WorldWideScience

Sample records for international peace operations

  1. Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proks, Josef

    2000-01-01

    Peace operations are more and more important in the contemporary world. The end of the Cold War increased not only possibilities of solving disputes by the international community but also by the number and diversity of threats and issues...

  2. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... the new mission was based on the Peace and Security Legislation enacted by the Abe government in .... Japan's commitment to human security and peacekeeping operations in. South Sudan. On the basis of ..... cameras on their helmets in order to prove that their shootings were legally justifiable (Mainichi ...

  3. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... Legislation, peacekeeping operations (PKOs), protection of civilians. (POC), United Nations .... conflicts, poverty, environmental degradation, health problems, and involuntary ...... New York, Colombia. University Press. Willmot ...

  4. INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION: A BREACH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Observer group activity was resumed after the wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973. .... International peacekeeping examines the theory and practice of peace-keeping .... U.O. Umozurike, Introduction to International Law, Spectrum Law Publishing, ...

  5. Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, William

    1995-01-01

    .... Indeed, despite the energetic leadership of Under Secretary-General Kofi R. Annan who directs the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the organization has increasing difficulty in acquiring properly trained and equipped forces in time to intervene in conflict situations and humanitarian crises.

  6. The atom in international co-operation. Peace and progress through co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This issue describes the role of the IAEA in the context of international cooperation in bringing the benefits of atoms or nuclear energy in energy production, public health, water resources management and agriculture

  7. Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim-Mitchell, Elena

    2005-01-01

    .... In terms of manpower, the initiative aims at deploying 75,000 peace support operations (PSO) troops worldwide over the next 5 years, primarily to Africa, but also to Latin America, Europe, and Asia...

  8. Maintaining International Peace and Security: Reflections on Peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it may take, under Article 42, "action by air, sea and land forces as may be necessary to ... budget. Police officers, election observers, human rights monitors and other civilians .... In Asia, only one of the five peace-support operations resulted in ..... armoured personnel carriers in less than satisfactory condition for moving.

  9. International education for peace in higher education : promoting cultures of peace in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 耕二; Koji, Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    The kernel of international education is to create peace-loving citizens capable of participating in building a peaceful and sustainable society. Integrated and systematic education for peace can achieve a shared culture of peace. In the new millennium, as the world has become increasingly interdependent and interactive, peace education seeks to harness the power and intellect of future generations in the hope of building a sustainable culture of peace together. International education for pe...

  10. The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...

  11. International cooperation and nuclear development. On the approval of the Argentina - Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol Varela, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Argentina, with its National Atomic Energy Commission, has been maintaining during more than half a century an important activity for the development of nuclear energy and its peaceful applications. As a consequence of this tradition, it has strengthened its experience with the contribution to the international co-operation, as in the case of the Argentina-Australia co-operation agreement for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed on August 8th, 2001 and ratified by the Argentine Law No. 26.014. Both countries are parties of several international treaties and conventions: physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear accidents, fuel and wastes management, and others. These legal instruments are complemented by agreements for the applications of safeguards with the International Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of these regulations the parties agreed to establish co-operation conditions in accordance with the pledge of non-proliferation. Furthermore the agreement states that the Governments have the power to designate the governmental organizations or individuals, as well as the legal entities, which will carry out the co-operation. The co-operation covers basic and applied research, development, design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other installations of the nuclear fuel cycle, its related technology as well as nuclear medicine, radioisotopes, etc [es

  12. Future Peace Operations - The Way Ahead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunde, Herald

    1999-01-01

    .... In addition, training for the wide variety of tasks now involved in peace operations conflicts with the training necessary for national military forces to maintain their warfighting capabilities, their primary mission...

  13. EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PEACE OPERATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garb, Maja

    Peacekeepers are lightly armed and do not fire except in self-defence; .... communication theories, he assumes that the success of peace support operations is ..... UNAVEM III – United Nations Angola Verification Mission III; UNIFIL –.

  14. The Evolution of US Army Peace Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Social constructionism predicts that until a new mission is accepted by the individual and the group, it will continue to cause disequilibrium. The...institution. Insight from the sociological perspective known as social construction was used to examine doctrinal development and institutionalization...mission. The national security strategy of the US is the primary, the first step in the social construction of peace operations. When peace operations

  15. Operational Design for Peace Enforcement: Lessons for the Operational Staff

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neumann, Michael

    2004-01-01

    U.S. involvement in Somalia serves as a useful case study of the unique challenges an operational staff may face when applying operational design to the planning and execution of a peace enforcement operation. U.S...

  16. Strengthening and Renewing UN Peace Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Engell, Troels Gauslå

    This report is a part of Centre for Military Studies’ policy research services for the Ministry of Defence. The purpose of the report is to shed light on the possibilities and challenges related to the current efforts at reforming UN peace operations and to arrive at a set of recommendations...... for how Denmark can contribute to the reform process, thereby enhancing the relevance of UN peace operations for Danish security policy. The Centre for Military Studies is a research centre at the Department of Political Science at the University of Copenhagen. The Centre undertakes research on security...

  17. Operation Peace for Galilee: An Operational Analysis with Relevance Today

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Wilbert

    1998-01-01

    .... Operation Peace for Galilee was epitomized by expert planning and operational excellence, as the IDF achieved its stated aim of establishing a PLO-free 40 kilometer buffer zone north of its border within 40 hours...

  18. The International Trend of Peace Education in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Toshifumi

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the international trend of peace education in the 1990s. It became clear that peace educators in the world have different interests in educational matters by the comparative study of peace education in the 1990s. In the post cold war period, educators in the world did not take much interest in anti-war peace education nor disarmament education. Peace educators have shown more interest in nonviolent conflict resolution, conciliation between multi-ethnic and cultural groups...

  19. Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations (in Korean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end......A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions...... derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets...

  20. The International Criminal Court and Peace Processes in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    justice, while also tracing how and why international decision-making processes interfered with the negotiations, narrated the conflicts and insisted on a narrow scope of justice. Building on this interpretive analysis, a comparative analysis of peace processes in Uganda, Kenya and Colombia explores a set......The book investigates how involvement by the International Criminal Court (ICC) affects efforts to negotiate peace. It offers an interpretive account of how peace negotiators and mediators in two peace processes in Uganda and Kenya sought to navigate and understand the new terrain of international...... of general features pertaining to the judicialisation of peace....

  1. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  2. The international framework for safeguarding peaceful nuclear energy programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    International law, in response to the need for safeguard assurances, has provided a framework which can be utilized by supplier and recipient states. Multilateral treaties have created the International Atomic Energy Agency which can serve a vital role in the establishment and supervision of safeguard agreements for nuclear energy programs. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has created definite obligations on nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon states to alleviate some possibilities of proliferation and has rejuvenated the function of the IAEA in providing safeguards, especially to non-nuclear-weapon states which are parties to the Non-Proliferation treaty. States which are not parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty may receive nuclear energy co-operation subject to IAEA safeguards. States like Canada, have insisted through the bilateral nuclear energy co-operation agreements that either individual or joint agreement be reached with the IAEA for the application of safeguards. Trilateral treaties among Canada, the recipient state and the IAEA have been employed and can provide the necessary assurances against the diversion of peaceful nuclear energy programs to military or non-peaceful uses. The advent of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and its guidlines has definitely advanced the cause of ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ultimate objective should be the creation of an international structure incorporating the application of the most comprehensive safeguards which will be applied universally to all nuclear energy programs

  3. International Consultation on Peace Education and Research in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in Europe, 1986

    1986-01-01

    A January 1986 UNESCO international conference on the role of higher education in promoting international understanding, cooperation, peace, and respect for human rights focused on the nuclear threat and conventional warfare, the role of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, research and education for peace, and…

  4. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many…

  5. Evaluating the Success of Peace Operations | Garb | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questioning and investigating the success of peace operations is not a new research activity. However, there are still many open questions, because the surveys do not show the same results. One of the crucial points in the analysis of the success of peace operations is a definition of such success. In this article, firstly, ...

  6. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  7. History of the Balkan Peace Team. An example of nonviolent international interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Checa Hidalgo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan Peace Team was the result of a project designed to make an international nonviolent intervention in some territories of the former Yugoslavia. This project, which was in operation from 1994-2001, generated processes that wanted to contribute to the peaceful resolution of violent conflicts that had erupted in the region in the early 90's. Its methodology consisted of sending international volunteers to collaborate with local peace groups and human rights organizations who may request their help. The Balkan Peace Team was able to strengthen empowerment processes of local organizations in areas of conflict where it was deployed. It also provided lessons to those organizations part of the project in order to increase awareness of the scope and operation of nonviolent international interventions for conflict transformation.

  8. Maintaining International Peace and Security: Reflections on Peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    take measures and develop strategies to address the peacekeeping ... measures to achieve this purpose that are to be taken by the UN Security ..... For any democratic government it ..... financing for the mission, followed by a long procurement process for .... The view is also held that wide disparities in the international.

  9. Peace through History? The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace's Inquiry into European Schoolbooks, 1921-1924

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    In 1924 the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published a volume investigating the teaching of school history in former belligerent states in Europe. The project sought to reconcile former enemies through mutual understanding and educational exchange and reflected a widely held belief that although the military conflict had finished, its…

  10. War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathan Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…

  11. Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zakopalová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations” aims to discuss and then empirically test on large-N data what is the effect of the joint activity of the United Nations, regional organizations and ad hoc coalitions of states on the allocation of peace operations in the world. It is argued that after the end of the Cold War, all the actors have become much more active in organizing peace operations in intrastate armed conflicts, but it remains rather unclear to what extent they actually share the burden of peace operations at the macro level and especially whether the United Nations focuses on the regions that are rather overlooked by the other actors. The analysis shows that there are remarkable differences among various regions as regards the involvement of international actors and in fact, regional organizations as well as the ad hoc coalitions of states tend to follow similar patterns in allocation of peace operations as the United Nations.

  12. Peace Operations in the Former Yugoslavia: A Re-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    currency, and were susceptible to bribery and “ taxation ” by the Serbs, with up to a quarter of the 103...sponsored, and were even supported by the peace operations. Some UN peacekeepers, including the Turkish, Malaysian , Bangladeshi, and Maltese, are known

  13. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máire Braniff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005. Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006 and in Georgia (2008 to date. This article maps the evolution EU’s role in international peace building by focusing on how this role is increasingly constructed by the scope of monitoring missions which it has embarked upon outside of its borders. A thematic analysis of literature is used to explore how the EU’s monitoring role has evolved regarding the different degrees of intervention, time-frame and size of the monitoring mission which have resulted in a multi-level impact regarding societal transition. The article finds that political will, shadows of past and future missions and intergovernmental concerns dominates how the EU’s monitoring missions unfurl, affecting the practice of monitors and other EU actors in local conflict settings and contemplates scenarios for future monitoring missions.

  14. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  15. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  16. The Evolution of Peace Operations Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovelock, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Capable warfighting forces must operate among the people, using the guidelines provided by maneuverist doctrine and adapted to local conditions to enable the military, in cooperation with the police, to find (locate), fix (control or shape...

  17. Top dogs have set the agenda for peace: international social position and peace attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; van der Veer, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Everybody agrees that peace is good, but not on how to achieve it. The Y2K study contained many questions on peace proposals, as well as on prospects for East/West and North/South peace. It ranked these proposals by popularity and studied how the social positions of the 1967 respondents and their

  18. International responsibility of using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouenat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the stability of the idea of international responsibility in public international law, the international jurisprudence has not settled on a definition. The concept of international responsibility is no longer limited to the legal effects or consequences under international law to violate its provisions. The states recognized that the customary principles governing the international responsibility in public international law does not take into account the specificities of nuclear dangers, this sought to conclude a number of international conventions include a special system of nuclear liability not based on the wrongful act, but on the principle of keeping things, and it requires the existence of an international regime for nuclear liability in order to establish measures and procedures to achieve the implementation of the provisions for compensation unhindered by national legal systems. There is no doubt that the use of nuclear energy in time of peace falls within the scope of internationally prohibited acts. Atomic activities undertaken by the State within its borders for peaceful purposes are considered legitimate activities as long as they have taken necessary measures to avoid damage to neighboring countries. States has tended to conclude international agreements under which disputes that may result from the use of nuclear energy can be solved. The existing international legal framework on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage consists of three major interrelated agreements: Paris Convention on civil liability in the field of nuclear energy, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for civil damages and the Brussels Convention on Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Materials.

  19. Bibliography on peace, security, and international conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography presents an annotated list of approximately one hundred titles for public libraries seeking to serve the college-educated nonspecialist in the fields of peace, security, and international conflict management. representative titles have been selected in eight subject areas: (1) arms control, disarmament, and proliferation; (2) causes and nature of international conflict; (3) conflict management, diplomacy, and negotiation; (4) human rights and ethnic and religious conflicts; (5) international law and international order; (6) international organizations and transnationalism; (7) other approaches to, and overviews of, security and peace; and (8) religion and ethics. Three criteria determined selection of titles: the book is in print and is expected to remain in print for the foreseeable future; the book is of interest to the college-educated lay reader with a serious interest in the subject; and the list, as a whole, illustrates the full spectrum of debate, both in selection of topics and selection of titles. As an aid to the identification and acquisition of any of these materials, the editors have provided a bibliographic citation with an annotation that includes the following: author, title, statement of responsibility, publisher, publication information, pagination, and ISBN or ISSN

  20. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, K.; Adil, G.; Dinara, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways on their.

  1. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, Mahmud; Garibov, Adil

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways of their solutions.

  2. International legal problems of topical interest concerning the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.; Rudolf, W.

    1975-01-01

    The lack of internationally accepted laws on the operation of nuclear ships has proved so far perhaps a more serious obstacle to further development than the problems of a technical-economic kind, although international law by no means that inadequate that it could not, at least basically, do justice to the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships. The unsatisfactory legal situation has been caused in the first place by the conduct of the majority of states which, out of fear of the risks of nuclear ships, also questioned those articles of international maritime law which had been undisputed up to then. This goes in particular for the SOLAS convention, the principles of the peaceful crossing of territorial waters and of calling at ports. On the other hand, it ought to be pointed out, too, that the states obviously do not assume that the operation of nuclear ships is using the sea inadmissably under international law. One could see this as a continuation of the strict Trail-Smelter-doctrine which forbids states to allow activities which might have harmful effects on other national territories. There is no doubt, that the uses of nuclear energy belong to these dangerous activites. At the same time, they are accepted under international law, provided that they are supervised legally and provided that appropriate liability arrangments under civil law are at hand. This is the starting point for over coming the legal difficulties in the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships: it is to be treated as a matter of urgency to elaborate and to put into force comprehensive international conventions for the licensing and supervision of nuclear ships and concerning liablilty under civil law of the operators of nuclear ships. The required freedom in the navigation of nuclaer ships can only be achieved by further reglementation under maritime law. (orig./LN) [de

  3. MULTILATERALISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF ‘MINILATERALISM’ IN EU PEACE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the multilateral practice of peacekeeping and peace support operations has been growing as legitimate instrument to interrupt violence, strengthen security, and protect against gross human rights violations. Invented by the United Nations, peace operations have passed through a process of change that has given new features to multilateral security. Since the late 1980s, the number of UN-authorized peace operations has been growing. Also regional organisations have engaged themselves in an unprecedented number of peace support operations. Recently, the European Union has entered into the practice of peacekeeping, and put multilateralism at the centre of its presence in the world political system. This paper reviews political science knowledge on peace operations (especially, the legitimacy and efficacy issues, and examines the hypothesis of the appearance of minilateralism as the consequence of the engagement of regional organisations and actors, like the EU, in peace operations. The hypothesis is tested by comparing the data of the peace missions of three European organisations (EU, OSCE, and NATO with those of the United Nations. The paper conclusion is that the European states are developing a preference for selective engagement (i.e. minilateralism in peace operations, and the EU is capable of playing both as multilateral and minilateral security provider.

  4. The international legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talaie, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It addresses the issue of the prevention of the use by states of the nuclear weapons (as the most destructive weapon of mass destruction) and their elimination as the main purpose for maintaining international peace and security.Then, the paper presents examples of peaceful applications of nuclear energy. It points out that the peaceful uses of nuclear materials and technology are not hampered by obligation of States not to divert these materials into nuclear weapons. In this context, the paper analyses the provisions of the main international and regional treaties related to the nuclear energy (especially the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Regional Treaty of TLATELOLCO). It also examines the international mechanism for monitoring the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in particular studies the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons through the application of safeguards agreements and the additional protocol to these agreements. One special part of the paper is dedicated to Iran and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The paper concludes that the existing rules of international law do not prevent any State from using and applying nuclear energy and technology for peaceful uses. These rules only make such uses subject to a comprehensive verification mechanism through the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards agreements and the additional protocol the these agreements

  5. The world in turmoil: Promotion of peace and international ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... observed by ancient Greek city-states before, during and immediately after the Games. ... However, according to the United Nations (UN) peace should not be ... be defined in the context of absence of oppression or discrimination, racism, ...

  6. Target Bosnia: Integrating Information Activities in Peace Operations. NATO-Led Operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, December 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Pascale C

    1998-01-01

    This monograph examines the role of information in Peace Support Operations (PSO) and its impact on command and control through the prism of NATO-led operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina from December 1995 into 1997...

  7. Risk assessment in international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-01-01

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently

  8. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  9. Humanitarian and Peace Operations: NGOs and the Military in the Interagency Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witzig Davidson, Lisa; Daly Hayes, Margaret; Landon, James J

    1996-01-01

    The workshop on "Humanitarian and Peace Operations: The NGO/Interagency Interface" was held at the National Defense University on 18-19 April 1996, the seventh in a series that explores advanced command relationships...

  10. Maritime interception and the law of naval operations: A study of legal bases and legal regimes in maritime interception operations, in particular conducted outside the sovereign waters of a State and in the context of international peace and security

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into four parts. Part I consists of a general introduction and will start with a brief sketch of the context of naval operations to better understand operational environment in which maritime interception operations are used (Chapter 2), and will also address contemporary maritime interception operations by means of a short history of the evolution of the term MIO in four strands (Chapter 3). This chapter will also introduce significant naval operations and incidents th...

  11. Maritime interception and the law of naval operations : A study of legal bases and legal regimes in maritime interception operations, in particular conducted outside the sovereign waters of a State and in the context of international peace and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into four parts. Part I consists of a general introduction and will start with a brief sketch of the context of naval operations to better understand operational environment in which maritime interception operations are used (Chapter 2), and will also address contemporary

  12. Public security and peace building operations in post-armed conflict periods

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Sérgio Luiz Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The article shows how contemporary peace operations conducted bythe United Nations (UN) to manage and/or resolve armed conflicts have dealt withthe issue of public security. As part of the effort to establish a lasting peace in theseterritories, the activities of the Organization include the security sector reform andthe structuring of a democratic police force as part of a broader process of peacebuilding. Based on specialized literature on the subject, UN documents and personalobservations,...

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  15. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited STYLES OF...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STYLES OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION IN PEACE PROCESSES BETWEEN

  16. Editorial International Criminal Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conference in July 2014 on the theme 'International Criminal Justice,. Reconciliation ... International Criminal Court (ICC) had come to occupy in discussions .... Pella, V. P., 1950, 'Towards an international criminal court', The American Journal.

  17. Review of international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Sakurai, Satoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Kuno, Yusuke

    2012-02-01

    International forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation was held at Gakushi-kaikan, Tokyo on February 2-3, 2011 in cooperation with The Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and The University of Tokyo Global COE. In our International Forum, we would like to encourage active discussion of international challenges to and solutions for compatibility between peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation for emerging nuclear energy states. It was successfully carried out with as many as 310 participants and a lot of discussions. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. (author)

  18. Is Peace Journalism possible in the ‘war’ against terror in Somalia? How the Kenyan Daily Nation and the Standard represented Operation Linda Nchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ogenga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concludes that in Africa the non-Western press may have the best chance to employ peace journalism, given its proximity to major conflicts. Nevertheless, the Kenyan press has so far failed to take advantage of an ideal opportunity for such an experiment in reporting on the war against terror. Kenya's press still operates within the war journalism framework. This paper employs a theoretical approach that combines theories of media representation in mainstream journalism with the concepts of peace journalism. Methodologically, it adopts a triangulating approach, employing both quantitative and qualitative content analysis to study the representations of Operation Linda Nchi by the Kenyan Daily Nation and The Standard and thereby offers a critical appraisal of the possibility for peace journalism to cover international terrorism in Africa.

  19. Maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes through international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, George E.; Thacher, David J.; Kupperman, Helen S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA activities in support of international cooperation in space exploration and exploitation are briefly reviewed, with a focus on their compatibility with UN treaties. Particular attention is given to the provisions of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and other applicable legislation, the over 1000 bilateral and international agreements NASA has entered into since 1958, international participation in currently ongoing NASA projects (Hubble Space Telescope, Galileo, Ulysses, Rosat, the D-2 Spacelab mission), and plans for the International Space Station.

  20. Peaceful nuclear explosions as a provocation and tasks of international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. Freiherr von

    1975-01-01

    First there is a brief survey on how to make use of peaceful nuclear explosions and on the present state of technological development. Before their use on an international level materializes, a number of political, technical, legal, and ecological problems have to be solved at least provisionally. The extent to which international organizations can help to find these solutions is examined in detail. (HP/LN) [de

  1. International aspects of nuclear energy - guarantees for peaceful applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, P.

    1980-03-01

    The author considers activities connected with treaties and international agreements in the context of safeguarding nuclear materials and technology and protection against radioactive contamination. A review is provided of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Convention on Physical Protection, the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and the London Dumping Convention. (NEA) [fr

  2. Disarmament Education, Education for International Understanding, Global Education, Peace Education and Other Related Terms: Comments and Preferences in a Group of Experts. Peace Education Miniprints No. 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Fifty experts, representing 22 countries provide their comments and views on the use of terms such as "disarmament education" and "peace education" in international debates. Part 1 of the report presents a summarization of the major characteristics of the answers. Some of the interviewees emphasize that the terms are not…

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  4. The International Criminal Court, Justice, Peace and the Fight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approche combinée de droit international et de sciences politiques, cet article se veut une ..... protection of the public interest, rehabilitation, and social reconstruction .... been required to rewrite their criminal laws to ensure clear definitions of.

  5. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  6. International Criminal Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass atrocities in Africa with evidence grounded in both state practice and the histories of African ... for this study in its explicit acknowledgement and emphasis that the “Court .... though it is by cases concerning African countries, international criminal justice is not ..... efficient response to conflict and crisis situations in Africa.

  7. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  8. Assessments in the Global Peace Operations Initiative: A Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    police unit GCC GPOI Coordination Committee GIG GPOI Implementation Guide GPOI Global Peace Operations Initiative GRC GPOI Regional Committee G8...degree necessary to build a coherent assessments framework. The GPOI Implementation Guide ( GIG ) begins by alluding to what the program intended to...elements and associated interactions fully observed and understood. Using the U.S. economy as an example, Driscoll (2011) illustrates the common

  9. The Increased Role of Regional Organizations in Peacekeeping and Effects on the United Nations Preeminence in Future Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhanoa, Birender

    2003-01-01

    .... The UN, drawn into a plethora of peacekeeping operations in the 1990s, has relied increasingly on regional organizations and alliances to take the lead in conflict resolution, especially for peace enforcement...

  10. What Contribution can Colombia Offer Towards Peace and Respect for International Law in the Western Sahara?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ruiz Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR constitutes a contribution to respecting International Law and peace among peoples. We start from the idea that given that Public International Law is an “imperfect” law due to its lack of a centralized executive power, its enforcement depends in large measure on the responsibility of member states of the international community. Then, this study considers both the legal status of the Western Sahara –a conflict where the right to self-determination and independence is clearly defined– and the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the SADR and its legitimacy. Because of the inaction of the central bodies of the international community that do not want, or cannot, enforce this right, it is necessary to highlight the responsibility of the member states of the international community to fulfil this task. That is the particular case of Colombia and the American states, which have ratified the Montevideo Convention where this responsibility is clearly shown. The actions of every State to fulfil International Law are a contribution to its respect and to the pacific resolution of controversies, so that the recognition of the SADR is a contribution to law and peace.

  11. International operations networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Sami; Cheng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Although the area of International Manufacturing Network (IMN) and International Operations Network (ION) has received considerable attention in the literature, most of studies appear multifaceted and interdisciplinary, and thereby require thorough investigation from both academic and practical perspectives, in order to deepen our related understanding. The book seeks advanced contributions that will combine theoretical insights and empirical experience by offering a detailed examination of IMN and, further, ION from various perspectives. This book can be used as a reference material for scholarpractitioners, business executives, and university researchers who need to deepen their understanding on the importance and influence of IMN and ION as well as their development. The book is important because there are few reference/resource materials available related to IMN and ION.

  12. CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes: the French experiences of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massinon, B.

    1999-01-01

    The French experience concerning CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes as well a the international cooperation in this field are presented. Possible objectives and cooperation program needs are cited. French experience in international cooperation is related to seismology and seismic hazards in Bolivia, Madagascar, Nepal and Indonesia and is considered as very constructive, meaning that technical experience is developed, consistent scientific results are obtained, and a considerable yield to the CTBT task is achieved. Large scientific benefits are expected from the CTBTO

  13. The culture of peace and peace education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Năstase, Adrian

    1983-09-01

    In the present world situation, there is an urgent need for new strategies of peace based on the common fundamental interest of mankind, rejecting the use of force, and aimed at creating a new world order. Recognising the close interrelationship between culture and peace, and the extension of international interdependencies in reducing economic disparities, emphasis must be given to developing positive attitudes to peace in the minds of all men: a qualitative change in thinking has to occur before international security can be ensured without resort to military alliances and nuclear deterrence. The dangers inherent in the arms race require that education for disarmament be an integral part of peace education. Likewise, the connections between peace and other international objectives such as development and human rights, need to be stressed. Peace education should lead not only to a greater awareness of problems but also to a sense of responsibility and an active involvement in efforts towards promoting equal rights, economic and social development, and mutual respect and understanding among nations. The power of informed public opinion, internationally, in influencing governments towards peace and disarmament should not be underestimated; therefore, greater attention in peace education needs to be given to identifying and overcoming the structural, conceptual and cultural obstacles to peace. What is being undertaken in Romania, especially amongst young people, by way of education and action for peace, reflects a coherent policy, comprises a powerful and effective educational whole, and is contributing towards the building up of an international `constituency' of peace and disarmament.

  14. International Law governing the Safe and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2002-01-01

    1. The International Governmental Institutions. History and mandates: IAEA, OECD/NEA, EURATOM. 2. International Treaties and Conventions: The Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: Commitment and Verification (the NPT, Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA, The Additional protocol, Regional Non-proliferation Treaties); the Physical protection of Nuclear Material (Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material); Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention on the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention, Paris Convention on Civil Liability, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary compensation for Nuclear Damage); In case of Nuclear Accident: Notification and Assistance (Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency); International Law Governing Nuclear Safety (Nuclear Safety Convention, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management). 3. Relationship between International and National Law

  15. Population Transplant From Adana After Peace Operations Carried Out In Cyprus (1975-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ÇANAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ottoman Empire ruled Cyprus between the years 1571-1878, in 1878 with Treaty of Lausanne was officially passed to England temporarily. Greeks who want to take advantage of this situation, gave fresh impetus to activities for“Enosis” . This process which led to the struggle for existence of Turks in the island and has resulted Peace Operation in 1974. However, Turks emigrated to different parts of the world, mainly toTurkey due to the pressure that they are exposed in the period leading up to the Peace Operation. Therefore, after the operation, Turkish control of the labor needed to eliminate the deficit for the processing of the soil and the new government in order to ensure the economic development of the population of Turkey was carried transplant candidates. “Agricultural labor” the province’s population transfer carried out of Adana. In this regard all farmers from Adana, 1.480 men in 531 households, 1.287’s including women 2.767 people were resettled on the island. In this study, after the operation settlement the process with the transplant population of immigrants from Adana has been discussed.

  16. Population Transplant From Adana After Peace Operations Carried Out In Cyprus (1975-1976)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem ÇANAK

    2015-01-01

    Ottoman Empire ruled Cyprus between the years 1571-1878, in 1878 with Treaty of Lausanne was officially passed to England temporarily. Greeks who want to take advantage of this situation, gave fresh impetus to activities for“Enosis” . This process which led to the struggle for existence of Turks in the island and has resulted Peace Operation in 1974. However, Turks emigrated to different parts of the world, mainly toTurkey due to the pressure that they are exposed in the period leading up to ...

  17. The Line between Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the Use of Force in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Cristina Necula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we attempt to analyze the evolution of a conflictual situation between atleast two international parties, examining each stage involved, with focus on peaceful solutions.However, what we observe is that no all disputes can be resolved through the use of common peacefulmeans. Refusing to accept violet methods of international conflict resolution and expressing faith inhuman values, freedom and fundamental rights of people, we believe that, in cases like these,imposing peaceful coercive measures in order to restore cooperation between states, becomesnecessary. These actions specifically, represent the subject of this paper. First and foremost, we mustunderstand that the international system is not a stand-alone one, butone that has evolved over theyears from tribes, empires and colonies, being at this moment composed of sovereign nation states,most of them allies as part of inter-governmental organizations. We are currently witnessing thecreating of a new subject of international law-the European Union-which does not aim to become anational state, an inter-state organization, or a federation of states. It selectively combines the featuresof these, creating a whole new international entity, whose evolution is still unknown, but that willundoubtedly change the system certainly in a gradual manner.In the midst of all thesetransformations of the international world lie the differences between mentalities and humanbehavior, or maybe even the similarities between them. These get translated into conflicts and theirresolution is intended to be as least invasive as possible, eventually leading to the development oflegal instruments designed to protect the freedom and sovereignty of the parties involved.

  18. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  19. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  20. International peace and security. Rome, 5 July 2003. Di Vittorio Foundation Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    transnational groups seeking to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction. We must modernize and revamp the collective security system of the United Nations Charter - in terms of both preventive diplomacy and enforcement action. This system was built half a century ago to establish world order on the basis of common values and principles: respect for human rights and basic human dignity; economic and social development for all; the settlement of disputes through peaceful means; and prohibition of the use of force except in self defence or as a collective security measure authorized by the Security Council. We must work collectively to address global sources of insecurity and instability, including: the widening divide between rich and poor, in which two-fifths of the world's population lives on less than two dollars per day; the chronic lack in many parts of the world of good governance and respect for human rights - with despots taking shelter under the cloak of 'sovereignty'; and the increasingly perceived schisms between cultures and civilizations. Effective amelioration of these conditions that give rise to insecurity will require adequate financial assistance by the developed countries - assistance that now shamefully stands at only one quarter of one percent of the combined gross national income of the developed countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Effective remedy will also require the dynamic involvement of international institutions, governments and civil society to disseminate practices of good governance, and to monitor respect for human rights. Global respect for human rights should be the overriding norm, irrespective of any consideration of political expediency or short term interests

  1. Trust Building as a Strategy to Avoid Unintended Consequences of Education. The Case Study of International Summer Camps Designed to Promote Peace and Intercultural Dialogue among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis regards two international summer camps promoted by the…

  2. Realities of technical co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, A.; Villaros, P.; Naudet, G.

    1978-01-01

    The decision to develop the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially the generation of electricity, is usually based - particularly in the developing countries - on numerous considerations, mainly of an economic and political nature. Since the resources of nuclear technology are concentrated, relatively speaking, in the advanced countries, the use of nuclear energy by countries that have decided to go nuclear is based on effective co-operation between the exporting and importing countries. The present paper is intended as an additional contribution to consideration of the realities of such co-operation. The authors first mention the specific features of nuclear development, after which they consider, on the basis thereof, the different forms of co-operation required for the transfer of technological knowhow, and the conditions determining the effectiveness of such transfer. This effectiveness is not linked solely to the competence of the personnel concerned or to smooth organizational procedures, but also to decisive socio-psychological factors. Having analysed these factors, the authors examine the salient problems of co-operation arising during the process of nuclear development. Co-operation ever better adapted to the purpose and taking human considerations into account will enable importing countries to acquire the nuclear knowhow that will promote their economic and social development. (author)

  3. How Can the United States Army Improve Human Intelligence in Peace Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    .... These secondary collectors, such as the Military Police, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs and Line Units conduct liaison with international and local police forces, host-government official...

  4. New trends in science and technology implications for international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In December 1988, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to follow future scientific and technological developments, especially those with potential military applications, and to evaluate their impact on international security. In resolution 43/77 A it also requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its forty-fifth session. The broad fields in which scientific and technological developments are taking place were identified as: information technology, biotechnology, materials technology, nuclear technology and space technology. These assessments were discussed by a wider group of experts at a high-level conference on ''New trends in science and technology: implications for international peace and security'', held in April 1990 in the city of Sendai, Japan. The Conference, which was attended by nearly 100 participants from over 20 countries, addressed issues of technological change and global security, new technologies and the search for security in the post-cold-war era, and national policy-making and international diplomacy in an era of rapid technological change. General approaches to technology assessment and technology trends in selected areas were also discussed. The positions taken by Member States on the subject of establishing a mechanism for technology assessment were also taken into account. The highlights of the report are summarized

  5. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Swiss Federal Council for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (with annexes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Agreement replaces an Agreement concluded in 1958 and revised several times. The new Agreement which entered into force on 13 June 1989, takes into account the non-proliferation rules agreed between exporting countries these past years. This outline Agreement contains no obligations regarding purchase or sale, but establishes non-proliferation safeguards respecting co-operation between private or public undertakings in both States. In particular, the Parties undertake to use the goods exchanged solely for peaceful and non-explosive purposes and entrust the International Atomic Energy Agency with verifying this use. Retransfer of such goods to a third country is also subject to very specific conditions [fr

  6. The legal regime governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. II. International Regulations. Pt.1. Regulations on peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The first volume on atomic energy law published by CNEN reproduced national laws and regulations in that field. This book constitutes part one of the second volume and deals with international nuclear conventions and cooperation as at 30 June 1978. It reproduces the instruments and conventions which set up the international nuclear agencies, recommendations in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety, the nuclear third party liability conventions, the international instruments concerning technical and scientific cooperation and finally, the bilateral cooperation agreements between Italy and other nations and its agreements with international organizations (NEA) [fr

  7. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  8. [An attempt to combine humanitarianism and pacifism. The Red Cross and the Dutch movement for international peace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2001-01-01

    Both the International and the Dutch Red Cross were heavily damaged by World War II. The Red Cross movement especially was blamed for its lack of care for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. To restore its reputation all kinds of initiatives were taken. Amongst these was an attempt of the Dutch Red Cross to cooperate with several pacifist movements in the Dutch Movement for International Peace and Security. It seemed a good and sensible initiative, especially in 1945, but although it was supported by international Red Cross resolutions, it failed. The DRC grew immensely in numbers in the years after 1945. With the cold war coming up the peace movement lost most of its popularity and therefore lost its attraction for the Red Cross as a partner. As in the rest of its mutual history, the attempt to humanise war did not mix with the wish to abolish it.

  9. Participation of Czechoslovakia in the beginnings of international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy (IAEA, UNSCEAR, ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, E.

    2006-01-01

    The former Czechoslovakia, as a producer or natural uranium and a country heading to construction of nuclear power stations, took an active part in the establishment of international cooperation in peaceful use of atomic energy in the mid-1950s. Its 17-member delegation attended the 1 st International Conference on Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in Geneva in August 1955. Czechoslovakia was invited to work of the twelve countries on the final draft of the International Atomic Energy Agency Statutes in 1956, it became a member of the IAEA Board of Governors (alternating with Poland), and the first Czechoslovak Governor P. Winkler was elected President of the Board in 1957. Czechoslovakia also was one of the fifteen countries designated to the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 1955. Besides, Czechoslovak specialists participated actively in the work of committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for many years. Involvement in the international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy represented for Czechoslovakia obligations as well as stimuli to the national development of nuclear fields, including radiobiology. (author)

  10. 'Just Do Something' Measuring and Achieving Operational Success in Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    .... Determining the mission, translating political objectives, defining and measuring success delineating termination criteria and developing an exit strategy are made much more difficult then in combat military operations...

  11. Psychological Fitness - Experiences from UN Military Peace Enforcement Operations in the DRC April 2003 - January 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isberg, Jan

    2006-01-01

    .... However, uncontrolled armed groups and local forces, foreign rebel groups and some dissident elements within the Congolese National Army, all mainly located in Eastern Congo, did not accept the Peace Agreement...

  12. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  13. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  14. Operational Gaming: An International Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, I.

    1983-01-01

    Operational gaming involves several people interacting in a simulation of a real-world problem for the purpose of aiding decision making, planning or policy implementation. Contributors to this first book on international aspects of the subject are leading gaming experts from the United States, (including Martin Shubik and Richard Duke), Western Europe, and Japan as well as from the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. It includes such topics as the use of operational gaming in pr...

  15. Peace and Conflict in Zimbabwe – A Call for Peace Education (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developments in peace studies and peace theory have resulted in two conceptualizations of peace, notably, 'negative / cold' peace and 'positive / hot / stable' peace, respectively. It can be surmised that situations and conditions in most countries internationally and Zimbabwe in particular, seem consistent with negative ...

  16. Operational gaming an international approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ståhl, Ingolf

    1983-01-01

    Operational Gaming: An International Approach focuses on various research on this method of systems analysis. The text points out the value of this method in decision making, planning, and in the implementation of policies. The book presents a survey that highlights the connection of experimental gaming, game theory, and operational gaming. The value of gaming as a balancing method in assessing multifaceted computer models, most notably about their assumptions on human behavior, is noted. The book also offers an overview of gaming in other countries, such as Bulgaria, Soviet Union, and Japan,

  17. The Peaceful Uses of Military Forces. Praeger Special Studies in International Politics and Public Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Hugh

    This study of the peaceful uses of military forces (PUMF) offers a compendium of information and principles for the planning and conduct of such PUMF activities as meeting disaster or emergency relief situations, education and training, and economic and social projects. The provision of training opportunities by the military is a means of…

  18. Nobel peace speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FRYE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Peace Prize has long been considered the premier peace prize in the world. According to Geir Lundestad, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, of the 300 some peace prizes awarded worldwide, “none is in any way as well known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize” (Lundestad, 2001. Nobel peace speech is a unique and significant international site of public discourse committed to articulating the universal grammar of peace. Spanning over 100 years of sociopolitical history on the world stage, Nobel Peace Laureates richly represent an important cross-section of domestic and international issues increasingly germane to many publics. Communication scholars’ interest in this rhetorical genre has increased in the past decade. Yet, the norm has been to analyze a single speech artifact from a prestigious or controversial winner rather than examine the collection of speeches for generic commonalities of import. In this essay, we analyze the discourse of Nobel peace speech inductively and argue that the organizing principle of the Nobel peace speech genre is the repetitive form of normative liberal principles and values that function as rhetorical topoi. These topoi include freedom and justice and appeal to the inviolable, inborn right of human beings to exercise certain political and civil liberties and the expectation of equality of protection from totalitarian and tyrannical abuses. The significance of this essay to contemporary communication theory is to expand our theoretical understanding of rhetoric’s role in the maintenance and development of an international and cross-cultural vocabulary for the grammar of peace.

  19. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    By Act No. 3258 of 11 February 1986 the Turkish National Assembly approved ratification of the Agreement of 18 June 1985 between the Government of Turkey and the Government of Canada for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The Agreement covers nuclear co-operation in industry agriculture, electricity generation, etc, and provides the legal framework for such co-operation. It lays down the general provisions for transfer of nuclear facilities, materials and technology between the two Parties and specifies the areas concerned. The Agreement provides that all the activities within its scope shall be carried out for exclusively peaceful purposes. (NEA) [fr

  20. The Satisfaction of the Right of Justice under the Colombian Peace Process. A Look at Developments in the Field of Criminal Responsibility in the Context of a Peace Process and Current International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Suárez López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of comparing the peace agreements that were carried out in Colombia during the decades of the 80s and 90s and the current negotiation process that is taking place in Havana with the farc, the article identifies the lessons of the peace processes selected and discusses their relevance to the negotiation in progress. In particular, the article explicates how the right to justice of the victims, and the amnesties and pardons to members of illegal armed groups, were addressed in the past. Furthermore, the article examines the Legislative Act 1 of 2012, which establishes the so-called ‘Legal Framework for Peace’. Thus, it highlights the possible consequences in regards to international responsibility of the Colombian State and of the perpetrators of international crimes.

  1. Approaching peace in Patani, Southern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes ways of approaching peace building and peace negotiations in Patani. Choosing an anthropological approach, the article argues that participant observation helps identify indigenous, local peace instruments. Hence, the design of local sovereignty is the most important step...... to durable peace in internal conflicts. The Surayud government has identified the recommendations of the National Reconciliation Commission as guide-posts and has praised the peace agreement in Aceh as model to emulate. There is an opening for peace talks, in which the solution to historical and cultural...... grievances will be a key to peace....

  2. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...

  3. IAEA Contribution to International Peace, Security and Prosperity, 27 July 2011, Matsumoto, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    It is a great honour for me to address this 23rd United Nations Conference on Disarmament Issues. I would like to begin by expressing my deepest sympathy, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to the Government and people of Japan on the terrible earthquake and tsunami which devastated the country in March. Our thoughts are with the many thousands of people who lost loved ones or whose homes and livelihoods were destroyed. As you know, this natural disaster of unprecedented severity led to a serious accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The IAEA has been working at full stretch since the accident happened on March 11 to assist the plant operator and the Japanese authorities in bringing the situation back under control. Before talking about the Agency's work in nuclear non-proliferation, I would like to update you on recent developments concerning Fukushima Daiichi. The IAEA has served as the international focal point for assistance, information-sharing and follow-up. We have shared authenticated information about the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant with Member States and sent specialist technical teams to advise Japan in areas such as radiological monitoring and food safety. Throughout the crisis, we have worked closely with our key partners in the UN system. In fact, this has been a good example of the UN ''one house'' approach at work. I convened an IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety which took place in Vienna last month. It agreed a Ministerial Declaration which I am confident will lead to a significant strengthening of nuclear safety, emergency preparedness and radiation protection of people and the environment throughout the world. I was encouraged by the fact that proposals which I made in five key areas were included in the Ministerial Declaration. These were: To strengthen IAEA Safety Standards; To systematically review the safety of all nuclear power plants, including by expanding the IAEA's programme of

  4. Internal operating plan (P.O.I.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the POI (internal operating plan) which defines the management measures, the intervention methods and the required means that the operator must implement to protect the personnel, the population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  5. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  6. International co-operation and the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Primio, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from developed countries is usually done through industrial enterprises. The local industrialization of imported technology does not necessarily imply that full benefit is extracted from its application. A pre-established scientific and technical infrastructure is needed to understand and incorporate it, and to develop methods for improvement and use at the industrial level, in the frame of national conditions. The transference of nuclear technology has recently shown new concepts for implementation. It is becoming a rule that massive industrial nuclear technology transfer to developing nations is tied to a requirement for simultaneous assistance in creating or promoting the infrastructure. An example of international co-operation to meet this requirement is the Argentine-German Agreement for the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy. Since 1971 this has been used to strengthen the scientific and technical programmes of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission in the relevant fields of industrial applications. The objectives and implementation of the agreement are described: co-operative actions were initially directed to the infrastructure needed to support the nuclear fuel cycle industry. The results achieved during the period 1971-1976 are critically analysed. This analysis has influenced the selection of future co-operative projects as well as the extension of the co-operation to other nuclear fields of common interest. (author)

  7. Guidelines for the International Observation by the Agency of Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes under the Provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Analogous Provisions in Other International Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On 21 June 1972 the Board of Governors approved guidelines for the international observation by the Agency of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes under the provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or analogous provisions in other international agreements. These guidelines are now reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  8. International Leasing of Sensitive Nuclear Fuel Cycle Sites: A Proposal to Provide Enduring Assurance of Peaceful Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, Christopher; Cochran, Thomas [Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A voluntary and cooperative membership association -- the 'International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Association' (INFCA) - would be established alongside the IAEA to remedy known gaps in the nonproliferation regime, which include: low-confidence capability for timely detection of diversion from bulk-handling facilities; a 'legal right' of withdrawal from the NPT enabling military application of nuclear technology and materials previously declared for peaceful use; and increasing numbers of NPT-compliant 'virtual weapon states,' the logical culmination of Article IV 'rights' to fuel cycle technology pursued on a purely national basis. Civil fuel cycle capabilities under exclusive national control also remain a likely barrier to fulfilling the declared intentions of states to eliminate global nuclear weapon stockpiles. INFCA would remedy these gaps by ensuring the sensitive fuel cycle activities are conducted within 'Internationally-Secured Leased Areas' (ISLAs), leased to the Association under contracts that would endure from facility construction through facility decommissioning, even in the event a state withdraws from the NPT.

  9. Specifics of international humanitarian operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Patlashynska

    2016-06-01

    Therefore, the author stresses that despite the difference in approach, understanding the role and place of humanitarian operations in world politics, аnd their impact on the promotion of human rights and freedoms as essential moral guidance is extremely large.

  10. Overview of the international legal framework governing the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy - Some practical steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenbach, J.; Tonhauser, W.; Wetherall, A.

    2006-01-01

    The accident on 26 April 1986 in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Ukrainian Republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, near the present borders of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, was categorised at the time as 'the most devastating accident in the history of nuclear power'. Two decades on, the assessment of the health, environmental and socio-economic impacts of the accident still continues, with the aim of providing definitive and authoritative answers. In addition, from a legal perspective the accident underlined some significant deficiencies and gaps in the international legal and regulatory norms that had been established to govern the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. At the same time, it stressed the need for a collective international focus on [nuclear] safety and, in its wake, prompted a call for the creation of an international regime for the safe development of [nuclear energy] under the auspices of the IAEA. For all its devastating consequences, the accident was in fact a wake-up call for the 'international nuclear community' and led to a new era in international nuclear cooperation, involving states which had so far been removed both geographically and technologically from nuclear power. In its aftermath, the international nuclear community, in an attempt to allay concerns of the public and political world over the use of the atom as a viable energy source, sought to rebuild confidence in the safety of nuclear energy, primarily through the IAEA, by urgently addressing those main deficiencies in the existing international legal framework that had been exemplified by the accident. As much as has already been written on the substantive provisions and negotiating history of the different international instruments that compromise this legal framework and that were developed under the auspices of the IAEA in the two decades since the Chernobyl accident, this paper only briefly describes their substance

  11. Predatory peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters r....... The study is based on fieldwork in areas where current land conflicts are played out, as well as on secondary sources.......The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters...

  12. Predatory peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters r....... The study is based on fieldwork in areas where current land conflicts are played out, as well as on secondary sources.......The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters...

  13. Peaceful berkelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabesinger, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The first new element produced after the Second World War has led a rather peaceful life since entering the period table -- until it became the target of those producing superheavy elements, as Andreas Trabesinger describes.

  14. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atha, Roberto J

    2008-01-01

    .... It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today...

  15. Tool for Military Logistics Planning of Peace Support Operations: The OTAS Planning Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrienboer, S.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Within the research group Operations Research Studies Army of the TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory the OTAS planning tool is developed for the Royal Netherlands Armed Forces. This paper gives a general and brief description of the tool.

  16. Educating for Peace: The Role and Impact of International Organisations in Interwar and Post-War Danish School Experiments, 1918–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Egedal Andreasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the two world wars, strong international networks and organisations manifested themselves with promotion of peace through education on their agenda. Danish pedagogical experiments and experimental schools were strongly influenced by these trends and played a role in subsequent school practices and policies. Drawing on the notions of “the transnational” and “trading spaces” as well as the theoretical concepts of transfer, translation, and transformation, this article addresses the following research question: How were international ideas, knowledge and practice of promoting peace through education transferred, translated, and transformed in Danish school experiments in interwar and post-war scenarios? In exploring this question, the article uses transnational and Danish archival sources as well as journals and reports linked to the Danish progressive education movement. Thus, the article contributes to our understanding of the entanglements of educational ideas and to how trends of internationalisation and globalisation work.

  17. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995.

  18. Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between Ukraine and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to all Nuclear Material in all Peaceful Nuclear Activities of Ukraine is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 28 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 13 January 1995

  19. Atoms for peace - the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is situated in Vienna. The aims of the IAEA and its work are described. The safeguards system; promotional work; technical cooperation programme; and nuclear safety work concerned with basic safety standards for radiation protection; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Educating for peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the two world wars, strong international networks and organisations manifested themselves with promotion of peace through education on their agenda. Danish pedagogical experiments and experimental schools were strongly influenced by these trends and played a role in subsequent...... peace through education transferred, translated, and transformed in Danish school experiments in interwar and post-war scenarios? In exploring this question, the article uses transnational and Danish archival sources as well as journals and reports linked to the Danish progressive education movement...

  1. Agent-Based Model and System Dynamics Model for Peace-Keeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and smartness. Miller explained that their belief in fate served as a way to disregard the responsibility and accountability for one’s action. The...conflicts. If all are affected equally, on the other hand, the opposite may happen. Conversely, Slettebak also cited work from Drury and Olson, and... accountable governance • establishing essential services • building a capable host nation to build a foreign nation’s (FN) internal capacity The Guiding

  2. Improving Civil-Military Information Sharing in Peace Support Operations Using a Service-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    solutions that operate reliable under adverse conditions including a bandwidth-limited environment, and provide them with customised information...236 Klein, G. (1998) Sources of Power: How people make decisions, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass ., USA, 1998 NATO (2007) NATO Architecture Framework

  3. Vienna International Centre Library Film and Video Catalogue: Peaceful applications of nuclear energy 1928-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The catalogue lists films and videos which are available on free loan from Vienna International Centre Library for educational, non-commercial, non-profit showings involving no admission charges or appeals for funds. Much of the material listed has been donated to the IAEA by the Governments of Member States. The items are arranged in the catalogue by number. The catalogue also includes a title index and a subject index

  4. Vienna International Centre Library Film and Video Catalogue: Peaceful applications of nuclear energy 1928-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The catalogue lists films and videos which are available on free loan from Vienna International Centre Library for educational, non-commercial, non-profit showings involving no admission charges or appeals for funds. Much of the material listed has been donated to the IAEA by the Governments of Member States. The items are arranged in the catalogue by number. The catalogue also includes a title index and a subject index

  5. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  6. The Human Right to Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villán Durán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.

  7. Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach to community…

  8. Peace diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    reform, terrorism, private security actors, peacekeeping and peace-building and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This book is a result of research carried out over a number of years by the Southern African Defence and Security Management Network (SADSEM) on many of these new and emerging......Africa faces a seemingly ever-increasing range of security challenges. The traditional threats of civil and border conflicts, crises of governance and military coups may have receded but they remain active. Meanwhile, other issues have risen to prominence, such as globalisation, security sector...... and national case studies and makes an important contribution to debates on security sector reform. The topics covered include policing transformation, intelligence governance, regulation of private security actors, challenges of nuclear proliferation, regional security, peace diplomacy and peace missions...

  9. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and the National Guard, which operated in rural areas.”133 A National Intelligence Directorate supported the 60,000 strong security personnel in...Londoño, Juan Luis, Alejandro Gaviria, and Rodrigo Guerrero eds., Asalto al Desarrollo (Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2000...Guerrero eds., Asalto al desarrollo . Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2000. “Saca unimpressed with size of U.S. funding.” Latin

  10. Membership Directory of the PEC Network: Mailing Addresses of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    The Peace Education Commission (PEC) was established to facilitate international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to peace education. The main ambition of PEC is to serve as a useful network for transnational information and support in the peace education area. This document provides current mailing…

  11. The peaceful use of nuclear energy and energy supply - national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R. v.

    1989-01-01

    The paper concludes with a 3-item programme to summarize the need 1. to limit the nuclear energy policy of the next years to the objectives of 'safe operation of facilities without harassment by public debates' and of 'ongoing work on waste disposal'; 2) to use the years to come for organizing and implementing a supra-party process to find a new energy concept for the Federal Republic; 3) to pass the long-term nuclear energy in the mid 90-ies based on a broad parliamentary majority within a comprehensive supra-party energy consensus. Any realistic spectator will not deny the fact that common sense and reason are fairly absent from the discussions about energy and nuclear energy. However, common sense and reason will win the day in the long run - either through insight or, short of that, through coercion and sacrifices. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Brothers in arms or peace? The media representation of Swedish and Norwegian defence- and military co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arne Nohrstedt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relevance of Johan Galtung's model for peace journalism and critical discourse analysis (CDA in light of the media coverage of Swedish and Norwegian defence cooperation. By analysing the proposal for closer military cooperation between the Nato-member Norway and the non-aligned Sweden the article emphasises the paradox that the fact that both Sweden and Norway have forces fighting in Afghanistan was not mentioned when the heads of the Norwegian and Swedish Defence in a joint article justified the need for a closer cooperation between the two countries. Thus this analysis illustrates some limitations of the peace journalism perspective and the necessity to take a contextual approach in which also the possibility of "peace talk" being part of a war discourse is considered.

  13. The PEC Network 1993. Directory of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    This extensive list of the council members of the Peace Education Commission (PEC) from 1992-1994 gives mailing addresses and some telephone and fax numbers to enable direct contact with network members. The Peace Education Commission (PEC) facilitates international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related…

  14. Introducing the PEC Network: Mailing Addresses of the Peace Education Commission. Peace Education Miniprints No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    The Peace Education Commission (PEC) was established to facilitate international cooperation among individuals interested in peace education and research related to the field. The major ambition of PEC is to serve as a useful network for transnational information and support in the peace education area. This document gives current mailing…

  15. Building a Culture of Peace through Global Citizenship Education: An Enriched Approach to Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Hin; Cawagas, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Thought leaders in peace education, Swee-Hin Toh was awarded the UNESCO Prize for Peace Education in 2000, and Virginia Cawagas served as a Professor at the University for Peace in Costa Rica. Both actively support the work of the Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) under the auspices of UNESCO in Seoul, Korea.

  16. Enterprise risk management in international construction operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xianbo; Low, Sui Pheng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers an understanding of the implementation of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) for international construction operations. In an extended case study, it primarily focuses on Chinese construction firms (CCFs) based in Singapore. In this regard, the book explains the differences and similarities between Risk Management (RM), Project Risk Management (PRM) and ERM in the construction industry, and examines their linkages for international construction operations in a broader context. The explanation elaborates on how companies may adopt and implement RM, PRM and ERM as appropriate in their various operations, both in their home market as well as in overseas host markets. The book also reviews the whole spectrum of work relating to organizational behavior (OB) as one of the key underpinnings for companies to evaluate and implement ERM. It will benefit practitioners from the industry as well as academics interested in the implementation of ERM practices in international construction operat...

  17. IMPORTANCE OF LOGISTICS OPERATORS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    KATARZYNA GRONDYS; RUZENA LOVASOVA; ANNA STELMASZCZYK; WIKTOR JANIK

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present role and importance of logistics operations in international arena. The article focuses on forms of outsourcing in logistics and their evolution over the years. The article discusses in detail the scope of logistics operators' activities on global scale over several years. Article also presents results of research, their analysis according to the sector of activities, their percentage share and financial benefits of using 3PL service providers. The progres...

  18. Education for a Culture of Peace: The Culture of Peace News Network as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David

    2013-01-01

    The Culture of Peace News Network, an internet news service, is analyzed in the framework of a general approach to education for a culture of peace. Its format reflects the eight program areas for a culture of peace as adopted by the UN General Assembly. Among its other operating principles are universality of news with all cultures and regions of…

  19. International Workshop on Operator Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Birgit; Ran, André; Zwart, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects a selected number of papers presented at the International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications (IWOTA) held in July 2014 at Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Main developments in the broad area of operator theory are covered, with special emphasis on applications to science and engineering. The volume also presents papers dedicated to the eightieth birthday of Damir Arov and to the sixty-fifth birthday of Leiba Rodman, both leading figures in the area of operator theory and its applications, in particular, to systems theory.

  20. Genealogy of behaviourist peace research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Real P. Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the behaviourist “non-normative” Peace Research (PR tradition with two objectives. One objective is to locate this field in relation to closely related fields of research. PR specificity is: the dependent variable of peace and conflict when compared with Political Science and International Relations; the normative concern with the causes of war when compared with Strategic Studies; and the rejection of the “practicality” of research and a restraint on normativity when compared with Peace Studies (defined as peace research, peace teaching and peace action and Conflict Resolution. Also, PR is considered here as one of the sub-fields of International Security Studies. The second objective of the paper is to present the history of PR. Since its creation in the 1950s, with a focus on inter-state conflict as an alternative to Strategic Studies, PR had two defining periods: one in the late 1960s labelled as the “socialist revolution”, with the conceptualisation of peace as more than the absence of war (positive peace and a challenge for normativity in research; and a second period in the 1980s that brought the broadening of the referent object to intra-state conflict and liberal peace, and the emergence of other social sciences dedicated to the study of issues in, or close to, PR, broadly defined as security with some of them adopting a normative stance in research. The epistemological community of PR kept its behaviourist approach in spite of these two normative challenges, and its distinctiveness and unity is much due to its method.

  1. Studying Peace in Elementary Schools: Laying a Foundation for the "Peaceable Kingdom."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Examines peace education at the elementary school level, stressing the need to include interpersonal and international relations when teaching peace. Suggests peace education can lead children to prosocial behavior. Sees peace as a positive of being. Urges the infusion of peace education throughout the elementary social studies curriculum. (CH)

  2. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  3. International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electricity transmission system operators (TSO) in Europe are increasing subject to high-powered performance-based regulation, such as revenue-cap regimes. The determination of the parameters in such regimes is challenging for national regulatory authorities (NRA), since there is normally a single...... TSO operating in each jurisdiction. The solution for European regulators has been found in international regulatory benchmarking, organized in collaboration with the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) in 2008 and 2012 for 22 and 23 TSOs, respectively. The frontier study provides static cost...... weight restrictions and a correction method for opening balances....

  4. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  5. NEA international co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This text is consecrated at the international co-operative projects of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of reactor safety (Halden reactor project, Loft project, studies on the damaged Three Mile Island unit-2 reactor, inspection of reactor steel components, incident reporting system) and in the field of radioactive waste management (Stripa project, geochemical data bases, Alligator river project, seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities)

  6. Nuclear energy in the service of development and peace: the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency. New Delhi, 19 February 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at a meeting held at the India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, 19 February 1999. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented to emphasize its role in the use of nuclear energy for development and peace: nuclear power for electricity production, nuclear safety, transfer of nuclear technologies through the technical co-operation programme, safeguards and verification including the strengthened safeguards system, present verification activities and future prospects of verification, illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

  7. 5th International Conference on Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, R; Nagy, B; Voiculescu, D; Arsene, Gr

    1981-01-01

    The first of the annual Operator Theory conferences in Ti­ mi~oara held four years ago was a meeting of operator theory spe­ cialists from the National Institute for Scientific and Techni­ cal Creation in Bucharest and from the University of Timi~oara. Since then, the participation to these conferences has greatly increased, by being attended first by operator theorists from allover the country and (since 1978) by an increasing number of foreign mathematicians. Thus the 1980 Conference can be regarded as a truly international Operator Theory meeting, fifteen coun­ tries being represented at it. These conferences are conceived as a means to promote the cooperation between specialists in all areas of Operator Theory. Among the main topics in 1980 were: dilation theory, invariant subspaces, connections with the theory of cX-algebras, subnormal operators, multidimensional functional calculus etc. Though not included in this volume, we would like to mention that in 1980 some special sessions concerning other f...

  8. International co-operation in the field of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Operational safety in nuclear power plants is without doubt a field where international co-operation is in constant progress. Accounting for over 80 per cent of the 400 reactors in service throughout the world, the menber countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are constantly striving to improve the exchange and use of the wealth of information to be gained not just from power plant accidents and incidents but from the routine operation of these facilities. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) helps the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to meet the NEA's objectives in the safety field, namely: - to promote co-operation between the safety bodies of member countries - to contribute to the safety and regulation of nuclear activities. The CSNI relies on the technical back-up of several different working groups made up of experts appointed by the member countries. For the past three years I have had the honour of chairing Principal Working Group 1 (PWG 1), which deals with operating experience and human factor. It is in this capacity that I will attempt to outline the group's various activities and its findings illustrated by a few examples

  9. International co-operation and the future of nuclear power. European Nuclear Congress '98, Nice, 26 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the joint Opening Session of the European Nuclear Congress'98 (ENC) and RECOD in Nice, France, on 26 october 1998. The conference emphasized the importance of strengthened international co-operation in all areas relevant to the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy, especially for power generation. As the only intergovernmental global organization dedicated to nuclear science and technology, the role of the IAEA is to serve as the international focal point for standard setting, independent analysis, technology transfer and oversight and verification

  10. Language of Peace in the Peaceful Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth

    2006-01-01

    For the past 30 years, peace educators have drawn attention to the vital role of language--the caring, creative words that describe and enhance peace. The language of peace has evolved through several stages of growth and complexity. It also offers a heritage of caring and acceptance for all children who enter through educators' classroom doors.…

  11. Safety, antinuclear and peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The contents of this report are two testimonies, Korean peninsula and nuclear problem including the US Army and nuclear weapon site in South Korea and antinuclear and peace movement in Korean peninsula, peace and church women, discussion on antiwar, antinuclear and peace, scripts of play on for peace nuclear kids, introduction movie prediction and guide and the business report of Korea Church Women United.

  12. Virtual Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firer, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non-violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education…

  13. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  14. International co-operation in the nuclear field - past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its creation, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) held a symposium in Paris on 1 and 2 February 1978. Some 200 participants from the 23 Member countries of the NEA as well as representatives of the Commission of European Communities, FORATOM and the IAEA attended the symposium. At a panel discussion at the symposium, led by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, the future of international co-operation between advanced nations in the nuclear field was discussed. While recognizing that nuclear energy is at present going through a period of uncertainty pending resolution of the intertwined problems of gaining public confidence and of non-proliferation, the panel expressed its strong confidence in the future of nuclear power, and the vital contribution it would make, particularly between now and the end of the century. During the meeting, a critical review was made of the way in which international co-operation has evolved since the early stages of peaceful nuclear development, and of the influence on this co-operation of the changing relationship between government and industry. The contribution of international co-operation - and its limitations - was carefully scrutinized, notably in the crucial area of the nuclear fuel cycle

  15. Rethinking Peace, Peace Research and Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetschel, Laurent; Hagmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We develop our argument in five steps. The first section retraces the evolving interaction between peace research and politics. It recalls some of the central features of critical peace research as well as the articulation between norms and causal assumptions. The second and third sections expound...... what we call the bureaucratisation of positive peace by governments and NGOs at both the institutional and ideational levels. We draw attention to how peacebuilding has been institutionalized in diplomatic and aid organizations and how it propagates a set of received wisdoms about peace. In the fourth...... section we problematize a number of paradoxes of state sponsored peacebuilding from the viewpoint of critical peace research. Finally, we offer a number of concluding observations on the role of peace researchers and some suggestions how a tradition of critical peace research could be reinvigorated...

  16. Love at first sight. Co-operation between the Netherlands and Norway on the peaceful use of atomic energy, 1950-1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splunter, J.M. van.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the co-operation during the fifties and sixties between the Netherlands and Norway in the sphere of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It is the story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller, Norway. The start of operation of the Norwegian-Dutch reactor JEEP at Kjeller in July 1951 heralded the first phase of JENER. This rector became the first reactor in the world to be built outside the big-power states. The present study explains how it was possible for to two small states to go ahead with a reactor project at the outset of the post-war period. 13 refs

  17. A proposal to establish an international network in molecular microbiology and genetic engineering for scientific cooperation and prevention of misuse of biological sciences in the framework of science for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The conference on 'Science and Technology for Construction of Peace' which was organized by the Landau Network Coordination Center and A. Volta Center for Scientific Culture dealt with conversion of military and technological capacities into sustainable civilian application. The ideas regarding the conversion of nuclear warheads into nuclear energy for civilian-use led to the idea that the extension of this trend of thought to molecular biology and genetic engineering, will be a useful contribution to Science for Peace. This idea of developing a Cooperation Network in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering that will function parallel to and with the Landau Network Coordination in the 'A. Volta' Center was discussed in the Second International Symposium on Science for Peace, Jerusalem, January 1997. It is the reason for the inclusion of the biological aspects in the deliberations of our Forum. It is hoped that the establishment of an international network in molecular biology and genetic engineering, similar to the Landau Network in physics, will support and achieve the decommissioning of biological weapons. Such a network in microbiology and genetic engineering will contribute to the elimination of biological weapons and to contributions to Science for Peace and to Culture of Peace activities of UNESCO. (author)

  18. CULTURAL FRONTIERS OF THE PEACE CORPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEXTOR, ROBERT B., ED.

    THE PRESENT WORK CONTAINS ANALYSES OF PEACE CORPS PROGRAMS IN SELECTED HOST COUNTRIES (THE PHILIPPINES, MALAYA, THAILAND, PERU, BOLIVIA, AFGHANISTAN, SOMALIA, NIGERIA, TANGANYIKA, SIERRA LEONE, TUNISIA, MOROCCO, AND JAMAICA) WRITTEN BY AN AUTHORITY ON EACH COUNTRY. COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC OPERATIONS OF THE PEACE CORPS IS STRICTLY LIMITED TO WHAT IS…

  19. Enhance International Cooperation and Build Peace and Prosperity Together——Speech by Mr. Li Chengren, Executive Vice-President of CAFIU (Okinawa, Japan, November 15, 2003)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiChengren; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of the opening of the “5th International Conference for Peace, Disarmament and Symbiosis in Asian-Pacific” in Okinawa, I would like to extend, on behalf of my colleagues, and in my own name, warm congratulations to the conference,

  20. Peaceful Development and Strategic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The international strategic situation and environment China faces have changed dramatically since September 11. China has closely followed and adapted itself to the ever-changing situation, seized strategic opportunity, adjusted its global strategy, adhered to peaceful development and displayed diplomacy and strategic flexibility. These are manifested in the following four aspects:

  1. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  2. Challenges of Managing and Planning Peace Education and Peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the challenges of managing and planning peace education and peace culture in Nigeria's educational system. Its presents contemporary definitions of peace education and peace culture as well as highlighted the importance of peace education and peace culture in achieving the national goals and ...

  3. Continuous tokamak operation with an internal transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1982-10-01

    A large improvement in efficiency of current drive in a tokamak can be obtained using neutral beam injection to drive the current in a plasma which has low density and high resistivity. The current established under such conditions acts as the primary of a transformer to drive current in an ignited high-density plasma. In the context of a model of plasma confinement and fusion reactor costs, it is shown that such transformer action has substantial advantages over strict steady-state current drive. It is also shown that cycling plasma density and fusion power is essential for effective operation of an internal transformer cycle. Fusion power loading must be periodically reduced for intervals whose duration is comparable to the maximum of the particle confinement and thermal inertia timescales for plasma fueling and heating. The design of neutron absorption blankets which can tolerate reduced power loading for such short intervals is identified as a critical problem in the design of fusion power reactors

  4. Realism and Peaceful Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to understand peaceful change from the perspective of classical realism, structural realism and neoclassical realism.......This chapter discusses how to understand peaceful change from the perspective of classical realism, structural realism and neoclassical realism....

  5. Peace Education: Perspectives from Costa Rica and Japan. Peace Education Miniprints No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Abelardo; Ito, Takehiko

    This publication explores the views of two present members of the International Peace Research Association: Abelardo Brenes and Takehiko Ito. Brenes and Ito answer 13 questions related to peace education issues in their individual interviews. Abelardo Brenes is a professor at the University of Costa Rica and a consultant to the University for…

  6. Peaceful power today and tomorrow: Policy alternatives for the back-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedore, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Atoms for Peace is thirty years old. Twenty-six nations currently operate large-scale commercial reactors for uranium electricity generation, and another five countries seem likely to join this group soon. The author reviews international policy options regarding two of the perceived major problems of civil nuclear power in many parts of the world: nuclear waste and potential nuclear weapons proliferation

  7. Modes of Discourse about Education, Peace and Human Rights in the 1974 UNESCO Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Kaisa; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2011-01-01

    How do culturally, politically, and economically different actors define education in the UNESCO 1974 "Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms?" This exploration of the document aims to increase understanding of the work of…

  8. Peace Education and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Lucien X.; Polonko, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Peace studies and peace education are multifaceted processes focusing on diverse audiences from children in elementary grades to those involved in political negotiations at the highest levels. This paper addresses the foundational importance of including conflict embedded in adult-child relationships in peace education. It conceptually grounds…

  9. Peaceful nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) specifies that the potential benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions be made available to non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty 'under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency's responsibility and technical competence in this respect have been recognized by its Board of Governors, the Agency's General Conference and the United Nations' General Assembly. Since 1968 when the United Nations Conference of Non-Nuclear Weapon States also recommended that the Agency initiate the necessary studies in the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) field, the Agency has taken the following steps: 1. The exchange of scientific and technical information has been facilitated by circulating information on the status of the technology and through the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. A bibliography of PNE-related literature was published in 1970. 2. In 1972, guidelines for 'the international observation of PNE under the provisions of NPT and analogous provisions in other international agreements' were developed and approved by the Board of Governors. These guidelines defined the basic purpose of international observation as being to verify that in the course of conducting a PNE project the intent and letter of Articles I and II of the NPT are not violated. 3. In 1974, an advisory group developed 'Procedures for the Agency to Use in Responding to Requests for PNE-Related Services'. These procedures have also been approved by the Board of Governors. 4. The Agency has convened a series of technical meetings which reviewed the 'state-of-the- art'. These meetings were convened in 1970, 1971, 1972 and in January 1975. The Fourth Technical Committee was held in Vienna from 20-24 January 1975 under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen Wilson of Australia with Experts from: Australia, France, Federal

  10. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  11. OPERATIONAL RISK IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: TAXONOMY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinoiu Ana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the classifications and the assessment methods for operational risk according to international regulations (ie. Basel 2, in the context of its importance as a managerial tool for international business. Considering the growin

  12. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and

  13. 9th International Conference on Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pearcy, C; Sz-Nagy, B; Vasilescu, F-H; Voiculescu, Dan; Arsene, Gr

    1986-01-01

    The annual Operator Theory conferences, organized by the Department of Mathematics of INC REST and the University of Timi?oara, are intended to promote cooperation and exchange of information between specialists in all areas of operator theory. This volume consists of papers contributed by the participants of the 1984 Conference. They reflect a great variety of topics, dealt with by the modern operator theory, including very recent advances in the invariant subspace problem, subalgebras of operator algebras, hyponormal, Hankel and other special classes of operators, spectral decompositions, aspects of dilation theory and so on. The research contracts of the Department of Mathematics of INCREST with the National Council for Science and Technology of Romania provided the means for developing the research activity in mathematics; they represent the generous framework of these meetings, too. It is our pleasure to acknowledge the financial support of UNESCO which also contibuted to the success of this meeting. We ...

  14. War Termination Planning for Operations Desert Storm and Iraqi Freedom: Failures to Set the Conditions for a Stable Peace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moylan, Christopher V

    2005-01-01

    .... During Operation DESERT STORM, the ambiguity of the objective "promote the safety and stability of the Persian Gulf" led to missed opportunities to influence the postwar settlement and possible...

  15. Museums for Peace: Agents and Instruments of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Roy; Furnari, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Although museums for peace claim peace education to be a primary mission, their definitions of "peace" and their aims and practices for peace education vary widely. In this article, we draw from the field of critical museology and the knowledge construction perspective to understand the role of museums for peace in the service of peace…

  16. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, N.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Recent changes in the United States' nuclear policy, in recognition of the increased proliferation risk, have raised questions of US intentions in international nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle service co-operation. This paper details those intentions in relation to the key elements of the new policy. In the past, the USA has been a world leader in peaceful nuclear co-operation with other nations and, mindful of the relationships between civilian nuclear technology and nuclear weapon proliferation, remains strongly committed to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, IAEA safeguards and other elements concerned with international nuclear affairs. Now, in implementing President Carter's nuclear initiatives, the USA will continue its leading role in nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle co-operation in two ways, (1) by increasing its enrichment capacity for providing international LWR fuel supplies and (2) by taking the lead in solving the problems of near and long-term spent fuel storage and disposal. Beyond these specific steps, the USA feels that the international community's past efforts in controlling the proliferation risks of nuclear power are necessary but inadequate for the future. Accordingly, the USA urges other similarly concerned nations to pause with present developments and to join in a programme of international co-operation and participation in a re-assessment of future plans which would include: (1) Mutual assessments of fuel cycles alternative to the current uranium/plutonium cycle for LWRs and breeders, seeking to lessen proliferation risks; (2) co-operative mechanisms for ensuring the ''front-end'' fuel supply including uranium resource exploration, adequate enrichment capacity, and institutional arrangements; (3) means of dealing with short-, medium- and long-term spent fuel storage needs by means of technical co-operation and assistance and possibly establishment of international storage or repository facilities; and (4) for reprocessing plants, and related fuel

  17. Manager, Local Operations | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the management of Locally Engaged Staff (LES) belongs to each supervisor of ... Regional Operations on the preparation of annual budget for the office. ... and preparing petty cash replenishment requests for approval by the Controller, ...

  18. Peace through Institutions: Woodrow Wilson and the Paris Peace Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Küntay

    2014-01-01

    As we approach the centennial of World War I, it is fitting to undertake a retrospective, academic review of the institutions devised in the war’s aftermath. The efforts to build and sustain a global order ensuring peace and cooperation in the international community - which ultimately failed with the beginning of a Second World War—constitute telling and timely lessons for world politics today. This paper looks critically at America’s role in World War I, diplomatic talks precedi...

  19. Communication of 10 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom with regard to the International Nuclear Fuel Supply Conference: Securing safe access to peaceful power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, attaching a note from the United Kingdom and the final remarks of the Chairman of the International Nuclear Fuel Supply Conference: Securing safe access to peaceful power, held in London on 17 and 18 March 2009. As requested in that communication, the note and final remarks are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  20. Implementation of international safeguards - An operator's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Herz, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experience gained to date from implementation of IAEA verification at fuel fabrication plants is described. From that experience, the authors have concluded that the IAEA verification of material quantities is generally technically effective and is not overly burdensome. They also believe that the operator can, to some extent, minimize his costs for the verification of his inventory by the IAEA by maximizing the ''verifiability'' of the inventory. The cooperative efforts of the inspector and operator in planning, scheduling, and coordinating the combined activities of inventory taking by the operator and inventory verification by the IAEA, are able to significantly reduce the potential for lost production. Lastly, it has been shown that non-destructive assay instruments play an important role in the efficiency and effectiveness of IAEA verification

  1. 6th International Conference on Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, R; Sz-Nagy, B; Voiculescu, D; Arsene, Gr

    1982-01-01

    The annual Operator Theory conferences in Timigoara are conceived as a means to promote cooperation and exchange of in­ formation between specialists in all areas of Operator Theory. The present volume consist of papers contributed by the partici­ pants of the 1981 Conference. Since many of these papers contain results on the invariant subspace problem or are related to the role of invariant subspaces in the study of operators or operator systems, we thought it appropiate to mention this in the title of the volume, though the "other topics" have a wide range. As in past years, special sessions concerning other fields of Functio­ nal Analysis were organized at the 1981 Conference, but contri­ butions to these sessions are not included in the present volume. The research contracts of the Department of Mathematics of INCREST with the National Council for Sciences and Technology of Romaliia provided the means for developping the research activity in Functional Analysis; these contracts constitute the generous...

  2. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the PEACE Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were forty-one different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although space flight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground-laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers' asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  3. Atoms for peace plus fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, S.

    2003-01-01

    One of Dwight Eisenhower's most significant political legacies stemmed from his management of the nuclear question. Five decades after Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech before the United Nations, the nuclear dilemma persists but the world is a different, and I would submit, a better place today than it might have been had that vision not been articulated, or its proposals not advanced. The 'Atoms for Peace' speech had a number of objectives, but it is over arching goal was to propose a set of ideas, a nuclear strategy, which would call on the Soviets to cooperate internationally for the betterment of mankind. This would reengage the Soviets in discussions on nuclear matters at a time when arms control talks had stalled, but it would also offer hope, and a practical set of ideas, to the developing world. 'Atoms for Peace' spawned many developments, including the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and eventually the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. While 'Atoms for Peace', as well as the institutions it created, has come under fire in recent years, it is hard to imagine what the world would have been like without it. Largely through the international Atomic Energy Agency, nations around the world have participated in research and development programs, including the use of nuclear energy in important civilian applications. Nuclear electric power accounts for nearly one-fifth of the world's electricity - reducing global tensions by replacing oil in many applications, and providing much of the world's electricity that is generated without the release of greenhouse gases or other destructive emissions. Many other nuclear and radiation-related technologies, especially radiopharmaceuticals and medical advances involving radiation, have resulted in large part from research spawned by 'Atoms for Peace'. Millions of lives have been saved in the process. While the 'nuclear dilemma' remains a challenge almost as complex as it was fifty years ago, the

  4. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) international organisation: which laws apply to this international nuclear operator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatico-Vidal, L.

    2009-01-01

    ITER is being carried out by way of international collaboration between seven partners (the European atomic energy community -EURATOM-, China, India, Japan, Russia, south korea and the United states) which together represent more than half the world population. From a project organisation point of view, it is supported by both financial and in-kind contributions provided by each of the partner; each member makes its contribution through a special legal entity called a 'domestic agency' to an international organisation which was set up by the Agreement on the Establishment of an International Fusion Energy Organization for the joint Implementation of the ITER project signed in Paris on 21. november 2006 and which entered into force on 24. october 2007 after ratification by each of the partners. The international agreement is to remain in effect for a period of 35 years and may be renewed for a period of 10 years without any change to its content. It is supplemented by an agreement of the same date on the privileges and immunities of the organisation and of its staff. The function of the ITER organisation is to construct, commission, operate and permanently shutdown the ITER facility, to encourage their exploitation by laboratories, other institutions and personnel participating in the fusion energy research and development programmes of its members and to promote public understanding and acceptance of fusion energy. The unique institutional structure for this project will be described briefly in the introduction before analysing the law applicable to this international organisation, a French nuclear operator, unique in France today. (N.C.)

  5. Atom for peace in countries of socialosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.; Kostadinov, K.; Osztrovszki, Gy.; Mitzinger, V.; Cardenas, R.; Felicki, Ya.; Neumann, Ya.; Panasenkov, A.F.; Kulyamin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Anniversary edition of collected articles devoted to 30 years of the council for Mutual Economic Assistance is a collective endeavour of eminent scientists and engineers from countries of the socialist community, which reflects the process of development and practical experience in the application of achievements of nuclear science and technology in national economics of the CMEA member-states. The book contains a broad account of modern problems as well as of future trends in the further development of various branches of nuclear science and technology in the CMEA member-states, their fruitful co-operation within the framework of the CMEA Permanent Commission on Peaceful Application of Nuclear Energy, the activities of corresponding international scientific and economic organizations of the CMEA member-states. The contents of the book clearly demonstrate that under the conditions of a socialist society atom for peace is an effective instrument for the acceleration of scientific and technical progress, which is used entirely for the well-being of Man [ru

  6. Proceedings of the international conference on the fiftieth anniversary of the Fermi reactor and on peaceful applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Ph.

    1992-01-01

    This premiere conference is organized by the alumni of graduate engineers from the University of Liege - AILg - and held in Liege at the Palais des Congres from Wednesday 14th to Friday 16th October 1992. In conjunction with the 175th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Liege and the creation of of the Internal European Market at the end of 1992, this conference celebrates the 50th anniversary of the construction of the first nuclear reactor by Enrico Fermi in Chicago in 1942. This official European celebration is co-organized by the European Nuclear Society and the Belgian Nuclear Society. The goal of the conference is to provide a complete and objective evaluation to the widest possible audience of the state-of-the-art and the prospects of nuclear energy. Invited lectures will be presented by national, European and international experts. The Conference will appeal to experts in the nuclear industry and to a general audience interested in receiving a concise and illuminating expose on the following topics: 1) electricity generation and the environment 2) safeguards issues 3) safety issues 4) nuclear fuel cycle

  7. Book review: Peace Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndușa-Mariana Bejan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge-based society, focused more and more on the technological development and the fast evolution of innovations in different domains, the individuals are increasingly exposed to the stimuli transmitted by organizations, fact which causes major differences between their own beliefs, the values promoted by families, the traditions of the society and the rules encouraged by nations. Such differences often lead to social, political and even armed conflicts, liable to endanger the development and prosperity of the society, but also the peace of the world. Studies of some independent bodies (IEP, 2014; HIICR, 2015 and recent researches (Sambanis and Elbadawi, 2002 clearly mark out the fact that the misunderstandings in the contemporary world, the number of civil conflicts with political and economical stakes, but also the disorder within the nation strongly increased after 2010, in comparison with the 80’s and the 90’s of the past decade. The appearance of conflicts and the numerical increase of them produces strong disparities, economical and commercial digressions, the cooperations within international affairs being restricted and/or limited because of misunderstandings arisen between states (Forrer and Katsos, 2015. However, private organizations succeed in getting beyond the rigid frame of the collaboration among nations, establishing business relations outside the borders of a country and/or the close-by territories, introducing new technologies, inovating, carrying out straight foreigner investments, generating added value and contributing to the regional stability, respectively, to the wordly peace. Although there is a diversified background from a conflictual point of view, in many circumstances, the economical area and its development can generate the improvement of the living conditions for citizens, the companies being preoccupied for the identification of the best solutions with the purpose of satisfying their needs.

  8. What is the IAEA? Programmes and activities that maximize the contribution of nuclear technology to society, while verifying its peaceful use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) serves as the world's foremost international governmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Established as an autonomous organization under the United Nations (UN) in 1957, the IAEA represents the culmination of international efforts to make a reality of US President Eisenhower's proposal in his 'Atoms for Peace' speech to the UN General Assembly in 1953. He envisioned the creation of an international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy. Today, the Agency's broad spectrum of services, programmes, and activities is based on the needs of its 130 Member States

  9. Atoms-for-Peace: an uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1977-01-01

    The United States was the originator and a principal architect of Atoms-for-Peace. In his address to the United Nations General Assembly on December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower proposed a ''way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life.'' He called for the creation of a new international agency and for the pooling of materials and technology to enhance the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The United States has contributed more than any other country to make this dream a reality. Today, the need to apply these same principles to assure mankind the peaceful benefits of the atom and to avoid nuclear war is more urgent than ever before. Now, however, Atoms-for-Peace may be a casualty of changing the U.S. nuclear policies. To place current developments in perspective, a brief review of the evolution of the program is presented

  10. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  11. Review of the international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear security. Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the 2012 Seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held '2011 International Forum on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security - Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident to the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit-' on 8 and 9 December, 2011. It intended to articulate effective strategies and measures for strengthening nuclear security using lessons learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Moreover, it was expected to explore comprehensive approaches which could contribute to enhancing both nuclear safety and security in order to support sustainable and appropriate development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report, excepts presentation materials. (author)

  12. Review of the international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear security. Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the 2012 Seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held '2011 International Forum on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security - Taking the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident to the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit-' on 8 and 9 December, 2011. It intended to articulate effective strategies and measures for strengthening nuclear security using lessons learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Moreover, it was expected to explore comprehensive approaches which could contribute to enhancing both nuclear safety and security in order to support sustainable and appropriate development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report, excepts presentation materials. (author)

  13. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  14. Israel: the Division before Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of the Middle East peace negotiations at the beginning of the 1990s has its roots in the changes in the international system and in Israeli society. The end of the Cold War, the Gulf War in 1990-1991 and globalization forced all the region’s actors to resituate themselves within the new international context. However, Israeli society neither experienced the international changes in the same way as its neighbors nor did it undergo the same evolutionduring the conflict with the Arabs. Because of this, the debate over peace and the future of the occupied territories became a factor for political and ideological division. Influencing this debate were revised conceptions on security, the economy, and the role Israel should play in the world. The Middle East peace talks began because the strongest side in the conflict, Israel’s Labor government, came to perceive that the maintenance of the status quo was negative forits interests. From the Israeli point of view, the conflict had long been considered a zero-sum game despite the Palestinian’s compromises since the construction of the Palestinian State involved handing over part of the territory claimed by the Jews. Recent changes in the perceptions of Israeli’s own interests, though, led some sectors of Jewish society to re-think and diminish the supposed incompatibility between Palestine nationalism and Zionism, which then opened the doors towards peace. For the Labor government, the territorial occupation of all Palestine was no longer a central objective. In fact, the basic interests of the Labor party’s policies shifted due to the globalization of the international system. For Likud and the Zionist revisionists, however, the occupation and the colonization of Eretz Israel still form the basic ideology of the State –of its reason for being– for which even today both are associated with the national interest, together with Israel’s very survival. Seen this way, Israel

  15. International co-operation. Key issue paper no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In accordance with guidance provided by the Steering Group, this report assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of international co-operation relating to the nuclear fuel cycle, with a view toward identifying any needed new forms or arrangements for co-operation. In more specific terms, the Steering Committee`s guidance identified the following questions: Is the existing international framework sufficient for: the safe and secure operation of the fuel cycle; the economic and orderly development of the world`s nuclear energy systems (or their phase-out should this take place); international co-operation in R and D; international co-operation in industrial activities? Are there places where these requirements overlap or interact so as to impede activities which are desirable? Can new forms of co-operation be foreseen which would make it easier to implement any of the fuel cycle options in a safe, secure and responsible way? Are there other new forms of international co-operation which would affect the fuel cycle, e.g. regional institutions; international plutonium management regime and/or storage? Finally: What is the appropriate role of IAEA in any of these?.

  16. Disarmament and Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Questions of disarmament and the legitimacy of the nation-state system should be the core of peace education and should comprise a major aspect of citizenship education. The approach to peace education should be cognitive and affective, intellectual and political, and should be initiated in the early elementary years. (Author/KC)

  17. Retooling Peace Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer

    2010-01-01

    This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering sup...

  18. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.

    2014-01-01

    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  19. Evaluation of German and international operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueck, Reinhard; Verstegen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The systematic analysis of safety-relevant events in nuclear power plants and their causes is a key driver for the further development of nuclear safety. The findings obtained from the evaluation of operating experience in this respect form the basis for both technical and organisational improvements in the plants as well as for adaptations of technical rules and standards. In its role as Technical Safety Organisation advising the German federal government, Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) has been concerned with the detection and analysis of failure mechanisms that underlie events in nuclear power plants at home and abroad since its foundation in 1977. This article provides an overview of the different objectives which are pursued in this context by order of or funded by the Federal Environment Ministry. Here, the focus is on the evaluation of reportable events for the preparation of so-called Information Notices and generic reports as well as for the acquisition of data that can be used for in-depth probabilistic analyses.

  20. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  1. International Retailing Operations: Downstream Entry and Expansion via Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the shift into international franchising from other forms of operation, rather than the typical home market franchising base is explored. The focus is international retail franchising, based on a study of the Danish clothing and footwear industry. In this study it was found that Danish companies were moving into international franchising as an outcome of a more general shift from upstream wholesaling and subcontracting activities to downstream involvement in retailing activit...

  2. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  3. The Geo-strategies and Global Peace of Technology on Customer Relationship Management Performance: A Pilot Study among SME’s Logistic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fairos Mohamad Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are playing an increasingly important role in sustaining geo strategies and global peace economic growth and logistic system in Malaysia. SMEs also play a very crucial role in customer relationship as they may serve the roles of customer, distributor producer and supplier. However, adaption of customer relationship in Malaysian SMEs has not been fully explored. CRMP model for logistic service presents the combination of technology strategy in term of geo strategies and global peace. The goal of this study is to investigate customer relationship management performance and technology strategy. The dimensions for technology factors are Support information system, information sharing, Usefulness, care/help, ease of use, service portfolio, security and Update System. The populations of study were customers from a logistic company located in Pulau Pinang. Simple random sampling was selected from the target populations. Data collection resulted in 100 respondents to answers questionnaire from the customers of logistic company. Based on the finding, the result showed that, technology strategies are anchor factors in determining geo strategies and global peace on customer relationship management performance. Further study has important managerial implications as the findings will enable management of SMEs to understand progressive and highly varied CRMP practices and contextual factors that contribute to the CRMP as well as geo strategies and global peace and innovative implementation.

  4. 24th International Workshop in Operator Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dritschel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This volume gathers contributions from the International Workshop on Operator Theory and Its Applications (IWOTA) held in Bangalore, India, in December 2013. All articles were written by experts and cover a broad range of original material at the cutting edge of operator theory and its applications. Topics include multivariable operator theory, operator theory on indefinite metric spaces (Krein and Pontryagin spaces) and its applications, spectral theory with applications to differential operators, the geometry of Banach spaces, scattering and time varying linear systems, and wavelets and coherent states.

  5. Social psychology, war and peace: Towards a critical discursive peace psychology.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I make two related arguments: that peace psychology and social psychological peace research should give greater attention to discourse, and that critical discursive approaches in social psychology should explore matters of international military conflict, an area which has hitherto been somewhat neglected in this tradition of work. These arguments are developed in relation to debates concerning the nature and status of psychological ‘science’, and the neglect of language in soci...

  6. Corporate interests, philanthropies, and the peace movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T; Rodriguez, F; Waitzkin, H

    1986-01-01

    Corporate and philanthropic involvement in the peace movement is growing. In considering medical peace groups as examples, we have studied the ways that corporate and philanthropic funding have shaped the course of activism. Our methods have included: review of the Foundations Grant Index from 1974-1983; analysis of corporations' and foundations' criteria for grants in the categories of peace, arms control, and disarmament; interviews with leaders of activist organizations and with foundation officials; and our own experiences in the peace movement. Corporate interests in preventing nuclear war stem from a concern for global stability in which world markets may expand, and from a hope to frame issues posed by the peace movement in a way that will not challenge basic structures of power and finance. Several general features make peace groups respectable and attractive to philanthropies; an uncritical stance toward corporate participation in the arms race; a viewpoint that the main danger of nuclear war stems from a profound, bilateral conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union; and a single-issue focus that does not deal with the many related problems reflecting the injustices of capitalism. The two major medical groups working for peace, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), have accomplished many goals; however, their adherence to subtle criteria of respectability and their dependence on philanthropic funding have limited the scope of their activism. The struggle for peace can not succeed without fundamental changes in the corporate system that initiates, maintains, and promotes the arms race.

  7. Negociar la paz: una síntesis de los estudios sobre la resolución negociada de conflictos armados internos Negotiating Peace: A Literature Review of Negotiated Resolutions to Internal Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Valencia Agudelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Después de la Primera Guerra Mundial en el mundo surgió un interés académico por estudiar la resolución negociada de los conflictos armados. Hoy, casi un siglo después, se cuenta con una visión amplia, integral y de largo plazo sobre los acuerdos de paz, que tiene en cuenta tanto las razones del conflicto como los factores que inciden en el mantenimiento de la paz en el posconflicto. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una síntesis de la evolución de los estudios sobre la paz negociada, destacando los diversos enfoques, modelos y la forma analítica para estudiar dichos procesos, en especial en los conflictos armados internos. Al final se recogen algunas recomendaciones para aumentar las probabilidades de éxito en dichos procesos de paz.Following World War I, an academic interest surged worldwide in studying negotiated resolutions to armed conflicts. Today, almost a century afterwards, we have a comprehensive and long-term vision of peace agreements that take into account the causes of the conflict, as well as the factors necessary to maintain peace in the post-conflict scenario. The objective of this article is to present a literature review of the evolution of negotiated peace agreements of internal armed conflicts, highlighting the diverse perspectives, models and types of analysis to study these processes. In conclusion, the study presents some final recommendations to increase the probability of success in these negotiated peace processes.

  8. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the Diplomatic Academy conference, Lima, Peru, 20 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the Diplomatic Academy Conference (Lima, Peru, 20 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  9. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  10. Dangers of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of mission shared by some peace journalists is a dangerous attitude. All journalists can do to give peace a chance is to serve as mediators, helping conflict parties overcome the competitive misperceptions and societal beliefs that fuel conflict. If peace journalists try to promote and impose their own solutions, however, frustration is inevitable and will finally result in the search for an evildoer who can be made responsible. Thus by involving themselves in conflicts, journalists can become unintentional agents of conflict escalation.

  11. Mozambique's peace decades since the end of the conflict: Inclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article traces the trajectory of democratisation under the auspices of a liberal peace theoretical framework which was agreed upon in the General Peace Agreement ending the conflict in 1992. Secondary quantitative data were made available from leading International Organisations such as the World Bank and the Mo ...

  12. Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

    2007-06-06

    This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

  13. Central America's "Peace Parks" and Regional Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the development of transborder conservation zones, known as "peace parks," in terms of their potential importance as proving grounds for international cooperation and sustainable development, and then in their role as symbols and outright manifestations of the peace process. Includes case studies of La Amistad Biosphere Reserve,…

  14. Problematizing War: Reviving the Historical Focus of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, William

    2017-01-01

    In the last forty years, peace education has broadened its focus from primarily international peace and the prevention of war to an approach that encompasses social justice, environmental education, critical theory, and multicultural education. While this is a positive evolution in many respects, there is a danger in de-emphasizing the actual…

  15. In the service of peace: 2005 Nobel Peace prize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nobel Citation: The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2005 is to be shared, in two equal parts, between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way. At a time when the threat of nuclear arms is again increasing, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to underline that this threat must be met through the broadest possible international cooperation. This principle finds its clearest expression today in the work of the IAEA and its Director General. In the nuclear non-proliferation regime, it is the IAEA which controls that nuclear energy is not misused for military purposes, and the Director General has stood out as an unafraid advocate of new measures to strengthen that regime. At a time when disarmament efforts appear deadlocked, when there is a danger that nuclear arms will spread both to states and to terrorist groups, and when nuclear power again appears to be playing an increasingly significant role, IAEA's work is of incalculable importance. In his will, Alfred Nobel wrote that the Peace Prize should, among other criteria, be awarded to whoever had done most for the abolition or reduction of standing armies. In its application of this criterion in recent decades, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has concentrated on the struggle to diminish the significance of nuclear arms in international politics, with a view to their abolition. That the world has achieved little in this respect makes active opposition to nuclear arms all the more important today. The full Nobel Lecture of the Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei is given in this paper

  16. Celebrating science for peace

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    These last two weeks have underlined the significance of our 60th anniversary slogan: science for peace.    The second Wilton Park event on science and religion that we’ve participated in took place in Divonne, bringing representatives of the world’s major religions together to discuss the potential for dialogue. It was a clear example of science facilitating conversations that might otherwise never have happened, and the report on the event should be well worth reading when it comes out later this year. We also saw the start of the International Conference on High Energy Physics, ICHEP, in Valencia, bringing physicists from around the world together. But what I want to focus on is the ceremony at UNESCO in Paris on 1 July marking the 61st anniversary of the CERN Convention. It was at UNESCO in Paris on 1 July 1953 that the CERN Convention first saw the light of day. That historic occasion marked a turning point in European scientific history that would have rami...

  17. Peace Education in Secondary Schools: A Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubogu, Rowell

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses Peace Education as Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria. This was prompted by the inherent incompatibility between the objectives of individuals, ethnic/social groups in Nigeria. The research question addresses Normative and Ethical issues regarding peace, the absence of violence/hostility and its…

  18. Peace, Conflict and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    elaferriere

    in Palestinian communities has a dual strategy: it contains both a ... It will consolidate the theory ... and equitable and sustainable development; to build domestic ownership of peace processes; to open spaces for discussion and dialogue;.

  19. Partnership for Peace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penner, Vernon

    1996-01-01

    Partnership for Peace (PFP) has gotten off to a highly successful start over the past two years with an accelerated growth in membership encompassing the Euro-Atlantic community, the rapid development of its own military...

  20. The Contribution of the Secondary School Curriculum to Peace in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriswa, Andika Patrick; Thinguri, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Kenya Government recognizes the role of peace in socio economic development as emphasized in the national anthem while the national goals of education endeavour to promote national unity, sustainable development, peace, respect for diversity, and international consciousness among others. The Kenya vision 2030 underscores the need for peace and…

  1. Transforming Education, Transforming Society: The Co-Construction of Critical Peace Education and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the link between critical peace education and Indigenous education from an Indigenous international and comparative education perspective. The article first reviews the marginalization of critical peace education and Indigenous education. By bringing forward areas of common interest between peace education and…

  2. The influence of triple bottom line on international operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sperotto Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a triple bottom line perspective to analyze how the international operations literature integrates economic, social, and environmental issues. Additionally, it shows the main drivers of and barriers to the adoption of triple bottom line practices by companies in an international context. We conducted a literature review in English language journals which publish research of production and operations management and sustainability, resulting in a final sample of 29 papers. Results show that social and legal pressure for companies to adopt a responsible behavior prompts an isomorphic process that leads them to conduct their operations on behalf of triple bottom line goals. Behavioral differences between spin-offs in various countries caused institutions to create mechanisms that can press and change private standards through regulation and enforcement. There is room for progress in studies that seek to analyze the company’s relationships in its international experience and its multi-institutional relations.

  3. Fifty years of 'Atoms for Peace'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on December 8, 1953, the then U.S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in his famous speech before the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed his 'Atoms for Peace' program, which was to initiate a policy of international cooperation. The event had been preceded by a policy of the United States intended to guarantee to the United States the monopoly in the production and use of nuclear weapons, which ultimately failed because of the resistance of the Soviet Union. The doctrine of a technological monopoly in the nuclear field was to be changed in favor of cooperative ventures under the rigorous control of the United States. The 1954 Atomic Energy Act clearly formulated the will to cooperate. Following a U.S. initiative, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was founded in 1956 to assist in transfers of nuclear technology and assume controlling functions to prevent abuse for non-peaceful purposes. Quite a number of countries used the 'Atoms for Peace' offer to develop nuclear power in very close cooperation with American industry and depending on U.S. nuclear fuel supply. On the whole, 'Atoms for Peace' has paved the way to a worldwide peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.)

  4. International co-operation through scientific and technical nuclear societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1983-01-01

    As an international organization the American Nuclear Society (ANS) has played an active role in international co-operation of nuclear technology exchange since its establishment in 1954. The ANS has a membership of over 13,000 individuals, of whom approximately 1200 live overseas in forty countries. To carry out the goals of the Society, local sections have been established. Currently the ANS maintains 48 local sections in the United States of America and 8 overseas local sections in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. The ANS also has formal agreements for co-operation with The Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN), the Israel Nuclear Society (INS), and the Chinese Nuclear Society (CNS). In 1977 the Japan Atomic Energy Society (JAES), the European Nuclear Society (ENS), and the ANS co-operation in sponsoring the First International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT I) in Tehran, Iran. In 1982, the Second International Conference on Transfer of Nuclear Technology (ICONTT II), Buenos Aires, Argentina, was sponsored through the co-operation of the AATN, the ENS and the ANS. The ANS and its overseas sections sponsor the Pacific Basin Conference approximately every three years to discuss nuclear matters of concern to the countries around the Pacific Ocean. In 1981 the ANS held a Nuclear Technology Exhibit in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. In addition to meetings, the ANS is extensively involved in the co-operative exchange of applied nuclear research information through its publications. Nuclear Technology, a technical journal, is published monthly under joint ownership of the ENS and the ANS. The ANS has been a leader in voluntary standards development since 1958. In its dedication to the co-operation of international nuclear technology the ANS maintains a comprehensive international exchange of nuclear standards

  5. The role of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material and its relationship with the international safeguards agreements for the set-up of peaceful nuclear programs and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhadhbi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the development of the economy and is considered as a key element with regard to the growth of the world energy demand due to the limitation of other natural energy resources, its contribution to the protection of the environment and the reduction of CO 2 emission. Several countries, including some Arab countries, are planning to consider the nuclear option in the near future. To provide an assurance to the international community of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency established legal tools, called Safeguards Agreements, to be accepted by every state willing to run nuclear programmes for peaceful purposes. The most important basis required by these agreements is the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, which plays a primary role for effective and efficient fulfilment of the state commitment with regard to the international safeguards agreements. The requirements for the set-up of a State System of Accounting for and Control , its role, its objectives and its fundamental elements are deeply presented. (author)

  6. SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  7. International Conference on Semigroups, Algebras and Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meakin, John; Rajan, A

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses recent developments in semigroup theory and its applications in areas such as operator algebras, operator approximations and category theory. All contributing authors are eminent researchers in their respective fields, from across the world. Their papers, presented at the 2014 International Conference on Semigroups, Algebras and Operator Theory in Cochin, India, focus on recent developments in semigroup theory and operator algebras. They highlight current research activities on the structure theory of semigroups as well as the role of semigroup theoretic approaches to other areas such as rings and algebras. The deliberations and discussions at the conference point to future research directions in these areas. This book presents 16 unpublished, high-quality and peer-reviewed research papers on areas such as structure theory of semigroups, decidability vs. undecidability of word problems, regular von Neumann algebras, operator theory and operator approximations. Interested researchers will f...

  8. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  9. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 33. Index of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    More than 2100 papers were submitted by the Governments, specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, which participated in the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in September 1958. These papers together with the records of the sessions have been published, in English, in a series of thirty-two volumes which constitute the official Proceedings of the Conference. The United Nations has also published abbreviated French and Spanish editions of the Proceedings which total thirteen volumes in each edition. They consist of all the Conference papers in the language of the edition, the complete text of the orally presented papers, the complete text of the one hundred and nine thermonuclear fusion papers, additional selected papers, and the records of the sessions. A similar abbreviated edition is being published in Russian by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A list of the titles and prices of the volumes in each of the editions published by the United Nations is included in this volume, which is the index volume of the Proceedings. Prices are quoted in US dollars, but the volumes may be purchased in any national currency. This volume also includes, for the English edition only, a subject index, a numerical index, an author index and a list of errata. The numerical index, which was prepared by the United Nations Headquarters Library, lists the individual papers of the Proceedings serially, omitting the numbers of those papers which were withdrawn by Governments before the Conference. The arrangement of the index is self-explanatory except for the use of the letters F, R or S which appear in parentheses following some of the titles. These letters indicate the existence of a published version of the paper in French, Russian or Spanish. French and Spanish texts may be found in the corresponding series given in the list of volumes. In both editions, Volume 1

  10. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 33. Index of the proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-07-01

    More than 2100 papers were submitted by the Governments, specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, which participated in the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in September 1958. These papers together with the records of the sessions have been published, in English, in a series of thirty-two volumes which constitute the official Proceedings of the Conference. The United Nations has also published abbreviated French and Spanish editions of the Proceedings which total thirteen volumes in each edition. They consist of all the Conference papers in the language of the edition, the complete text of the orally presented papers, the complete text of the one hundred and nine thermonuclear fusion papers, additional selected papers, and the records of the sessions. A similar abbreviated edition is being published in Russian by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A list of the titles and prices of the volumes in each of the editions published by the United Nations is included in this volume, which is the index volume of the Proceedings. Prices are quoted in US dollars, but the volumes may be purchased in any national currency. This volume also includes, for the English edition only, a subject index, a numerical index, an author index and a list of errata. The numerical index, which was prepared by the United Nations Headquarters Library, lists the individual papers of the Proceedings serially, omitting the numbers of those papers which were withdrawn by Governments before the Conference. The arrangement of the index is self-explanatory except for the use of the letters F, R or S which appear in parentheses following some of the titles. These letters indicate the existence of a published version of the paper in French, Russian or Spanish. French and Spanish texts may be found in the corresponding series given in the list of volumes. In both editions, Volume 1

  11. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  12. Eternal peace and world citizen order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolić Marinko V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author examines the key principles of Kant's conception of eternal peace and the possibility of an international legal order grounded in Reason. The central segment of the paper consists of an analysis of the problem of mediation between Kant's normative theory and political practice.

  13. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  14. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Thomas [School of Law, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  15. The International Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratories Seibersdorf and Vienna. Meeting the challenges of research and international co-operation in the application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippl, E.

    1999-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency therefore maintains a unique, multidisciplinary, analytical, research and training centre: the IAEA Laboratories, located at Seibersdorf near Vienna and at the Agency's Headquarters in the Vienna International Centre. They are organized in three branches: (i) the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory: Soil Science, Plant Breeding, Animal Production and Health, Entomology, Agrochemicals; (ii) the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory: Chemistry, Instrumentation, Dosimetry, Isotope Hydrology; (iii) the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory: Isotopic Analysis, Chemical Analysis, Clean Laboratory. 'The Mission of the IAEA Laboratories is to contribute to the implementation of the Agency's programmes in food and agriculture, human health, physical and chemical sciences, water resources, industry, environment, radiation protection and safeguards verification'. Together with a General Services and Safety Section, which provides logistics, information, industrial safety and maintenance services and runs a mechanical workshop, the three groups form the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories' and are part of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. The Laboratories contribute an important share to projects fostering peaceful applications of radiation and isotopes and radiation protection, and play a significant part in the nuclear verification mechanism. All activities are therefore planned and implemented in close co-operation with relevant divisions and departments of the IAEA. In specific sectors, the Laboratories also operate in conjunction with other organizations in the UN system, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and with networks of national laboratories in Member States

  16. Fifty years of atoms for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.; Tuniz, C.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear community around the world will be marking the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace Speech on 8 December 2003. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is organising a series of seminars in the US, Japan and France which will culminate in consensus statement Atoms for Peace after 50 Years; New Challenges and Opportunities. A separate initiative has seen the foundation of the World Nuclear University with the mission to strengthen international institutions to guide the ongoing development of the peaceful nuclear technology. The challenge for the nuclear community over the next 50 years is to redefine and recommit to the old vision in a new world challenged by new dimensions in national security, by environmental degradation and by the impacts of population pressures coupled with predicted climate change

  17. NPT and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, B.

    1993-01-01

    In his opening remarks the author spoke on the role of IAEA safeguards in the process of international verification and confidence building that peaceful nuclear programmes are not used for the production of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

  18. Atoms for Peace Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    CERN and JINR are providing safeguards on peaceful use of the potential of the Russian military and industrial complex by implementing scientific projects of the International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC).

  19. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  20. The Everyday Peace Project: An Innovative Approach to Peace Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Urmitapa; Andzenge, Andrea Kashimana; Walkling, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    A critical task for peace pedagogy is to challenge views of peace as primarily responses to declared war. Crisis-based politics tend to focus on exceptional situations and fail to capture the entire spectrum of violence. Premised on the idea that peace cannot be understood in isolation of larger structural problems, this paper proposes the concept…

  1. Peace Through Integration or Peace Through Separation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    to the different groups by creating homogeneous federal units will mediate political conflict and prevent secession by reducing discrimination of minorities. Integrationists reject this idea, claiming that integration in form of heterogeneous federal units promotes tolerance and thereby peace. This study sheds...... light on the debate by comparing India’s federal states, which differ in their levels of religious heterogeneity. The results of the quantitative analysis indicate that religiously homogeneous federal units have higher levels of interreligious tolerance than heterogeneous units, lending support...

  2. The Peaceful Revolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thue, Fredrik W.; Hansen, Else; Brandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The student revolts of 1968 in the Nordic countries were peaceful in comparison with what happened in places like Berlin, Paris or Rome. Students in the Nordic countries were also protesting and revolting against the authoritarian traditions of higher education, but only rarely did they take...... to the streets like their German and French counterparts. As this chapter argues, the relatively peacefulness of the Nordic 1968 must be understood within a wider political context. The growth within higher education went hand in hand with the development of the welfare state. Students' demands for reform...... converged with university policy development, especially in terms of democratization in higher education. Still, by drawing on examples from Copenhagen, Oslo, Reykjavik and Trondheim, the chapter shows that there were many tensions and paradoxes related to the various ways these peaceful revolts were played...

  3. Peace education: why and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Baxter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pamela Baxter discusses why peace education programmes are so important and Vick Ikobwa presents the methodology and lessons learned from the UNHCR/INEE Peace Education Programme in East Africa and the Horn.

  4. The Ecuador-Peru Peace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    Full Text Available Abstract The 1998 Brasilia Peace Agreement ended a territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru that, due to the size and location of the contested area, had remained a source of regional instability and continental tensions for decades. This paper examines the circumstances that finally allowed negotiations, beginning in 1995, to overcome an almost two-centuries-old conflict, long after almost all territorial disputes in South America had been laid to rest. It will focus in particular on the diplomatic endeavours by the guarantor countries of the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which involved a unique set of negotiations, and the setting up of the first effective multilateral peace operation in South America. It also suggests that the peace agreement benefited from the dynamics of economic integration underway since the 1980s. Finally, it considers the implications for regional security arrangements, as well as Brazil’s leadership credentials in South America.

  5. The Effects of International Operations on the Relationship Between Manufacturing Improvement Programs and Operational Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyusz, Zsolt; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    The link between manufacturing programs and operational performance, and the effects of company internal and external factors on that relationship, are well studied in the literature, both theoretically and empirically. However, previous studies rarely took into account how the scope of operations...... of the business unit affects the relationship between manufacturing programs and performances. We investigate the scope of operations from the manufacturing perspective (i.e. companies that manufacture in only one country have narrow scope of operations, while companies that manufacture in more than one country...... have broad scope of operations). We apply structural equation modelling (SEM) using PLS path modelling to investigate the effect of scope of operations on the relationship between manufacturing improvement programs and operational performance. Manufacturing improvement programs are programs like...

  6. Peace and power: a theory of emancipatory group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Peggy L; Falk-Rafael, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    To present the theoretical basis for the group process known as "Peace and Power." A dialectic between two dominant forms of power-peace powers and power-over powers-forms the basis for a synthesis that yields an emancipatory group process characterized by praxis, empowerment, awareness, cooperation, and evolvement for individuals and groups. Critical analysis of prevailing competitive group dynamics and the ideals of cooperative group dynamics was conducted to project the potential for achieving group interactions that yield profound changes in the direction of justice, empowerment, and well-being for all. The theoretical framework of "Peace and Power" is consistent with characteristics of emancipatory integrity that are vital for social change. The processes of "Peace and Power" can be used to create peaceful, cooperative interactions among nurses, with other health professionals, with patients and families, and in communities. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Atoms for peace awards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    In making their annual selection for 1968 the Atoms for Peace Award Trust has paid signal tribute to the Agency. Each of the three recipients has for many years contributed to its work. Sigvard Eklund, Abdus Salam and Henry DeWolf Smyth received their gold medallion and $30 000 honorarium at a ceremony in New York on 14 October this year. All of them have achieved high distinction in science, but their greatest efforts have been to make the world aware of the benefits to be gained from using nuclear knowledge for peace, health and prosperity. (author)

  8. International co-operation in nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordborg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation serves as a forum for the exchange of information on required improvements to evaluated nuclear data libraries used in all nuclear application areas. The main objective is to identify the major discrepancies in existing evaluated data libraries and to resolve these discrepancies in specifically established expert groups. The long-term goal is to have converging evaluated data libraries. This co-operative effort is very successful. It has resolved a number of outstanding nuclear data problems and has issued 15 reports in support of the studies undertaken jointly. (author)

  9. Internal Lifshitz tails for discrete Schrödinger operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Najar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider random Schrödinger operators Hω acting on l2(ℤd. We adapt the technique of the periodic approximations used in (2003 for the present model to prove that the integrated density of states of Hω has a Lifshitz behavior at the edges of internal spectral gaps if and only if the integrated density of states of a well-chosen periodic operator is nondegenerate at the same edges. A possible application of the result to get Anderson localization is given.

  10. Performances of Peace : Utrecht 1713

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Peace of Utrecht (1713), which brought an end to the War of the Spanish Succession, was a milestone in global history. Performances of Peace aims to rethink the significance of the Peace of Utrecht by exploring the nexus between culture and politics. For too long, cultural and political

  11. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  12. Media Peace Discourse: Constraints, Concepts and Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Shinar

    2004-07-01

    powerful status of the media in international relations to overcome negative peace-related attitudes; on increasing the news-value of peace coverage rather than undertaking missionary efforts to change media structures and professional codes of conduct; on devising professional policies that might reduce media self-manipulation and similar pressures; and on creating and “marketing” a media peace discourse with satisfactory news value based on innovative projects, and on the appropriate application of existing findings.

  13. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  14. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  15. Peace Education Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    During this past century there has been growth in social concern about horrific forms of violence, like ecocide, genocide, modern warfare, ethnic hatred, racism, sexual abuse and domestic violence, and a corresponding growth in the field of peace education where educators, from early child care to adult, use their professional skills to warn…

  16. Handbook on Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Gavriel, Ed.; Cairns, Ed, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This handbook encompasses a range of disciplines that underlie the field of peace education and provides the rationales for the ways it is actually carried out. The discipline is a composite of contributions from a variety of disciplines ranging from social psychology to philosophy and from communication to political science. That is, peace…

  17. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  18. Peace and Stability Education Workshop. Volume 13-05

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Tammy S; Cross, M. J

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) conducted a Peace and Stability Education Workshop 13-15 September 2005 at the Center for Strategic Leadership, Collins Hall, Carlisle Barracks, PA...

  19. 26th International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaashoek, Marinus; Vasilevski, Nikolai; Vinnikov, Victor; IWOTA 2015; Operator theory in different settings and related applications

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a selection of reports and survey articles on the latest research in the area of single and multivariable operator theory and related fields. The latter include singular integral equations, ordinary and partial differential equations, complex analysis, numerical linear algebra, and real algebraic geometry – all of which were among the topics presented at the 26th International Workshop in Operator Theory and its Applications, held in Tbilisi, Georgia, in the summer of 2015. Moreover, the volume includes three special commemorative articles. One of them is dedicated to the memory of Leiba Rodman, another to Murray Marshall, and a third to Boris Khvedelidze, an outstanding Georgian mathematician and one of the founding fathers of the theory of singular integral equations. The book will be of interest to a broad range of mathematicians, from graduate students to researchers, whose primary interests lie in operator theory, complex analysis and applications, as well as specialists in mathemati...

  20. Treaty Series No. 60 (1985) - Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy with exchange of letters - London, 3 June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Agreement covers in particular co-operation in civil nuclear research, including reactor safety, radioactive waste management and radiation protection. Co-operation between the two Parties shall be for exclusively peaceful purposes and the transfer to third parties of any nuclear material, equipment or facilities supplied in the context of the present Agreement may not take place without prior consultation between the two Governments. In the event of such a transfer, the two Governments shall ensure that the third state pledges peaceful use only and accepts IAEA safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  1. [Operation Pangea - standing together in combat against international pharmaceutical crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Kirstin; Gronwald, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    Crime on the internet has grown accordingly to the increased use of the internet in everyday life. This includes illegal trading of pharmaceuticals via the internet. Trading in pharmaceuticals as "special commodities" underlies certain legal regulations in Germany, as in most other countries worldwide.Mail order trade (colloquially also known as internet trade) in pharmaceuticals requires approval of the competent regulatory authority. However, numerous illegal internet vendors of medicines present their websites to customers, purporting to be legal pharmacies and trading good and genuine medicines.It is not always easy for customers or patients to distinguish between legal websites, i. e. pharmacies operating with the approval of the authorities, and illegal, criminal websites. Patients accept dangerous risks when they order medicines on such illegal websites. Consumption of falsified or unlicensed pharmaceuticals of unknown origin often exposes patients' health to serious risks and dangers.Operation PANGEA is now in its tenth year of fighting illegal internet trade in pharmaceuticals at an internationally coordinated level. The results of Operation PANGEA are published in national and international media. Thus the public should be alert to the risks of buying medicines from one of the numerous illegal vendors on the internet.The competence for combatting illegal sales of medicines lies with customs and police agencies amongst others. These enforcement agencies regularly participate in the annual PANGEA Operations. The following article describes the origin and background of this operation, and outlines both the work of customs and police in this context, as well as the results of the latest PANGEA Operation.

  2. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  3. Understanding peace a comprehensive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Michael Allen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding Peace: A Comprehensive Introduction fills the need for an original, contemporary examination of peace that is challenging, informative, and empowering. This well-researched, fully documented, and highly accessible textbook moves beyond fixation on war to highlight the human capacity for nonviolent cooperation in everyday life and in conflict situations. After deconstructing numerous ideas about war and explaining its heavy costs to humans, animals, and the environment, discussion turns to evidence for the existence of peaceful societies. Further topics include the role of nonviolence in history, the nature of violence and aggression, and the theory and practice of nonviolence. The book offers two new moral arguments against war, and concludes by defining peace carefully from different angles and then describing conditions for creating a culture of peace. Understanding Peace brings a fresh philosophical perspective to discussions of peace, and also addresses down-to-earth issues about effecting ...

  4. Methods Used to Deal with Peace Process Spoilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Bilbil Kastrati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflicts of the past three decades have shown that the major problems which peace processes face are the spoilers. Spoilers are warring parties and their leaders who believe that peaceful settlement of disputes threatens their interests, power and their reputation; therefore, they use all means to undermine or completely spoil the process. Spoilers of peace processes can be inside or outside of the process and are characterized as limited, greedy or total spoilers. Their motives for spoiling can be different, such as: political, financial, ethnic, security, etc. Furthermore, it is important to emphasise that spoilers are not only rebels and insurgents, but can often be governments, diasporas, warlords, private military companies, etc. In order to counteract the spoilers, the international community has adopted and implemented three methods: inducement, socialization and coercion. Often all three methods are used to convince the spoilers to negotiate, accept and implement peace agreements. Hence, this paper will examine the methods used to deal with peace process spoilers through an assessment of the strategies employed, impact, success and failures. This paper will also argue that the success or failure of the peace process depends on the method(s used to deal with spoilers. If the right method is chosen, with a persistent engagement of the international community, the peace process will be successful; on the contrary, if they fail to do so, the consequences will be devastating.

  5. International military operations and mental health--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Noora M; Laukkala, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Volunteering in international military missions has been scrutinized for its effects on mental health. Different kinds of exposures to traumatic events are associated with a variety of mental disorders, mainly heightened rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse. Based on the literature we discuss risk and protective factors concerning the psychological well-being of soldiers attending to international military operations. A systematic literature search was carried out using relevant search terms to identify the articles for this review. The ability to recognize and treat acute stress reactions during deployments is important. Post-deployment psychosocial support and services have a role in lowering barriers to care, diminishing stigma and also in recognizing individuals who suffer from psychological distress or psychiatric symptoms, to connect them with appropriate care. Further investigation of gender differences and the role of stigmatization is warranted. Most of those participating in international military operations are repatriated without problems, but repeated exposure to combat situations and other stressors may affect mental health in various ways. Stigmatization is still a barrier to care.

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  7. 'No Peace without Justice or No Justice without Peace?' : Some reflections on a Complex Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay addresses the convoluted relationship between international criminal justice and peace by drawing parallels with the dialectics between these concepts within a domestic legal order. While it is acknowledged that national criminal law enforcement is functional in keeping and restoring the

  8. 7th International Summer School on Aggregation Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Javier; Mesiar, Radko; Calvo, Tomasa

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects the extended abstracts of 45 contributions of participants to the Seventh International Summer School on Aggregation Operators (AGOP 2013), held at Pamplona in July, 16-20, 2013. These contributions cover a very broad range, from the purely theoretical ones to those with a more applied focus. Moreover, the summaries of the plenary talks and tutorials given at the same workshop are included. Together they provide a good overview of recent trends in research in aggregation functions which can be of interest to both researchers in Physics or Mathematics working on the theoretical basis of aggregation functions, and to engineers who require them for applications.

  9. International conference Fourier Analysis and Pseudo-Differential Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Turunen, Ville; Fourier Analysis : Pseudo-differential Operators, Time-Frequency Analysis and Partial Differential Equations

    2014-01-01

    This book is devoted to the broad field of Fourier analysis and its applications to several areas of mathematics, including problems in the theory of pseudo-differential operators, partial differential equations, and time-frequency analysis. This collection of 20 refereed articles is based on selected talks given at the international conference “Fourier Analysis and Pseudo-Differential Operators,” June 25–30, 2012, at Aalto University, Finland, and presents the latest advances in the field. The conference was a satellite meeting of the 6th European Congress of Mathematics, which took place in Krakow in July 2012; it was also the 6th meeting in the series “Fourier Analysis and Partial Differential Equations.”

  10. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  11. Peace and nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties, Albert Schweitzer fought for a policy of peace and warned of the dangers of nuclear war in speeches and publications. Reading his appeals again today, we find that they have lost nothing of their uncanny up-to-dateness. Just the opposite: The disaster predicted by Albert Schweitzer is a stronger threat now than it was at his time. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Shibata, K.; Vonach, H.; Hambsch, F.J.; Chen, Z.; Hofmann, H.M.; Oh, S.Y.; Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Smith, D.L.; Hale, G.M.; Kawano, T.; Larson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α), 10 B(n,α1γ), 197 Au(n,γ), 235 U(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238 U(n,γ) and 239 Pu

  13. Ask a Futurist. Peace [and] Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Earl C.

    A futurist addresses two questions concerning world peace and the implications of using robots. In the section on peace (part 1), recommendations for world peace include: (1) implementing peace education as a mandatory part of education; (2) establishing a Department of Peace in each country to create a societal infrastructure for implementing…

  14. Cross Cultural Awareness in International Military Operation: International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Brudnicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism defined as a multitude of cultures can be typified as a major trend in international relations, what is a chellenge for every participant of global affairs. The phenomen of multiculturalism is absolutely nothing new, but under conditions of progresive globalisation mechanism its importance has been appreciated.In practise multinational forces have to operate in culturally heterogeneous environment in an array of tasks to combat threats of mostly a non-military transnational nature. All the time there are a highly complex relations within coalition personnel, in cuturally diverse society living in the theatre of operation and between all them mutually.

  15. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  16. Economic Origins of War and Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Why do wars happen, and what do societies fight over? Why are international relations sometimes fearful and aggressive and other times harmonious? I show that these questions can be fruitfully explored by importing some basic economic theory into the existing bargaining theory of war. A separate essay analyzes the interactions between the United States and countries that may be pursuing nuclear weapons. "Costly Peace: A New Rationalist Explanation for War" posits a new explanation for war: so...

  17. The text of the Agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Agreement between the Governments on co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the agreement between the Governments in co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978 is presented

  18. From Clouds of Chemical Warfare to Blue Skies of Peace: The Tehran Peace Museum, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Khateri, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limited number of peace museums around the world, there exists an essential role for existing peace museums to promote a culture of peace and peace education. The purpose of this article was to introduce the origins, rationale, scope and work of the Tehran Peace Museum in Iran. The concept of the museum is to facilitate peace education…

  19. INTERNAL REGULATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES OPERATING IN POLAND AND TRADITIONAL FAMILY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojara-Sobiecka Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the big companies have the internal regulations about human resources management. The bylaws in question are usually created in the reality of a particular legal system. When a company expands abroad, it starts operating in a different legal system than its own. As a result, the bylaws are not always compatible neither with laws nor the legal culture of the state of a new market. The paper touches upon the problem of the cohesion of internal regulations of some of the international companies operating in Poland with the traditional family model established in Polish law analyzing three areas such as: supporting parenting, family business, and preference for non-heterosexual persons. The conclusions are that some of the internal regulations are not coherent with Polish law, and some of the bylaws regarding, e.g., daycare or flexible working hours, can be adapted to Polish legal system. It (unclear what “it” is referring to would benefit traditional model of the family. The paper contains also the excursus about some legis-lative phenomenon regarding the reception of state law regulations issues by private companies and pos-tulates that the Polish legislator shall be open to new ideas in this matter and search for the well-tried regulations.

  20. STUDENTS: COMMUNICATION AND PEACE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Arapé Copello

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a research about Communication and Peace Culture developed with Venezuelan students. We did a theoretical review and field-work with students. We are looking for visions and perceptions about communication to peace from students. The research is focused on three student groups who live near of Venezuela frontier. We work with three test: (COMPAZ-1, Peace Builder and Learning to Dialoguing. The students show changes in their initials perceptions after the workshop. The experience developed that short training could be useful to be better the communication behavior as support of peace project.

  1. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mylrea, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  2. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugletveit, F.; Aaltonen, H.

    2003-01-01

    perspective however, there are probably substantial resources available for response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The problem is that during an emergency, these resources are not where they are needed. Most resources are under authority control in the respective countries, but if all countries would commit themselves to contribute to such assistance arrangements between countries and invoke all resources available and efficiently co-ordinate and route them to where they are mostly needed, the international community and individual States would achieve a better and more efficient response to emergencies. Resources could in this respect be everything that is needed to respond to an emergency, e.g. equipment, expertise, assessment capabilities or other services. These arrangements should be global arrangements as bi-lateral or regional arrangements are only adequate for some scenarios. The Convention an Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention an Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency established in 1986 are at present acceded by approx. 85 IAEA Member States. These conventions constitute the framework of international co-operation on response to nuclear and radiological emergencies between States and describe the obligations and mechanisms of international notification and assistance. The conventions recognize the need for a co-ordinating and facilitating body in this co-operation and the IAEA has been given this role. The conventions an Assistance and Early Notification provide a good framework for achieving international co-operation an nuclear emergency response. It has however been recognised that the implementation of these conventions needs to be improved. This is the responsibility of acceding states. To efficiently share information between many states, it is necessary to establish a standard international communication platform for information exchange with a communication strategy and standardization

  3. Waging Peace: The Clausewitzian Dimensions of Peace Enforcement Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Ron

    2000-01-01

    ...., policy, management, education). Without taking the master too far astray, the aim of this paper is to see what lessons we can draw from Clausewitz' theoretical framework pertaining to one of the most prominent and controversial uses of U.S...

  4. International co-operation for safe radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    As a specialised inter-governmental body, NEA pursues three main objectives for its radioactive waste management programme: - The promotion of studies to improve the data base available in support of national programmes. - The support of Research and Development through co-ordination of national activities and promotion of international projects. - An improvement in the general level of understanding of waste management issues and options, particularly in the field of waste disposal. The management of radioactive waste from nuclear activities covers several sequences of complex technical operations. However, as the ultimate objective of radioactive waste management is the disposal of the waste, the largest part of the work programme is directed towards the analysis of disposal options. In addition, NEA is active in various other areas of waste management, such as the treatment and conditioning of waste, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the institutional aspects of the long term management of radioactive waste

  5. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  6. Peace through Institutions: Woodrow Wilson and the Paris Peace Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Küntay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the centennial of World War I, it is fitting to undertake a retrospective, academic review of the institutions devised in the war’s aftermath. The efforts to build and sustain a global order ensuring peace and cooperation in the international community - which ultimately failed with the beginning of a Second World War—constitute telling and timely lessons for world politics today. This paper looks critically at America’s role in World War I, diplomatic talks preceding the signature of the treaty of Versailles, and domestic and international reactions to President Woodrow Wilson’s signature idealism.The paper begins with a historical overview of how World War I began in Europe in an effort to contextualize the entrance of the United States in 1917, two and a half years after the war began. Since Woodrow Wilson originally promoted American neutrality, and U.S. public opinion had mostly favored isolationism until World War I, Wilson’s presidency represents a historic shift in American foreign policy to interventionism and eventually, its post-Cold War “global policeman” status. Assessing the main actors of WWI and America’s role in it serves to frame Woodrow Wilson’s asymmetrical reception within his own country. In the U.S., Wilson’s foreign affairs record is characterized by his intervention in Mexico, his original attempt to remain uninvolved in Europe’s war, and his failed attempt to keep peace after the war. Wilson garnered domestic support for U.S. entrance with his call to “make the world safe for democracy.” Using such overt idealistic rhetoric in the foreign policymaking decision process was novel at the time, but sounds all too familiar today. Post-WWI, Wilson’s fight with Congress and the U.S. not entering into the League of Nations resembles rifts between U.S. administrations and their Congresses in recent times, and it arguably indirectly contributed to the occurrence of the World War II. As U

  7. Peace as an event, peace as utopia: a re-imagining of peace and its implications for peace education and development

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, L.K

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a new approach to peace in order to contribute to a theoretically informed approach to peace education and development practice. Arguing that liberal peace can be counter-productive and can actually betray peace, I offer an alternative approach in order to contribute to thinking on peace for educators and development practitioners. Introducing the theory of peace that I developed in my recent Ph.D., I explore how utopian and post-structural theory conceptualises pea...

  8. International academic production in operations management: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Antonio Vitorino Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the academic production about Operations Management in articles published in international journals indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge. The research evaluates publications from 2002 to 2012 and uses bibliometric techniques to investigate questions like: what are the authors who have most publications on the subject, what are the years, countries and journals in which the articles were published and, also, the presentation of the most co-cited authors in the references. In total the study verified 110 articles and 4545 references to the term Operations Management, 6644 articles and 274 references to the term Production Management and 49 articles and 1250 references to the term Manufacturing Management. The research results show that (a there isn't a concentration of authors who have published several articles about the subjects; (b the years with the largest number of publications are 2007 and 2010, totaling 24,48 % of the total analyzed; (c the United States is the country which has the greatest number of publications, with 26,33% of all analyzed articles; (d Williamson (1975, Dyer and Singh (1998, Granovetter (1985 and Uzzi (1997 were identified as the most co-cited authors in the references.

  9. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  10. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  11. The Peaceful Uses App

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA Peaceful Uses Initiative benefits over 120 developing countries by helping these countries use nuclear technologies to help improve agricultural production; to diagnose, control, and eradicate diseases that threaten livestock, reduce yields and revenue and hinder trade; and to manage animal nutrition, improve livestock reproduction, breeding, and health. Soil erosion and land degradation problems are addressed with these versatile technologies. Strategies for the sustainable use of trans-boundary water sources are developed using data derived through isotopic and nuclear applications. Nuclear medicine and imaging techniques save lives, restore health, and alleviate suffering

  12. International co-operation in use of computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, T D [Medical Computing Centre, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1966-06-15

    National and international co-operation takes on concreteness in the exchange of programmes and research results . On a practical level and for the exchange of actual techniques the diversity between computers and computer languages may offer almost overwhelming obstacles which can be overcome but not without considerable effort. If computing centres have similar constellations of hardware, then the exchange of programmes is of course routine. We were able to exchange programmes with the Cancer Institute Board at Melbourne, Australia. It turned out that our programmes, although developed for a {sup 60}Co teletherapy beam unit (Model Eldorado A), could be fitted to the dose distribution from the Melbourne 4-MeV linear accelerator with the change of a few constants. The work of fitting the equations themselves was done by the Melbourne group. Once the new constants were found it was a simple matter of transcribing our programme on a reel of magnetic tape and returning it to Melbourne. Treatment centres may have access to different computers. However, it is becoming increasingly true that different computers will be able to accept programmes written in many languages. Language compatibility makes it possible t o take programmes and to rewrite them, at a very small cost, to fit another computer. Very often the only changes that have to be introduced are of 'input-output' instructions . If this is the case , then a copy of the flow diagram and a print-out of the source programme is usually all that is needed to make a programme operational on a different machine. But even here we have found it desirable t o send a programmer along so that resolution of detailed problems may be expedited. In this way we exchanged programmers with the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at St. Louis, Missouri to make our own external beam methods compatible with their computer and to make their interstitial and intracavitary programmes operational on ours.

  13. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  14. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  15. Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…

  16. Evolution of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is the ability of the AU to mount properly constituted peace operations such as the AU Missions in Burundi and Sudan. However, even at this early stage, the author cautions that serious challenges, such as a lack of adequate manpower and funding for African peace operations, already plague the PSC. African Insight Vol.

  17. Making weapons, talking peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle

  18. Canada and Missions for Peace: Lessons from Nicaragua ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This newest approach — peacebuilding — recognizes that the sources of violent conflict are complex and that human security and international stability will only be achieved by integrating political, military, and development efforts. Canada and Missions for Peace explores Canada's involvement in recent international ...

  19. Building a Peaceful Society: Creative Integration of Peace Education. Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Laura

    2011-01-01

    To truly move toward a more peaceful society, it is imperative that peace education better address structural and institutional violence. This requires that it be integrated into institutions outside of schools and universities. Doing so will be challenging, as many of these institutions are structured on domination and control, not on partnership…

  20. Pacifist Empowerment of the Current Peace Process in Colombia: 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Hernández Delgado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been an internal armed conflict that has over half a century and is identified within the oldest. This country is also evidence, an important cumulative learning in peace processes; and the search for a negotiated end of the conflict, by governments and insurgent movements in the past thirty- three years. However, so far it not achieved the desired final peace agreement with all insurgent movements, leaving the country in a permanent limbo: neither peace nor total war; nor peace negotiations with the expected scope, or defeat the enemy. It is in this context that this paper feed, product of a research exercise for peace, conducted with the Institute of Political Studies at the Autonomous University of Bucaramanga -UNAB- , is located and focused on the peace process, since October 2012, a head President Juan Manuel Santos and the rebel movement Farc Ep. The object of the research was to characterize this peace process in order to produce academic knowledge around itself, and learning from it since the peacebuilding perspective. It was made from the historical - sociological analysis methodological model. Researchers consulted relevant primary and secondary sources. The first sources, represented in 35 semi –structured interviews with academic experts, peace negotiators, not academic experts and builders of peace. Considering that peace negotiations are still ongoing, this article presents partial findings, represented in one of its essential characteristics: build an experience of «pacifist empowerment».

  1. War Journalism in the Threat Society: Peace journalism as a strategy for challenging the mediated culture of fear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arne Nohrstedt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The possible development of the Risk Society into what could be called the Threat Society, in which threat perceptions are exploited in politics to a degree seldom seen in modernity, seriously challenges conflict and peace journalism in many new ways. The context of the Global War on Terror as the dominant global discursive order, and the lack of a consistent strategy for democratisation in post-conflict countries, together with visual war propaganda, perception management and psychological operations as part of the media wars conducted alongside of military operations, all make it urgent to discuss the relevance, reach and applicability of the peace journalism model and/or philosophy in the present international situation. This article outlines points of departure for such a discussion in the Threat Society.

  2. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  3. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  4. The World Peace and the Islamic Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Navazeni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available World peace as an ideal situation associated with freedom and prosperity refers to a situation in which all the people of the world work together to avoid war and violence. This article is aimed at analyzing the formation and activation of the United Nations as a momentum of the international community. In Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 there has been an emphasis on dignity, human values and freedom, with responsibility before God. The Iranian constitution is opposed to all cruelty, oppression, domination and submission, and heralds the provision of social and political freedoms, within the limits of law. The present article is intended to use the descriptive-analytical method in order to study the positive concept of world peace. With the help of library resources and legal documents the present paper aims to explain the sustainable initiatives to creating of world peace contained in the Iranian Constitution, based on the Quranic verses and its interpretations of Ghotb in Egypt and Imam Khomeini in Iran. Among such principles of the constitution, is human happiness in Iran, in the entire Islamic Ummah, and in the whole human community. The Constitution also proclaims independence, freedom, the rule of justice and truth for all peoples.

  5. The peace and nuclear war dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Peace and Nuclear War Dictionary is organized so that entries and supplementary data can be located easily and quickly. Items are arranged alphabetically throughout, rather than grouped into chapters. When doubtful about how to locate an entry, consult the general index. Page numbers for terms appear in the index in heavy black type; subsidiary concepts discussed within entries can be found in the index, identified by page numbers in regular type. For study purposes, numerous entries have also been subsumed under major topical headings in the index, affording the reader access to broad classes of related information. The reader can also fully explore a topic by employing the extensive cross-references included in all entries. Many entries can be found as subsidiary terms, but in each case the concept is related to the main entry. The author has adopted the format of this book to provide the reader a variety of useful applications. These include its use as a dictionary and ready reference guide to the global language of peace and nuclear war; a study guide for introductory courses in Nuclear War and Peace of International Relations, or for any specialized course in the area; a supplement to a textbook or a group of paperback monographs adopted for use in these courses; a source of review material for the political science major enrolled in advanced courses; and a social science aid for use in business, education, government, policy sciences, and journalism

  6. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  7. A Strategic Buffet: What The Brahimi Report Says About UN Peace Operations And The Opportunities It Offers To The Regional U.S. Unified Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bumgardner, Sherrod

    2001-01-01

    .... The release of the UN reports on the massacres in Rwanda and the fall of Srebrenica in 1999, as well as the operational difficulties encountered by the four new missions started that year prompted...

  8. Strengthening Peace Research and Peace Education in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peace education in African higher education, especially in the universities. ..... of research, teaching and learning in the universities and, by logical ... of violence profile is that in most volatile conflict-prone and war-affected countries and.

  9. The Importance of the Foreign Language Learning Contributing to World Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the elements which hinder peace, and emphasize the importance of the contribution of foreign language learning to international peace. Language affects the thought and behavior of human beings. The attitude of a person knowing more than one language of a position is not the same as a person not knowing a…

  10. Factors Affecting Peace Negotiations in Resolving Armed Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    the problems of this continent. — Nelson Mandela , former President of South Africa. This chapter analyzes the role of peace negotiations in...of international and regional organizations like the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), influential personalities ( Nelson Mandela ...important lesson for peace negotiations to be successful is summarized by the former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela , who noted that nobody

  11. Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines concerning co-operation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the transfer of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Australia and the Philippines, both parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, have agreed to cooperate in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including research and training, exchange of unclassified information, and projects of mutual interest. The agreement applies to all nuclear material transferred for peaceful purposes between the two countries and to material derived from that transferred material. The treaty entered into force on the 11th May 1982

  12. Nuclear. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the People's Republic of China for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Treaty series 1994 no.27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the People's Republic of China for cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Both Canada and China are member States of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation and as such have the right to participate in an exchange of nuclear material, equipment and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 1 tab

  13. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1976-01-01

    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.) [fr

  14. Joint declaration on co-operation in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy between France and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Declaration follows upon the signing of a Protocol of intent on 3 April 1989 by VEBA, the major energy consortium in the Federal Republic of Germany supplying nuclear power, and COGEMA, the French State-owned nuclear fuel company and aims to provide a broad framework for co-operation between the two countries. The Declaration, in particular, covers co-operation in the fields of reprocessing, production of MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel), uranium enrichment, nuclear reactors, information relating to nuclear installations, transport of nuclear material [fr

  15. Disarmament processes for a world at peace in twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernudd, K.

    1998-01-01

    Disarmament is not an end in itself. Security - or more accurately peace and security - is usually regarded as the real objective of both disarmament and the possession of arms. The most desirable road to international peace and security, however goes through disarmament. Disarmament programmes and strategies may include a wide range of partial or collateral measures, such as control, conversion, destruction, detection, dismantlement, inspection, limitation, non-proliferation, redeployment, reduction, removal, restriction, storage, verification. The more comprehensive concept to cover the whole range would probably be arms regulation. (The United Nations Charter mentions ''regulation of armaments'' in Articles 11 and 47). Whatever terms are used, the overall objective of strengthening international peace and security must be kept in sight. (author)

  16. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  17. The Middle East Peace Talks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol

    2004-01-01

    After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process was begun, with Israel and the Palestinians discussing a five-year period of interim self-rule leading to a final sefllernent Israel and Syria...

  18. The effects of low internal integration between purchasing and operations on suppliers’ resource mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A company that suffers from low internal integration between corporate functions performs worse than its more integrated competitors, leaving it in a position of competitive disparity. This paper reports on an investigation of the effects of internal integration between purchasing and operations...... on the mobilization of supplier resources. Low internal integration generates uncoordinated operations and purchasing behaviors that negatively affect supplier resource mobilization. We find that the lack of operations support for eight major purchasing initiatives in a construction company negatively affects...

  19. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the

  20. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  1. The Rise and Fall of Liberal Peace in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyum Adugna Mamo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2011 “Arab Uprising”, liberal elements were haunting in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya – countries which experienced the uprising at its early stage. The liberal elements triggered the youth particularly in Libya to boldly oppose their long-serving Libyan president, Muammar Qaddafi. In what followed, the West not only interfered to help the rebels and become involved in a direct military intervention in the guise of humanitarian intervention, it also tried to install a liberal peace in the process of state reconstruction and peacebuilding in the aftermath of the revolution that ousted Qaddafi. The intervention had an implicit agenda of regime change and installing liberal peace in post-Qaddafi Libya. However, the intervention descended the country into a protracted civil war that the country has been suffering from for more than six years after the downfall of Qaddafi, instead of bringing peace and stability to the Libyans. The liberal peace that was rising during the revolution and immediately after the fall of Qaddafi through the liberal ideals that triggered the Libyan revolutionaries ruptured as the country descended into protracted civil war among different factions due to Western intervention. The aim of this desk research is therefore to unpack the rise and fall of liberal peace in Libya. Employing discussion of the debate over liberal peace in Libya as a core methodological analysis, this paper argues that the liberal peace that the West attempted to install in the country failed mainly because it was rooted in hegemonic liberal values, which are incompatible with Libyan tribal society, and disregarded the indigenous peacebuilding mechanisms. This paper concludes that liberal peace, which privileges the international over the local, is irreconcilable with post-conflict environments in the Global South and hence was unable to solve the Libyan crises. Therefore, emphasis should be given to indigenous peacebuilding

  2. Peace and development through the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology can help find solutions to many of the problems people face every day across the globe. When used safely and securely, nuclear science and technology are effective supplements or provide alternatives to conventional approaches, which makes them an important part of the international community’s work for development. In its contribution to global objectives, the IAEA serves the international goals of peace, health and prosperity by assisting countries to adopt nuclear tools for a wide range of peaceful applications. Within the context of global trends and development, IAEA services — some highly visible on the global stage, others delivered more discreetly— underpin collective efforts for the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear science and technology. They are supported by the IAEA’s specialized laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco, as well as dedicated programmes, networks and collaborations with partners. Through the IAEA’s assistance, nuclear techniques are put to use in various areas, including human health, food and agriculture, the environment, water, energy, nuclear safety and security, and the preservation of artefacts.

  3. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  4. Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist; Laurent L. Jacque

    1995-01-01

    What determines a service firm's organizational choice between equity-based control and franchising? This question, which has elicited some theoretical answers and a few empirical tests in a domestic setting, has never been addressed in an international context before. This study explains the mode of control chosen in terms of a theoretical framework which borrows from agency theory and transaction cost analysis. The propensity to franchise internationally was found to be directly related to ...

  5. Commemoration of 50th anniversary of 'Atoms for Peace'. Ceremony for dedication of bust of Eisenhower, 4 December 2003, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, and the creation of the IAEA as a practical manifestation of that vision, came at a time when the horrifying images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh, and when fears of the rush to acquire nuclear weapons were well-founded. 'Atoms for Peace' was a recognition of the double edged sword inherent in the atom, and invoked a solemn commitment to the ideal that nuclear science and technology should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. In rereading Eisenhower's memorable speech to the UN General Assembly, I was struck by a number of concepts and ideas in the speech: The first is that: 'Clearly, if the people of the world are to conduct an intelligent search for peace, they must be armed with the significant facts of today's existence'; In other words, the vision of 'Atoms for Peace' must be a dynamic one, a vision that is carried out in a manner that is adjustable to current challenges. The second is the plan for implementing the vision: To encourage global investigation into the most effective peaceful uses of nuclear material; To 'allow all peoples of all nations to see that, in this enlightened age, the great powers of the earth, both of the East and of the West, are interested in human aspirations first rather than building up the armaments of war'; To open up a new channel for dialogue and develop new approaches for solving problems of global fear and insecurity; and To begin to diminish the destructive power of existing stockpiles. This 'plan for action', was clearly prescient and though a work in progress, is still as valid today as in 1953: co-operative development of peaceful technologies, active efforts to achieve nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, clear commitment to the rights of all people to live in peace, and continued dialogue in seeking solutions for our fears and insecurities. As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of 'Atoms for Peace', it is appropriate here at the Agency - the

  6. Atoms for peace. A vision for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    'Atoms for Peace', these three words embody the vision that has driven the IAEA since its inception: that the power of the atom, newly tapped in the mid-20th century, held a vast potential - as a weapon of destruction on a scale previously unimaginable, or as a reservoir of energy that could be harnessed for a wealth of benefits to humankind. As with any advanced science, atomic energy posed a choice for the human race: would we use this tool for good or for ill? With the horrific images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki still fresh in the mid-1950s, 'Atoms for Peace' invoked the solemn commitment that nuclear science and technology would henceforth be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. Fifty years later, the 'Atoms for Peace' ideal remains appropriate and vital, the unifying principle behind the IAEA's dual mission. We are committed to containing the spread of r nuclear weapons, and we firmly support the elimination of the nuclear arsenals that exist. And we are equally committed to advancing the use of nuclear science and technology in peaceful pursuits: to enhance human health; to increase t agricultural productivity; to improve the management of water resources; to generate electricity free of greenhouse gas emissions; and to strengthen many other aspects of social and economic development. But with new times come new challenges. While 'Atoms for Peace' continues to express the IAEA vision in the 21st century, it is worth considering how our approach has evolved, in response to these new challenges, as we seek to implement various aspects of this vision. Fifty years ago, the international community set about to move towards a world in which nuclear weapons would no longer be needed or pursued, and in which peaceful nuclear technologies would provide enduring benefits to all peoples and cultures. The 21st century has brought new and critical challenges to this mission. But the question remains: what legacy do we want to leave to our children?

  7. Globalization: prospects for future international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    When I say 'globalization', I think to that golden beginning when President Eisenhower gave his historical speech, 'Atomic Power for Peace,' to the General Assembly of U.N.O. in 1953. He proposed, for the first time, an international cooperation for sustaining the peaceful application of nuclear energy. Years later, the global nuclear dream was shaken by Chernobyl. Humankind had seen the reverse of globalization: any lack in project, execution, or operation of an NPP has global consequences. Still, why globalization? Globalization because global urbanization trends are an important factor for energy planners and this debate is vital for fueling the bigger cities of tomorrow. (author)

  8. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal provides a platform for debate, research and publication on all related issues of human rights and peace. Themes include, but are not limited to, conflict, constitutional and administrative law, freedom of information, gender, law and development, good governance and public international law. Interdisciplinary ...

  9. Canada and Missions for Peace: Lessons from Nicaragua ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... recommendations to guide future policy and programing in peacebuilding. Perhaps it is too early to tell if a concern for international security can be combined with a concern for human security and well-being to form a new peacebuilding "architecture." The lessons and insight contained in Canada and Missions for Peace, ...

  10. Philosophy as a veritable tool for peace-building | Nnamdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy as a veritable tool for peace-building. Basil Sunday Nnamdi, Arinze Agbanusi. Abstract. In many parts of the world today, it is conflict, conflict and conflict. They include interracial, interregional, interreligious, international, intertribal, interstate, intercommunity, interfamily and interpersonal conflicts. The magnitude ...

  11. Development and Peace in Africa | Matshedisho | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development is not often regarded as a function of peace in both development theory and development discourse. In the context of post-colonial Africa, both internal security and external security should be crucial considerations in the pursuit of development alternatives. The reason for considering development and security ...

  12. Peace and development through the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology can help find solutions to many of the problems people face every day across the globe. When used safely and securely, nuclear science and technology are effective supplements or provide alternatives to conventional approaches, which makes them an important part of the international community’s work for development. In its contribution to global objectives, the IAEA serves the international goals of peace, health and prosperity by assisting countries to adopt nuclear tools for a wide range of peaceful applications. Within the context of global trends and development, IAEA services — some highly visible on the global stage, others delivered more discreetly— underpin collective efforts for the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear science and technology. They are supported by the IAEA’s specialized laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco, as well as dedicated programmes, networks and collaborations with partners. Through the IAEA’s assistance, nuclear techniques are put to use in various areas, including human health, food and agriculture, the environment, water, energy, nuclear safety and security, and the preservation of artefacts. Within the context of global trends and development, IAEA services — some highly visible on the global stage, others delivered more discreetly— underpin collective efforts for the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear science and technology. They are supported by the IAEA’s specialized laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco, as well as dedicated programmes, networks and collaborations with partners. Through the IAEA’s assistance, nuclear techniques are put to use in various areas, including human health, food and agriculture, the environment, water, energy, nuclear safety and security, and the preservation of artefacts.

  13. Agriculture in the plan change to build peace. An internal critique El agro en el plan Cambio para construir la paz. Una crítica interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Carlos Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the nature, bases, and coherence requirements of a plan, in order to specify the methodological criteria of its internal critique of the agricultural chapter. The examination of its diagnosis leads to a different diagnosis, which is inferred by the objective of "integrating the rural sector": the persistence of the agrarian problem, expressed in a bimodal structure, polarized into 'the economic' and 'the social'. The plan's objective reveals a long-term vision: to
    contribute to the solution of the agrarian problem. Thus, the policies differentiate between the advanced entrepreneurial and peasant sectors, for which it designs different strategies which assign different roles for the state: to facilitate socioeconomic processes for the former, and to promote rural development for the latter. The article shows that the Plan maintains internal coherence, and illustrates its limitations
    due to the institutional environment, which is manifested in its
    design and in the possibilities for its execution. It concludes that the most important policies are the weakest, and that rural developmerlt is not only a problem of social design, but above all of the mentality and commitment of society on all levels.Este articulo expone la naturaleza, fundamentos y requerimientos de coherencia de un plan para precisar los criterios metodologicos de su critica interna al capitulo agropecuario. El examen de diagnostico lleva a un diagnostico diferente, que se infiere del objetivo de "integrar al sector rural" la persistencia del problema agrario en el pais, expresada en un estructura bimodal, polarizada en lo economico y en lo social. El objetivo del plan revela una vision de largo plazo: contribuir a resolver el problema agrario. Adi, las politicas diferencian entre sector empresarial avanzado y campesino, para los cuales diseña estrategias distintan que asignan un papel distinto al Estado: facilitar procesos socio-economicos para

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience 2012-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an essential element of the international operating experience feedback system for nuclear power plants. Its fundamental objective is to contribute to improving safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. IRS reports contain information on events of safety significance with important lessons learned which assist in reducing recurrence of events at other plants. This sixth publication, covering the period 2012 - 2014, follows the structure of the previous editions. It highlights important lessons based on a review of the approximately 240 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.

  15. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,575; TA-W-74,575D] International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business Manager Roles; One Teleworker Located in Charleston, WV; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

  16. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  17. International operations and location decisions: A firm-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, Bert; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to acquire a better understanding of why certain production and distribution facilities remain in Western Europe, in spite of economic globalisation. This paper focuses on companies located in the Netherlands but acting on an international scale. The issue is not

  18. A Military Perspective of International Peacekeeping: The Nature and Characteristics of Peacekeeping Operations and Review and Evaluation of Some Peacekeeping Concepts and Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    i.,^.J,,,.J..,^ ■’■ " ll൓« ’" !^pWiPW^« BPP »BPPllP^liWpW«PPWPPPBW 19 relevant to peacekeeping and allied topics are left without any general... Ffm ^^T’ WftHtKtKKUHKKKUKBKUUKK^ 26 More recently (1970), the International Peace Academy (IPA) in Vienna defined peacekeeping as the prevention

  19. Cosmopolitanism and peace in Kant's essay on 'Perpetual Peace'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents...... the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever given of the limitations of the cosmopolitan law. In this contribution, Kant's essay is analysed and the reasons he gives for these restrictions discussed in relation to his main focus: to project a realistic path to perpetual peace....

  20. Time warp operating system version 2.7 internals manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is an implementation of the Time Warp synchronization method proposed by David Jefferson. In addition, it serves as an actual platform for running discrete event simulations. The code comprising TWOS can be divided into several different sections. TWOS typically relies on an existing operating system to furnish some very basic services. This existing operating system is referred to as the Base OS. The existing operating system varies depending on the hardware TWOS is running on. It is Unix on the Sun workstations, Chrysalis or Mach on the Butterfly, and Mercury on the Mark 3 Hypercube. The base OS could be an entirely new operating system, written to meet the special needs of TWOS, but, to this point, existing systems have been used instead. The base OS's used for TWOS on various platforms are not discussed in detail in this manual, as they are well covered in their own manuals. Appendix G discusses the interface between one such OS, Mach, and TWOS.

  1. Collection of Baseline Studies of the Food for Peace Title II Development Food Assistance Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's Office of Food for Peace (FFP) awards funding to private voluntary organizations (PVOs) to design and implement multi-year Title II development food...

  2. Peace and democracy go hand in hand — or do they? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-08

    Sep 8, 2011 ... The need for strong and legitimate institutions is most keenly felt in post-conflict ... are on offer by international consultancy firms and bilateral donors, ... and prevention, peaceful process of state building, and democratization.

  3. International co-operation in the management of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Changsun [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy faces with the problem of radioactive waste disposal. The public simply abhors radioactive wastes without rightful cause. Hence, the immediate concern is to overcome this hostile preconception of the public, and to come up with safe and economic ways of disposal which are acceptable to the public. Without it, the public may not accept the idea of further use of nuclear energy. Some have concern about safeguards of fissile plutonium with respect to proliferation while others have concerns regarding protection beyond national borders related to movement of radioactive wastes for foreign disposal. Now, the disposal of radioactive waste is a global problem rather than a problem for individual nation. In this aspect, close international cooperation is recently being brought up more than ever in jointly: improving public acceptance, minimizing waste generation, eliminating the burden on future generations, developing internationally acceptable practices, exploring disposal concepts, and collaborating on R and D. (author)

  4. International co-operation in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Changsun

    1998-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy faces with the problem of radioactive waste disposal. The public simply abhors radioactive wastes without rightful cause. Hence, the immediate concern is to overcome this hostile preconception of the public, and to come up with safe and economic ways of disposal which are acceptable to the public. Without it, the public may not accept the idea of further use of nuclear energy. Some have concern about safeguards of fissile plutonium with respect to proliferation while others have concerns regarding protection beyond national borders related to movement of radioactive wastes for foreign disposal. Now, the disposal of radioactive waste is a global problem rather than a problem for individual nation. In this aspect, close international cooperation is recently being brought up more than ever in jointly: improving public acceptance, minimizing waste generation, eliminating the burden on future generations, developing internationally acceptable practices, exploring disposal concepts, and collaborating on R and D. (author)

  5. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on British Nuclear Fuels' (BNFL) wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement, are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as management, financial R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by BNFL in the co-operation with other organizations over several years in both major and much smaller agreements, illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the present status of these organizations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for international co-operation to succeed. (author)

  6. International co-operation in developing the GT-MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Bar, M.P.; Simon, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the Fall of 1995, driven by budget constraints and anti-nuclear sentiments, the US government decided to discontinue financial support of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). At that time, significant work was underway with participation of several vendors with specialized expertise in various aspects of the GT-MHR. Fortunately the US government provided for documenting the design and development status through an orderly close-out program. Concurrent elimination of government restrictions opened the door for broader international cooperation. Discussion between General Atomics and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM), in the summer of 1994, led to an agreement on a jointly funded design and development program for the GT-MHR. The program is initially focused on the burning of weapons plutonium that becomes available from dismantled nuclear weapons. The long term goal is to utilize the same design for commercial applications - using uranium fuel. This program took advantage of existing technologies and facilities in the US and Russia, but right from the beginning left the door open for broader international cooperation. Accordingly, in January 1996, FRAMATOME has joined the ongoing effort. Discussions are underway with other international entities to join this program. The program is proceeding well. Several Russian laboratories/design organizations are participating with GA and FRAMATOME. Significant improvements in the power conversion system design are a clear example of the benefit of the cooperative effort. Further work needs to be done to confirm fuel and components prior to full deployment, etc., providing ample opportunities for international cooperation in many areas

  7. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  8. Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    detected at the International Monitoring Station (IMS), Takasaki (Gunma Prefecture, about 210 km (130 miles) WSW of FDNPS) during the period March...determine a dose from both inhalation and ingestion. Based on additional information on food and water sources for DOD-affiliated individuals it was...kBq Tritium 0.06 pg 23 Bq Polonium 0.2 pg 37 Bq * Source is Eckerman and Sjoreen (2003). As discussed in Section 2.2.4 and calculated with the

  9. Cost of Peace Accounting and National Security in Nigeria: Does it Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Godsday Edesiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The cost of ensuring national security is very high, but measuring this cost has received little attention. One way of reacording and ascertaining the financial resources expended on national security is via Peace Accounting. Peace Accounting is an innovative idea that is taking a firm root in Nigeria and the world over. Peace accounting deals with ascertaining and reporting the financial resources accompanying domestic violence such as insecurity, political violence, insurgency, militancy, economic predicament, corruption and all other costs associated with national security. Methodology/methods: Secondary data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the International Monetary Fund Cross Country Macroeconomic Statistics from 1996–2015. Ordinary Least Square estimation technique was employed in analyzing the data and analysis performed via SPSS. Scientific aim: This paper gauged the costs of peace accounting and its implication for national security in Nigeria. Findings: The study found that expenditure on internal security, cost of peace keeping and gross fixed capital formation are dynamics of peace accounting. Furthermore, cost of peace keeping is statistically significant except that expenditure on internal security and gross fixed capital formation were statistically flawed. Expenditure on internal security has negative impact on GPI. Conclusions: On the basis of the above, we recommend among others that countries like Nigeria faced with security challenges should engage professionals/experts that can help develop peace accounting models aimed at measuring the cost of peace. Also, special attention should be paid to expenditure on internal security since it has negative effect on GPI.

  10. The Canadian RMB Trading Centre: A Small Step in the Long Road of China’s Peaceful Rise in International Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Curtis

    2016-01-01

    result of several years of co-ordinated and co-operative advocacy on the part of Canadian businesses and governments who recognized its future importance. And it is a more important step forward in Canada-China bilateral relations than it has perhaps been given credit for. As China marches towards internationalization and liberalization, Canada has positioned itself well as an early partner in that progress. The RMB trading centre might be just a small step, but it is a vital one, in ensuring that Canada remains closer to, and more connected to, China as it emerges as a powerful global force in the world’s financial markets.

  11. Building Infrastructure for Peace in Nigerian Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence from its root and work to entrench a lasting culture of peace. Dealing with ... the cultivation of a culture of peace, positive attitudinal change among students, development of ...... Nigeria. Germany: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing.

  12. Mental readiness for maritime international operation: procedures developed by Norwegian navy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanden, Sverre; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle; Pettersen, Jan Sommerfelt; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Størksen, Roar; Røsseland, Atle; Neteland, Hans Olav; Wetteland, Per Inge; Wilhelmsen, Eirik Veum

    2014-01-01

    Seafarer’s mental health is vital for a well-functioning organisation. Neglecting mental health status on board could be extremely costly for both the crew affected as well as the company. The present article outlines an extensive programme implemented in the Royal Norwegian Navy for personnel deployed in international operations. The challenges involved in international operations bare similarities to onboard personnel in civilian maritime operations. The program utilised by the Royal Norweg...

  13. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  14. Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of destruction into higher avenues of civilization and culture as an instrument of conscious social evolution. Organization is knowledge of higher accomplishment. Organization has the power to vastly accelerate and multiply the potentials of education for the promotion of peace and security. Peace and Security have a mutually reinforcing effect on each other in the sense that peace results in security while security results in peace. Physical violence eventually led to the development of the knowledge needed for the avoidance of violence by means of diplomacy, trade and cultural exchanges, marking the beginning of the transition from the physical to the mental level of evolution. Trade requires travel, transport, human interaction, exchange, trust with respect to products, and reliable mechanisms for the exchange of a stable currency that can only be effectively founded on an enduring peace that generates confidence among the traders. Isolated communities evolve a communal consciousness as they mature into organized social units founded on shared customs and culture, which later develop into a common legal framework. What began as diplomacy so many centuries ago has now evolved into a near universal recognition of fundamental human rights and the rule of law. The evolution of diplomacy in previous centuries is the foundation for the remarkable betterment of human life witnessed in recent times. The world is in the process of evolving a unifying global culture founded on universal values and recognition of the rich contributions of different cultures to humanity’s progress. As physical force once

  15. The Role of Divine Revelation and Religious Teachings in Human Rights System: Security and Global Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghayyoum Zadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Peace and security have always been considered as one of man’s concerns. The basis of peace and security should be sought in the theoretical foundations. However, the drafters of universal human rights have struggled to attain peace and security away from religious principles. The present article intends to introduce universal human rights in the light of religious teachings and elaborate on the related religious principles. It also deals with the distinctions between the principles governing the present world with regard to human rights and religious principles to show that if religious principles are seriously followed in the international relations, they will bring about perpetual peace and security for mankind. Therefore, Religion has a unique role in peace and security.

  16. Good journalism or peace journalism?

    OpenAIRE

    David Loyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues against the prescriptive notions of Peace Journalism, and in particular its exclusive nature and attempt to define itself as a new orthodoxy. Most of the paper is a critique of the work of Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick, in a book published in 2005, as well as their earlier Reporting the World series. They condemn all other ways of reporting as 'War Journalism, biased in favour of war.' I argue instead that the opposite of Peace Journalism is good journalism. Much of ...

  17. Talking Peace in the Ogaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopia’s Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya......, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace....

  18. Atoms for peace: thirtieth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the thirtieth anniversary of President Eisenhower's programme: ''Atoms for Peace''. The author wants to demonstrate that nuclear power has made major contributions to reduction of oil imports and that at the same time, despite repeated predictions of unbridled proliferation, the fact is that proliferation has proceeded at a dramatically slower pace than foreseen by some. To date no country has employed plutonium derived from the nuclear power fuel cycle to initiate its nuclear explosion program. The author concludes that the ''Atoms for Peace'' programme, from the viewpoint of its goal of reducing the spread of nuclear weapons, has been a successful policy. (NEA) [fr

  19. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  20. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office's three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described

  1. Combatting operational pollution from offshore petroleum activities: international legal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.V.; Wagner, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Existing global and regional rules and regulations, and regulatory trends, aimed at curbing pollution associated with the normal operation of offshore oil and gas installations are assessed. The designation 'operational pollution' is used to cover a variety of discharges including: oil produced in water; contaminated drill cuttings and muds; sewage; garbage; deck drainage; naturally occurring materials such as radionuclides, heavy metals and aromatics; atmospheric emissions, principally CO 2 , SO x , NO x , CH 4 and volatile organic compounds. The main focus of regulatory attention at present is platform drainage, offshore processing drainage, production water discharge, and displacement discharge. The legal framework considered extends to the appropriate global and regional treaties, ''soft law'' instruments and recommendations. (UK)

  2. Ignalina plant licensing process, international co-operation and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystedt, P.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge for Lithuania as a country with regained independence was to perform a licensing review in a way never done before in the country and in a time schedule that was extremely short. The work included establishing of the licensing base, strengthening the regulatory authority and organising the technical support, establish and implement a safety improvement program, production of the safety case and review of the safety case, and to derive a conclusion regarding whether to issue a licence or not. This was to be done together with other tasks, such as implementation of modifications included in the safety improvement programme at Ignalina, implementation of a new storage for spent fuel and, most important of all, to manage the operational safety at the plant. The achievements are impressive seen in view of the point of start and in view of the time and resources that have been available. Lithuania has put forward a unique safety documentation of an RBMK reactor and presented an in-depth safety evaluation in full openness to Western experts, giving the unique possibility to compare the safety of the Ignalina reactors to Western standards. The co-operation that has been established between Lithuania and Western experts through different assistance programmes is of outmost value, for all involved parties. Co-operation should continue as one element of the challenges for the future

  3. Cosmopolitanism and Peace in Kant's Essay on "Perpetual Peace"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever…

  4. Peace Pilgrim: A Readers Theatre Approach to Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joanne M.

    Readers theater is a dramatic art that directs attention to the words of a text. During a performance, a reader (rather than an actor) presents and interprets the work within a narrative context intended by the author. In this project, the text, a collection of the words and writings of a woman known as the Peace Pilgrim, tells the story of her…

  5. IMO and the peaceful use of nuclear energy through the last 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.

    1990-01-01

    All nuclear electric power reactors in operation and under construction by the end of 1988 are tabulated. Unclassified published statistics show that in 1988, on a world basis, there were 376 active nuclear powered submarines and surface craft, while 47 were under construction or in the process of conversion. Information on types, number of units, and nationality of these nuclear powered navy vessels is given. Parallel to this development, the Soviet Union has successfully built and put into operation a fleet of nuclear powered icebreakers, starting with the Lenin, commissioned in 1959. The first nuclear powered merchant ship, the United States' Savannah, was launched on 21 July 1959, and put into service on 1 May 1962. The Federal Republic of Germany put their nuclear propelled merchant ship Otto Hahn into operation in October 1968, and in November the same year the keel of the first Japanese nuclear ship, the Mutsu, was laid. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has, throughout its thirty year existence, made recommendations and developed a Nuclear Ship Safety Code to cover the safety requirements of nuclear ships, and has promoted the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. With the depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution such as the emission of gases causing the greenhouse effect, the correct and safe application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, including merchant ships, is likely to be the most efficient and hygienic source of energy in the next century. (UK)

  6. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  7. Innovative nuclear reactor development. Opportunities for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    A number of countries wish to expand their use of nuclear energy or keep open the option of doing so in the future. Any new nuclear generating capacity will be built in the context of increasingly privatized and de-regulated energy markets coupled with heightened public concern over nuclear power. New nuclear power plants must maintain or exceed current levels of safety and must be economically competitive with alternative ways of generating electricity. They must address other challenges as well, among them waste disposal and nonproliferation concerns. This report reviews how some of the innovative nuclear-fission technologies being developed today attempt to address the challenges facing nuclear energy. It suggests some areas for collaborative research and development that could reduce the time and cost required to develop new technologies. The report is a product of the 'Three-Agency Study', a joint project among the International Energy Agency (IEA), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (authors)

  8. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, Henk L.M.; Van der Tak, Casper M.

    1996-01-01

    The standard view is that situations where no transborder environmental externalities occur are most efficiently dealt with by national environmental policies rather than by international co-operation. Though this may be the general case, non-coordinated national policies do not always produce the most efficient international allocation. This paper presents four cases in which the allocative outcome of non-coordinated domestic policy choices can be improved upon by international environmental co-operation. The first case refers to the use of environmental policy as a strategic trade instrument. The other cases refer to the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs and increasing returns to scale. The form of international environmental co-operation should be adapted to the situation. Formal international agreements between countries are characterised by high transaction costs and may not always be the most efficient form of co-operation

  9. Activity Report: Peace Education in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhm Benda, Ebenezer Mainlehwon

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2009, the author decided to establish the Center for Peace Education (CPE) in Liberia solely dedicated to promoting a non-violent culture by imbuing students with the skills, knowledge, and attitude needed to peacefully coexist. To begin the process of building a culture of peace, in April of 2009, CPE conducted a baseline survey in 14…

  10. TEACHERS AS BUILDERS OF PEACE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Abarca Obregón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is written from the experience of Holistic Peace Education through the practice of more than twelve years in the educative job; at the same time it is the support of a PhD research. The first part shows the theoretical basis of the proposed “Practices of Peace”, starting with the origins of peace education, Peace as a subject of study and the many peaces, to finally get the concept of Holistic Peace Education, wherein the dimensions of inner peace, political peace and social-ecological peace integrate. Once we had the theoretical framework established, we started the research and systematization of the peace educative practice. This paper presents some conclusions about this experience, conducted by teachers from Mexico and Spain. Rather than establishing models, we offer a choice of moving away from violence by sharing an experience that has enabled a peace space. It is an invitation for teachers to provide opportunities for peace through exercises held in education, aimed to be peace practices.

  11. Interfaith Dialogue at Peace Museums in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachanga, Timothy; Mutisya, Munuve

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a case for further studies on the contribution of peace museums to interfaith dialogue debate. Based on our experiences as museum curators, teachers and peace researchers and a review of published materials, we argue that there is a lacuna in the study on the contribution of peace museums to the interfaith dialogue debate. The…

  12. Border Cosmopolitanism in Critical Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to recent developments in the theory of critical peace education. The role of cosmopolitanism in critical peace education is examined, particularly in relation to universal moral inclusion, secularism and universalism. It is then recommended that critical peace education draw from post-universalist and dialogical…

  13. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  14. International co-operation on decommissioning - Achievements of the NEA Co-operative programme 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is attracting a growing interest in all countries where an increasing number of plants are reaching the end of their operational life and will have to be decommissioned in the next few years. In response to this interest, the NEA set up in 1985 an international programme of technical co-operation between decommissioning projects in eight OECD countries. This report describes the programme and the participating projects, reviews the experiences accumulated during the first five-year term of this international undertaking, and discusses what remains to be done

  15. The contribution of the International Atomic Energy Agency to peace and development. Address at the conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero', Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the Conference of the Diplomatic Academy at the Institute of 'Matias Romero' (Mexico City, Mexico, 13 October 1999), the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the IAEA and its contribution to peace and development, focussing in four areas: technology transfer, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, nuclear safety, and the Agency's verification system

  16. PERFORMANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN AN INTERNATIONALLY OPERATING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In our days, society is greatly influenced and altered by the process of internationalization andglobalization. Globalization refers to a whole set of changes, not to one single dimensional change.The process of internationalization puts a special and high importance on the work of humanresources managers. In order to remain successful and competitive in the international businessenvironment, companies have to pay close attention to cultural factors. These may considerablydiffer among workers in multinational companies. We are taking a careful look at human resourcemanagement in this new age, and especially at the impact of globalization and internationalization.Our case study is built on the company MOL, specifically on some of the activities it develops in thefield of human resource management: training programmes, personnel motivation, careerdevelopment. We highlight some of the critical aspects of human resources management at MOL,and see what lessons are being learned and what conclusions we can draw.

  17. Automating Stowage Operations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for any proposed mission is to demonstrate convincingly that the proposed systems will in fact deliver the science promised. Funding agencies and mission design personnel are becoming ever more skeptical of the abstractions that form the basis of the current state of the practice with respect to approximating science return. To address this, we have been using automated planning and scheduling technology to provide actual coverage campaigns that provide better predictive performance with respect to science return for a given mission design and set of mission objectives given implementation uncertainties. Specifically, we have applied an adaptation of ASPEN and SPICE to the Eagle-Eye domain that demonstrates the performance of the mission design with respect to coverage of science imaging targets that address climate change and disaster response. Eagle-Eye is an Earth-imaging telescope that has been proposed to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  18. Summary of recent works conducted in Azerbaijan Republic in the direction of peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text :The following terms are shown for the projects carried out on peaceful use of nuclear energy: Scientific-technical innovations; Economical productivity; Maintenance of nuclear security and radiation safety; Competitiveness and inability of execution with order methods. In the Republic of Azerbaijan at state level has been determined the strategically trends in the direction of peaceful use of nuclear energy and expedient works are carried out. The achieved condition allows developing of the most advanced world technologies, scientific and technical directions in Azerbaijan Republic. For this purpose, the most advanced and modern projects are being conducted in the direction of peaceful use of nuclear and radiation technologies : 1) The most modern monitoring equipment's have been installed in all border crossing points and permanent and operative working regime has been provided. Import-export monitoring system is being conducted according to the international requirements; 2) The body provided with the most advanced technology and equipment's has been developed on the execution of storage and utilization of nuclear and radioactive wastes and existing problems in the field are being successfully solved; 3) The most advanced equipment's, methods and technologies are being applied on the basis of nuclear and radioactive materials in the diagnosis and treatment fields of medicine. 4. The most modern radiation calibrating and standardization center are being developed in the Republic. 5. Project is being carried out on the establishment of complex of the most modern sterilization purpose with high-active isotope source in Azerbaijan Republic; 6) Scientific-research works in Azerbaijan republic on peaceful use of nuclear energy has been carried out in the most actual directions since 1969; 7) Azerbaijan Republic actively participates in national and regional projects together with IAEA and other international organizations.

  19. Interpeace: local solutions, lasting peace | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... With funding from IDRC, a UN pilot initiative, the War-torn Societies Project, sought durable, locally rooted solutions to the conflicts in four test countries: Somalia ... "The issues the projects were working on were defined by the ...

  20. Women negotiating peace in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Panelists will also address women's experience of the conflict in Syria, their ... to 2011 and headed the Labour Civil First Instance Court in Damascus just before the ... civil society, and formal and informal mediation processes.

  1. Peace is more than the absence of war

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Last week, the UN Office at Geneva (UNOG) issued an infographic that gives a snapshot of what international Geneva does to foster peace around the world. Its publication was part of the UN’s ongoing campaign to show the remarkable breadth and depth of work carried out by Geneva’s international organisations, and it was released through the Twitter account @GenevaImpact with the hashtag #FridayInfographic. Michael Møller, Director-General of UNOG, blogged about it in the Huffington Post (see here).     In his blog, Mr Møller points out all the ways that the UN works every day to translate peace into food, shelter, water, healthcare, education and decent work, as well as freedom, rights, and equality. In Geneva, he says, organisations contribute to peace in all its different shapes and forms. And, he says, peace is much more than the absence of war. The reason I’m drawing attention to this is that CERN takes pride of place in the...

  2. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1970-01-01

    It is now a quarter of a century since nuclear energy was introduced to the public. Its introduction was made in the most dramatic, but unfortunately in the most destructive way - through the use of a nuclear weapon. Since that introduction enormous strides have been made in developing the peaceful applications of this great and versatile force. Because these strides have always been overshadowed by the focusing of public attention on the military side of the atom, the public has never fully understood or appreciated the gains and status of the peaceful atom. This booklet is an attempt to correct, in some measure, this imbalance in public information and attitude. It is a compilation of remarks, and excerpts of remarks, that I have made in recent years in an effort to bring to the public the story of the remarkable benefits the peaceful atom has to offer man. This is a story that grows with the development and progress of the peaceful atom. It must be told so that we can learn to use the power of nuclear energy wisely and through this use help to build a world in which the military applications of the atom will never again be a threat to mankind

  3. PI Microgravity Services Role for International Space Station Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During the ISS era, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project will provide to principal investigators (PIs) microgravity environment information and characterization of the accelerations to which their experiments were exposed during on orbit operations. PIMS supports PIs by providing them with microgravity environment information for experiment vehicles, carriers, and locations within the vehicle. This is done to assist the PI with their effort to evaluate the effect of acceleration on their experiments. Furthermore, PIMS responsibilities are to support the investigators in the area of acceleration data analysis and interpretation, and provide the Microgravity science community with a microgravity environment characterization of selected experiment carriers and vehicles. Also, PIMS provides expertise in the areas of microgravity experiment requirements, vibration isolation, and the implementation of requirements for different spacecraft to the microgravity community and other NASA programs.

  4. Globalization and Peace: A Hayekian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In his Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (1967, p.168, Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich A. von Hayek explains that “from the first establishment of (trade which served reciprocal but not common purposes, a process has been going on for millennia which, by making rules of conduct independent of the particular purposes of those concerned, made it possible to extend these rules to ever wider circles of undetermined persons and eventually might make possible a universal peaceful order of the world.”Today, we can denominate this the process of globalization, understanding as such the process that arises spontaneously in the market and acts by developing a progressive international division of labour, eliminating restrictions on individual liberties, reducing transportation and communication costs, and increasingly integrating the individuals that compose the “great society.”The purpose of the present essay is to attempt to deepen in this Hayekian thesis and approximate an explanation of why the said process could lead to world peace. To be consistent with Hayek’s works, we must conduct a multidisciplinary analysis of the process under consideration; analysis which must necessarily include a historical reference, an economic study, a legal approach, and finally the consideration of its cultural implications.

  5. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  6. International co-operation for reactor safety: the World Association of Nuclear Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckered, T.

    1989-01-01

    On 5 and 6 October 1987, senior representatives of most of the world's nuclear operators met in Paris with Lord Marshall of the UK Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) as Chairman. They resolved to strengthen the existing links and co-operation among nuclear operators by setting up the World Association of Nuclear Operators (Wano). The mission of the association is to be: 'to maximize the safety and reliability of the operation of nuclear power stations by exchanging information, encouraging comparison and stimulating emulation among nuclear power station operators.' The formation of Wano presents some information technology problems of a rather special kind that have to be solved before Wano can begin operation. The representatives at the Paris meeting therefore appointed a steering committee under Lord Marshall's chairmanship to formulate detailed proposals. The leaders of the world's nuclear operators will meet again in Moscow on 15-17 May 1989 in order to ratify the steering committee proposals and appoint the first Wano Board of Governors. A small interim secretariat is already working in London. (author)

  7. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the proposed ITER scenarios foresees the creation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in order to improve the confinement properties of the hot core plasma. The more stringent requests are: the ITB must be sustained with electron heating only with no or very small external momentum source, the strong collisional coupling at the envisaged density (line average >1.0 1020 m-3) must not prevent the barrier existence, the bootstrap current created by the large induced gradients must have a radial profile consistent with that requested by the barrier creation and sustainment. To all these items the studies carried out in FTU in the same density range (ne0 ?1.5 1020 m-3) provide encouraging prospects. With pure electron heating and current drive (LH+ECH) steady electron barrier are generated and maintained with central e- temperature >5.0 keV. Almost full CD conditions are established with a bootstrap current close to 25% of the total and well aligned with that driven by the LH waves and responsible for the barrier building. The clear change in the density fluctuations close to the ITB radius, observed by reflectometry, indicates stabilization of turbulence that is consistent with the drop of the thermal electron diffusivity inside the ITB to very low values, ?e<0.5 m2/s estimated by the transport analysis. The 10 fold neutron rate increase testifies a significant collisional ion heating, even though usually ?Ti0/Ti0 does not exceed 40%, because the e--i + equipartition time, always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time, does not allow thermal equilibrium with electrons to be attained. The ion thermal diffusivity inside the barrier must be lowered to the neoclassical level to account for the observed Ti(r) profiles, clearly indicating at least a non-degraded ion transport. The global confinement in turn improves by 1.6 times above the FTU L-scaling. The ITB radius can be controlled by varying the LH power deposition profile that is

  8. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International

  9. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  10. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  11. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-11-30

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  12. OF THE PRESENT TO THE FUTURE: EDUCATION FOR PEACE TO THE PEDAGOGY FOR PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Palevi Gómez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is a theoretical analysis contributes to an initial structuring of Pedagogy for Peace today, from their field of study: Education for Peace. We intend to show both theoretical, practical, disciplined, methodical and scientific maturity that owns the Peace Education at this time, to structure Pedagogy for Peace. An analysis of disciplinary and educational support realization of Pedagogy for Peace is made, which includes educational models, approaches, content, keystones and applied methodologies. A main point of analysis is the existence of a specific type of teacher: Educator / a for Peace. This educator / a is a key to educational activities around peacebuilding practice carried factor.

  13. Atom for peace in the socialist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    In general terms presented are the achievements of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries in the sphere of nuclear science and technology. The activities of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna and the CMEA Commission on peaceful Use of Nuclear power are described. Works on the development and construction of plants with the WWER-1000 reactor are under completion, the BN-1600 fast reactor technical project is under way. The CMEA countries energy program and their cooperation in this field are presented in short. The directions of studies on the radioactive waste reprocessing and desposal are described. The work of International Economic Union (the ''Interinstrument''), created with the aim of specialization and cooperation on the CMEA countries in the field of nuclear instrument-industry is presented

  14. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals.

  15. The Peace System - As a self-referential communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorm Harste

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peace communication as diplomatic communication is an often neglected phenomenon in social and political theory that concerns problems of international order, justice and peace. Political philosophy seldom embarks on the theme with more than a few comments. Yet, throughout history, diplomacy has a strong record not only for negotiations but also for social learning processes about communication codes. Many codes of respect, trust, expression and listening have a top-down history from aristocratic circles to broader social layers. However, the article argues that communication codes of peace developed in opposition to violence and war exactly when they transgress dividing lines allowing for cross-cultural and even cross-stratified communication. The article’s main point is to describe how such communication codes about peace and diplomacy can be described in recent social theory of communication, and to get some added value in this respect, Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential communication systems has been applied.

  16. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  17. Report of 'the 2014 international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Future direction toward promoting non-proliferation and the ideal method of developing human resources using Centers of Excellence (COEs) following the new strategic energy plan'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaga, Chikanobu; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Naoi, Yosuke; Oda, Tetsuzo; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security – Future direction toward promoting non-proliferation and the ideal method of developing human resources using Centers of Excellence (COEs) following the New Strategic Energy Plan -' on 3 December 2014, with the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, and International Nuclear Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology as co-hosts. In the Forum, officials and experts from Japan, the United States explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Discussion was made in two panels, entitled 'Effective and efficient measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation based on domestic and foreign issues and the direction and role of technology development' and 'Roles of nuclear security COEs and future expectations'. In Panel Discussion 1, as the nuclear non-proliferation regime is facing various problems and challenges under current international circumstances, how to implement effective and efficient safeguards was discussed. In Panel Discussion 2, panelists discussed the following three points: 1. Current status of Nuclear Security Training and Support Centers and COEs, and Good Practice; 2. What these centers can do to enhance nuclear security (New role for COEs); 3. Regional cooperation in the Nuclear Security Training and Support Center (NSSC) and COEs in states, which the IAEA recommends establishing, and international cooperation and partnerships with international initiatives (New Role). Officials and experts from Japan, IAEA, the United States, France, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia participated in the panel and made contributions to active discussion. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the

  18. A study of border tourism and the DMZ development in South Korea as a peace promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young-Sun

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the peace process and tourism development and cooperation between South Korea and North Korea prior to reunification. As a relatively new academic field, the development of the body of knowledge in tourism is immature. Lack of research focused on the politics of tourism, divided nations, and peace tourism, has been a drawback. It has required theoretical support from other disciplines and a methodology designed particularly for studying domestic and international tour...

  19. On business, conflict and peace: Interaction and collaboration in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lenfant, F.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores business interaction with peace and conflict in Central Africa. In the past few decades, the role of business in fueling conflict has received much attention from academics and practitioners. More recently, the debate on the role of business in conflict has broadened to include attention for the ways in which companies can help contribute to peace. To shed light on this topic, this dissertation looks at how different types of international companies perceive the opp...

  20. Scientists forging hope for peace

    CERN Multimedia

    Chui, G

    2004-01-01

    "As hopes for peace flare and fade in the Middle East, traditional enemies are working to build the region's first major center for cutting-edge research.....The project, called SESAME, is under construction in Jordan, which has donated a site and about $8 million in construction funding. The Palestinian Authority and nine countries, including Egypt, Iran, Israel and Pakistan, have signed on as members" (1 page).

  1. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  2. China’s Peaceful Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    existential war on several fronts offers the U.S. military a strong opportunity to protect its dwindling budget. 14 Glaser. 15 See Zheng Bijian, “China’s...off [the] Somali coast, [and to ensure] the safety of ships carrying humanistic materials of such international organisations as the World Food...Programme [;] and, if the need arises, the taskforce will jointly conduct humanistic rescue operations with the escorting ships of other countries.” 26

  3. International conference on the operational safety performance in nuclear installations. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety'. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) risk- informed decision-making; (2) influence of external factors on safety; (3) safety of fuel cycle facilities; (4) safety of research reactors; and (5) safety performance indicators. Senior nuclear safety decision makers reviewed the issues and formulated recommendations for future actions by national and international organizations. In 2004, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety' in Beijing China. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) changing environment - coping with diversity and globalization; (2) operating experience - managing changes effectively; (3) regulatory management systems - adapting to changes in the environment; and (4) long term operations - maintaining safety margins while extending plant lifetimes. The results of this conference confirmed the importance of operators and regulators of nuclear facilities meeting periodically to share experience and opinion on emerging issues and future challenges of the nuclear industry. Substantial progress has been made, and continues to be made by Member States in enhancing the safety of nuclear installations worldwide. At the same time, more attention is being given to other areas of nuclear safety. The safety standards for research reactors are being updated and new standards are planned on the safety of other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Agency has taken a lead role in this effort and is receiving much support from its Member States to gain international consensus in these areas. The objective of the conference is to foster the exchange of information on operational safety performance and operating experience in nuclear installations, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on: - the present status of these issues; - emerging issues with international implications

  4. History, Culture, Peace: Rumi Mevlana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Along the history, for so many centuries, Rumi Mawlana – perhaps the most loved mystical poet of all times – has been alive and talking to people of all cultures through the language of love, peace, faith and true kindness. This remarkable man has always transcended the boundaries of time, space, race, religion, considering that “Love is the very meaning of creation and life”. It would not be an exaggeration to assert that the history of humankind would have been a paradise if human beings had followed such principles like peace, love and understanding. Rumi Mawlana created a splendid, humanitarian and universal type of art, culture and mentality; his message is God’s message to humankind: friendship, hope, generosity, peace, beauty, in one word: Love and happiness in all forms. Thus, he used his huge poetic talent not only in order to touch people’s hearts, but also to reach the most splendid goal of the human race: that of making people more sensitive to the eternal and most important human values.

  5. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  6. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  7. Legitimising the Juba Peace Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the Juba peace negotiations on accountability and reconciliation. It advances a new interpretation of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation, focusing on five justice features: National proceedings, restorative accountability, alternative sentencing, individual...... responsibility and forward-looking victimhood. The article argues that the nature of the agreed justice policy derives from negotiators and mediators’ pursuit of international legitimation by the ICC and its compliance constituency. This argument has implications for our understanding of the role of the ICC...

  8. A course in Peace Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Lynch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out a reasoned and annotated plan for a short course in Peace Journalism, suitable for teaching to students of Journalism, Communications, Media and Peace and Conflict Studies. It is based on courses the author has taught, over many years, and the aim of the article is to help teachers to devise their own courses. The best way to help students to begin thinking about issues in the representation of conflicts, the article argues, is to give them a flavour of it, by showing them different ways in which the same story can be told. The article gives story-boards and scripts for two television news treatments of the same event, a bombing in the Philippines. The first is an example of War Journalism, it is argued; the second, Peace Journalism. The article suggests ways to develop a course from this illustrative starting point, to ask why the distinctions between these two approaches should be considered important - both in their own terms, and in terms of their potential influence on the course of events in conflict. Different approaches to conceptualising and measuring this possible influence are discussed, with suggestions for further exploration. The article recounts some of the author's experiences in introducing and discussing what is, inevitably sometimes, difficult and sensitive material, with groups including participants from conflict-affected countries - Palestine, Israel and the Philippines. Not all students will be aspiring journalists. The article offers brief notes on practical Peace Journalism, as well as showing how learning outcomes can be formulated to allow the same issues to be tackled in the form of a civil society campaign, or as a peace-building intervention in conflict. The article also explains how students can be equipped to question elements of journalistic practice which they may take for granted, and which pass unexamined in many current journalism courses. That, in turn, entails examining the emergence

  9. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  10. Cooperation in the maintenance of peace and security, and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the face of recent fundamental changes in the international situation, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate an exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground, fostering the process of confidence-building and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. This publication is based on material presented at the regional meeting on the Cooperation in the maintenance of peace and security, held at the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific, in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 31 January to 2 February 1994

  11. Peace Education: Exploring Some Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, James S.

    2004-01-01

    Peace education has been recognized as an important aspect of social education for the past three decades. The critical literature as well as official documents, however, have given little attention to its philosophical foundations. This essay explores these foundations in the ethics of (1) virtue, (2) consequentialism, (3) aesthetics, (4) conservative politics and (5) care. Each of these alone composes a significant element of peace education, although ultimately its solid basis can only be established through an integrative approach encouraging a culture of peace. The more complete development and articulation of the philosophical rationale of peace education is yet to be accomplished and remains a task for the future.

  12. Peaceful uses of fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, Edward [University of California Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1958-07-01

    Several parallel approaches were undertaken which, between them, amounted to an attack on plasma research. Two of these approaches, the pinch and the stellarator, were based on the idea of containing the plasma in an annular region. Taking an entirely different approach, the advantages of a confinement geometry based on externally generated, cylindrically symmetric magnetic fields were recognized by Richard Post and Herbert York. Starting with these concepts, Post evolved an approach which has come to be called the Mirror Machine, which uses various applications of the magnetic mirror principle in its operation. A comparison of the different approaches is made. There is one additional design which has received serious consideration but on which little experimental work has proceeded. The design is the picket fence or cusp geometry considered by J. Tuck and H. Grad. The problems with plasma instability, effects of impurities and neutrons are also discussed. It is suggested that the interaction of hot plasma with magnetic fields opens up the way to the direct production of electrical energy. Other possible applications of fusion energy are discussed.

  13. Global Conflicts Shattered World Peace: John Dewey's Influence on Peace Educators and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Audrey; Howlett, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The need to build an awareness of peace and of peace education is often a message that is difficult to share with the larger society. John Dewey, an acclaimed American philosopher and intellectual, used his public platform to espouse his ideas on democracy and peace as a resolution to global discord during the years preceding and during World Wars…

  14. What Do Students Learn when We Teach Peace? A Qualitative Assessment of a Theater Peace Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Cheryl Lynn; Allen, Barb; Williams, Teri Triguba

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative assessment of a theater arts peace education program for high-school students. We present the results of qualitative interviews with students who participated in a peace education program. They tell us in their own words what they believe they learned. Given that most peace education evaluation is quantitative or focuses on…

  15. For the Sake of Peace: Maintaining the Resonance of Peace and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    This article is an attempt to develop the idea of peace education for adults through the assumption that, compared to peace education for children, educational approaches for adults are as yet undeveloped. This article also assumes that the progress of educational approaches for adults is necessary to the further development of peace education for…

  16. Balance between automation and human actions in NPP operation: Results of international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.; Olmstead, R.A.; Oudiz, A.; Sun, B.

    1991-01-01

    Automation is an essential feature of NPPs. The degree of automation can be seen to be increasing, owing to technical and social factors, but also as a result of advances in information technology. Deciding upon the appropriate level of automation, the allocation of functions to man, or to a machine or a combination of both may be one of the most critical aspects of NPP design. It is important that automation is carried out in a sufficiently systematic way. There appears to be need for additional guidance in this key area. In 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency formed an advisory group to consider this problem. The group has proposed a methodology for allocating functions between man and machine. This methodology, which is described in the paper, takes account of the factors which influence the allocation process, considers viable approaches to automation and gives guidance on decision making. In addition, areas where future research may be justified are discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  17. 77 FR 24766 - Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding For Immediate Release AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding...

  18. Accounting for Peace and Economic Development in Nigeria, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting for Peace and Economic Development in Nigeria, the Niger-Delta Case. ... roads, efficient communication systems, portable water, employment opportunities, ... Keywords: Accounting for peace; cost of peace keeping; Economic ...

  19. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in technology transfer for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the strengthening of the Safeguards system, Santiago, 9 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the IAEA national seminar on 'Nuclear Development and its Implications for Chilean International Policy' in Santiago, Chile, on 9 December 1998. After a short presentation of Chile's participation in all aspects of the work of the Agency, the conference focuses on the Agency's role in the following areas: technology transfer with emphasis on Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme, nuclear power and sustainable energy development, including nuclear safety aspects, and the strengthened safeguards system, including future prospects of verification

  20. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in technology transfer for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the strengthening of the Safeguards system, Buenos Aires, 15 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the meeting of the Council for International Relations in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 15 December 1998. After a short presentation of Argentina's participation in all aspects of the work of the Agency, the conference focuses on the Agency's role in the following areas: nuclear power and sustainable energy development, including nuclear safety aspects, verification and the strengthened safeguards system (including future prospects of verification), and technology transfer with emphasis on Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme

  1. From passive to active: The spectrum of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Benn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest hurdles facing the field of peace journalism (PJ is its vague definition. This paper proposes defining PJ as it operates on a spectrum, from passive to active. Through a review of extant PJ literature, this paper synthesizes current theory into an overarching, explicit concept, and calls for it to be further adopted and expanded. To conclude it considers potential advantages, drawbacks, and critiques of its proposal.

  2. The Peace System – As a Self-Referential Communication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    developed in opposition to violence and war exactly when they transgress dividing lines allowing for cross-cultural and even cross-stratified communication. The article’s main point is to describe how such communication codes about peace and diplomacy can be described in recent social theory......Peace communication as diplomatic communication is an often neglected phenomenon in social and political theory that concerns problems of international order, justice and peace. Political philosophy seldom embarks on the theme with more than a few comments. Yet, throughout history, diplomacy has...... a strong record not only for negotiations but also for social learning processes about communication codes. Many codes of respect, trust, expression and listening have a top-down history from aristocratic circles to broader social layers. However, the article argues that communication codes of peace...

  3. IRS Guidelines: Joint IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on lessons learned from operating and construction experience at the international level. This information could be related to issues and events that are related to safety. The purpose of these guidelines is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the effectiveness of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. As this system is owned by the Member States, the IRS Guidelines have been developed and approved by the IRS National Co-ordinators with the assistance of both Secretariats (IAEA/NEA).

  4. Good journalism or peace journalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Loyn

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues against the prescriptive notions of Peace Journalism, and in particular its exclusive nature and attempt to define itself as a new orthodoxy. Most of the paper is a critique of the work of Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick, in a book published in 2005, as well as their earlier Reporting the World series. They condemn all other ways of reporting as 'War Journalism, biased in favour of war.' I argue instead that the opposite of Peace Journalism is good journalism. Much of this Peace Journalism argument is derived from the work of Johan Galtung, who accuses 'war journalists' of reporting war in an enclosed space and time, with no context, concealing peace initiatives and making wars 'opaque/secret.' Galtung specifically calls on journalists as part of their mission to search out peace proposals which might begin as something small and beneath notice, but which might then be picked up and owned by politicians as their own. My response is clear and simple: creating peacemaking politicians is not the business of a reporter. I examine the traditional journalistic methods of using objectivity to get at a version of the truth. I concede that perfect truth is unattainable, (and paradoxically the tool of objectivity we use to get there is slippery too. I conclude that a more quotidian truth, or 'truthfulness' is though a manageable goal. I engage with philosophers who examine objectivity, concluding with the assistance of Thomas Nagel that it does still have a value. Nagel's account also has the merit of explaining how practices such as peace-reporting are bound to be less objective than alternatives, 'since they commit themselves to the adoption of particular perspectives, in effect giving up on the ideal of stripping away as much…as possible.' I examine the responses of the so-called 'journalism of attachment' framed as a desire of journalists faced by the horrors of Bosnia to cast off impartiality and emotional detachment and take

  5. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  6. Proceedings of the 2. international conference on containment design and operation. Vol. 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S R

    1991-12-31

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: plenary; commissioning and operation; regulatory and performance requirements; reliability, risk and severe accident evaluation; future containment systems; severe accident evaluation; activity transport experiments; activity transport analysis; containment design; future and filtered vent containment systems; containment response; hydrogen combustion. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors, and to Canadian experiments. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Advances in the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the Conference was to provide a forum for exchange of information among around 200 attending experts from 46 Member States and five international organizations, who altogether presented around 80 papers and posters. The Conference presentations were divided into four main topics: Managing and Regulating Safe Operation; Safety Performance and Lessons Learned; Improving Operational Safety Using PSA; Enhancing Safety. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Proceedings of fifth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The fifth international topical meeting on nuclear thermohydraulics, operations and safety was convened in Beijing in April 14-18, 1997. The topical meeting was sponsored by the Chinese Nuclear Society and cosponsored by American Nuclear Society, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Canada Nuclear Society, Korean Nuclear Society, Mexican Nuclear Society, Nuclear Society of Slovenia and Spanish Nuclear Society. There were 262 articles were published in the meeting. They are related nuclear power thermohydraulics, operations and safety

  9. Annual International Conference of the German Operations Research Society (GOR) University of Augsburg

    CERN Document Server

    Borgwardt, Karl-Heinz; Klein, Robert; Tuma, Axel

    2009-01-01

    This book contains 93 selected papers from the symposium "Operations Research 2008" which was held from September 3-5, 2008 at the University of Augsburg, Germany. The international conference, which also serves as the annual meeting of the German Operations Research Society (GOR), attracted 580 participants from more than thirty countries. The general theme "Operations Research and Global Business" stresses the important role of Operations Research in improving decisions in the increasingly complex global business environment. Operations Research represents one of the most successful instruments for organizing business processes, as many applications in areas like supply chain management or financial management show. The book gives a broad overview of the various facets of Operations Research: mathematical methods such as optimization, forecasting, data analysis or game theory and their applications in business, economics and social life.

  10. Peace maintenance and political messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The role of wall murals – as both territorial markers and as a means of maintaining and reinforcing identity – has been a frequent subject of study as a way of understanding the recent conflict in Northern Ireland, euphemistically known as ‘the Troubles’ (c. 1969–c. 1998). Whilst the heightened p......-essentializing their existence. It is suggested that there is a need to contextualize and consider the current and potential role of walls in the maintenance of peace and facilitating a ‘new’ Northern Ireland....

  11. Peaceful nuclear explosions and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some theoretical advances in the thermodynamics of very high pressures are reviewed. A universal (system-independent) formulation of the thermodynamics is sketched, and some of the equations more frequently used are written in system-independent form. Among these equations are: Hugoniot pressure and temperature as functions of volume; the Mie-Gruneisen equation; and an explicit form for the equation of state. It is also shown that this formalism can be used to interpret and predict results from peaceful nuclear explosions. (author)

  12. Peace and development: two sides of the same coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveros Tafur, Memphis Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is the notion that peace and development are positively correlated, that peace drives development and that development drives peace, for Galtung (1985: 147 Peace and Development should be regarded as two sides of the same coin and considers development in relation to peace. This paper shows that peace and development are uncorrelated in several countries where there is peace without development or development without peace. The use of quantitative models as a tool for the analysis is a plus for the findings because most of the related theories are qualitative.

  13. Positive Effects of Believing, Prayer and Spending in Charity on the Inner Peace of Believers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Aydin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the majesty of faith and rituals in the spiritual happiness of man. Believing, worshipping and giving charity are the core of Islam as well as the basis of spiritual presence. In the Holy Qur’an, it is explained that the man who realises those three elements is one who believe and behave conscientiously. For this reason, the Qur’an espouses that when Islamic virtues and rituals are carried out, the spiritual context of the soul calms down and gets peace. Faith gives internal presence to man, worshipping gets man closer to the divine existence, giving charity leads to harmony between man and his environment, and makes him follow the co-operative law of the cosmos.

  14. 26 CFR 1.883-1T - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic law tax exemption for income derived from the international operation of ships or aircraft, either... from tax for profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international transport or international traffic under the shipping and air transport or gains article of an income tax convention with the...

  15. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  16. The State – Nation Imbalance. Peace and Complex Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian - Sorin Prună

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The defining reference points of this paper take into consideration the creation of severalscientific premises which would structure the approached issue - constitutional state (nationcorrelated with the term security – by reference to the current international context coordinates. Thegoal of the proposed approach is organising the elements which define the security of theconstitutional state from the perspective of the coexistence between peace and complex situations(crisis and war. In the effort of organising such a scientific matter, we attempted to realise clear,concise boundaries by means of research – the study and analysis of conflicting phenomena(conclusive factors / consequences. Thus, we pointed out the role of the modern constitutional statein the current context, the inference between the state – nation balance, through its components, topreserve peace and nation security through efficient management of complex situations.

  17. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Vol.2 (1969-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present bibliography on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions is the 43rd in the Bibliographical Series of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the second such IAEA publication on PNE. It deals with theoretical aspects and peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. The bibliography contains 1335 references to the literature published in the period from 1969 to 1979. Most references have been supplied with abstracts in English. The material is listed by subject; within each subject it is arranged alphabetically by author. An Author Index including corporate authors and a Subject Index are given at the end of the bibliography. The Subject Index is basically a permutated-title keyword-in-context index

  18. Every Day, A New Chance for Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joy

    1999-01-01

    Presents a Montessorian view of the causes of war and how to achieve peace in the world, focusing on how early experiences shape one's sense of security and one's attitudes and habits regarding conflict resolution. Examines the frequency of war in world history, current threats of warfare, and proposals for promoting world peace, including…

  19. Atoms for peace: after thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolet, A.M.; Ebinger, C.K.; Pilat, J.; Pendley, R.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the conference marking the thirtieth anniversary of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace proposal is presented. The conference provided a forum for exchange of information and opinion among nuclear scientists, statesmen, and scholars on the objectives and implementation of Atoms for Peace. The principal themes and opinions presented at the meeting are summarized

  20. Contributions of developmental psychology to peace education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.; Salomon, G.; Cairns, E.

    2010-01-01

    According to Resolution A/52/243 of the UN General Assembly (United Nations, 1998), "The purposes and principles of the United Nations . . . has been a major act towards transformation from a culture of war and violence to a culture of peace and non-violence" (p. 1). A culture of peace is then said

  1. Infrastructure for Peace: The African Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    As a cutting-edge approach for violent prevention, ... view of the increasing need to transcend the small-scale approach to peace building, ..... as belief in dialogue to resolve conflict, there is the need to instutionalise peace through the creation ...

  2. Toward a Critical Peace Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the need for peace education as a field to embrace critical power analysis of place in efforts toward social and environmental sustainability. Rather than status quo reproduction, a critical peace education for sustainability should both elucidate and transform the power dynamics inherent in structural violence and cultural…

  3. Peace Education with Refugees: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuchukov, Hristo; New, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors suggest the possibility of using concepts and practices drawn from peace education to assist in the treatment and education of refugees suffering from post-traumatic stress. They introduce four basic principles of peace education, which permit students/clients to work through memory and present conflicts, and calls on…

  4. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  5. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The third international conference on containment design and operation includes in volume 2 of the publication sessions on the following topics: structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  6. Budgeting for International Projects: In-Country Business Operations and Long-Term Residential Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of international sponsored research program administration looks at budgeting, costs, and procedures for both projects with in-country business operations in developing nations and projects with long-term residential assignments. It is intended for university administrators providing new services to faculty working on international…

  7. Working abroad, working with others: How firms learn to operate international joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); O. Shenkar (Oded); G.A.M. Vermeulen (Freek); J.H.J. Bell (John)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSuccessful international joint ventures entail both learning to operate across national boundaries and learning to cooperate. Hypotheses grounded in organizational learning theory were tested with event-history analysis and data on 1,493 expansions of 25 large Dutch firms between 1966

  8. Incentives to strengthen international co-operation in R and D for advanced nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthesen, E.; Bakunyaev, A.D.; Gibson, I.H.; Hosemann, J.P.; Tavoni, R.; Versteegh, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the need for International Co-operation in R and D for Advanced Reactors in order to maintain options for the future deployment of nuclear power against the current background of declining R and D capability in Europe

  9. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The third international conference on containment design and operation includes in volume 2 of the publication sessions on the following topics: structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  10. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  11. Report of “the 2013 international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Ensuring nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle options in consideration of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held “International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security – Ensuring Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Security of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station –” on 3 and 4 December 2013, with the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, as co-hosts. In the Forum, officials from Japan, the United States, France and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. Discussion was made in two panels, entitled “Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security measures of nuclear fuel cycle options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station” and “Roles of safeguards and technical measures for ensuring nuclear non-proliferation for nuclear fuel cycle options”. In the first panel based on the implications of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on the domestic and global nuclear energy use and increased interest in the back end of nuclear fuel cycle, discussion was made on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security challenges on both fuel cycle options from the policy and institutional viewpoints whereas in the second panel the roles of safeguards and proliferation resistant nuclear technology including plutonium burning technology in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in the back end of nuclear fuel cycle were discussed. Officials and experts from Japan, IAEA, the United States, France and Republic of Korea participated in the panel and made contributions to active discussion. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording

  12. Post-Saddam Iraq and the Challenges of Peace | Agbebaku | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iraq / United States (US) differences have lasted for quite some time. Iraq, having been branded as one of the three axis-of-evils, is considered a threat to international stability and global security. Within this context, its activities must be regulated to ensure stability and international peace. The irony is that efforts at ...

  13. Ergonomics perspective for identifying and reducing internal operative flow disruption for laparoscopic urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Latif; Xiao, Jiaquan; Sengupta, Shomik

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine operative flow disruption that occurs inside the surgical field, (internal operative flow disruption (OFD)), during urological laparoscopies, and to relate those events to external ergonomics environment in terms of monitor location, level of instruments' handles, and location of surgical team members. According to the our best knowledge, this is the first study of its kind. A combination of real and video-aided observational study was conducted in the operating rooms at hospitals in Australia and China. Brain storming sessions were first conducted to identify the main internal OFD events, and the observable reasons, potential external, and latent ergonomic factors were listed. A prospective observational study was then conducted. The observer's records and the related video records of internal surgical fields were analysed. Procedures were categorised into groups based on similarity in ergonomics environment. The mapping process revealed 39 types of internal OFD events resulted from six reasons. A total of 24 procedures were selected and arranged into two groups, each with twelve procedures. Group A was carried out under satisfactory ergonomics environment, while Group B was conducted under unsatisfactory ergonomics environment. A total of 1178 OFD events were detected delaying the total observed operative times (2966 min) by 220 min (7.43%). Average OFD/h in group A was less than 15, while in group B about 29 OFD/h. There are two main latent ergonomics factors affecting the surgeon's performance; non-physiological posture and long-period static posture. The delays and number of internal OFD were nearly doubled where procedures were conducted under unsatisfactory external ergonomics environment. Some events such as stopping operation and irrelevant conversations during long procedures may have a positive influence on the surgeon's performance.

  14. Planning in the Continuous Operations Environment of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa; Hagopian, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    The continuous operation planning approach developed for the operations planning of the International Space Station (ISS) is reported on. The approach was designed to be a robust and cost-effective method. It separates ISS planning into two planning functions: long-range planning for a fixed length planning horizon which continually moves forward as ISS operations progress, and short-range planning which takes a small segment of the long-range plan and develops a detailed operations schedule. The continuous approach is compared with the incremental approach, the short and long-range planning functions are described, and the benefits and challenges of implementing a continuous operations planning approach for the ISS are summarized.

  15. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5 percent per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM (Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being

  16. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y Y; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  17. 26 CFR 1.883-1 - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alliances between or among international carriers which also include joint marketing, baggage handling, one... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of income from the international... Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft. (a) General rule. Qualified...

  18. SESAME: physics for peace in the Middle East

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Allan, Jordan: a bridge of peace between nations is being constructed with the help of particle physics. Scheduled to be operational by 2011, SESAME, the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, brings together countries from all over the region. SESAME construction site (Photo R. Sarraf, copyright: Al-Balqa Applied University). On the east bank of the river Jordan, 30 km from Amman, lies SESAME. A collaboration of nine members, including Jordan, Israel, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt and Palestine, the project was created under the auspices of UNESCO. Following the same model as CERN, the underlying expectation is that SESAME will encourage peace by training a new generation of scientists from all over the region to work on a new synchrotron facility. Just as scientists from all over Europe collaborated at CERN in the aftermath of the Second World War, SESAME hopes to provide an environment where ...

  19. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M. [Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  20. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  1. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joeck, N.; Lehman, R.; Vergino, E.; Schock, R.

    2004-01-01

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching recommendation that we try to reduce the risks and seek

  2. Atoms for Peace after 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeck, N.; Lehman, R. F.; Vergino, E. S.; Schock, R. N.

    2004-03-20

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the "Atoms for Peace" speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an "international atomic energy agency" to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching recommendation that we try to reduce the risks and seek the

  3. Internal contamination during enmasse coolant channel replacement (EMCCR) operation at MAPS-2, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajendran, V.; Parthasarathi, S.; Kannan, V.; Gurg, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    The operation of Enmasse Coolant Channel Replacement (EMCCR) of MAPS Unit-2, started in the month of March 2002. Since the whole operation was carried out inside the reactor building in the environment of high radiation level in air, it was necessary to whole body count all the personnel involved in the operation. These personnel were whole body monitored for internal contamination due to gamma emitting radionuclides. To measure the internal contamination of the personnel a shadow shield whole body counter having NaI (Tl) detector is used. To study the concentration of airborne radionuclides present during the EMCCR job air filter samples were collected and analysed using HPGe gamma Spectrometer. It was seen that nearly 95% of the total activity present in the air was due to activation products and the remaining 5% is due to fission products. About 2000 personnel (of which 97% contract personnel) involved in the EMCCR job were whole body monitored. Around 57% showed no internal contamination. In the remaining 43% of personnel activation products such as 65 Zn, 95 Zr/ 95 Nb, and 60 Co were observed. It is interesting to note that the radionuclides observed in the internal contamination were also observed in air filter samples collected from the work spot. The observation that all the personnel involved in the EMCCR job received dose less than the Derived Recording Level (DRL) of 0.6 mSv can be attributed to a clean and neat job carried out by the management and personnel involved. (author)

  4. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  5. Operational feedback on internal structure vibration in 54 French PWRs during 300 fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenty, A.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has acquired extensive feedback on vibration of reactor vessel internals by analysing ex-core neutron noise on its 54 pressurized water reactors during the course of over 300 fuel cycles. This feedback has been built up by processing more than 3,000 vibratory signatures acquired since the startup of its reactors. These signatures are now centralized for the whole of France in the ''SINBAD'' data base. Signature processing has enabled: distinguishing between mechanical phenomena and signature variation linked to unit operation: in particular, the impact on signature level of unit operating parameters such as initial fuel enrichment and burn-up rate was assessed; among the purely mechanical phenomena, pointing up slight changes in position of vessel internals and the first signs of structural wear; relaxation (in the hold-down spring and fuel rod assemblies) and wear on surfaces of contact between internals and reactor vessel were detected; lastly and most importantly, automatic recognition of the various types of vibratory behavior of internals. It was consequently possible to draw up user requirement specifications for automated monitoring of internals, which should soon be integrated in PSAD, a system which groups several reactor monitoring functions. (author)

  6. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  7. Elise Boulding and Peace Education: Theory, Practice, and Quaker Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Elise Boulding wrote academically to help to create and influence the field of peace education, and lived a life that exemplified it. Her life integrated theory and practice and exemplified peace "praxis" as the "craft and skills of doing peace" and "the integration of thought and action". For Boulding, peace education occurred at all levels,…

  8. The Butterfly Effect on Peace Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Cerdas-Agüero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper on peace education is to generate a reflection, through the metaphor of the butterfly effect, on the importance of educating for peace during the change process of human beings and society.  It proposes education for peace as a human right, an experience and learning process that is put into practice by human beings.  It aims at changing attitudes and actions to create harmonious relationships based on the respect and recognition of human rights, and the freedom and dignity of every person.

  9. Nuclear disarmament and peaceful nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, it remains to be seen whether nuclear disarmament can reduce the risks of nuclear war sufficiently for the residual risks to be acceptable to a majority of the world's population, while at the same time vigorous growth in the world's dependence on nuclear energy for peaceful purposes continues. This paper discusses how use of nuclear materials from dismantled weapons as fuel for peaceful purposes may help progress to be made towards that goal, by stimulating considerable improvements in the effectiveness of arrangements for preventing diversion of the materials from peaceful to military purposes, while at the same time eliminating large numbers of nuclear weapons

  10. In search of the peaceful atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the mid-50s, the 'peaceful atom' was a much-used phrase. However, it seems a link between civil and nuclear activities and nuclear weapons lingers on. With the United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy in mind, this article takes a look at nuclear industry worldwide. It paints a gloomy picture of the situation for reactor manufacturers, uranium mining and uranium enrichment. Reprocessing, too, looks bleak to the author. However, one of the main problems of the nuclear industry is seen as its preoccupation with public acceptance of the 'peaceful atom'. (UK)

  11. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  12. SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  13. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: performance and regulatory requirements; radionuclide behaviour; severe accident design and analysis; operation, maintenance, leaking and aging of containment systems; thermal hydraulic behaviour of containment systems; hydrogen mixing and mitigation; design methods and concepts; code validation; structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  15. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: performance and regulatory requirements; radionuclide behaviour; severe accident design and analysis; operation, maintenance, leaking and aging of containment systems; thermal hydraulic behaviour of containment systems; hydrogen mixing and mitigation; design methods and concepts; code validation; structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  16. Science serving people. International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This brochure tells the story of how the IAEA is helping to harness knowledge to promote development and deliver real benefits to the poor. It demonstrates how nuclear science and technology applications are being employed to overcome the challenges of water scarcity, food insecurity, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. It also shows how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fulfilling the 'Atoms for Peace' mandate of the Agency in the developing world.

  17. Science serving people. International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This brochure tells the story of how the IAEA is helping to harness knowledge to promote development and deliver real benefits to the poor. It demonstrates how nuclear science and technology applications are being employed to overcome the challenges of water scarcity, food insecurity, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. It also shows how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fulfilling the 'Atoms for Peace' mandate of the Agency in the developing world

  18. Science serving people. International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This brochure tells the story of how the IAEA is helping to harness knowledge to promote development and deliver real benefits to the poor. It demonstrates how nuclear science and technology applications are being employed to overcome the challenges of water scarcity, food insecurity, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. It also shows how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fulfilling the 'Atoms for Peace' mandate of the Agency in the developing world

  19. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  20. A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová

    2011-01-01

    When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding ...

  1. The role of education at the aiming of the european unity: the enlighted and romantic perpetual peace projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José REBOLLO ESPINOSA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sources of the peace education goes back far enoug. This article aims to analyzing some perpetual peace projects which were actually written beetween the XVII and XX centuries. Those projects, being regarded as a proper means in order to attain the european unity, may be viewed as antecedents of the today peace conferences. It is, then, acknowledged, that what started as a human desire for international agreement is progressively achieved and it is purported to show the role this particular dynamics plays in the education.

  2. Establishment of Oversea HRD Network and Operation of International Nuclear Education/Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.

    2008-02-01

    The project deals with establishment of international network for human resources and the development of international nuclear education and training programs. The primary result is the establishment of KAERI International Nuclear R and D Academy as a new activity on cooperation for human resource development and building network. For this purpose, KAERI concluded the MOU with Vietnamese Universities and selected 3 students to provide Master and Ph. D. Courses in 2008. KAERI also held the 3rd World Nuclear University Summer Institute, in which some 150 international nuclear professionals attended for 6 weeks. Also, as part of regional networking, the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was promoted through development of a cyber platform and accomplishment the first IAEA e-training course. There were 3 kind of development activities for the international cooperation of human resources development. Firstly, the project provided training courses on nuclear energy development for the Egyptian Nuclear personnel under the bilateral cooperation. Secondly, the project published the English textbook and its lecture materials on introduction to nuclear engineering and fundamentals on OPR 1000 system technology. Lastly, the project developed a new KOICA training course on research reactor and radioisotope application technology to expand the KOICA sponsorship from 2008. The international nuclear education/training program had offered 15 courses to 314 people from 52 countries. In parallel, the project developed 11 kinds of lecturer materials and also developed 29 kinds of cyber lecturer materials. The operation of the International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC) has contributed remarkably not only to the effective implementation of education/training activities of this project, but also to the promotion of other domestic and international activities of KAERI and other organizations

  3. Establishment of Oversea HRD Network and Operation of International Nuclear Education/Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.; Han, K. W. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project deals with establishment of international network for human resources and the development of international nuclear education and training programs. The primary result is the establishment of KAERI International Nuclear R and D Academy as a new activity on cooperation for human resource development and building network. For this purpose, KAERI concluded the MOU with Vietnamese Universities and selected 3 students to provide Master and Ph. D. Courses in 2008. KAERI also held the 3rd World Nuclear University Summer Institute, in which some 150 international nuclear professionals attended for 6 weeks. Also, as part of regional networking, the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was promoted through development of a cyber platform and accomplishment the first IAEA e-training course. There were 3 kind of development activities for the international cooperation of human resources development. Firstly, the project provided training courses on nuclear energy development for the Egyptian Nuclear personnel under the bilateral cooperation. Secondly, the project published the English textbook and its lecture materials on introduction to nuclear engineering and fundamentals on OPR 1000 system technology. Lastly, the project developed a new KOICA training course on research reactor and radioisotope application technology to expand the KOICA sponsorship from 2008. The international nuclear education/training program had offered 15 courses to 314 people from 52 countries. In parallel, the project developed 11 kinds of lecturer materials and also developed 29 kinds of cyber lecturer materials. The operation of the International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC) has contributed remarkably not only to the effective implementation of education/training activities of this project, but also to the promotion of other domestic and international activities of KAERI and other organizations.

  4. Shadow and substance. Securing the future of atoms for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Atoms for Peace' proposal in 1953, and the policy evolving from it, opened an era of accelerated spread of nuclear knowledge. It ushered in the dissemination of nuclear know-how and activity to a larger number of States than otherwise would have been the case. At the same time, it is clear that maintaining a policy of nuclear secrecy and denial would not have held back the inevitable growth in the number of countries that would acquire nuclear knowledge and gain access to nuclear technology. The difference is that 'Atoms for Peace' while quickening the pace of nuclear dissemination, also spearheaded the establishment of a normative framework that in its absence likely would not have emerged. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with its mandate not only to facilitate access to the peaceful benefits of nuclear energy, but also to develop and implement an international nuclear safeguards system, very likely would not have come into being. Nor would a normative framework have been set down for developing a civil nuclear economy. Instead, States in a position to do so, and motivated for one reason or another to do so, would have transferred nuclear technology, possibly on restrictive terms and conditions, possibly not. History provides insights. In the mid-1950s, as staunch a proponent of non-proliferation as Canada transferred an un-safeguarded research reactor capable of producing plutonium to India - only to find nearly two decades later that the reactor produced the plutonium used by India in its 1974 so called peaceful nuclear explosion. This resulted in a deterioration of Indo-Canadian relations. Great Britain for its part provided India with reprocessing technology. France in 1956 agreed to sell Israel a comparable research reactor without safeguards, but unlike Canada in the case of India, apparently without any illusions regarding its end use. France also built Spain's first nuclear power plant, Vandellos, in the late 1960s also without any

  5. Reimagining peace, reimagining education: Peace educational potential of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayaz Naseem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper I examine the potential of blogosphere for civic education. My main argument is that in in-crisis societies such as Pakistan the blogosphere is a space where conversations and multilogues on issues that are crucial to societal regeneration are taking place. These conversations and multilogues in/through the blogosphere are democratic and inclusive in that they are not confined by the traditional articulations of ‘expertise’, privilege and subject positioning. Neither the writer nor those who participate in the ensuing conversation are or have to be experts in a disciplinary sense. They are not privileged by credentials or by their positioning in the ‘knowledge’ hierarchy. Any and all agents of the civil society can either start or engage in these multilogues, many of which directly or indirectly, focus on issues of national and societal self-regeneration. Abstrak Dalam makalah ini saya meneliti potensi ruang-blog (blogosphere untuk pendidikan kewarganegaraan. Argumen utama saya adalah bahwa dalam masyarakat yang sedang dilanda krisis seperti Pakistan ruang-blog (blogosphere merupakan ruang di mana percakapan dan interaksi percakapan tentang isu-isu yang sangat penting bagi regenerasi sosial, berlangsung. Percakapan dan multilogues melalui ruang-blog ini bersifat demokratis dan inklusif karena tidak dibatasi oleh artikulasi tradisional yang mencirikan 'keahlian', pengaturan posisi berdasarkan hak istimewa dan subjek masalah. Baik penulis maupun orang-orang yang berpartisipasi dalam percakapan tidak harus ahli dalam disiplin tertentu. Mereka tidak diberi hak istimewa atas dasar prestasi atau posisi mereka dalam hirarki 'pengetahuan' . Setiap dan semua masyarakat sipil dapat memulai atau terlibat dalam interaksi percakapan ini, banyak di antara mereka yang baik langsung maupun tidak langsung, berfokus pada isu-isu regenerasi diri di tingkat nasional dan masyarakat.How to Cite : Naseem, M., A. (2015. Reimagining Peace

  6. An Overview of the Chinese Agenda: Global Sustainable Peace and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Nibshan Seesaghur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our globalised world is prone to complex challenges affecting mankind. As an ancient saying goes- China is an old civilised nation endowed with a new mission. However, this new mission here is referred to as the “Chinese Dream” and can only be accomplished in a peaceful environment. The concept of peaceful rise is perhaps the most important Chinese foreign policy intended to shape the global architecture. The Chinese agenda of global sustainable peace and development is delicately interwoven with the peaceful rise concept, which can be plainly interpreted as an adherence to existing international norms and an obligation to respecting prevailing global norms. This paper investigates China’s agenda of peaceful rise and development to provide an in-depth and evidencebased analysis of the new policy thinking and its tenets. The study revealed that China tries to manifest the policy thinking in five major foreign policies namely: (1 Peaceful Development; (2 New Model of Major-country Relations; (3 Neighbourhood Diplomacy; (4 Cooperation with Developing Countries; and (5 Multilateral Relations. These doctrines have assisted China in establishing itself as a part of the international society and an integral part of the global system. This paper also examines the role of China at the United Nations, which is a priority for China’s foreign strategy in the new century. Moreover, this paper will discuss the challenges China will have to face in developing new standards on global governance for the 21st century. Finally, the paper will assess whether the new mission, “Chinese Dream”, is on the right path to accomplish sustainable peace and development.

  7. War and perpetual peace: Hegel, Kant and contemporary war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the views of two classical authors about the possibility of peace and the inevitability of war: Kant and Hegel. The paper will argue that the main lines of these two schools are still alive today in our contemporary international politics. The Kantian school, with the possibility of peace, based on a league of nations, has inspired the creation of the United Nations. The Hegelian way of thinking (there is no judge above the national states, besides the history of the world has proven to be as contemporary as ever, once one analyzes some recent events of the international politics. Both Kantian and Hegelian views have weak and strong points, and it is a difficult task to reconcile both of them in a reasonable international politics. At the end, the paper will present JohnRawls´ doctrine of international politics, as stated in The Laws of Peoples, arguing that this doctrine follows the Kantian tradition of a foedus pacificum, while giving room to some Hegelian philosophical conceptions.

  8. The Fragility of the Liberal Peace Export to South Sudan: Formal Education Access as a Basis of a Liberal Peace Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the disjuncture between the policy transposition of the Liberal Peace Project (LPP in South Sudan from the country's local context. It underlines how deep rooted historical exclusion from social welfare services reinforces political exclusion and exacerbates poor civic engagement among different ethnicities in the country causing a constant relapse to violence. The study combines a qualitative review of data from Afrobarometer, the National Democratic Institute, international NGOs, and South Sudan's government reports within depth interviews and participants' observation. The research finds that restricted access to formal education alongside the conservative and orthodox approaches to peacebuilding, which broadly focus on centralised urban political institutions and exclude diverse local needs and preferences, limit citizenship participation to elections and preclude an equitable social order in South Sudan, establishing a continuum of fragile authoritarian peace, institutional peace and constitutional peace. In an emancipatory approach, the study proposes a framework that prioritizes an extended access to primary and post-primary vocational education as a more credible establishment for sustainable civil peace in the country. The LPP by the international community needs to be tailored to enhance the political will of the South Sudan government to extend free primary education access, incentivize primary education with school feeding programmes and to invigorate vocational training curricula. These will yield civil peace dividends, which avert South Sudan's structural source of relapse into violence with sustainable disincentives. Apart from women's empowerment through education and in all spheres of life, the government needs to ensure sustainability by guaranteeing a sustainable future for the present and for returning refugees by reducing the effects of climate change so as to cope with the increasing pressure on natural

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on research reactor safety operations and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The International Symposium on Research Reactor Safety, Operations and Modifications was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-Research Company. The main objectives of this Symposium were: (1) to exchange information and to discuss current perspectives and concerns relating to all aspects to research reactor safety, operations, and modifications; and, (2) to present views and to discuss future initiatives and directions for research reactor design, operations, utilization, and safety. The symposium topics included: research reactor programmes and experience; research reactor design safety and analysis; research reactor modifications and decommissioning; research reactor licensing; and new research reactors. These topics were covered during eight oral sessions and three poster sessions. These Proceedings include the full text of the 93 papers presented. The subject of Symposium was quite wide-ranging in that it covered essentially all aspects of research reactor safety, operations, and modifications. This was considered to be appropriate and timely given the 326 research reactors currently in operation in some 56 countries; given the degree of their utilization which ranges from pure and applied research to radioisotopes production to basic training and manpower development; and given that many of these reactors are undergoing extensive modifications, core conversions, power upratings, and are becoming the subject of safety reassessment and regulatory reviews. Although the Symposium covered many topics, the majority of papers and discussions tended to focus mainly on research reactor safety. This was seen as a clear sign of the continuing recognition of the fundamental importance of identifying and addressing, particularly through international cooperation, issues and concerns associated with research reactor safety

  10. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons of spacecraft origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szita

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The two PEACE (Plasma Electron And Current Experiment sensors on board each Cluster spacecraft sample the electron velocity distribution across the full 4 solid angle and the energy range 0.7 eV to 26 keV with a time resolution of 4 s. We present high energy and angular resolution 3D observations of electrons of spacecraft origin in the various environments encountered by the Cluster constellation, including a lunar eclipse interval where the spacecraft potential was reduced but remained positive, and periods of ASPOC (Active Spacecraft POtential Control operation which reduced the spacecraft potential. We demonstrate how the spacecraft potential may be found from a gradient change in the PEACE low energy spectrum, and show how the observed spacecraft electrons are confined by the spacecraft potential. We identify an intense component of the spacecraft electrons with energies equivalent to the spacecraft potential, the arrival direction of which is seen to change when ASPOC is switched on. Another spacecraft electron component, observed in the sunward direction, is reduced in the eclipse but unaffected by ASPOC, and we believe this component is produced in the analyser by solar UV. We find that PEACE anodes with a look direction along the spacecraft surfaces are more susceptible to spacecraft electron contamination than those which look perpendicular to the surface, which justifies the decision to mount PEACE with its field-of-view radially outward rather than tangentially.Key words. Magnetosheric physics (general or miscellaneous Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  11. Glossary on peaceful nuclear explosions terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents a glossary of terms in the area of peaceful nuclear explosions. The terms are in English, French, Russian and Spanish with cross-references for the corresponding terms of the other languages

  12. A Thousand Cranes: A Curriculum of Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Linda W.

    2000-01-01

    Relates the author's experiences as a teacher with a high school student, a soft-spoken Japanese young woman, who taught the author and her fellow high school students much about understanding, forgiveness, and peace. (SR)

  13. Forests, environment, sustainable development and peace process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Munoz, Jose Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The paper tries about the perspectives of the peace and the environment in the negotiation calendar with the armed groups and their thought about if the sustainable development is a common objective between the government and these groups

  14. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

  15. International guidance on the qualifications of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operation and maintenance as well as training of operations personnel are activities where a large amount of experience is available. Though it would seem that the status of a well-established practice, requiring constant attention but no major efforts directed towards improvements, should have been reached, this is not the case. Currently, upgrading of the qualification requirements and training procedures of nuclear power plant operations personnel is a major issue and substantial efforts are being expended to this effect. The availability of international guidance in this field is perceived to be of benefit to all; therefore the Agency has undertaken to develop such guidance. In addition to earlier publications, a guidebook on this subject area is being prepared. Important problems and current issues have been identified and these are commented upon in the present paper. The specific topics referred to include: the role of the operating organization and the regulatory body; organizational aspects; staffing requirements; competence requirements for personnel; establishment and verification of competence; and personnel management. It is recognized that developing international guidance is a difficult and delicate task, especially when it is intended to go beyond stating the obvious and expressing generalities which are certain to meet a general consensus. (author)

  16. Manual for IRS Coding. Joint IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). In early 2010, the IAEA and OECD/NEA jointly issued the IRS Guidelines, which described the reporting system and process and gave users the necessary elements to enable them to produce IRS reports to a high standard of quality while retaining the effectiveness of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of the present Manual for IRS Coding is to provide supplementary guidance specifically on the coding element of IRS reports to ensure uniform coding of events that are reported through IRS. This Coding Manual does not supersede the IRS Guidelines, but rather, supports users and preparers in achieving a consistent and high level of quality in their IRS reports. Consistency and high quality in the IRS reports allow stakeholders to search and retrieve specific event information with ease. In addition, well-structured reports also enhance the efficient management of the IRS database. This Coding Manual will give specific guidance on the application of each section of the IRS codes, with examples where necessary, of when and how these codes are to be applied. As this reporting system is owned by the Member States, this manual has been developed and approved by the IRS National Coordinators with the assistance of the IAEA and NEA secretariats

  17. Actinide data in the thermal energy range - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henri; Weigmann, H.; Sowerby, M.; Mattes, Margarete; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Halsall, M.J.; Weston, L.; Deruytter, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by a Subgroup investigating actinide data in the thermal energy range. Thermal nuclear constants for the primary actinides have been extensively studies, but the most recent evaluations are not in full agreement with thermal reactor calculations. The objective of the Subgroup was to identify the origin of these differences and to reassess the recent evaluations. A considerable effort was devoted to the η of U-235, where analysis of lattice temperature coefficient measurements has suggested an energy dependent shape below thermal energy

  18. War and Peace: an Economic Liberalist Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. HUNG

    2009-01-01

    In a simple formal model of two-country, two-good with an elementary Conflict Technology, we use a rudimentary game theoretics to study the matter of war and peace, where under peace, cooperative exchange takes place, and where, in case of war, the winner takes all through appropriation of the whole endowment left after payment of armament expenditures. We provide conditions under which war is inevitable, then go on to characterize situations where war, still probable, is not necessarily the ...

  19. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed