulations, and the construction of hill profiles. The final section proposes topics for future research in the biomechanics of ski jumping, including: take-off and early flight and the relative roles of vertical velocity and forward somersaulting angular momentum; optimal jumping patterns utilizing the capabilities of individual athletes; development of kinematic and kinetic feedback systems for hill jumps; comparisons of simulated and hill jumps; effect of equipment modifications on performance and safety enhancement.

  2. Using Clinical Gait Case Studies to Enhance Learning in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case studies facilitate the development of clinical reasoning strategies through knowledge and integration of the basic sciences. Case studies have been shown to be more effective in developing problem-solving abilities than the traditional lecture format. To enhance the learning experiences of students in biomechanics, clinical case…

  3. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eygendaal, D.; Rahussen, F.T.; Diercks, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis can will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  4. Assessment and characterization of in situ rotator cuff biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Erika A.; Bailey, Lane; Mefleh, Fuad N.; Raikar, Vipul P.; Shanley, Ellen; Thigpen, Charles A.; Dean, Delphine; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a degenerative disorder that is a common, costly, and often debilitating, ranging in severity from partial thickness tear, which may cause pain, to total rupture, leading to loss in function. Currently, clinical diagnosis and determination of disease extent relies primarily on subjective assessment of pain, range of motion, and possibly X-ray or ultrasound images. The final treatment plan however is at the discretion of the clinician, who often bases their decision on personal experiences, and not quantitative standards. The use of ultrasound for the assessment of tissue biomechanics is established, such as in ultrasound elastography, where soft tissue biomechanics are measured. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound elastography in the characterization of musculoskeletal biomechanics. To assess tissue biomechanics we have developed a device, which measures the force applied to the underlying musculotendentious tissue while simultaneously obtaining the related ultrasound images. In this work, the musculotendinous region of the infraspinatus of twenty asymptomatic male organized baseball players was examined to access the variability in tissue properties within a single patient and across a normal population. Elastic moduli at percent strains less than 15 were significantly different than those above 15 percent strain within the normal population. No significant difference in tissue properties was demonstrated within a single patient. This analysis demonstrated elastic moduli are variable across individuals and incidence. Therefore threshold elastic moduli will likely be a function of variation in local-tissue moduli as opposed to a specific global value.

  5. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 5. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics. Book Review Volume 21 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 467-471. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/05/0467-0471. Abstract ...

  6. Corneal Biomechanics in Ectatic Diseases: Refractive Surgery Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Jr, Renato; Correia, Fernando Faria; Lopes, Bernardo; Salomão, Marcella Q.; Luz, Allan; Dawson, Daniel G.; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Vinciguerra, Riccardo; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Roberts, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ectasia development occurs due to a chronic corneal biomechanical decompensation or weakness, resulting in stromal thinning and corneal protrusion. This leads to corneal steepening, increase in astigmatism, and irregularity. In corneal refractive surgery, the detection of mild forms of ectasia pre-operatively is essential to avoid post-operative progressive ectasia, which also depends on the impact of the procedure on the cornea. Method: The advent of 3D tomography is proven as a significant advancement to further characterize corneal shape beyond front surface topography, which is still relevant. While screening tests for ectasia had been limited to corneal shape (geometry) assessment, clinical biomechanical assessment has been possible since the introduction of the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, USA) in 2005 and the Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) in 2010. Direct clinical biomechanical evaluation is recognized as paramount, especially in detection of mild ectatic cases and characterization of the susceptibility for ectasia progression for any cornea. Conclusions: The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of clinical evaluation of corneal biomechanics, focusing on the most recent advances of commercially available instruments and also on future developments, such as Brillouin microscopy. PMID:28932334

  7. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  8. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload.

  9. Corneal Biomechanical Changes and Tissue Remodeling After SMILE and LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Francis, Mathew; Shroff, Rushad; Pahuja, Natasha; Khamar, Pooja; Girrish, Molleti; Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate transient corneal tissue healing and biomechanical changes between laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) eyes. In each patient, one eye underwent LASIK and the other underwent SMILE. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and dynamic Scheimpflug imaging (Corvis-ST) was used to assess tissue healing and biomechanics, respectively. Analyses of OCT scans yielded corneal speckle distribution (CSD) and Bowman's roughness index (BRI). Waveform analyses of deformation amplitude yielded corneal stiffness. Further, corneal force versus corneal deformation data helped compare the two procedures. BRI increased and then decreased transiently after both treatments (P < 0.05). However, SMILE eyes had BRI similar to that of their preoperative state compared to LASIK eyes at 6-month follow-up. CSD indicated a marked increase in the number of bright pixels and a decrease in the number of dark pixels after SMILE (1-month follow-up) and LASIK eyes (3-month follow-up), respectively. CSD returned to near preoperative state thereafter, respectively. Corneal stiffness change from preoperative state was similar between LASIK and SMILE eyes. However, deformation at discrete values of corneal force indicated some recovery of biomechanical strength after SMILE, but not in LASIK eyes. BRI and CSD indicated earlier tissue healing in SMILE eyes than in LASIK. CSD results may indicate delayed cell death in LASIK eyes and increased light scatter due to interface fluid in SMILE eyes. Corneal biomechanical strength remodeled better in SMILE. This may indicate some hydration-related recovery.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: Three different three-dimensional finite element models of the mandible were developed to simulate the biomechanical responses of titanium plates and screws. The fracture lines were fixed with double 4-hole straight, 4-hole square, and 5-hole Y plates with monocortical screws.

  11. Pathobiology of obesity and osteoarthritis: integrating biomechanics and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Issa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing osteoarthritis in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. Although the pathogenesis of obesity-associated osteoarthritis is not completely understood, recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory metabolic factors contribute to an increase in osteoarthritis risk. Adipose tissue, and in particular infrapatellar fat, is a local source of pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased with obesity and have been shown to increase cartilage degradation in cell and tissue culture models. One adipokine in particular, leptin, may be a critical mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis via synergistic actions with other inflammatory cytokines. Biomechanical factors may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis by activating cellular inflammation and promoting oxidative stress. However, some types of biomechanical stimulation, such as physiologic cyclic loading, inhibit inflammation and protect against cartilage degradation. A high percentage of obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis are sedentary, suggesting that a lack of physical activity may increase the susceptibility to inflammation. A more comprehensive approach to understanding how obesity alters daily biomechanical exposures within joint tissues may provide new insight into the protective and damaging effects of biomechanical factors on inflammation in osteoarthritis.

  12. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically possible range, and it might gradually lead to a degenerative intervertebral disc or progression of spondylolisthesis in the adjacent segments.

  13. Biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological determinants of barbell back squat strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Bryanton, Megan A; Nuckols, Greg; Beardsley, Chris; Contreras, Bret; Evans, Jessica; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2018-02-27

    Previous investigations of strength have only focused on biomechanical or psychological determinants, while ignoring the potential interplay and relative contributions of these variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables to the prediction of maximum parallel barbell back squat strength. Twenty-one college-aged participants (male = 14; female = 7; age = 23 ± 3 years) reported to the laboratory for two visits. The first visit consisted of anthropometric, psychometric, and parallel barbell back squat one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing. On the second visit, participants performed isometric dynamometry testing for the knee, hip, and spinal extensors in a sticking point position-specific manner. Multiple linear regression and correlations were used to investigate the combined and individual relationships between biomechanical, anthropometric, and psychological variables and squat 1RM. Multiple regression revealed only one statistically predictive determinant: fat free mass normalized to height (standardized estimate ± SE = 0.6 ± 0.3; t(16) = 2.28; p = 0.037). Correlation coefficients for individual variables and squat 1RM ranged from r = -0.79-0.83, with biomechanical, anthropometric, experiential, and sex predictors showing the strongest relationships, and psychological variables displaying the weakest relationships. These data suggest that back squat strength in a heterogeneous population is multifactorial and more related to physical rather than psychological variables.

  14. Biomechanical design considerations for transradial prosthetic interface: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yuanjun; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Traditional function and comfort assessment of transradial prostheses pay scant attention to prosthetic interface. With better understanding of the biomechanics of prosthetic interface comes better efficiency and safety for interface design; in this way, amputees are more likely to accept prosthetic usage. This review attempts to provide design and selection criteria of transradial interface for prosthetists and clinicians. Various transradial socket types in the literature were chronologically reviewed. Biomechanical discussion of transradial prosthetic interface design from an engineering point of view was also done. Suspension control, range of motion, stability, as well as comfort and safety of socket designs have been considered in varying degrees in the literature. The human-machine interface design should change from traditional "socket design" to new "interface design." From anatomy and physiology to biomechanics of the transradial residual limb, the force and motion transfer, together with comfort and safety, are the two main aspects in prosthetic interface design. Load distribution and transmission should mainly rely on achieving additional skeletal control through targeted soft tissue relief. Biomechanics of the residual limb soft tissues should be studied to find the relationship between mechanical properties and the comfort and safety of soft tissues. © IMechE 2016.

  15. Stability of the human spine: a biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, P.J.M.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The influences of curvatures and of physical properties on the mechanical stability of the spine were analysed by means of a three-dimensional, geometrical, nonlinear biomechanical model. According to the model, the initial buckling load decreases with increasing lordotic and kyphotic curvatures.

  16. Steven Vogel and His Theory of Comparative Biomechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Bio-Cyber Physical Systems) or a suffix (e.g.,. Mathematical Biology). The traditional fields of biology and mechanics present a peculiar problem when they are combined together because biomechanics and mechanobiology are both used, the latter being much younger than the former. How is mechanobiology dif-.

  17. Unified Approach to the Biomechanics of Dental Implantology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenoble, D. E.; Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The human need for safe and effective dental implants is well-recognized. Although many implant designs have been tested and are in use today, a large number have resulted in clinical failure. These failures appear to be due to biomechanical effects, as well as biocompatibility and surgical factors. A unified approach is proposed using multidisciplinary systems technology, for the study of the biomechanical interactions between dental implants and host tissues. The approach progresses from biomechanical modeling and analysis, supported by experimental investigations, through implant design development, clinical verification, and education of the dental practitioner. The result of the biomechanical modeling, analysis, and experimental phases would be the development of scientific design criteria for implants. Implant designs meeting these criteria would be generated, fabricated, and tested in animals. After design acceptance, these implants would be tested in humans, using efficient and safe surgical and restorative procedures. Finally, educational media and instructional courses would be developed for training dental practitioners in the use of the resulting implants.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of osteosynthesis with poly‑L‑lactic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of poly‑L‑lactic acid and titanium screws in the fixation of intracapsular condylar fractures, in 10 polyurethane hemimandibles. Materials and Methods: Artificial intracapsular fractures were created with a steel disk and electronic ...

  19. The History of Biomechanics in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcke, Jan Van; Khanduja, Vikas; Pattyn, Christophe; Audenaert, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Biomechanics of the hip joint describes how the complex combination of osseous, ligamentous, and muscular structures transfers the weight of the body from the axial skeleton into the appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs. Throughout history, several biomechanical studies based on theoretical mathematics, in vitro , in vivo as well as in silico models have been successfully performed. The insights gained from these studies have improved our understanding of the development of mechanical hip pathologies such as osteoarthritis, hip fractures, and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The main treatment of end-stage degeneration of the hip is total hip arthroplasty (THA). The increasing number of patients undergoing this surgical procedure, as well as their demand for more than just pain relief and leading an active lifestyle, has challenged surgeons and implant manufacturers to deliver higher function as well as longevity with the prosthesis. The science of biomechanics has played and will continue to play a crucial and integral role in achieving these goals. The aim of this article, therefore, is to present to the readers the key concepts in biomechanics of the hip and their application to THA.

  20. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome...