WorldWideScience

Sample records for international lung cancer

  1. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  2. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  8. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxi...... II trials, but results from large phase III trials are necessary in order to measure the impact of these new agents in the management of NSCLC. Major improvements of therapy for mesothelioma have not occurred within the last year....

  9. [Application of the 2007 lung cancer staging system by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qing-feng; Feng, Yuan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue

    2009-08-18

    To compare the prognoses of non-small cell lung cancer patients based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System for NSCLC (the 6th-Edition Staging System) and the new staging system by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) (new staging system). Data were collected from 136 operated NSCLC patients from Sep. 2003 through Oct. 2007. Those data were staged based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System and the new staging system. The 2-year no-recurrence survival rate was calculated, and life span was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method of SPSS 13.0 software. (1) In this series, using the 6th-Edition Staging System, there were 56, 23, 53 and 4 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively; using the new staging system, there were 50, 31, 54 and 1 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively. There were 6 patients in stage I according to the 6th-Edition Staging System who had become 6 patients in stage II according to the new staging system, 1 patient in stage II 1 in stage III, 3 patients in stage III 3 in stage II, 1 patient in stage III 1 in stage IV, and 4 patients in stage IV 4 in stage III. (2) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the 2-year no-recurrence survival rates for Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb,IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.0%, 83.3%, 100.0%, 63.6%, 52.1%, 80.0% and 50.0% respectively, and according to the new staging system, the 2-year cumulative survival rates for I a, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.5%, 89.3%, 68.4%, 63.6%, 52.8%, 50.0% and 0.0% respectively. After Chi square analysis, there was no distinguished difference between the 2 staging systems for the 2-year cumulative survival rate. (3) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the difference between the no-recurrence rate of stage I and stage II was not statistically significant (P = 0.232), and the difference between the no-recurrence rates of stage II and III was statistically significant(P = 0

  10. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  11. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  12. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  13. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience complications from follow-up tests. For this reason, lung cancer screening is offered to people who are in ... is more likely to be cancerous. For that reason, you might be referred to a lung ... problems. Your lung cancer screening test may detect other lung and heart ...

  14. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  15. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  16. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... in the United States, the incidence rate of lung cancer— Men Decreased significantly by 2.5% per year ...

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...

  18. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation; Riesgo de cancer pulmonar por radon, discordancia en reglamentacion internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  19. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    , which are summarized in this report. The recommendation from the workshop, and supported by the IASLC Board of Directors, was to set up the Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee (IASLC-SSAC). The Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee is currently engaging professional societies and organizations...... who are stakeholders in lung cancer CT screening implementation across the globe, to focus on delivering guidelines and recommendations in six specific areas: (i) identification of high-risk individuals for lung cancer CT screening programs; (ii) develop radiological guidelines for use in developing...... national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...

  20. International variation in lung cancer mortality rates and trends among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-06-01

    There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1025-36. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  2. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  3. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  4. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a history of lung disease such as tuberculosis, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. A history of lung ... Cancer Society: Cancer Facts & Figures 2017 (PDF) Byers LA, Rudin CM. Small cell lung cancer: where do ...

  6. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  7. Cancer Genes in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent “oncogenic drivers” in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug

  8. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally v...

  9. Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Primary Lung Cancer and Other Targets: Results of Consultant Meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Wulf, Joern; Lax, Ingmar; Timmerman, Robert; Zimmermann, Frank; Stojkovski, Igor; Jeremic, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and identify both advantages and disadvantages of its use in developing countries, a meeting composed of consultants of the International Atomic Energy Agency was held in Vienna in November 2006. Owing to continuous developments in the field, the meeting was extended by subsequent discussions and correspondence (2007-2010), which led to the summary presented here. The advantages and disadvantages of SBRT expected to be encountered in developing countries were identified. The definitions, typical treatment courses, and clinical results were presented. Thereafter, minimal methodology/technology requirements for SBRT were evaluated. Finally, characteristics of SBRT for developing countries were recommended. Patients for SBRT should be carefully selected, because single high-dose radiotherapy may cause serious complications in some serial organs at risk. Clinical experiences have been reported in some populations of lung cancer, lung oligometastases, liver cancer, pancreas cancer, and kidney cancer. Despite the disadvantages expected to be experienced in developing countries, SBRT using fewer fractions may be useful in selected patients with various extracranial cancers with favorable outcome and low toxicity.

  10. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  11. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... as a source for research regarding lung cancer in Denmark and in comparisons with other countries....

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the foreign antigens on the surface of cancer cells and help destroy them. Recent studies indicate this approach holds promise. Bevacizumab and chemotherapy: Last year, scientists announced a new development in treating advanced lung cancer. In a large study, people taking bevacizumab (Avastin) ...

  13. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  14. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  15. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  17. Lung Cancer: Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Timothy F

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer management that is individualized for age, comorbidities, cancer type, cancer stage, and patient preference has long been a cornerstone of management. New to this realm of individualized management are the emerging biologic therapies, immunotherapies, and targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer provided by advances in genetics and molecular medicine. These techniques have led to a new field of precision medicine based on the unique molecular characteristics of a specific patient and the specific cancer. However, standard management including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy remains the most common management options for stage I through III lung cancers. Advancements in precision medicine are most relevant to patients with stage IV (ie, metastatic) lung cancers. Functional patient assessment and pulmonary function testing are keys to preoperative assessment. Early palliative care and a minimally invasive approach to surgery should be considered in patients who can tolerate surgery. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  20. An international comparison of costs of end-of-life care for advanced lung cancer patients using health administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Karen E; Krahn, Murray D; Warren, Joan L; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Michael J; Liu, Ning; Barbera, Lisa; Yabroff, K Robin

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of end-of-life cancer care differ in Canada and the United States; yet little is known about differences in service-specific and overall costs. The aim of this study was to compare end-of-life costs in Ontario, Canada, and the United States, using administrative health data. Advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who died from cancer at age ⩾ 65.5 years in 2001-2005 were selected from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (N = 16,858) and the Ontario Cancer Registry (N = 8643). We estimated total and service-specific costs (2009 US dollars) in each of the last 6 months of life from the public payer perspectives for short-term and long-term survivors (lived costs increased as death approached, were higher in short-term than long-term survivors, and were generally higher in the United States than in Ontario until the month before death, when they were similar (long-term survivors: US$10,464 and US$10,094 (p = 0.53), short-term survivors US$14,455 and US$12,836 (p = 0.11), in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare and Ontario, respectively). Costs for Medicare hospice and Ontario's palliative care components were similar and increased closer to death. Inpatient hospitalization was the main cost driver with similar costs in both cohorts, despite lower utilization in the United States. The compositions of many services and costs differed. Costs for nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were slightly higher in the United States than Ontario until 1 month before death. Administrative data allow exploration and international comparisons of reimbursement policies, health-care delivery, and costs at the end of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  2. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  3. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  4. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University Hospital. Inclusion criteria for the current study was histologically and cytologically confirmed NSCLC patients, patients with either lung cancer stage. IIIA, IIIB or IV, chemotherapy naïve, patients having evaluable and measureable disease,. WHO performance status (PS): 0 – 2, no active.

  5. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  6. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a radioactive gas that comes from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... show that living in areas with higher levels of air pollution increases the risk of lung cancer. Beta carotene ...

  7. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  8. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  9. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  11. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  12. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ability ...

  14. Pleiotropy of genetic variants on obesity and smoking phenotypes: Results from the Oncoarray Project of The International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO. Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively. The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001 in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05, respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.

  15. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  16. Assessing Respiration-Induced Tumor Motion and Internal Target Volume Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. Helen; Balter, Peter; Tutt, Teresa; Choi, Bum; Zhang, Joy; Wang, Catherine; Chi, Melinda; Luo Dershan; Pan Tinsu; Hunjan, Sandeep; Starkschall, George; Rosen, Isaac; Prado, Karl; Liao Zhongxing; Chang, Joe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess three-dimensional tumor motion caused by respiration and internal target volume (ITV) for radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Respiration-induced tumor motion was analyzed for 166 tumors from 152 lung cancer patients, 57.2% of whom had Stage III or IV non-small-cell lung cancer. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during normal breathing before treatment. The expiratory phase of 4DCT images was used as the reference set to delineate gross tumor volume (GTV). Gross tumor volumes on other respiratory phases and resulting ITVs were determined using rigid-body registration of 4DCT images. The association of GTV motion with various clinical and anatomic factors was analyzed statistically. Results: The proportions of tumors that moved >0.5 cm along the superior-inferior (SI), lateral, and anterior-posterior (AP) axes during normal breathing were 39.2%, 1.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. For 95% of the tumors, the magnitude of motion was less than 1.34 cm, 0.40 cm, and 0.59 cm along the SI, lateral, and AP directions. The principal component of tumor motion was in the SI direction, with only 10.8% of tumors moving >1.0 cm. The tumor motion was found to be associated with diaphragm motion, the SI tumor location in the lung, size of the GTV, and disease T stage. Conclusions: Lung tumor motion is primarily driven by diaphragm motion. The motion of locally advanced lung tumors is unlikely to exceed 1.0 cm during quiet normal breathing except for small lesions located in the lower half of the lung

  17. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zagà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210 is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226 and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210 and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  18. Surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Lang-Lazdunski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the best curative option in patients with early stage lung cancer (stage I and II. Developments in minimally invasive techniques now allow surgeons to perform lung resections on elderly patients, patients with poor pulmonary function or significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities. New techniques, such as stereotactic radiotherapy and ablative procedures, are being evaluated in early-stage lung cancer and may represent an alternative to surgery in patients unfit for lung resection. Perioperative mortality rates have dropped significantly at most institutions in the past two decades and complications are managed more efficiently. Progress in imaging and staging techniques have helped cut futile thoracotomy rates and offer patients the most adequate treatment options. Large randomised trials have helped clarify the role of neoadjuvant, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as radiotherapy. Surgery remains an essential step in the multimodality therapy of selected patients with advanced-stage lung cancer (stage III and IV. Interventional and endoscopic techniques have reduced the role of surgery in the diagnosis and staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, but surgery remains an important tool in the palliation of advanced-stage lung cancer. Large national/international surgical databases have been developed and predictive risk-models for surgical mortality/morbidity published by learned surgical societies. Nonetheless, lung cancer overall survival rates remain deceptively low and it is hoped that early detection/screening, better understanding of tumour biology and development of biomarkers, and development of efficient targeted therapies will help improve the prognosis of lung cancer patients in the next decade.

  19. Efficient approach for determining four-dimensional computed tomography-based internal target volume in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Seung Gu; Kim, Eun Seog

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate efficient approaches for determining internal target volume (ITV) from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images used in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 4D CT images were analyzed for 15 patients who received SBRT for stage I NSCLC. Three different ITVs were determined as follows: combining clinical target volume (CTV) from all 10 respiratory phases (ITV 10Phases ); combining CTV from four respiratory phases, including two extreme phases (0% and 50%) plus two intermediate phases (20% and 70%) (ITV 4Phases ); and combining CTV from two extreme phases (ITV 2Phases ). The matching index (MI) of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases was defined as the ratio of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases , respectively, to the ITV 10Phases . The tumor motion index (TMI) was defined as the ratio of ITV 10Phases to CTV mean , which was the mean of 10 CTVs delineated on 10 respiratory phases. The ITVs were significantly different in the order of ITV 10Phases , ITV 4Phases , and ITV 2Phases (all p 4Phases was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p 4Phases was inversely related to TMI (r = -0.569, p = 0.034). In a subgroup with low TMI (n = 7), ITV 4Phases was not statistically different from ITV 10Phases (p = 0.192) and its MI was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p = 0.016). The ITV 4Phases may be an efficient approach alternative to optimal ITV 10Phases in SBRT for early-stage NSCLC with less tumor motion.

  20. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  1. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  2. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prepare meals or do the grocery shopping for you. Most people you know want to ... Better Breathers Clubs Asthma Basics LUNG FORCE Expos Online Support Communities FUNDRAISERS Fight For Air Climb LUNG ...

  3. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V 20 values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  4. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among...

  5. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  6. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  7. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Alternative Splicing in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Alterations in alternative splicing affect essential biologic processes and are the basis for a number of pathologic conditions, including cancer. In this review we will summarize the evidence supporting the relevance of alternative splicing in lung cancer. An example that illustrates this relevance is the altered balance between Bcl-xL and Bcl-xS, two splice variants of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-x. Splice modifications in cancer-related genes can be associated ...

  9. Lung Cancer and Tobacco: What Is New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Tobacco use remains the single most important preventable cause of cancer and is responsible for 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Implementation of tobacco control measures, including preventing initiation and treating dependence, are pivotal to address the lung cancer epidemic. New evidence continues to emerge on the significant positive impact of incorporating tobacco dependence treatment within all lung cancer treatment protocols. Evidence and guidelines on how to implement these strategies exist and present an opportunity for nurses to make a difference in reducing suffering and preventing deaths from lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of the millennium. As of today, survival after lung cancer in Denmark is probably in line with the international standard. Based on our results we recommend introducing mortality indicators based on all-cause mortality within the patient population in international benchmarking studies as comparisons based......Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...

  11. PET in lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R. E. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation.

  12. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  13. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atomic bomb radiation. Living where there is air pollution. Having a family history of lung cancer. Being ... the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atomic bomb radiation. Living where there is air pollution. Having a family history of lung cancer. Being ... the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and ...

  15. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atomic bomb radiation. Living where there is air pollution. Having a family history of lung cancer. Being ... the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atomic bomb radiation. Living where there is air pollution. Having a family history of lung cancer. Being ... the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves ( ultrasound ) off internal tissues or organs and ...

  17. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Umasankar; Madan, Karan; Jain, Deepali; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer. PMID:25983415

  18. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer.

  19. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  20. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... origin, usually the organ where it began. Locally Advanced Cancer: Cancer that has spread only to nearby ... to enjoy life. R Radiation: Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles. Radiation Field: The ...

  1. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  2. Lung cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1996-06-01

    To study the relative and absolute risks of main types of lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark. A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 was compiled from the personnel files of Danish Eternit Production. The cohort was followed up for deaths, emigrations, and incident cancer cases during the period 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases in the cohort was compared with the expected number based on incidences for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases were observed (223 men and three women). The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer among men was 1.7 (observed number 223, expected number 129.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.0). The SIRs were raised for all main types of lung cancer; adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. The higher SIR for adenocarcinomas was found particularly with a latency period of 25 years or more. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas and 32 were adenocarcinomas. Asbestos cement work is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer of all main types. During the first 25 years after the start of employment this excess risk is shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas is clearly higher after this point.

  3. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  4. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  5. Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H M; Bowman, R V; Crossin, J; Lau, M A; Slaughter, R E; Passmore, L H; McCaul, E M; Courtney, D A; Windsor, M N; Yang, I A; Smith, I R; Keir, B J; Hayes, T J; Redmond, S J; Zimmerman, P V; Fong, K M

    2013-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. Screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of screening in Australia is unknown. This paper describes the rationale, design and methods of the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study. The aim of the study is to describe the methodology for a feasibility study of lung cancer screening by LDCT in Australia. The Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study is an ongoing, prospective observational study of screening by LDCT at a single tertiary institution. Healthy volunteers at high risk of lung cancer (age 60-74 years; smoking history ≥30 pack years, current or quit within 15 years; forced expiratory volume in 1s ≥50% predicted) are recruited from the general public through newspaper advertisement and press release. Participants receive a LDCT scan of the chest at baseline, year 1 and year 2 using a multidetector helical computed tomography scanner and are followed up for a total of 5 years. Feasibility of screening will be assessed by cancer detection rates, lung nodule prevalence, optimal management strategies for lung nodules, economic costs, healthcare utilisation and participant quality of life. Studying LDCT screening in the Australian setting will help us understand how differences in populations, background diseases and healthcare structures modulate screening effectiveness. This information, together with results from overseas randomised studies, will inform and facilitate local policymaking. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  7. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  8. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  9. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  11. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  12. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  14. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  15. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  16. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Lung Cancer Screening: Optimization through risk stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. However, results from randomized controlled trials indicate that lung cancer mortality can be reduced by early detection through computed tomography screening. This thesis describes the development of a

  18. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Approach to derive doses for case-control studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among workers internally exposed to uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Berard, Philippe; Bingham, Derek; Blanchardon, Eric; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cecile; Birchall, Alan; Puncher, Matthew; Bull, Richard; Hurtgen, Christian; Riddell, Tony; Vrijheid, Martine; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Case-control studies are currently conducted in 3 European countries (Belgium, France and the United Kingdom) to estimate the risk of lung cancer and leukaemia in relation to internal exposure to uranium and plutonium amongst workers in the nuclear industry. The project requires calculating doses absorbed by the lung and the bone marrow for many hundreds of cases and controls internally exposed. In order to establish a common approach to dose reconstruction, a detailed dosimetry protocol and a database of individual exposure were set up and will be presented. The dose reconstruction relies heavily on bioassay data, which are usually urine analysis, extending back over 50 years in some cases. Inevitably, data obtained over such a time span are of variable quality. It is important to review the monitoring practices at the various laboratories and to assess the reliability of these data in order to estimate possible biases as well as random uncertainties. Another key step in the reconstruction process is to decide upon the likely intake regimes consistent with the data. Generally, chronic intakes will be assumed and acute intakes will be added only when their existence is supported by operational data. Biokinetic models are used both to calculate intakes from bioassay data and to convert intakes to doses. The ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract model will be used along with the latest systemic models described by ICRP. These will be supplemented by the Leggett 2005 model for plutonium. These various models will be implemented by the code IMBA-Expert. Since it is essential to obtain central estimates for the doses, a particular problem is encountered with datasets consisting only of values below the limit of detection. For these cases Bayesian statistics will be employed using a non-informative prior probability distribution. (author)

  20. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  1. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  2. Mitosis trumps T stage and proposed international association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society classification for prognostic value in resected stage 1 lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhig, Edwina Elizabeth; Dettrick, Andrew; Godbolt, David Burleigh; Pauli, John; van Zwieten, Anthony; Hansen, Aaron Richard; Yang, Ian Anthony; Fong, Kwun Meng; Clarke, Belinda Edith; Bowman, Rayleen Veronica

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether a group of pathologists could reproducibly apply the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification for lung adenocarcinoma to a cohort of stage 1 tumors and whether this architectural classification and/or other parameters could demonstrate survival advantage. A total of 145 cases of 7 edition of tumor, node, metastasis stage 1 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed for predominant architectural pattern, including cribriform pattern, nuclear grade, mitotic index, and necrosis. The parameters were assessed for reproducibility and survival and using multivariate analysis, compared with stage, age, and sex. The majority of tumors had a mixed architecture with the acinar pattern being the most common predominant architecture. Micropapillary and cribriform architecture were the least frequent patterns. This study demonstrated that a group of five pathologists could reproducibly apply the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification. Although there were insufficient cribriform-predominant adenocarcinomas for assessment, when the percentage of all cribriform was combined with other architectures, it was associated with a worse prognosis. The majority of the parameters assessed demonstrated significance with univariate analysis but only mitotic index, as assessed by the highest count/10 high-power fields remained significant with multivariate analysis. In this study of resected stage 1 primary lung adenocarcinoma, we found mitotic index to be the only independent prognostic marker. It was more closely associated with outcome than either pathologic T stage or IASLC/ATS/ERS architecture-based classification. Further validation of concordance and reproducibility in reporting mitotic index, as well as validation of prognostic significance, needs to be undertaken in independent data sets.

  3. The Role of Radiation Induced Injury on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 91Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. The radiation dose per cell turnover was characterized and related to the cause of death for each animal. Large doses per cell turnover resulted in acute death from lung damage with extensive cell killing, tissue disorganization, chronic inflammatory disease, fibrosis, and pneumonitis. Dogs with lower doses per cell turnover developed a very high frequency of lung cancer. As the dose per cell turnover was further decreased, no marked tissue damage and no significant change in either life span or lung cancer frequency was observed. Radiation induced tissue damage and chronic inflammatory disease results in high cancer frequencies in the lung. At doses where a high frequency of chromosome damage and mutations would be predicted to occur there was no decrease in life span or increase in lung cancer. Such research suggests that cell killing and tissue damage and the physiological responses to that damage are important mechanisms in radiation induced lung cancer.

  4. African American health disparities in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Guerrier-Adams, Suzy; Okunji, Priscilla O; Schiavone, Deborah; Smith, Joann E

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and globally. African Americans experience significant differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Smoking is the single greatest risk for lung cancer, making smoking cessation programs a potentially fruitful approach for reducing the risk of lung cancer. Despite clinical practice guidelines that prompt nurses to advise patients to quit smoking, only a small percentage of nurses do so. Minority patients are less likely than Whites to receive smoking cessation advice. This article discusses recent findings on the pathophysiology and risks for lung cancer. The literature on smoking cessation research is examined to determine the features of successful cessation interventions. Recommendations are offered for enhancing tobacco cessation efforts in nursing practice, education, and research.

  5. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent

  6. An evaluation of an automated 4D-CT contour propagation tool to define an internal gross tumour volume for lung cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaede, Stewart; Olsthoorn, Jason; Louie, Alexander V.; Palma, David; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Chen, Jeff; Bzdusek, Karl; Rodrigues, George

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate an automated 4D-CT contouring propagation tool by its impact on the inter- and intra-physician variability in lung tumour delineation. Materials and methods: In a previous study, six radiation oncologists contoured the gross tumour volume (GTV) and nodes on 10 phases of the 4D-CT dataset of 10 lung cancer patients to examine the intra- and inter-physician variability. In this study, a model-based deformable image registration algorithm was used to propagate the GTV and nodes on each phase of the same 4D-CT datasets. A blind review of the contours was performed by each physician and edited. Inter- and intra-physician variability for both the manual and automated methods was assessed by calculating the centroid motion of the GTV using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the variability in the internal gross tumour volume (IGTV) overlap using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Results: The time for manual delineation was (42.7 ± 18.6) min versus (17.7 ± 5.4) min when the propagation tool was used. A significant improvement in the mean Pearson correlation coefficient was also observed. There was a significant decrease in mean DSC in only 1 out of 10 primary IGTVs and 2 out of 10 nodal IGTVs. Intra-physician variability was not significantly impacted (DSC > 0.742). Conclusions: Automated 4D-CT propagation tools can significantly decrease the IGTV delineation time without significantly decreasing the inter- and intra-physician variability.

  7. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  8. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  9. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengxiang Li,1 Jianbin Li,1 Zhifang Ma,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Jun Xing,1 Huanpeng Qi,1 Dongping Shang21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT, four-dimensional CT (4DCT, and cone-beam CT (CBCT images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume, internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left–right (LR, anterior–posterior (AP directions and 10 mm in cranial–caudal (CC direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated.Results: The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm

  10. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... 200 mm3, should be managed in multidisciplinary teams according to this EU position statement recommendations to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment; and planning for implementation of low-dose CT screening should start throughout Europe as soon as possible. European countries...

  11. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  12. [Combined-modality therapy for lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Lung cancer is treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to histology and clinical stage. Advanced stage lung cancer patients cannot be cured, but early and locally-advanced stage patients can be cured by intensive combined-modality therapy. Combined-modality therapy with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for resectable IB-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and stage I small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Chemoradiotherapy is standard for unresectable locally-advanced NSCLC and limited-stage SCLC patients. Recently, several new drugs, molecular targeted drugs, have become available for clinical use and trials. We reviewed standard and new strategy of combined-modality therapy for early and locally-advanced lung cancer patients.

  13. Second-Line Treatment Options in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Report From an International Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gridelli, Cesare; Baas, Paul; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Crinò, Lucio; Felip, Enriqueta; Gadgeel, Shirish; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Paz-Ares, Luis; Planchard, David; Perol, Maurice; Hanna, Nasser; Sgambato, Assunta; Casaluce, Francesca; de Marinis, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients inevitably progress to first-line therapy and further active treatments are warranted. In the past few years, new second-line therapies, beyond chemotherapy agents, have become available in clinical practice. To date, several options for the second-line

  14. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  15. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J

    Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening. To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences. Seven important attributes were selected using the literature, interviews, and a panel session. Preferences were elicited using a swing weighting questionnaire. The resulting attribute weights indicate the relative importance of swings from the worst to the best level between attributes. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify subgroups with different attribute weights. One thousand thirty-four respondents from a representative Dutch panel aged between 40 and 80 years were included. The identified attributes were location of screening (weight = 0.18 ± 0.16), mode of screening (weight = 0.17 ± 0.14), sensitivity (weight = 0.16 ± 0.13) and specificity (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12) of the screening modality, waiting time until results (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), radiation burden (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), and duration of screening procedure (weight = 0.10 ± 0.09). Most respondents preferred breath analysis (45%) to giving blood samples (31%) or going through a scanner (24%) as screening modality; 59% preferred screening at the general practitioner's office instead of at the hospital. There was a significant difference in education between the five identified preference subgroups (P screening. Different screening policies and implementation strategies may be appropriate for particular preference subgroups. Our results indicate that people prefer breath analysis and that they are more likely to attend screening modalities that can be used at a primary care facility. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Schneeberg lung cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalthoff, J.

    1982-01-01

    47 cases of ''Schneeberg lung cancer'' are reported which received financial compensation in West Germany after 1945 after being officially acknowledged as occupational disease. With two exceptions, all patients had been occupied in the Saxonian and Bohemian uranium mines (or their extensions after World War II). The geotechnical fundamentals, industrial hygiene measures taken, the radiobiological situation and its effects are presented. Most patients had small-cell carcinomas or epitheliomas. Accompanying silicosis, usually in a mild form, was found in 35 cases. The mean exposure time was 10.3 years (in 11 cases, less than five years), the mean latency time 22 years (minimum: 8 years). The mean age at the time of death was 58.2 years, i.e. 10 years less than in a normal control group. (orig.) [de

  17. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  18. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  19. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  20. Lung cancer and occupation in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchen, M L; Wiggins, C L; Samet, J M

    1987-10-01

    The association between occupation and lung cancer risk was examined in a population-based, case-control study of 506 patients (333 males and 173 females) and 771 control (499 males and 272 females) subjects in New Mexico. A personal interview was used to obtain lifetime occupational and smoking histories and self-reported history of exposures to specific agents. High-risk jobs were identified in advance of data analysis and linked with industrial and occupational codes for hypothesis testing. For females, lung cancer risk was not associated with employment history, but power was limited. For males, elevated risks were found for the uranium mining industry [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9; 95% confidence internal (CI) = 0.8-4.9], underground miners (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-3.7), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.8-8.9), and welders (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.4-7.4). For self-reported exposure to any of 18 agents, only the OR for exposure to "other metals" was elevated. The population attributable risk in males was estimated as 14% for employment in any high-risk industry or occupation with an OR above 1 in this study.

  1. [Lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1998-02-09

    A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 at a Danish asbestos cement factory Dansk Eternit Fabrik A/S was followed up for deaths, immigrations, and incident cancer cases during 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases was compared with the expected number based on incidence rates for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases was observed; 223 cases among men and three among women. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer cases for men was 1.7; for adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas, 32 adenocarcinomas and 17 anaplastic carcinomas. During the first 25 years after the start of employment the excess risk was shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas was clearly higher after this point.

  2. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  3. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  4. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Maintenance treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian association of thoracic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Di Maio, Massimo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Belani, Chandra P; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Fidias, Panagiotis; Paz-Ares, Luis; Perrone, Francesco; Pirker, Robert; De Petris, Luigi; Stahel, Rolf

    2012-06-01

    Several randomized trials have recently investigated the role of maintenance treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with responding or stable disease after completion of first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance strategy has relevant implications in terms of potential toxicity, logistics and costs, and all of these aspects should be taken into account, together with the magnitude of benefit for the patient. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of available evidence, to help clinical practice, and to suggest priorities for future clinical research, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting on maintenance treatment of advanced NSCLC, which took place in Sperlonga (Italy) in May 2011. Based on the available evidence, panelists agreed that maintenance therapy represents a treatment option in advanced NSCLC. Maintenance should be discussed with patients not progressed after 4-6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy, who are fit (performance status 0-1) and without persistent chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Patients need to be well informed about potential advantages and disadvantages of accepting additional therapy without a "treatment-free period". Two different strategies, switch or continuation maintenance, are supported by available evidence. At the moment, there is no direct comparison between switch maintenance and continuation maintenance. For future trials, the panel recommends the use of overall survival as the primary endpoint, with pre-defined second-line treatment. Translational research is essential to identify predictive factors, and should be performed, whenever feasible, in order to achieve treatment optimization with proper patient selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  7. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the influence of a history of depression in the process of diagnostic evaluation and the choice of treatment in lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on all patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were registered in 2008-2014; in total, 27 234 patients....... To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...... that patients with a history of periodic depression need special attention when diagnosed with lung cancer....

  8. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F

    2015-02-15

    Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.

  9. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...... of our summary tables that provide the real-life range of mortality for lobectomy and pneumonectomy....

  10. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of

  11. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  12. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a complex comorbidity of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grose, Derek; Milroy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major burden throughout the world. It is associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer and may influence treatment options and outcome. Impaired lung function confirming COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be a key link between COPD and lung cancer, with numerous molecular markers being analysed to attempt to understand the pathway of lung cancer development. COPD negat...

  14. Cytopathology of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with a single histological pattern using the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Dacic, Sanja; Pantanowitz, Liron; Khalbuss, Walid E; Monaco, Sara E

    2015-05-01

    Guidelines for histological subtyping in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) were recently proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. The objective of the current study was to investigate the cytomorphology of these subtypes of ADC in cases with matched histology specimens demonstrating a single pure subtype. The authors reviewed their database for patients with histological diagnoses of primary lung ADC with a single histological pattern observed on surgical resection and investigated the cytological findings in 18 matched cytology specimens to eliminate sampling issues in cases of mixed ADC. Resections were classified as acinar (7 specimens), solid (6 specimens), lepidic (2 specimens), mucinous (2 specimens), and papillary (1 specimen). Cytology specimens demonstrating a solid pattern had a predominance of 3-dimensional clusters (5 of 6 vs 0 of 12 specimens) (P = .0007, Fisher exact test), necrotic background (3 of 6 vs 0 of 12 specimens) (P = .02), pleomorphic nuclei (6 of 6 vs 1 of 12 specimens) (P = .0004), irregular nuclear contours (6 of 6 vs 3 of 12 specimens) (P = .009), and nuclear enlargement (5 of 6 vs 2 of 12 specimens) (P = .01) compared with the nonsolid patterns. Nuclear pseudoinclusions were present only in nonsolid patterns (5 of 12 specimens), although this finding was not statistically significant (P = .05) CONCLUSIONS: Cytological features of lung ADC subtypes proposed by the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification overlap. However, architectural and nuclear features may be helpful, particularly in distinguishing the prognostically adverse solid pattern from other patterns. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  16. Checkpoint Blockade in Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievense, Lysanne A; Sterman, Daniel H; Cornelissen, Robin; Aerts, Joachim G

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a new treatment modality in cancer. The most success has been achieved with the class of checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), antibodies that unleash the antitumor immune response. After the success in melanoma, numerous clinical trials are being conducted investigating CPIs in lung cancer and mesothelioma. The programmed death protein (PD) 1-PD ligand 1/2 pathway and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 are currently the most studied immunotherapeutic targets in these malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer, anti-PD-1 antibodies have become part of the approved treatment arsenal. In small cell lung cancer and mesothelioma, the efficacy of checkpoint inhibition has not yet been proven. In this Concise Clinical Review, an overview of the landmark clinical trials investigating checkpoint blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma is provided. Because response rates are around 20% in the majority of clinical trials, there is much room for improvement. Predictive biomarkers are therefore essential to fully develop the potential of CPIs. To increase efficacy, multiple clinical trials investigating the combination of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitors and PD-1/PD ligand 1 blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma are being conducted. Given the potential benefit of immunotherapy, implementation of current and new knowledge in trial designs and interpretation of results is essential for moving forward.

  17. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  18. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  19. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  20. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Christina S., E-mail: cbaik2@u.washington.edu; Eaton, Keith D. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2012-09-25

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  1. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D. Eaton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  2. Role of lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jankowska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents one of the most frequent causes of death due to neoplastic disease in Poland and around the world. The high mortality which accompany neoplastic diseases used to be ascribed mainly to dissemination of cancerous cells. Studies on animal models suggest that tumour lymphangiogenesis represents the principal factor in the process of metastases formation. Lymphangiogenesis involves a process of formation of new lymphatic vessels from already existing lymphatic capillaries. Lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF and other, recently reported factors, such as, e.g., cyclooxygenase 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, angiopoetin-1 and the insulin-resembling growth factor. In lymphangiogenesis a key role is played by neutropilin 2 or podoplanin and this promoted development of studies on lymphangiogenesis. Activation of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumours such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. In recent years lymphangiogenesis provided topic of many studies. A positive correlation was detected between expressions of VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-3 in non-small cell lung cancer. In patients with lung cancer with high expression of VEGF-C a markedly abbreviated survival was noted. Positive correlation was detected between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on one hand and expression of LYVE-1 on the other in sentinel lymph nodes with metastases of neoplastic cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Also, high density of lymphatic vessels and high density of intraneoplastic microvessels proved to be independent poor prognostic indices in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Extensive hope is linked to studies on inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, which may improve results of treatment also in tumour patients.

  3. Comparison of three approaches to delineate internal gross tumor volume based on four-dimensional CT simulation images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxiang; Li Jianbin; Zhang Yingjie; Shang Dongping; Liu Tonghai; Tian Shiyu; Xu Min; Ma Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare positional and volumetric differences of internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) delineated separately by three approaches based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) for the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NLCLC). Methods: Twenty-one patients with NLCLC underwent big bore 4DCT simulation scan of the thorax. IGTVs of the primary tumor of NSCLC were delineated using three approaches as followed: (1) the gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of the ten the respiratory phases of the 4DCT image set were delineated and the ten GTV were fused to produce IGTV 10 ; (2) the GTV delineated separately based on 0% and 50% phase were fused to produce IGTV EI+EE ; (3) the visible tumor on the MIP images were delineated to produce IGTV MIP . The position of the target center, the volume of target, the degree of inclusion (DI) and the matching index (MI) were compared reciprocally between IGTV 10 , IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP . Results: Average differences between the position of the center of IGTVs on direction of x, y and z axes were less than 1 mm, with no statistically significant difference. The volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV EI+EE , the difference was statistically significant (t=2.37, P=0.028); the volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV MIP , but the difference was not statistically significant (t=1.95, P=0.065). The ratio of IGTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP with IGTV 10 were 0.85±0.08 and 0.92±0.11, respectively. DI of IGTV EI+EE in IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP in IGTV 10 were 84.78% ± 8. 95% and 88.47% ±9.04%. MI between IGTV 10 and IGTV EI+EE , IGTV 10 and IGTV MIP were 0.85 ±0.09, 0.86±0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The center displacement of the IGTVs delineated separately by the three different techniques based on 4DCT images are not obvious; IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP can not replace IGTV 10 , however, IGTV MIP is more close to IGTV 10 comparing to IGTV EI+EE . The ratio of GTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 is correlated to the tumor motion

  4. Immunological Aspects of Cryoablation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Daniel; Wu, Shirley; Sterman, Daniel H

    2018-01-31

    In cryoimmunotherapy, target tumors are treated with cryoablation to generate antitumor immune responses. Because immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated that lung cancer can be an immunotherapy-responsive disease, there has been renewed interest in the immunological aspects of cryoablation of lung cancer. Herein, we review preclinical and clinical trials of cryoablation of primary lung tumors. We examine the magnitude of cryoablation-induced antitumor immune responses and the synergy between cryoablation and either other immunotherapies or molecular targeted therapies to improve treatment responses in advanced lung cancer. We further discuss a rationale for the addition of cryoablation to immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of advanced lung cancer, which is currently under clinical investigation. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  6. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Pulmonary toxicity in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikaura, Sachiko (Kansai Medical School, Kyoto (Japan). Rakusei New-Town Hospital); Harima, Keizo; Murata, Takashi; Kawa, Sokichi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shikata, Nobuaki

    1994-01-01

    Among 158 lung cancer patients at our hospital during past six years, 9 patients developed pulmonary toxicity. Elderly patients, patients with high dose radiation, or inclusion of the hilar mediastinum in the radiation field were more likely develop pulmonary toxicity. There were no significant differences in baseline pulmonary function tests between the pulmonary toxicity group and the control group. On histological examination, lung specimens outside the radiation field demonstrated interstitial pneumonitis or fibrosis. (author).

  8. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  9. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models......BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...

  10. Immune-based Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Hind; El-Bahesh, Ehab; Finianos, Antoine; Nassereddine, Samah; Tabbara, Imad

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an increasingly interesting target of pharmacological blockade. These immune inhibitors have shown promising results in front-line therapy and after failure of multiple lines, as well as in monotherapy and combination with other therapies. Vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer is also an emerging field of research that holds promising results for the future of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. This review presents a concise update on the most recent data regarding the role of checkpoint inhibitors as well as vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear medicine procedures in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Crippa, F.; Bombardieri, E.; Schreiner, F.A.G.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are still the methods of choice for the study of lung cancer, they have certain limitations in the determination of the nature of suspicious lung nodules, the evaluation of mediastinal involvement, the assessment of the viability of previously treated lesions and the diagnosis of tumour relapse. There is a wide range of current oncological requirements related to lung cancer: detection of malignant lesions at the earliest stage and in the most effective way; the definition of the biological characteristics of a lesion (proliferation, aggressiveness, differentiation, etc.); the need to define the operability of the patient (function of residual lung and staging); and the need to evaluate the behaviour of the tumour (response to therapy, early detection of recurrences, metastatic spread). Most of the efforts of the nuclear medicine community have been focussed on diagnosis, staging, restaging and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. Many radiopharmaceuticals have been employed for this, including gallium, monoclonal antibodies, somatostatin analogues, lipophilic cations and positron emission tracers. There is ample evidence that nuclear medicine techniques may provide complementary information with respect to anatomical imaging, for example in the assessment of preoperative function by means of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, or in tumour localisation by means of specific tumour-seeking agents. However, clinical data suggest that, when properly used, nuclear medicine procedures in some cases may be not only complementary to radiology but essential for the clinical management of lung cancer. An example of such a procedure is fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) the introduction of which has greatly contributed to confirmation of the clinical value of nuclear medicine in this field. FDG PET has proved of great help in lung cancer management and its cost-effectiveness in

  12. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  13. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  14. MRI in lung cancer: a pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhegger, B; Marchiori, E; Sedlaczek, O; Irion, K; Heussel, C P; Ley, S; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Soares Souza, A; Kauczor, H-U

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies play a critical role in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. CT and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (PET/CT) are widely and routinely used for staging and assessment of treatment response. Many radiologists still use MRI only for the assessment of superior sulcus tumours, and in cases where invasion of the spinal cord canal is suspected. MRI can detect and stage lung cancer, and this method could be an excellent alternative to CT or PET/CT in the inv...

  15. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  16. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time......-to-event analyses accounting for censoring and competing risk of death to estimate incidence, concordance risk and heritability of liability to develop lung cancer by smoking status. Results: During a median of 28.5 years of follow-up, we recorded 1508 incident lung cancers. Of the 30 MZ and 28 DZ pairs concordant...... compared with the cumulative incidence for both MZ and DZ pairs. This ratio, the relative recurrence risk, significantly decreased by age for MZ but was constant for DZ pairs. Heritability of lung cancer was 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.56) for currently smoking and 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.49) for ever smoking...

  17. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramount in developing new clinical approaches with the goal of preventing disease recurrence. This review summarizes our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms operating within the putative cancer-initiating cell at the core of lung neoplasia. PMID:18539968

  18. Lung and stomach cancer associations with groundwater radon in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Serre, Marc L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of indoor air radon for lung cancer is well studied, but the risks of groundwater radon for both lung and stomach cancer are much less studied, and with mixed results. Geomasked and geocoded stomach and lung cancer cases in North Carolina from 1999 to 2009 were obtained from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Models for the association with groundwater radon and multiple confounders were implemented at two scales: (i) an ecological model estimating cancer incidence rates at the census tract level; and (ii) a case-only logistic model estimating the odds that individual cancer cases are members of local cancer clusters. For the lung cancer incidence rate model, groundwater radon is associated with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.06] for every 100 Bq/l increase in census tract averaged concentration. For the cluster membership models, groundwater radon exposure results in an odds ratio for lung cancer of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.23) and for stomach cancer of 1.24 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.49), which means groundwater radon, after controlling for multiple confounders and spatial auto-correlation, increases the odds that lung and stomach cancer cases are members of their respective cancer clusters. Our study provides epidemiological evidence of a positive association between groundwater radon exposure and lung cancer incidence rates. The cluster membership model results find groundwater radon increases the odds that both lung and stomach cancer cases occur within their respective cancer clusters. The results corroborate previous biokinetic and mortality studies that groundwater radon is associated with increased risk for lung and stomach cancer. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. Lung Cancer of the Uranium Miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Shandala, N.K.; Gneusheva, G.I.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is the only world diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The paper deals with the evaluation of the occupational morbidity of the PPMCA's miners depending on their work conditions. In order to evaluate radiological risks of the malignant neoplasm incidence, we used the available medical-dosimetry data being received over the Association life. Our study covers information of 584 miners. The main part of this group includes men (87%), involved in uranium mining (sinkers, timber-men, etc.). Women accounted 13%, being involved in subsidiary works. The highest mean external doses (20 - 40 mSv/year) got those, who worked in the mines over 1980-1983, but the number of this subgroup is small - 18 persons. Generally, mean doses over next years were about 5 mSv/year. However, almost each year, maximum doses above 20 mSv/year can be observed. Internal doses to men were 42.9 mSv on average, while those to women were 23.9 mSv. When generating the medical database, we collected data of 130 mail mines, employed to the PPMCA mines. Among all cases of the malignant neoplasm incidence of miners, the highest contribution is made by the lung cancer (46%); this is well above the national data (23.3 %). The second part is digestive tract cancer (the stomach, the lower lip, and pancreas), contributing 29 % in total, and the stomach cancer contributes 16 %. Depositions of these malignancies do not exceed the national data. The problem of the further work improvement of the miners to eliminate occupational lung disease in the uranium mining operations remains important to the present. Epidemiological and radio-ecological studies will help both regulators and operators to make more objective assessment of each specific situation and to determine

  20. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Lung cancer following therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliphant, Lawrie; McFadden, Robin G.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom lung cancer developed several years after he had received combined-modality therapy for Hodgkin's disease. The literature concerning second malignant diseases, particularly thoracic tumours, that occur following combined-modality therapy for cancer is reviewed. It is important to recognize these entities, because chest symptoms or findings on x-ray films may be misinterpreted as representing late recrudescence of the first neo-plastic disease.

  3. Resveratrol in lung cancer- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihing; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytochemical known for its anti- oxidative properties has been explored worldwide for anticancer potential. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis in order to register the efficacy of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. We searched PubMed for preclinical studies reporting efficacy of resveratrol alone or in combination with drugs like curcumin, cisplatin etc. against lung carcinogenesis. The primary outcome of eligible studies included change in overall tumor incidence as well as tumor size. In all of the above studies involving either animal models or in vitro cancer cell experiments a statistically significant reduction in tumor incidence emerged as compared with the control groups, yielding a relative risk reduction of 0.64 (p=0.002). This meta- analysis confirmed the potential of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. It can be concluded that resveratrol holds a good potential for future use as a highly efficient therapeutic agent to deal with deadly lung carcinogenesis.

  4. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ 2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ 2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ 2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  5. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II for Hilar type early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an increase in lung cancer incidence has been recognized internationally, and more early stage cases of lung cancer are being detected as a result of improvements in survey and diagnostic techniques, including flexible bronchofiberscope. However, some early stage cases that are inoperable due to age, poor pulmonary function, etc. are generally treated with conventional modalities, such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Modality to curatively treat such inoperable early stage lung cancers has still not been established. PhotoDynamic Therapy is a newly developed local therapeutic modality which has been shown to be able to obtain complete response and cure in those early stage lung cancers with carcinoma in situ. The objective of this study is, first, to evaluate the activity and toxicity of PDT with Photofrin II in hilar type of early lung cancer, and second, to determine the complete response rate as primary end-point. (author). 5 tabs

  6. Lung Cancer: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of screening, most patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until later stages, when the prognosis is poor. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnea, but the most specific symptom is hemoptysis. Digital clubbing, though rare, is highly predictive of lung cancer. Symptoms can be caused by the local tumor, intrathoracic spread, distant metastases, or paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinicians should suspect lung cancer in symptomatic patients with risk factors. The initial study should be chest x-ray, but if results are negative and suspicion remains, the clinician should obtain a computed tomography scan with contrast. The diagnostic evaluation for suspected lung cancer includes tissue diagnosis, staging, and determination of functional capacity, which are completed simultaneously. Tissue samples should be obtained using the least invasive method possible. Management is based on the individual tumor histology, molecular testing results, staging, and performance status. The management plan is determined by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a pulmonology subspecialist, medical oncology subspecialist, radiation oncology subspecialist, and thoracic surgeon. The family physician should remain involved with the patient to ensure that patient priorities are supported and, if necessary, to arrange for end-of-life care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  8. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  9. [Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Michal; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2017-07-21

    A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

  10. Lung cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sá VK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Karen de Sá,1,2 Juliano C Coelho,3 Vera Luiza Capelozzi,1 Sergio Jobim de Azevedo3 1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 2Department of Genomics and Molecular Biology, International Research Center, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, 3Department of Oncology, Clinical Research – UPCO, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Lung cancer persists throughout the world as a major cause of death. In 2014, data from the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA estimated 16.400 new cases of lung cancer among men (second most common and 10.930 new cases among women (fourth most common. These data are consistent for all Brazilian regions and reflect the trends of cancer in the country over the last decade. Brazil is a continental country, the largest in Latin America and fifth in the world, with an estimated population of >200 million. Although the discrepancy in the national income between rich and poor has diminished in the last 2 decades, it is still huge. More than 75% of the Brazilian population do not have private health insurance and rely on the national health care system, where differences in standard of cancer care are evident. It is possible to point out differences from the recommendations of international guidelines in every step of the lung cancer care, from the diagnosis to the treatment of advanced disease. This review aims to describe and recognize these differences as a way to offer a real discussion for future modifications and action points toward delivery of better oncology care in our country. Keywords: NSCLC, screening, drivers mutations, diagnosis, Brazilian scenario

  11. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed...

  12. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  13. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  15. Auramine O, an incense smoke ingredient, promotes lung cancer malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jia-Chen; Huang, Wei-Chien; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Yu; Fan, Chi-Chen; Chien, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Pei-Shan; Candice Lung, Shih-Chun; Chang, Wei-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Burning incense to worship deities is a popular religious ritual in large parts of Asia, and is a popular custom affecting more than 1.5 billion adherents. Due to incomplete combustion, burning incense has been well recognized to generate airborne hazards to human health. However, the correlation between burning incense and lung cancer in epidemiological studies remains controversy. Therefore, we speculated that some unknown materials in incense smoke are involved in the initiation or progression of lung cancer. Based on this hypothesis, we identified a major compound auramine O (AuO) from the water-soluble fraction of incense burned condensate using mass spectrometry. AuO is commonly used in incense manufacture as a colorant. Due to thermostable, AuO released from burned incenses becomes an unexpected air pollutant. AuO is classified as a Group 2B chemical by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC), however, the damage of AuO to the respiratory system remains elusive. Our study revealed that AuO has no apparent effect on malignant transformation; but, it dramatically promotes lung cancer malignancy. AuO accumulates in the nucleus and induces the autophagy activity in lung tumor cells. AuO significantly enhances migration and invasive abilities and the in vitro and in vivo stemness features of lung tumor cells through activating the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1), and ALDH1A1 knockdown attenuates AuO-induced autophagy activity and blocks AuO-induced lung tumor malignancy. In conclusion, we found that AuO, an ingredient of incense smoke, significantly increases the metastatic abilities and stemness characters of lung tumor cells through the activation of ALDH1A1, which is known to be associated with poor outcome and progression of lung cancer. For public health, reducing or avoiding the use of AuO in incense is recommended. © 2017 The Authors Environmental Toxicology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  17. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.

  19. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  20. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  1. Prevention and management of lung cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qun-Ying; Wu, Guo-Ming; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Liang-An; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Jing; Gong, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the incidence of lung cancer has grown rapidly, resulting in a large social and economic burden. Several researchers have devoted their studies to lung cancer and have demonstrated that there are many risk factors for lung cancer in China, including tobacco use, environmental pollution, food, genetics, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the lung cancer incidence is still growing rapidly in China, and there is an even higher incidence among the younger generation. One explanation may be the triple-neglect situation, in which medical policies that neglect prevention, diagnosis, and supportive care have increased patients' mortality and reduced their quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of prevention and early diagnosis not only by focusing more attention on treatment but also by drawing more attention to supportive care for patients with lung cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: A Renewed Call to Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dorothy J; Van Schil, Paul; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John J; Rusch, Valerie W; Kernstine, Kemp

    2018-02-22

    Over the past two decades, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging Project has been a steady source of evidence-based recommendations for the TNM classification for lung cancer published by the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the IASLC is now issuing a call for participation in the next phase of the project, which is designed to inform the ninth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. Following the case recruitment model for the eighth edition database, volunteer site participants are asked to submit data on patients whose lung cancer was diagnosed between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2019, to the project by means of a secure, electronic data capture system provided by Cancer Research And Biostatistics in Seattle, Washington. Alternatively, participants may transfer existing data sets. The continued success of the IASLC Staging Project in achieving its objectives will depend on the extent of international participation, the degree to which cases are entered directly into the electronic data capture system, and how closely externally submitted cases conform to the data elements for the project. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  4. Interleukin-6 blockade attenuates lung cancer tissue construction integrated by cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi-Aoi, Michiyo; Otani, Kyoko; Zen, Yoh; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Aoi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we successfully generated lung cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells by introducing a small set of transcription factors into a lung cancer cell line. In addition to properties that are conventionally referred to as CSC properties, the lung induced CSCs exhibited the ability to form lung cancer-like tissues in vitro with vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which showed structures and immunohistological patterns that were similar to human lung cancer tissues. We named ...

  5. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  6. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  7. Erlotinib Resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joy; Salama, Rasha; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Ahmad, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherap...

  8. BARD1 serum autoantibodies for the detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, Maxim; Descloux, Pascaline; André, Pierre-Alain; Laszlo, Viktoria; Dome, Balazs; Hegedus, Balazs; Sardy, Sylvain; Janes, Samuel; Bianco, Andrea; Laurent, Geoffrey J; Irminger-Finger, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Currently the screening for lung cancer for risk groups is based on Computed Tomography (CT) or low dose CT (LDCT); however, the lung cancer death rate has not decreased significantly with people undergoing LDCT. We aimed to develop a simple reliable blood test for early detection of all types of lung cancer based on the immunogenicity of aberrant forms of BARD1 that are specifically upregulated in lung cancer. ELISA assays were performed with a panel of BARD1 epitopes to detect serum levels of antibodies against BARD1 epitopes. We tested 194 blood samples from healthy donors and lung cancer patients with a panel of 40 BARD1 antigens. Using fitted Lasso logistic regression we determined the optimal combination of BARD1 antigens to be used in ELISA for discriminating lung cancer from healthy controls. Random selection of samples for training sets or validations sets was applied to validate the accuracy of our test. Fitted Lasso logistic regression models predict high accuracy of the BARD1 autoimmune antibody test with an AUC = 0.96. Validation in independent samples provided and AUC = 0.86 and identical AUCs were obtained for combined stages 1-3 and late stage 4 lung cancers. The BARD1 antibody test is highly specific for lung cancer and not breast or ovarian cancer. The BARD1 lung cancer test shows higher sensitivity and specificity than previously published blood tests for lung cancer detection and/or diagnosis or CT scans, and it could detect all types and all stages of lung cancer. This BARD1 lung cancer test could therefore be further developed as i) screening test for early detection of lung cancers in high-risk groups, and ii) diagnostic aid in complementing CT scan.

  9. Lung cancer: atypical brain metastases mimicking neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Patrícia Caetano; Reis, Carina; Pires, Nuno Filipe; Sousa, Graça; Chamadoira, Clara; Guimarães, Marcos; Castro, Lígia; Marques, Margarida; Gomes, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old male smoker with a 3-month history of hearing loss, tinnitus and dizziness. Physical examination revealed neurosensory hearing loss. Small rounded hypodensities without mass effect were evident in a computed tomography scan of the head, confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging as multiple cystic lesions in both cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, without perilesional edema or gadolinium enhancement, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Extraparenchymal involvement was also noted. Albendazole and dexamethasone were started. As a chest radiograph showed a bilateral reticulonodular pattern, a bronchoscopy was performed showing normal results. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Thoracoabdominopelvic computed tomography scan showed secondary lung and bone lesions. Since brain lesions were not suggestive of secondary tumor lesions, a brain biopsy was performed confirming metastatic disease. This case illustrates some peculiar imagiological features of brain metastases in lung cancer, indicating that sometimes invasive procedures are required to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  10. Patients with a Previous History of Malignancy Undergoing Lung Cancer Screening: Clinical Characteristics and Radiologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh F; Cunningham, Jane D; Long, Niamh M; Sosa, Ramon E; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and radiologic findings in patients with a previous history of malignancy who underwent computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer. Patients with a previous history of malignancy and a life expectancy of at least 5 years who were referred for lung cancer screening between May 2, 2011, and September 24, 2014, were included. CT scan features assessed included nodule size, morphologic features, and number. The Lung-CT Reporting and Data System scoring system was retrospectively applied to all studies. A total of 139 patients were studied (mean age of 66 years and median smoking history of 50 pack-years). All had a previous history of cancer, most often breast cancer (60 patients [43%]), head or neck cancer (26 patients [19%]), and lung cancer (16 patients [12%]). Of these patients, 42 (30%) had a positive screening study result. Lung cancer was diagnosed in seven patients (5%), and a radiation-induced chest wall sarcoma was diagnosed in one patient (1%); 42 patients (30%) had a positive chest CT scan per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network lung cancer screening nodule follow-up algorithm. The rate of diagnosis of lung cancer in our patient population is higher than in several previously published studies. Smokers with a history of malignancy may be a group at particularly high risk for the development of subsequent lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Saher; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin; Skovgaard, Lene; Bruijne, Marleen; Pedersen, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed. CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with,30 pack-yrs and...

  12. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  13. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-jie; Qiu, Yuan-hua; Chen, En-guo; Ying, Ke-jing; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    To identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lung cancer tissue and lung cancer cell lines. The lung cancer tissue samples from 18 patients were cultured and 4 lung cell lines (A549, NCI-H446, SK-MES-1, BEAS-2B) were also included in the study. Air samples in the headspace of culture flasks were analyzed for VOCs with solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique (SPME-GC/MS). Two kinds of VOCs 2-pentadecanone and nonadecane were detected in lung cancer cell lines A549, NCI-H446 and SK-MES-1. The concentration of 2-pentadecanone were (1.382 + or -0.171) X 10(-5)mg/L, (1.681 + or - 0.190) X 10(-4)mg/L and (2.835 + or - 0.401) X 10(-6)mg/L, respectively; the concentrations of nonadecane were (8.382 + or - 0.606 ) X 10(-6)mg/L, (1.845 + or - 0.130) X 10(-5)mg/L and (6.220 + or - 0.362) X 10(-6)mg/L), respectively. The eicosane was detected in A549 and NCI-H446 with the concentration of (8.313 + or - 1.130) X 10(-6)mg/L and (1.020 + or - 0.141) X 10(-5)mg/L), respectively. All the 3 VOCs were not detected in cell line BEAS-2B. The concentrations of 12 VOCs including decane, 2- pentadecanone, nonadecane and eicosane were high in 18 lung cancer tissue samples; the concentrations of 2-pentadecanone were 5.421 X 10(-6)mg/L-3.621 X 10(-5)mg/L,those of nonadecane were 5.805 X 10(-6)mg/L-1.830 X 10(-5)mg/L, those of eicosane were 2.730 X 10(-6)mg/L-2.343 X 10(-5)mg/L. There were no differences of VOCs levels among patients with different cancer differentiation (P>0.05). The concentration of eicosane in the non-squamous carcinoma was higher than that in squamous carcinoma, the same results were confirmed in the lung cancer cell lines. This study has identified VOCs produced by lung cancer tissue, which may support to use breath test as a complementary noninvasive diagnostic method for lung cancer.

  14. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed.

  15. Danshen improves survival of patients with advanced lung cancer and targeting the relationship between macrophages and lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yuan; Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kuan, Feng-Che; Lin, Yin-Yin; Lin, Yu-Shih; Shu, Li-Hsin; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Liu, Hung Te; Lu, Ming-Chu; Lung, Jthau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hui Kuan; Lee, Kuan-Der; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is widely used in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, its clinical effort and mechanism in the treatment of advanced lung cancer are unclear. In our study, the in vivo protective effort of danshen in patients with advanced lung cancer were validated using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We observed in vitro that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound in danshen, exerts anticancer effects through many pathways. First, 10 μM DT substantially inhibited the migration ability of lung cancer cells in both macrophage and macrophage/lung cancer direct mixed coculture media. Second, 10 μM DT repressed the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the protein expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2), and the mRNA levels of STAT3-related genes, including chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In addition, 10 μM DT suppressed the macrophage recruitment ability of lung cancer cells by reducing CCL2 secretion from both macrophages and lung cancer cells. Third, 20 μM DT induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, DT treatment significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. In conclusion, danshen exerts protective efforts in patients with advanced lung cancer. These effects can be attributed to DT-mediated interruption of the cross talk between lung cancer cells and macrophages and blocking of lung cancer cell proliferation. PMID:29207614

  16. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...

  18. Validation of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-An; Ma, Xiaotu; Sathe, Adwait; Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lam, Stephen; Yatabe, Yasushi; Wang, Yi-Wei; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Larsen, Jill E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiaoyun; Song, Kai; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-03-01

    The human secretin gene (SCT) encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of the 450k methylation array data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential biomarker for lung cancer. We analyzed data from TCGA and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. The analyses of TCGA 450K data for 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.98 that can be used to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from nonmalignant lung tissue. Bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells allowed us to confirm that SCT methylation is highly discriminative. By applying a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that SCT hypermethylation is frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant non-small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.92, n = 108) and small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.93, n = 40) but is less frequent in lung carcinoids (AUC = 0.54, n = 20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in samples of lung carcinoma in situ during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450k data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most other types of malignant tumors but less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with a high level of methylation was the placenta. Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, is less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors (including lung carcinoids), and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  20. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  1. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Bullous lung diseases as a risk factor for lung cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A possible association between lung cancer and bullous lung disease has been suggested and recently supported by the results of genetic studies. Case report. A previously healthy 43-year-old man, smoker, was diagnosed with bullous lung disease at the age of 31 years. He was followed up for 12 years when lung cancer (adenocarcinoma was found at the site. In the meantime, he was treated for recurrent respiratory infections. Conclusion. There is the need for active approach in following up the patients with pulmonary bulla for potential development of lung cancer.

  3. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  4. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  5. Defining a standard set of patient-centred outcomes for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Annelotte C.M.; Stowell, Caleb; Abrahm, Janet L.; Baker, Matthew; Baldotto, Clarissa S.; Baldwin, David R.; Borthwick, Diana; Carbone, David P.; Chen, Aileen B.; Fox, Jesme; Haswell, Tom; Koczywas, Marianna; Kozower, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Reza J.; Schramel, Franz M.; Senan, Suresh; Stirling, Robert G.; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In lung cancer, outcome measurement has been mostly limited to survival. Proper assessment of the value of lung cancer treatments, and the performance of institutions delivering care, requires more comprehensive measurement of standardised outcomes. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement convened an international, multidisciplinary working group of patient representatives, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, palliative care specialists, registry experts and specialist nurses to review existing data and practices. Using a modified Delphi method, the group developed a consensus recommendation (“the set”) on the outcomes most essential to track for patients with lung cancer, along with baseline demographic, clinical and tumour characteristics (case-mix variables) for risk adjustment. The set applies to patients diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Our working group recommends the collection of the following outcomes: survival, complications during or within 6 months of treatment and patient-reported domains of health-related quality of life including pain, fatigue, cough and dyspnoea. Case-mix variables were defined to improve interpretation of comparisons. We defined an international consensus recommendation of the most important outcomes for lung cancer patients, along with relevant case-mix variables, and are working to support adoption and reporting of these measures globally. PMID:27390281

  6. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to

  7. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  8. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  9. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the

  10. Optimization of nodule management in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Through computed tomography (CT) screening, cancer can be detected at the earliest stage, with a much greater probability of cure. After the positive outcome of the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening with low-dose CT in heavy

  11. Variation in lung cancer resources and workload: results from the first national lung cancer organisational audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, K; O'Dowd, E; Hubbard, R; Beckett, P; Peake, M D; Woolhouse, I

    2015-10-01

    We report the findings of the first national lung cancer organisational audit. The results demonstrate marked variation in service provision and workload of some lung cancer specialists. For example, over half of the clinical nurse specialists report case volumes over recommended numbers. Some trusts have no access to key treatments such as video assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) lobectomy and stereotactic radiotherapy. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an association between higher surgical resection rates and the on-site availability of advanced staging and therapeutic modalities, for example, PET scan and VAT lobectomy. We conclude by making a number of recommendations to address the variation in lung cancer care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Reproductive Hormones and Their Receptors May Affect Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Dou

    2017-11-01

    with the control group (E2: 55.88±11.45 and 78.21±9.37; T: 0.82±0.14 and 1.46±0.16; ratio: 69.62±14.43±29.81 and 52.22±5.42; all P<0.05. The Western blot and IHC results indicated that AR, ERα and ERβ protein expression levels were obviously higher in transplanted tumour and lung tissues from the ovariectomized group, with particular increases in ERβ in transplanted tumour tissue and in ERα in lung tissue. The PCR results also showed markedly higher mRNA expression levels of AR, ERα and ERβ in the ovariectomized group, and in particular, ERβ in transplanted tumour tissue and ERα in lung tissue were significantly increased in the ovariectomized group. Conclusion: Ovariectomy decreased E2 and T serum levels and increased the E2/T ratio in mice, and this imbalance in the internal environment promoted the growth of transplanted tumours. Sex hormone disorder not only promoted transplanted tumour growth but also significantly reduced the protein and mRNA expression levels of sex hormone receptors. The metabolism of E2 and T may affect the growth, proliferation and metabolism of lung cancer cells, and the mechanism by which sex hormones and their receptors influence lung cancer is worthy of further research.

  13. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  15. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  16. Renieramycin M Attenuates Cancer Stem Cell-like Phenotypes in H460 Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chamni, Supakarn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that possess self-renewal and differentiation capacities. CSCs contribute to drug-resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis, thus development of CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies has recently received significant attention in cancer research. In this study, the potential efficacy of renieramycin M (RM) isolated from the sponge Xestospongia species, was examined against lung CSCs. Colony and spheroid formation assays, as well as western blotting analysis of lung CSC protein markers were employed to determine the CSC-like phenotypes of H460 lung cancer cells after treatment with RM at non-toxic concentrations. RM treatment reduced significantly colony and spheroid formation of H460 cells. Moreover, the CSC markers CD133, CD44 and ALDH1A1 of CSC-enriched H460 cells were reduced significantly following RM treatment. RM could be a potent anti-metastatic agent by suppressing lung CSC-like phenotypes in H460 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Radiotherapeutic Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Minimal Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Danielle; Grover, Surbhi; Xu, Melody J; Hanna, Timothy P; Olson, Robert; Schreiner, L John; Munshi, Anusheel; Mornex, Francoise; Palma, David; Gaspar, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the fifth most common cause of death globally. Its incidence continues to increase, especially within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have limited capacity to address the growing need for treatment. The standard of care for lung cancer treatment often involves radiation therapy (RT), which plays an important therapeutic role in curative-intent treatment of early-stage to locally advanced disease, as well as in palliation. The infrastructure, equipment, and human resources required for RT may be limited in LMICs. However, this narrative review discusses the scope of the problem of lung cancer in LMICs, the role of RT technologies in lung cancer treatment, and RT capacity in developing countries. Strategies are presented for maximizing the availability and impact of RT in settings with minimal resource availability, and areas for potential future innovation are identified. Priorities for LMICs involve increasing access to RT equipment and trained health care professionals, ensuring quality of care, providing guidance on priority setting with limited resources, and encouraging innovation to increase the economic efficiency of RT delivery. Several international initiatives are currently under way and represent important first steps toward scaling up RT in LMICs to treat lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between combined non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Wook Kim,1 Kwang-Nam Jin,2 Eun Young Heo,3 Sung Soo Park,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Deog Kyeom Kim31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Whereas the epidemiological association between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, is well known, limited studies have examined the association between lung cancer and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, a representative chronic airway inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the association between bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with COPD.Methods: A matched case–control study was conducted in a referral hospital in South Korea. Among COPD patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.7 and forced expiratory volume in one second ≤70% [% predicted] who underwent chest computed tomography (CT between January 1, 2010 and May 30, 2013, patients with lung cancer and controls matched for age, sex, and smoking history were selected. The risk of lung cancer was assessed according to the presence of underlying bronchiectasis confirmed by chest CT.Results: The study enrolled 99 cases and 198 controls. Combined bronchiectasis on chest CT was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.52, P<0.001. Significant associations were found in

  19. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants. Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers. Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk. Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years. Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  20. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  1. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  2. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  3. Snail acetylation by histone acetyltransferase p300 in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui; Zhang, Yinjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and dynamic molecular event in lung cancer metastasis that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. EMT transcriptional factors, such as Snail, play a central role in regulation of the EMT process. In this study, we sought to identify an association between p300 and Snail in lung cancer, as well as the engagement of p300 in Snail acetylation. Methods We transfected p300 small interfering RNA into lung cancer cells to detect S...

  4. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cance...

  5. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  6. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. [The Argument and Consensus of Lymphadenectomy on Lung Cancer Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    2018-03-20

    Lymph node metastasis is an important route of metastasis of lung cancer. Lymphadenectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for lung cancer. The way of intraoperative lymph node assessment also affects the prognosis and treatment strategy of lung cancer. In clinical practice, the way of intraoperative lymph node assessment ranges from selected lymph node biopsy to extended lymph node dissection. The advantages and disadvantages of different lymph node assessment are still controversial. In this article, the argument and consensus of lymphadenectomy on lung cancer operation are summarized.

  8. Invasive thymoma associated with lung cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Terashima, H; Shimizu, T; Hirayama, K

    2001-01-01

    We report herein a case of invasive thymoma simultaneously associated with lung cancer. A 64-year-old man presented with a cough and anterior chest pain, and preoperative examinations revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor as well as lung cancer. The patient underwent a total thymectomy, partial resection of the right lung, left lower lobectomy, and mediastinal lymph node dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Although it is well known that thymomas may be accompanied by nonthymic cancers, invasive thymomas occurring coincidentally with lung cancer are rarely reported in Japan. This case is very interesting in its relation to the oncogenesis of thymomas.

  9. Lung cancer during pregnancy: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, I; Mota, P C; Hespanhol, V P

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer is relatively low, complicating only 0.02-0.1% of all pregnancies. The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old woman, a light smoker, who was admitted to the hospital at 27 weeks of pregnancy, with respiratory symptoms since second trimester. Chest-X ray showed total left lung opacity with contralateral mediastinal deviation, suggestive of pleural effusion, and the pleural biopsy revealed invasion by lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation test was negative. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to start fetal lung maturation and cesarean section at 29 weeks gestation. The patient received two lines of chemotherapy and bone metastasis radiotherapy, but there was progression of the disease. An EML4-ALK translocation was identified in an additional genetic test. Crizotinib 250mg BID was started. The patient showed a progression-free survival of 9 months and died 19 months after lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  11. PEGylated anticancer-carbon nanotubes complex targeting mitochondria of lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Lee, Jong Yeon; Hong, Jeong Hee; Khang, Dongwoo

    2017-11-01

    Although activating apoptosis in cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria is an effective strategy for cancer therapy, insufficient targeting of the mitochondria in cancer cells restricts the availability in clinical treatment. Here, we report on a polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)-ABT737 nanodrug that improves the mitochondrial targeting of lung cancer cells. The polyethylene glycol-coated CNT-ABT737 nanodrug internalized into the early endosomes via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in advance of early endosomal escape and delivered into the mitochondria. Cytosol release of the nanodrug led to apoptosis of lung cancer cells by abruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis and generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. As such, this study provides an effective strategy for increasing the anti-lung cancer efficacy by increasing mitochondria accumulation rate of cytosol released anticancer nanodrugs.

  12. [Meta-analysis on related risk factors regarding lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y W; Wang, C P; Han, Y F; Niu, J J; Zhang, Y Z; Fang, Y

    2016-02-01

    To explore the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women and to provide evidence for lung cancer prevention and control. Information was collected on case-control studies published in the journals, both nationally and internationally from January, 1995 to November, 2014 that reported correlations between lung cancer and risk factors. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women were calculated, using the Meta-analysis method, with sensitivity and publication bias tested. Information on 24 case-control studies was selected including 11 946 cumulative cases and 12 596 controls. Pooled ORs (95% CI) were shown as: history of lung diseases 1.89 (1.57, 2.27), history of tuberculosis 1.86 (1.53, 2.27), history of chronic bronchitis 1.51 (1.04, 2.19), family history of cancers 2.02 (1.67, 2.44), family history of lung cancers 2.45 (1.80, 3.34), passive smoking (at workplace in adult period 1.47 (1.28, 1.69), at home in adulthood 1.22 (1.09, 1.36), in all life's time 1.52 (1.29, 1.79), kitchen smog while cooking 2.21 (1.27, 2.96), position of kitchen 1.76 (1.48, 2.09), and frequency of deep frying per week 2.24 (1.61, 3.12) etc. respectively. Major risk factors related to lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women would include lung diseases, family history of cancers, and passive smoking (tobacco smog and cooking smog). Particularly, the combination of family history and the degree of cooking presented stronger correlation effects, indicating that genetic and environmental factors jointly played an important role in the development of lung cancer.

  13. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  14. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelsomino, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.gelsomino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Medical Oncology Unit 1, Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rossi, Giulio [Operative Unit of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena (Italy); Tiseo, Marcello [Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Viale A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2014-10-13

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  15. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  16. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  17. Primary non-small cell lung cancer in a transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskan, F.; University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Manapov, F.

    2014-01-01

    The first case of primary lung cancer in a transplanted lung was described in 2001. Since then, only 5 cases of lung cancer in donated lung have been reported. We present one more patient with non-small cell cancer in the transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. In most cases of primary lung cancer in transplanted lung, rapid progression of the cancer was reported. Occurrence of the locoregional failure in our case could be explained by factors related to the treatment protocol and also to underlying immunosuppression.

  18. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily; Jett, James; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-01-24

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proven to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of usage, small numbers of heavy cannabis smoking and confounding of risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use. Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally controlled trials where the CBD and the THC strength and usage are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  20. Erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and activating EGFR mutations (BELIEF): an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rafael; Dafni, Urania; Felip, Enriqueta; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Gautschi, Oliver; Peters, Solange; Massutí, Bartomeu; Palmero, Ramon; Aix, Santiago Ponce; Carcereny, Enric; Früh, Martin; Pless, Miklos; Popat, Sanjay; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Cuffe, Sinead; Bidoli, Paolo; Favaretto, Adolfo; Froesch, Patrizia; Reguart, Noemí; Puente, Javier; Coate, Linda; Barlesi, Fabrice; Rauch, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Camps, Carlos; Gómez-Codina, Jose; Majem, Margarita; Porta, Rut; Shah, Riyaz; Hanrahan, Emer; Kammler, Roswitha; Ruepp, Barbara; Rabaglio, Manuela; Kassapian, Marie; Karachaliou, Niki; Tam, Rachel; Shames, David S; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Stahel, Rolf A

    2017-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib improves the outcomes of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The coexistence of the T790M resistance mutation with another EGFR mutation in treatment-naive patients has been associated with a shorter progression-free survival to EGFR inhibition than in the absence of the T790M mutation. To test this hypothesis clinically, we developed a proof-of-concept study, in which patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC were treated with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab, stratified by the presence of the pretreatment T790M mutation. BELIEF was an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 29 centres in eight European countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed stage IIIB or stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with a confirmed, activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation). Patients received oral erlotinib 150 mg per day and intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days and were tested centrally for the pretreatment T790M resistance mutation with a peptide nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and was stratified into two parallel substudies according to the centrally confirmed pretreatment T790M mutation status of enrolled patients (T790M positive or negative). The safety analysis was done in all patients that have received at least one dose of trial treatment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01562028. Between June 11, 2012, and Oct 28, 2014, 109 patients were enrolled and included in the efficacy analysis. 37 patients were T790M mutation positive and 72 negative. The overall median progression-free survival was 13·2 months (95% CI 10·3-15·5), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 55% (95% CI

  1. [Assessment of nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  2. The Role of Proteasome Inhibition in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer therapy with current available chemotherapeutic agents is mainly palliative. For these and other reasons there is now a great interest to find targeted therapies that can be effective not only palliating lung cancer or decreasing treatment-related toxicity, but also giving hope to cure these patients. It is already well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system like other cellular pathways is critical for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells; thus, proteosome inhibition has become a very attractive anticancer therapy. There are several phase I and phase II clinical trials now in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer using this potential target. Most of the trials use bortezomib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. This paper tends to make a state-of-the-art review based on the available literature regarding the use of bortezomib as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

  3. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  4. Leveraging growth factor induced macropinocytosis for targeted treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Raul; Koria, Piyush

    2015-12-01

    Targeted therapy focused on highly expressed growth factor receptors is increasingly becoming popular for the treatment of lung cancer. Cancer cells exhibit higher levels of macropinocytosis than the normally quiescent non-cancerous cells, which can further be enhanced by growth factors. Here, we show the targeted enhancement of macropinocytosis in lung cancer cells for the delivery of the mitochondriotoxic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 using keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We report the formation of a nanoparticle (NP) comprising of two chimeric fusion proteins, both fused to elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP. We show that (KLAKLAK)2-ELP nanoparticles are internalized via macropinocytosis and its internalization is facilitated by the interaction of the ELP domain with cell surface heparin sulfate proteoglycans. This internalization leads to mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell death. Also, we demonstrate that KGF-ELP selectively enhances macropinocytosis in cancer cells expressing high levels of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR). Finally, the heterogeneous NPs consisting of (KLAKLAK)2-ELP and KGF-ELP selectively kill KGFR-expressing lung cancer cells. Hence, this multipronged approach of targeting highly active processes and receptors in cancer cells will be tremendously selective in the treatment of both early-stage and advanced-stage lung cancers, thereby improving patient's prognosis and survival rate.

  5. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p smokers separately (p

  6. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental determinants of lung cancer in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Y; Blot, W J; Li, G; Fraumeni, J F; Zhao, D Z; Stone, B J; Yin, Q; Wu, A; Henderson, B E; Guan, B P

    1991-01-01

    To investigate determinants of the high rates of lung cancer in Shenyang, an industrial city in north-eastern China, a case-control study was conducted. Interviews with 1249 lung cancer patients and 1345 population-based controls revealed that cigarette smoking was the main cause of lung cancer. Smoking accounted for 55% of the lung tumours in men and 37% in women. In addition, air pollution from coal-burning heating and cooking devices was significantly linked to lung cancer, with risks rising in proportion to duration of exposure to indoor pollutants. Measurement of benzo[a]pyrene revealed average wintertime levels in air that were nearly 60 times the recommended upper limit for US cities, with even higher concentrations indoors in traditional single-storey homes using coal-burning kang (stoves). Occupational factors were also involved, the risk being elevated by three fold among smelter workers. Soil levels of arsenic and other metals rose with increasing proximity to the Shenyang copper smelter, and elevated risks of lung cancer were found among men, but not women, living within 1 km of its central stacks. Prior nonmalignant lung disease was common and was reported more often among the lung cancer patients than among controls. The findings suggest that cigarette smoking and environmental pollutants combine to account for most of the excess risk of lung cancer in this population.

  8. Lung cancer patients frequently visit the emergency room for cancer-related and -unrelated issues

    OpenAIRE

    KOTAJIMA, FUTOSHI; KOBAYASHI, KUNIHIKO; SAKAGUCHI, HIROZO; NEMOTO, MANABU

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer patients visit the emergency room (ER) for cancer-related and -unrelated reasons more often compared to patients with other types of cancer. This results in increased admissions and deaths in the ER. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of lung cancer patients visiting the ER in order to optimize the utilization of emergency medical services and improve the patients’ quality of life. Lung cancer patients visiting the ER of a single institution over a 2-ye...

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  10. aetiopathology and management challenges of lung cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing ...

  11. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  12. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  13. Improving lung cancer survival: Time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1761, lung cancer was first described as a distinct disease based on autopsies by Giovanni Morgagni. In 1810, Gaspard Laurent Bayle described lung cancer in more detail in his book entitled Recherches sur la phthisie pulmonaire. At that time it was an extremely

  14. Choroidal metastases as the initial presentation of lung cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical reports of symptomatic intraocular metastasis as the initial presentation of lung cancer are rare. We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with loss of vision due to choroidal metastases as the initial manifestation of her disseminated lung cancer. This particular patient was referred to us from ...

  15. SCREENING FOR LUNG CANCER BY IMAGING : THE NELSON STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, M.; Heuvelmans, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The NELSON trial is the first randomised lung cancer screening trial in which pulmonary nodule management is based on volumetry. This led to considerably less false-positive referrals compared to other lung cancer screening trials, with very high negative predictive values found in the first and

  16. Aetiopathology and Management Challenges of Lung Cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing countries. Objective: ...

  17. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  18. Training and Validating a Portable Electronic Nose for Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Goor, Rens; van Hooren, Michel; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Kremer, Bernd; Kross, Kenneth

    2018-02-06

    Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated whether a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (e-nose) (Aeonose, [eNose Company, Zutphen, the Netherlands]) is able to discriminate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls on the basis of their volatile organic compound pattern. In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. A total of 60 patients with lung cancer and 107 controls exhaled through an e-nose for 5 minutes. Patients were assigned either to a training group for building an artificial neural network model or to a blinded control group for validating this model. For differentiating patients with lung cancer from healthy controls, the results showed a diagnostic accuracy of 83% with a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 84%, and area under the curve of 0.84. Results for the blinded group showed comparable results, with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 86%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. This feasibility study showed that this portable e-nose can properly differentiate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. This result could have important implications for future lung cancer screening. Further studies with larger cohorts, including also more participants with early-stage tumors, should be performed to increase the robustness of this noninvasive diagnostic tool and to determine its added value in the diagnostic chain for lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  20. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  1. Lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Development and validation of the COPD Lung Cancer Screening Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Torres, Juan P; Wilson, David O; Sanchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Weissfeld, Joel L; Berto, Juan; Campo, Arantzazu; Alcaide, Ana B; García-Granero, Marta; Celli, Bartolome R; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk for lung cancer (LC) and represent a potential target to improve the diagnostic yield of screening programs. To develop a predictive score for LC risk for patients with COPD. The Pamplona International Early Lung Cancer Detection Program (P-IELCAP) and the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS) databases were analyzed. Only patients with COPD on spirometry were included. By logistic regression we determined which factors were independently associated with LC in PLuSS and developed a COPD LC screening score (COPD-LUCSS) to be validated in P-IELCAP. By regression analysis, age greater than 60, body mass index less than 25 kg/m(2), pack-years history greater than 60, and emphysema presence were independently associated with LC diagnosis and integrated into the COPD-LUCSS, which ranges from 0 to 10 points. Two COPD-LUCSS risk categories were proposed: low risk (scores 0-6) and high risk (scores 7-10). In comparison with low-risk patients, in both cohorts LC risk increased 3.5-fold in the high-risk category. The COPD-LUCSS is a good predictor of LC risk in patients with COPD participating in LC screening programs. Validation in two different populations adds strength to the findings.

  2. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cancer is urgently needed. Biosensor-based techniques have been recently recommended as a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of lung tumor markers. This paper reviews the recent development in screening and biosensor-based techniques for early lung cancer detection.

  4. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  5. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  6. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  7. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Contribution of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Promoter Genotypes in Taiwan Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chao, Che-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Hsu, Che-Lun; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Bau, DA-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Up-regulation of metallo-proteinase (MMP) proteins has been shown in various types of solid cancers and the genotype of MMP1 has been associated with the risk of solid cancers. The contribution of MMP1 genotype to lung cancer has been investigated in various countries, though, to our knowledge, not in Taiwan. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP1 to lung cancer risk in Taiwan population. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 healthy individuals (non-cancer patients). MMP1 rs1799750 polymorphic genotypes of each sample were determined using the typical methodology of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The percentages of 2G/2G, 1G/2G, and 1G/1G for MMP1 -1607 genotypes were 34.4%, 41.3% and 24.3% in the disease group and 33.9%, 44.0%, and 22.1% in the control group (p trend=0.6298), respectively. The results of carrier comparisons in dominant and recessive models also support the findings that 1G or 2G appears not to be a determinant allelic biomarker for Taiwan lung cancer. The MMP1 -1607 1G allele is a non-significant protective biomarker for lung cancer in Taiwan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  10. Relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline CT lung cancer screening : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Walter, Joan E.; Peters, Robin B.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Materials and Methods: Included were participants from the NELSON trial with at least one baseline nodule (3392 participants [45% of screen-group], 7258 nodules).

  11. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  12. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  13. Application of high-resolution CT imaging data to lung cancer drug development: measuring progress: workshop IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Fenton, Laurie; Aldige, Carolyn R

    2013-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and a major public health challenge across the entire world. Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the lung is a rapidly improving medical imaging technique. Spiral CT has been reported to not only improve the early detection of lung cancer in screening high-risk tobacco-exposed populations but also to assist in the clinical assessment of new agents for therapy in lung cancer. The Prevent Cancer Foundation has sponsored a series of workshops to accelerate progress in using quantitative imaging to advance lung cancer research progress, of which this report summarizes the Ninth Workshop. The defining strategy of this forum to support innovation in quantitative research for early lung cancer management was to enable software validations by assembling collections of high-quality images for which long-term clinical follow-up is known. An additional approach was to define a process for high-quality and economical national implementation of lung cancer screening. Representatives from the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the Lung Cancer Alliance, and other organizations outlined their efforts in this regard. A major opportunity exists to advance the dialogue on the use of quantitative imaging tools to cross-fertilize and accelerate image-processing research across lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of high-resolution CT imaging provides a window into a much earlier stage of COPD as well as coronary artery disease, both being tobacco-induced diseases. Progress in this area was reviewed and opportunities for enhanced collaborative progress defined. Key sessions reviewed emerging developments with imaging technology and the infrastructure to support the storage and distribution of these high-content modalities. Cooperation among diverse collaborators is essential to enable the rapid organic evolution of this field, so that

  14. New data for venous thromboembolism in patients with small cell lung cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakakos, Evangelos; Livanios, Konstantinos; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Charpidou, Adriani; Ntalakou, Eleutheria; Kainis, Llias; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Malignancy is an important predisposing factor for thromboembolic disease. Patients with malignancy display 4 to 10 times greater risk than the general population. As for lung cancer, that risk seems to further increase and become up to 20 times higher. The aim of this article is to review the International literature in order to highlight for the first time, the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1990 up to 2016, for retrospective and prospective studies that investigate the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. The incidence rate of thromboembolic disease found in these studies ranged between 6.8% and 11.5%. Thromboembolic disease is associated with a reduced survival in patients with small cell lung cancer and six factors seemed to increase the risk of thromboembolism: chemotherapy, cisplatin treatment, smoking, extensive disease, the infiltration of the superior vena cava and multiple concomitant diseases. Thromboembolic disease shows an increased incidence in patients with small cell lung cancer and more research with well-designed studies is required in order to study in detail the anticoagulation treatment and the survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

  15. Crystalline silica exposure and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, F L; Park, R; Stayner, L; Smith, R; Gilbert, S; Checkoway, H

    2001-01-01

    To use various exposure-response models to estimate the risk of mortality from lung cancer due to occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust. Data from a cohort mortality study of 2342 white male California diatomaceous earth mining and processing workers exposed to crystalline silica dust (mainly cristobalite) were reanalyzed with Poisson regression and Cox's proportional hazards models. Internal and external adjustments were used to control for potential confounding from the effects of time since first observation, calendar time, age, and Hispanic ethnicity. Cubic smoothing spline models were used to assess the fit of the models. Exposures were lagged by 10 years. Evaluations of the fit of the models were performed by comparing their deviances. Lifetime risks of lung cancer were estimated up to age 85 with an actuarial approach that accounted for competing causes of death. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was a significant predictor (p<0.05) in nearly all of the models evaluated and the linear relative rate model with a 10 year exposure lag seemed to give the best fit in the Poisson regression analysis. For those who died of lung cancer the linear relative rate model predicted rate ratios for mortality from lung cancer of about 1.6 for the mean cumulative exposure to respirable silica compared with no exposure. The excess lifetime risk (to age 85) of mortality from lung cancer for white men exposed for 45 years and with a 10 year lag period at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of about 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable cristobalite dust is 19/1000 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5/1000 to 46/1000). There was a significant risk of mortality from lung cancer that increased with cumulative exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust. The predicted number of deaths from lung cancer suggests that current occupational health standards may not be adequately protecting workers from the risk of lung

  16. Lung Cancer and Multiple Neoplasms: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaszko, A; Świetlik, E; Doboszyńska, A; Szpruch, P; Luks, J

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years there has been an increase in the survival of cancer patients resulting from the advances in cancer management and improved detection of cancer in its early stages. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of multiple malignancies in a sample of hospitalized patients in Poland. We analyzed retrospectively the records of 1112 cancer patients hospitalized in the period of January 2013 - August 2014. The criterion for inclusion into the group of multiple malignancy patients was the presence of at least two different malignancies. We found 52 cases in which lung cancer accompanied different malignancies and 4 cases where the multiple malignancy was not associated with the respiratory system. Lung cancer was chronologically the first malignancy unravelled in 11 patients, the second in 39, and the third in 2. Other malignancies chronologically being the first to be unravelled in patients included the following: colorectal cancer in 8 patients, prostatic cancer in 6, renal cell carcinoma 4, and the subsequent: prostate cancer 4, bladder cancer 3, hematopoietic malignancies 3, and breast cancer 2. We conclude that patients with multiple malignancy account for 5.0 % of lung cancer patients. Lung cancer is more frequent as a second malignancy developing in patients with multiple malignancy. Synchronous cancers become apparent at older age than metachronous cancers.

  17. Interleukin-6 blockade attenuates lung cancer tissue construction integrated by cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi-Aoi, Michiyo; Otani, Kyoko; Zen, Yoh; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Aoi, Takashi

    2017-09-26

    In the present study, we successfully generated lung cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells by introducing a small set of transcription factors into a lung cancer cell line. In addition to properties that are conventionally referred to as CSC properties, the lung induced CSCs exhibited the ability to form lung cancer-like tissues in vitro with vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which showed structures and immunohistological patterns that were similar to human lung cancer tissues. We named them "lung cancer organoids". We found that interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was expressed in the lung induced CSCs, facilitates the formation of lung cancer organoids via the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells into alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive cells. Interestingly, the combination of anti-IL-6 antibody and cisplatin could destroy the lung cancer organoids, while cisplatin alone could not. Furthermore, IL-6 mRNA-positive cancer cells were found in clinical lung cancer samples. These results suggest that IL-6 could be a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  18. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, ChengHan; Zhou, ShunChang; Zhu, Lin; Ming, JiaXiong; Zeng, FanDian; Xu, Rong

    2017-02-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX), a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  19. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengHan Mei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX, a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  20. Novel nanoparticulate systems for lung cancer therapy: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Asadullah; Batool, Amna; Noreen, Sobia; Maqbool, Irsah; Rehman, Faizza; Kashif, Prince Muhammad; Tahir, Nayab; Raza, Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Conventional therapy for lung cancer is associated with lack of specificity and access to the normal cells resulting in cytotoxicity, reduced cellular uptake, drug resistance and rapid drug clearance from the body. The emergence of nanotechnology has revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer. The focus of nanotechnology is to target tumor cells with improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity. In the recent years, nanoparticulate systems have extensively been exploited in order to overcome the obstacles in treatment of lung cancer. Nanoparticulate systems have shown much potential for lung cancer therapy by gaining selective access to the tumor cells due to surface modifiability and smaller size. In this review, various novel nanoparticles (NPs) based formulations have been discussed in the treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology is expected to grow fast in future, and it will provide new avenues for the improved treatment of lung cancer. This review article also highlights the characteristics, recent advances in the designing of NPs and therapeutic outcomes.

  1. Development of Proteomic Patterns for Detecting Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyuan Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is at present the number one cause of cancer death and no biomarker is available to detect early lung cancer in serum samples so far. The objective of this study is to find specific biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technology. In this study, serum samples from 30 lung cancer patients and 51 age-and sex-matched healthy were analyzed by SELDI based ProteinChip reader, PBSII-C. The spectra were generated on WCX2 chips and protein peaks clustering and classification analyses were performed utilizing Biomarker Wizard and Biomarker Patterns software packages, respectively. Three protein peaks were automatically chosen for the system training and the development of a decision classification tree. The constructed model was then used to test an independent set of masked serum samples from 15 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy individuals. The analysis yielded a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 96.7%. These results suggest that the serum is a capable resource for detection of specific lung cancer biomarkers. SELDI technique combined with an artificial intelligence classification algorithm can both facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers for lung cancer and provide a useful tool for molecular diagnosis in future.

  2. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  3. The Role of Sox Genes in Lung Morphogenesis and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human lung consists of multiple cell types derived from early embryonic compartments. The morphogenesis of the lung, as well as the injury repair of the adult lung, is tightly controlled by a network of signaling pathways with key transcriptional factors. Lung cancer is the third most cancer-related death in the world, which may be developed due to the failure of regulating the signaling pathways. Sox (sex-determining region Y (Sry box-containing family transcriptional factors have emerged as potent modulators in embryonic development, stem cells maintenance, tissue homeostasis, and cancerogenesis in multiple processes. Recent studies demonstrated that the members of the Sox gene family played important roles in the development and maintenance of lung and development of lung cancer. In this context, we summarize our current understanding of the role of Sox family transcriptional factors in the morphogenesis of lung, their oncogenic potential in lung cancer, and their potential impact in the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy of lung cancer.

  4. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2018-01-01

    This case-control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic control among DM patients did not change significantly with time. DM does not cause adverse impact on lung cancer survival. Lung cancer does not affect glycemic control.

  5. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER AND ROLE OF BRONCHOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a Latin word meaning "A CRAB". The Greek word for a crab is "KARKINES" and Sanskrit word is "KARKARA ” . (1 Lung cancer is one of the commonest fatal neoplastic disease s in the world . It is at the first place at central and North India and at second place at south India. It is estimated that, every year in India, about 30,000 new lung cancer cases are registered .

  6. Imaging of lung cancer: Implications on staging and management

    OpenAIRE

    Nilendu C Purandare; Venkatesh Rangarajan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Accurate assessment of disease extent is important in deciding the optimal treatment approach. To play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients, it is necessary that the radiologist understands the principles of staging and the implications of radiological findings on the various staging descriptors and eventual treatment decisions.

  7. Evaluation of mediastinal lymph node metastasis of lung cancer by thin-section computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwa, Naoki; Yamada, Kozo; Nakayama, Haruhiko [Kanagawa Cancer Center (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the predictive value of evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. We reviewed 110 patients with operable lung cancer, and compared preoperative thin-section CT findings and postoperative histo-pathological findings. The positive criteria for a CT diagnosis based on not only node size ({>=}10 mm), but external morphological evaluation (long axisinternal morphological evaluation (homogeneous). Specificity and accuracy were better than in the former reports (94.6% : 89.7%), but sensitivity was not improved (55.2%). Considering internal morphological features, lymph nodes showing a central defect resembling a doughnut were all truly negative. These positive criteria improved specificity and accuracy, but not sensitivity. Usage with other modalities is desirable to improve prospective evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. (author)

  8. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAMGEER, Muhammad; PEACOCK, Craig D.; MATSUI, William; GANJU, Vinod; WATKINS, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the ‘side population’) correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemo-therapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model. PMID:23586700

  9. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  10. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  11. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  12. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  13. Three-dimensional visualization system as an aid for lung cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delegacz, Andrzej; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Xie, Huchen; Freedman, Matthew T.; Choi, Jae Jeong

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to create a 3D visualization system to aid physicians in observing abnormalities of the human lungs. A series of 20-30 helical CT lung slice images obtained from the lung cancer screening protocol as well as a series of 100-150 diagnostic helical CT lung slice images were used as an input. We designed a segmentation filter to enhance the lung boundaries and filter out small and medium bronchi from the original images. The pairs of original and filtered images were further processed with the contour extraction method to segment out only the lung field for further study. In the next step the segmented lung images containing the small bronchi and lung textures were used to generate the volumetric dataset input for the 3D visualization system. Additional processing for the extracted contour was used to smooth the 3D lung contour in the lung boundaries. The computer program developed allows, among others, viewing of the 3D lung object from various angles, zooming in and out as well as selecting the regions of interest for further viewing. The density and gradient opacity tables are defined and used to manipulate the displayed contents of 3D rendered images. Thus, an effective 'see-through' technique is applied to the 3D lung object for better visual access to the internal lung structures like bronchi and possible cancer masses. These and other features of the resulting 3D lung visualization system give the user a powerful tool to observe and investigate the patient's lungs. The filter designed for this study is a completely new solution that greatly facilitates the boundary detection. The developed 3D visualization system dedicated from chest CT provides the user a new way to explore effective diagnosis of potential lung abnormalities and cancer. In the authors' opinion, the developed system can be successfully used to view and analyze patient's lung CT images in a new powerful approach in both diagnosis and surgery-planning applications

  14. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Karmy-Jones

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopathy or only suggest local invasion. Clinical and/or radiographical evidence suggesting extensive local or metastatic disease should be evaluated as completely as possible before subjecting the patient to a possible "nontherapeutic" thoracotomy. Finally, in some cases thoracotomy is required to decide whether the lesion is "completely" resectable.

  16. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...... with initial versus delayed radiotherapy. No survival differences in the larger study of the two studies were detected, which compared alternating with sequential delivery of radiotherapy (n = 335). The optimal way to deliver radiotherapy still must be defined. Two small, randomized studies on dose intensity......-agent etoposide compared with intravenous multiagent treatment. Thus, oral etoposide has a very limited role as single-agent treatment in the palliative setting. Convincing data have emerged regarding the camptothecins. Randomized studies of both the camptothecins and the taxanes in combination with established...

  17. Gefitinib in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gefitinib is an oral, reversible, tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR that plays a key role in the biology of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Phase I studies indicated that the recommended dose of gefitinib was 250 mg/day. Rash, diarrhea, and nausea were the most common adverse events. The positive results obtained in early phase 2 clinical trials with gefitinib were not confirmed in large phase 3 trials in unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. The subsequent discovery that the presence of somatic mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR strongly correlates with increased responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors prompted phase 2 and 3 trials with gefitinib in the first line-treatment of EGFR-mutated NSCLC. The results of these trials have demonstrated the efficacy of gefitinib that can be now considered as the standard first-line treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC harbouring activating EGFR mutations.

  18. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  19. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Montane, Daniel Marino; Prado Lage, Yulien; Lozano Salazar; Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  20. Differences in the definition of internal target volumes using slow CT alone or in combination with thin-slice CT under breath-holding conditions during the planning of stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Satoshi; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsuya; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Deloar, Hossain M.; Kawase, Takatsugu; Fukada, Junichi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Uematsu, Minoru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the delineations of the internal target volume (ITV) made from 'slow' CT alter with reference to 'thin-slice' CT. Materials and methods: Thin-slice CT images taken under breath-holding conditions and slow CT images taken under shallow-breathing conditions (8 s/image) of 11 lung cancers were used for this study. Five radiation oncologists delineated ITV of the 11 lesions using slow CT images (ITV1), and then redefined them with reference to thin-slice CT images (ITV2). SD-images (standard deviation image) were created for all patients from ITV images in order to visualize the regional variation of the ITVs. Results: The mean value of ITV2 was smaller than that initially defined by ITV1. There was no significant change in ITV1 and ITV2 between operators with regard to standard deviation in volume. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the ratio of ITV1 to ITV2 obtained on thin-slice CTs between cases with and without ground glass opacity. In cases without ground glass opacity there was a tendency for ITV2 to have a smaller volume than ITV1. Conclusions: Combined use of slow CT and thin-slice CT in delineation of ITV contours appeared to be useful in making adjustments for obscured tumor images caused by respiratory movement

  1. Management of Progressive Pulmonary Nodules Found during and outside of CT Lung Cancer Screening Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Mathias; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Henzler, Thomas; Buergy, Daniel; Giordano, Frank A.; Kostrzewa, Michael; Rathmann, Nils; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Crino, Lucio; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Dusmet, Michael; Fennell, Dean; Grunenwald, Dominique; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Moniuszko, Marcin; Mornex, Francoise; Papotti, Mauro; Pilz, Lothar; Senan, Suresh; Syrigos, Kostas; Perol, Maurice; Gray, Jhanelle E.; Schabel, Christoph; van Meerbeeck, Jan R.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Zhou, Cai Cun; Manegold, Christian; Voigt, Wieland; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Although the effectiveness of screening for lung cancer remains controversial, it is a fact that most lung cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage outside of lung cancer screening programs. In 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force revised its lung cancer screening recommendation, now

  2. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  3. Impact of physiotherapy on patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalevli, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer have high mortality and high morbidity. Lung cancer-related symptoms and problems such as dyspnea, fatigue, pain, and cachexia that begin in the early phase later result in poor physical functioning, psychosocial, and quality of life status. In addition, advancing age is associated with significant comorbidity. These patients may benefit from multidisciplinary therapy to reduce the perceived severity of dyspnea and fatigue and increase physical functioning and quality of life. Based on management of symptoms and problems such as dyspnea, physical inactivity, cancer-related fatigue, respiratory secretions, pain, and anxiety-depression of these patients, it is thought that physiotherapy techniques can be used on advanced lung cancer patients following a comprehensive evaluation. However, well-designed, prospective, and randomized-controlled trials are needed to prove the efficacy of physiotherapy and pulmonary rehabilitation in general for patients with advanced lung cancer.

  4. Non-small-cell lung cancer in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriggi, Fausto; Zaniboni, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The world population is getting increasingly older. In Western countries, lung cancer in the most frequent cancer and more than 50% of patients who contract non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are close to 70 years old. It is therefore fundamentally important that we identify an overall strategy of screening, diagnosis and therapy designed specifically for elderly patients. NSCLC research still has relatively little material dedicated exclusively to the elderly, but recently interest has been growing, possibly due to the positive results of the most recent trials (Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Study Group (ELVIS), Southern Italy Cooperative Oncology Group (SICOG), Multicenter Italian Lung Cancer in the Elderly Study (MILES)). In particular, the integration of geriatric and oncological information has led to better recognition of elderly candidates for more aggressive therapy which is usually reserved for younger patients, while recognizing more fragile patients who need only support therapy.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  6. Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrdel, U.; Kovac, V.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Erlotinib is a novel biological anti-tumour agent in the treatment of advanced non small cell lung cancer. It represents the molecularly-targeted therapy which has been studied extensively. Case report. We present a case of a patient who suffered from advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. After the progress of disease following a prior chemotherapy he was treated with erlotinib with remarkable effect which was shown at chest x ray and symptoms were quite reduced. Conclusions. In selected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer Erlotinib improves survival and symptom control as it results in presented case. (author)

  7. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  8. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and esophageal ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the pretherapeutic assessment of patients with proven or suspected lung cancer. EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA have been shown to have...... a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...

  10. Nutrition and lung cancer: a case control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Jafari, Ali Moghadas; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Taslimi, Shervin; Khodadad, Kian; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Sadr, Makan; Rezaei, Mansour; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-21

    Despite many prospective and retrospective studies about the association of dietary habit and lung cancer, the topic still remains controversial. So, this study aims to investigate the association of lung cancer with dietary factors. In this study 242 lung cancer patients and their 484 matched controls on age, sex, and place of residence were enrolled between October 2002 to 2005. Trained physicians interviewed all participants with standardized questionnaires. The middle and upper third consumer groups were compared to the lower third according to the distribution in controls unless the linear trend was significant across exposure groups. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association with lung cancer. In a multivariate analysis fruit (Ptrend bread (Ptrend = 0.04), liver (P = 0.004), butter (Ptrend = 0.04), white cheese (Ptrend cancer. Generally, we found positive trend between consumption of beef (P = 0.002), bread (P cancer. In contrast, only fruits were inversely related to lung cancer (P bread, rice, beef, liver, dairy products, vegetable ghee, and animal ghee found to be possible risk factors for the development of lung cancer in Iran.

  11. Erlotinib resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy eTang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherapeutic agents may initially effectively treat lung cancer patients, there is a high probability that there will be a reoccurrence of the cancer after the patient develops resistance to the drug. Erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for localized as well as metastatic non-small cell lung cancer where it seems to be more effective in patients with EGFR mutations. Resistance to erlotinib is a common observation in clinics and this review details our current knowledge on the subject. We discuss the causes of such resistance as well as innovative research to overcome it. Evidently, new chemotherapy strategies are desperately needed in order to better treat lung cancer patients. Current research is investigating alternative treatment plans to enhance the chemotherapy that is already offered. Better insight into the molecular mechanisms behind combination therapy pathways and even single molecular pathways may help improve the efficacy of the current treatment options.

  12. Cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codony-Servat, Jordi; Verlicchi, Alberto; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors, with poor survival rates. Although patients may initially respond to treatment, this is followed by rapid development of drug resistance and disease progression. SCLC patients often present with metastasis at time of diagnosis, ruling out surgery as a treatment option. Currently, treatment options for this disease remain limited and platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. A better understanding of the biology of SCLC could allow us to identify new therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is currently crucial in cancer research and could provide a viable explanation for the heterogeneity, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis of several types of tumors. Some characteristics of SCLC, such as aggressiveness, suggest that this kind of tumor could be enriched in CSCs, and drug resistance in SCLC could be attributable to the existence of a CSC subpopulation in SCLC. Herein we summarize current understanding of CSC in SCLC, including the evidence for CSC markers and signaling pathways involved in stemness. We also discuss potential ongoing strategies and areas of active research in SCLC, such as immunotherapy, that focus on inhibition of signaling pathways and targeting molecules driving stemness. Understanding of signaling pathways and the discovery of new therapeutic markers specific to CSCs will lead to new advances in therapy and improvements in prognosis of SCLC patients. Therefore, evaluation of these CSC-specific molecules and pathways may become a routine part of SCLC diagnosis and therapy.

  13. CT findings of primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Won; Kim, So Seon; Woo, Young Hoon; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Jung Hyek; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1985-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 102 cases of histologically proven bronchogenic carcinoma during last 4 years from January 1980 to July 1984 at Kosin Medical College. The results were as follows: 1. The sex ratio was 86 males to 16 females and the greatest number (66.7%) of cases were seen in fourth and fifth decades. 2. The distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancer as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma 66 cases, Adenocarcinoma 10 cases, Small cell carcinoma 7 cases, Large cell carcinoma 5 cases, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1 case, Unclassified 13 cases. 3. Location of primary lesions as follows: Right lung 61 cases, Left lung 40 cases. In both lungs, the greatest number of cases were found in the upper lobes. Ratio between central and peripheral mass was 2.5:1, except adenocarcinoma (6:4). 4. CT findings were as follows: Hilar or central mass (75 cases), Peripheral mass (26), Bronchial abnormalities such as narrowing, obstruction, or displacement (60), Thickening of the posterior wall of the right upper lobe bronchus, bronchus intermedius, or left main bronchus (17), Post-obstructive changes; Atelectasis, Pneumonitis, Emphysema (34, 17, 1 respectively), Hilar adenopathy (21), Mediastinal lymph node enlargement (50), Mediastinal invasion (51), Pericardial thickening (5), SVC syndrome with collateral vessels (3), Pleural effusion (27), Pleural thickening or invasion (14), Chest wall invasion (2), Distant metastasis (26). 5. In most of patients (92 cases), the size of mass was above 3cm, but in 9 cases below 3cm. Margins of the masses were serrated or lobulated in most cases. In 5 cases, cavitary formations were noted, walls of which were thick and irregular, and air-fluid level was noted in 1 case. In 2 cases, eccentric calcification were noted within mass. 6. Among 51 cases of whom direct mediastinal invasion was suspected, 8 cases were operated upon, and this revealed that the masses were not resectable. Among the patients in

  14. Cancer-associated loss of TARSH gene expression in human primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Kunihiko; Shimada, Junichi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Maruyama, Mitsuo; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    We have previously identified mouse Tarsh as one of the cellular senescence-related genes and showed the loss of expression of TARSH mRNA in four human lung cancer cell lines. TARSH is a presumptive signal transduction molecule interacting with NESH, which is implicated to have some roles in lung cancer metastasis. The amplification of complete ORF-encoding TARSH cDNA was done with reverse transcription-PCR. Northern blotting was carried out using TARSH cDNA probes. To clarify the relationship between TARSH and lung cancer, we quantified TARSH mRNA expression in 15 human lung cancer cell lines and 32 primary non-small cell lung cancers. We first determined the complete ORF-encoding cDNA sequence which is expressed in the human lung. On the Northern hybridization analysis, TARSH was strongly expressed in the human lung. The expression of TARSH mRNA is remarkably downregulated in all the lung cancer cell lines examined. Furthermore, TARSH expression was significantly low in all of the tumor specimens when compared to the expression in corresponding non-neoplastic lung tissue specimens. The cancer-associated transcriptional inactivation of TARSH suggests that TARSH could be used as a biomarker for lung cancer development as well as a molecular adjunct for lung carcinogenesis in human.

  15. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in lung cancer treatment: Bench to bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2015-12-15

    The most common and leading cause of cancer-related death in men is lung cancer. Despite the recent advances in chemotherapy, advanced lung cancer still remains incurable. For this, the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis is necessary to provide potentially effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer, and thus the therapeutic limitations can be overcome. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inflammation factor that is reported to be up-regulated in different cancers. A number of COX-2 inhibitors have been developed, but most of them are restricted due to the different risk factors. Currently, the FDA has allowed celecoxib to remain on the market but advised physicians to apply this drug with alternative therapies or to use at a low dosage. Some other COX-2 inhibitors, such as, apricoxib and etoricoxib are under critical investigation currently. Celecoxib is being tested in clinical trials against lung cancer, as a single agent or in combination with other agents. Recent studies have suggested celecoxib as a feasible and clinically active regimen in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. However, more clinical trials are necessary for the better understanding of the role of selective COX-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer along with their assessment of toxicity. In this review, we have discussed the mechanism of actions of COX-2 in cancer progression and the therapeutic use of COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer with subsequent clinical studies and future management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  18. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible

  19. Identification of novel vascular targets in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X; Herbert, J M J; Lodhia, P; Bradford, J; Turner, A M; Newby, P M; Thickett, D; Naidu, U; Blakey, D; Barry, S; Cross, D A E; Bicknell, R

    2015-02-03

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death, largely owing to the lack of effective treatments. A tumour vascular targeting strategy presents an attractive alternative; however, the molecular signature of the vasculature in lung cancer is poorly explored. This work aimed to identify novel tumour vascular targets in lung cancer. Enzymatic digestion of fresh tissue followed by endothelial capture with Ulex lectin-coated magnetic beads was used to isolate the endothelium from fresh tumour specimens of lung cancer patients. Endothelial isolates from the healthy and tumour lung tissue were subjected to whole human genome expression profiling using microarray technology. Bioinformatics analysis identified tumour endothelial expression of angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteases and cell-surface transmembrane proteins. Predicted novel tumour vascular targets were verified by RNA-seq, quantitative real-time PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Further detailed expression profiling of STEAP1 on 82 lung cancer patients confirmed STEAP1 as a novel target in the tumour vasculature. Functional analysis of STEAP1 using siRNA silencing implicates a role in endothelial cell migration and tube formation. The identification of cell-surface tumour endothelial markers in lung is of interest in therapeutic antibody and vaccine development.

  20. December 2013 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Mathew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. During this month’s pulmonary journal club we reviewed several of the sentinel studies looking at lung cancer screening. Since the National Lung Screening Research Team (NLSRT (1 published the impressive results showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality, the debate on when and if to initiate a national lung cancer screening program has been at the forefront of debate. The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society have issued statements that are not guidelines, but did offer insight on the price we pay for earlier lung cancer detection and reduction in mortality…which is the increased rates of false positives detected and increased rates of biopsies. The US Task Force on Lung Cancer Screening has yet to decide on a screening program and have yielded a statement that neither supports nor refutes the current level of evidence. Prior to the NLSRT study there were others that showed conflicting results on …

  1. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  2. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 597 patients aged 65 years or older with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, or lung) before cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (P = 0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (P transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and nontransplant patients. Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than nontransplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these 2 groups.

  3. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  4. Refining Prognosis in Lung Cancer: A Report on the Quality and Relevance of Clinical Prognostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Alyson L; Compton, Carolyn; McShane, Lisa M; Halabi, Susan; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Groome, Patti A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate, individualized prognostication for lung cancer patients requires the integration of standard patient and pathologic factors, biological, genetic, and other molecular characteristics of the tumor. Clinical prognostic tools aim to aggregate information on an individual patient to predict disease outcomes such as overall survival, but little is known about their clinical utility and accuracy in lung cancer. A systematic search of the scientific literature for clinical prognostic tools in lung cancer published from January 1, 1996 to January 27, 2015 was performed. In addition, web-based resources were searched. A priori criteria determined by the Molecular Modellers Working Group of the American Joint Committee on Cancer were used to investigate the quality and usefulness of tools. Criteria included clinical presentation, model development approaches, validation strategies, and performance metrics. Thirty-two prognostic tools were identified. Patients with metastases were the most frequently considered population in non-small-cell lung cancer. All tools for small-cell lung cancer covered that entire patient population. Included prognostic factors varied considerably across tools. Internal validity was not formally evaluated for most tools and only 11 were evaluated for external validity. Two key considerations were highlighted for tool development: identification of an explicit purpose related to a relevant clinical population and clear decision points and prioritized inclusion of established prognostic factors over emerging factors. Prognostic tools will contribute more meaningfully to the practice of personalized medicine if better study design and analysis approaches are used in their development and validation.

  5. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  6. [Radiotherapy promises: focus on lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, Anaïs; Durand-Labrunie, Jérôme; Leroy, Thomas; Pannier, Diane; Wagner, Antoine; Rault, Erwan; Lartigau, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a key cancer treatment, which greatly modified its practice in recent years thanks to medical imaging and technical improvements. The systematic use of computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning, the imaging fusion/co-registration between CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT/positron emission tomography (PET) improve target identification/selection and delineation. New irradiation techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), stereotactic radiotherapy or hadron therapy offer a more diverse therapeutic armamentarium to patients together with lower toxicity. Radiotherapy, as well as medical oncology, tends to offer a personalized treatment to patients thanks to the IGRT, which takes into account the inter- or intra-fraction anatomic variations. IGRT leads to adaptive radiotherapy (ART) with a new planification in the treatment course in order to decrease toxicity and improve tumor control. The use of systemic therapies with radiations needs to be studied in order to improve efficiency without increasing toxicities from these multimodal approaches. Finally, radiotherapy advances were impacted by radiotherapy accidents like Epinal. They led to an increased quality control with the intensification of identity control, the emergence of in vivo dosimetry or the experience feedback committee in radiotherapy. We will illustrate through the example of lung cancer.

  7. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, S.C.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Janssen, M.L.H.; Festen, J.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  8. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  9. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  10. Breast cancer lung metastasis: molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  11. Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    such as that which occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema , is associated with increased risk of lung cancer. These...the mechanical properties of lung tissue are seen in a number of disease states including cancer, COPD, asthma and emphysema , where changes in the...the Inflammatory Response within the Lung : An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paula J. McKeown-Longo, Ph.D

  12. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413650944; Andersen, Z. J.; Hoffmann, B.; Stafoggia, M.; Samoli, E.; Weinmayr, G.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Xun, W. W.; Fischer, P.; Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Tjønneland, A.; Ricceri, F.; de Hoogh, K.; Key, T.; Eeftens, M.; Peeters, P. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Meliefste, K.; Oftedal, B.; Schwarze, P. E.; Nafstad, P.; Galassi, C.; Migliore, E.; Ranzi, A.; Cesaroni, G.; Badaloni, C.; Forastiere, F.; Penell, J.; De Faire, U.; Korek, M.; Pedersen, N.; Östenson, C. G.; Pershagen, G.; Fratiglioni, L.; Concin, H.; Nagel, G.; Jaensch, A.; Ineichen, A.; Naccarati, A.; Katsoulis, M.; Trichpoulou, A.; Keuken, M.; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I. M.; Kukkonen, J.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Sokhi, R. S.; Katsouyanni, K.; Vineis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We

  13. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    eligibility, pregnancy , history of lung cancer, active respira- tory infection, or prior cytotoxic therapy within 6 months. A total of 236 participants were...types including: lung, pancreatic , liver, prostate, and colorectal [2,3,7]. The analysis of circulating DNAmay thus serve as a minimally invasive

  14. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  15. Liposome as nanocarrier: Site targeted delivery in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is fatal and spreading rapidly worldwide. Different clinical strategies are applied to stop this cancer. As the lung is a delicate organ, special clinical applications must be used and nanodrugs delivery systems are the most important applications of all. This review discusses the lung problems such as lung cancer, lung inflammation and bronchi constrictions followed by repetitive intake of some drugs. The objective of this review is to study how nanodrug delivery systems were synthesized and used in lung disorder treatment especially in lung cancer. The authors studied some articles from 1989 to 2015. Liposome encapsulation was done in various ways for the delivery of different drugs such as metaproterenol into liposomes caused bronchodilation, immunoliposomes bearing antibodies for doxorubicin reduced 50% inhibitory effects, radioliposomes with high penetrating ability to peripheral airways, aerosol delivery systems with deep pulmonary deposition, polymeric drug delivery having potential to improve beneficial index of drug, solid lipid liposomes, liposomal gentamicin with altered different clinical susceptibilities of resistance, transferrin conjugated liposomes to deliver cytostatic drugs to site of lungs, anti-inflammatory drugs with mannosylated liposomes, liposomal suspensions with single stranded RNAs and peptide encapsulation of liposomes. This review indicates that many animals perished with intravenous administration of drugs but survived in liposomal targeting groups.

  16. Staging by tomography: Lung, esophagus, mama and pleural cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation shows images of different types of cancer in the lung, esophagus, mama and pleura. The chest radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and PET CT contribute to detect the morphology, size, location, metastasize, malignant and benign nodules, lymph glands.

  17. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  18. ALCHEMIST: Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALCHEMIST represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those mol

  19. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  20. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuber, V.; Marconett, C.N.; Shi, J.; Hua, X.; Wheeler, W.; Yang, C.; Song, L; Dale, A.M.; Laplana, M.; Risch, A.; Witoelar, A.; Thompson, W.K.; Schork, A.J.; Bettella, F.; Wang, Y; Djurovic, S.; Zhou, B.; Borok, Z.; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Graaf, J. de; Swinkels, D.W.; Aben, K.K.H.; McKay, J.; Hung, R.J.; Bikeboller, H.; Stevens, V.L.; Albanes, D.; Caporaso, N.E.; Han, Y.; Wei, Y.; Panadero, M.A.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Christiani, D.C.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Andreassen, O.A.; Houlston, R.; Amos, C.I.; Chatterjee, N.; Laird-Offringa, I.A.; Mills, I.G.; Landi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160

  1. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Lotan, Reuben; Stewart, David

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the clinical trials that will be conducted in the VITAL Research Program will demonstrate the true rate of lung cancer recurrence and second primary tumor incidence in patients at high...

  2. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  3. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home......-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group...

  4. Cardiac and lung complication probabilities after breast cancer irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, C. W.; Borger, J. H.; Bos, L. J.; van der Horst, A.; Pieters, B. R.; Lebesque, J. V.; Mijnheer, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess for locoregional irradiation of breast cancer patients, the dependence of cardiac (cardiac mortality) and lung (radiation pneumonitis) complications on treatment technique and individual patient anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed for

  5. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  6. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  7. Prediction of lung cancer using volatile biomarkers in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Altorki, Nasser; Austin, John H M; Cameron, Robert B; Cataneo, Renee N; Greenberg, Joel; Kloss, Robert; Maxfield, Roger A; Munawar, Muhammad I; Pass, Harvey I; Rashid, Asif; Rom, William N; Schmitt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Normal metabolism generates several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are excreted in the breath (e.g. alkanes). In patients with lung cancer, induction of high-risk cytochrome p450 genotypes may accelerate catabolism of these VOCs, so that their altered abundance in breath may provide biomarkers of lung cancer. VOCs in 1.0 L alveolar breath were analyzed in 193 subjects with primary lung cancer and 211 controls with a negative chest CT. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training set or to a prediction set in a 2:1 split. A fuzzy logic model of breath biomarkers of lung cancer was constructed in the training set and then tested in subjects in the prediction set by generating their typicality scores for lung cancer. Mean typicality scores employing a 16 VOC model were significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in the control group (pmodel predicted primary lung cancer with 84.6% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity, and 0.88 area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Predictive accuracy was similar in TNM stages 1 through 4, and was not affected by current or former tobacco smoking. The predictive model achieved near-maximal performance with six breath VOCs, and was progressively degraded by random classifiers. Predictions with fuzzy logic were consistently superior to multilinear analysis. If applied to a population with 2% prevalence of lung cancer, a screening breath test would have a negative predictive value of 0.985 and a positive predictive value of 0.163 (true positive rate =0.277, false positive rate =0.029). A two-minute breath test predicted lung cancer with accuracy comparable to screening CT of chest. The accuracy of the test was not affected by TNM stage of disease or tobacco smoking. Alterations in breath VOCs in lung cancer were consistent with a non-linear pathophysiologic process, such as an off-on switch controlling high-risk cytochrome p450 activity. Further research is needed to determine if detection

  8. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell death in cancer therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagryazhskaya, Anna; Gyuraszova, Katarina; Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the main cause of all cancer-related deaths in the world, with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) being the most common subtype of this fatal disease. Lung ADC is often diagnosed at advanced stages involving disseminated metastatic tumors. This is particularly important for the successful development of new cancer therapy approaches. The high resistance of lung ADC to conventional radio- and chemotherapies represents a major challenge to treatment effectiveness. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of ADC's broad resistance to treatment and its possible therapeutic implications. A number of driving oncogenic alterations were identified in a subset of lung ADCs, making them suitable for targeted therapies directed towards specific cancer-associated molecular changes. In addition, we discuss the molecular aberrations common in lung ADC that are currently being exploited or are potentially important for targeted cancer therapy, as well as limitations of this type of therapy. Furthermore, we highlight possible treatment modalities that hold promise for overcoming resistance to targeted therapies as well as alternative treatment options such as immunotherapies that are potentially promising for improving the clinical outcome of lung ADC patients.

  10. Primary lung cancer and extrapulmonary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Neef, Heinz; Schmidt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The incidence of second primary malignancies seems to be increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, treatment and outcome for patients with second primary lung cancer (SPLC). Between January 1996 and December 2005, 163 patients with SPLC, occurring after an extrapulmonary malignancy, were recruited by the Tumor Center of Halle (Saale), which represents a region of nearly 1.0 million inhabitants in Germany. The SPLCs were treated under curative aim (n=59), with palliative intend (n=76) or best supportive care (n=28). The incidence of SPLC was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The localization of the first tumor differed depending on the sex of the patients. The actuarial 5-year survival rate of all patients was 12.7% (median survival time 11.4 months). Univariate analysis revealed treatment strategy as a prognostic factor (p=0.0001). Patients with SPLC having undergone curative treatment turned out to have the best prognosis (median survival: 31.0 months). The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that only TNM-staging system was a multivariate and significant independent prognostic predictor for overall survival. The method of surgery, standard lung resection (e.g. lobectomy) versus limited resection had no considerable influence on overall survival (p=0.22), respectively recurrence-free survival (p=0.55). In cases of operability, standard resection must be the method of choice, because of its best survival rates. The results support the demand of an exact and short-term oncological care system to detect early stages of SPLC for patients operated upon for tumors at different sites.

  11. Lung cancer mutations and use of targeted agents in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, W Douglas; Chiappori, Alberto; Santiago, Pedro; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are expected to grow to over 24% of the USA population by 2050 and lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death among H/L men. Due to the information that is becoming available via genetic testing, lung cancer molecular profiling is allowing for increasing application of personalized lung cancer therapies. However, to benefit the most people, development of these therapies and genetic tests must include research on as many racial and ethnic groups as possible. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the fact that the mutations driving lung cancer in H/Ls differ in frequency and nature relative to the non-Hispanic White (WNH) majority that dominate current databases and participate in clinical trials that test new therapies. Clinical trials using new agents targeting genetic alterations (driver mutations) in lung cancer have demonstrated significant improvements in patient outcomes (for example, gefitinib, erlotinib or crizotinib for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions, respectively). The nature and frequencies of some lung cancer driver mutations have been shown to be considerably different among racial and ethnic groups. This is particularly true for H/Ls. For example, several reports suggest a dramatic shift in the mutation pattern from predominantly KRAS in a WNH population to predominantly EGFR in multiple H/L populations. However, these studies are limited, and the effects of racial and ethnic differences on the incidence of mutations in lung cancer remain incompletely understood. This review serves as a call to address this problem.

  12. Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Targeting SRC Family Kinases and HSP90 in Lung Cancer...COVERED Annual 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nedd9, Src , HSP90

  13. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... 2013 Table of Contents Tests What type of lung cancer do I have? Has the cancer spread from ...

  16. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  17. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  18. Residential segregation and lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayanga, Awori J; Zeliadt, Steve B; Backhus, Leah M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between race and lung cancer mortality and the effect of residential segregation in the United States. A retrospective, population-based study using data obtained from the 2009 Area Resource File and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Each county in the United States. Black and white populations per US county. A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and log link was used to examine the association between residential segregation and lung cancer mortality from 2003 to 2007 for black and white populations. Our primary independent variable was the racial index of dissimilarity. The index is a demographic measure that assesses the evenness with which whites and blacks are distributed across census tracts within each county. The score ranges from 0 to 100 in increasing degrees of residential segregation. RESULTS The overall lung cancer mortality rate was higher for blacks than whites (58.9% vs 52.4% per 100 000 population). Each additional level of segregation was associated with a 0.5% increase in lung cancer mortality for blacks (P segregation) and the highest levels of segregation (≥60% segregation), respectively. In contrast, the adjusted lung cancer mortality rates for whites decreased with increasing levels of segregation. Lung cancer mortality is higher in blacks and highest in blacks living in the most segregated counties, regardless of socioeconomic status.

  19. Advances of Molecular Targeted Therapy in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lungadenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lungcancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  20. Advances of Molecular Subtype and Targeted Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan SHAO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of multiple molecular mechanisms underlying the development, progression, and prognosis of lung cancer, has created new opportunities for targeted therapy. Each subtype is associated with molecular tests that define the subtype and drugs that may have potential therapeutic effect on lung cancer. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR gene were discovered in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinomas. And they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC, and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers. At present, multiple molecular subtype of lung cancer and relevant targeted drugs are undering study. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular subtype of lung cancer and the related targeted therapy.

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when you breathe in and take out carbon dioxide when you breathe out. Each lung has sections ...

  2. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when you breathe in and take out carbon dioxide when you breathe out. Each lung has sections ...

  3. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when you breathe in and take out carbon dioxide when you breathe out. Each lung has sections ...

  4. Significance of coexistent granulomatous inflammation and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Choong, Caroline V; Asmat, Atasha Binti; Ahmed, Dokeu Basheer A; Chopra, Akhil; Lim, Albert Y H; Tai, Dessmon Y H; Kor, Ai Ching; Goh, Soon Keng; Abisheganaden, John; Verma, Akash

    2017-04-01

    Coexistence of lung cancer and granulomatous inflammation in the same patient confuses clinicians. We aimed to document the prevalence, clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis in patients with coexisting granulomatous inflammation undergoing curative lung resection for lung cancer, in a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country. An observational cohort study of patients with lung cancer undergoing curative resection between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary centre in Singapore. One hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent lung resection for cancer, out of which 19 (14.9%) had coexistent granulomatous inflammation in the resected specimen. Median age was 68 years and 58.2% were males. Overall median (range) survival was 451 (22-2452) days. Eighteen (14%) patients died at median duration of 271 days after surgery. The postsurgery median survival for those alive was 494 (29-2452) days in the whole group. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any differences in age, gender, location of cancer, radiological features, type of cancer, chemotherapy, history of TB or survival in patients with or without coexistent granulomatous inflammation. Incidental detection of granulomatous inflammation in patients undergoing lung resection for cancer, even in a TB-endemic country, may not require any intervention. Such findings may be due to either mycobacterial infection in the past or 'sarcoid reaction' to cancer. Although all patients should have their resected specimen sent for acid-fast bacilli culture and followed up until the culture results are reported, the initiation of the management of such patients as per existing lung cancer management guidelines does not affect their outcome adversely. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  6. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  7. Prognosis and Treatment Decision Making in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhles, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnoses (12% of total new cancer cases) and to death from cancer (18% of total cancer deaths). There are two major groups of lung cancer that arise from the cells of the respiratory epithelium: non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85% and 15% of lung cancer cases, respectively. The 5 year survival rate is 70-85% for l...

  8. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal has been associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthened after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung

  10. Lung Cancer Screening Uncertainty among Patients Undergoing LDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel L; Lennes, Inga T; Carr, Alaina; Eusebio, Justin R; Yeh, Gloria Y; Park, Elyse R

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, yet lung screening remains underutilized. Lung cancer screening uncertainty (LCSU), including referral clarity and the perceived accuracy of screening, may hinder utilization and represent an unmet psychosocial need. This study sought to identify correlates of LCSU among lung screening patients. Current and former smokers (N = 169) completed questionnaires assessing LCSU, sociodemographic variables, objective and subjective numeracy, stress, and anxiety, as part of a cross-sectional study of lung screening patients at an academic hospital. Patients (52% current smok- ers) reported high clarity about the reason for their lung screening referral. Less clarity was as- sociated with lower education, not receiving Medicare, and greater stress and anxiety. Patients perceived lung screening to be moderately accurate, and levels were inversely related to objective numeracy. Subjective numeracy was higher among former versus current smokers (OR = 2.5), yet was unrelated to LCSU variables. Several sociodemographic, numeracy, and emotional factors were associated with greater LCSU. With multiple policy and clinical guidelines purporting the uptake of annual lung screening, it is important to identify patients with LCSU and tailor shared decision-making to clarify their uncertainties.

  11. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.; Beck, W.L.; Shy, C.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Sowder, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the risk of dying from lung cancer among white males who received radiation to the lung as a result of inhaling uranium dust or the dust of uranium compounds. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of workers employed in a uranium processing plant during World War II. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of exposure even after controlling for age and smoking status, but only for those who were over the age of 45 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads of more. These data suggest that older age groups may be more susceptible to radiation-induced lung cancer than younger age groups

  14. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  15. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Novel agents in the management of lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, B

    2012-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Survival remains poor as approximately 80% of cases present with advanced stage disease. However, new treatments are emerging which offer hope to patients with advanced disease. Insights into cell biology have identified numerous intracellular and extracellular peptides that are pivotal in cancer cell signalling. Disrupting the function of these peptides inhibits intracellular signal transduction and diminishes uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and tumour angiogenesis. The most widely studied signalling pathway is the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) pathway. EGF signalling can be disrupted at numerous points. Blockade of the cell surface receptor is achieved by the monoclonal antibody cetuximab; intracellular tyrosine kinase activity is inhibited by erlotinib. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulates another pathway important for tumour growth. Inhibition of VEGF impairs angiogenesis and disrupts metastatic spread. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF and blocks interaction with its cell surface receptor. Clinical trials have demonstrated that disruption of these signalling pathways can improve survival in advanced lung cancer. New compounds including folate antimetabolites such as pemetrexed, proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, modified glutathione analogues such as TLK286, and other agents such as epothilones and other small molecules are currently being evaluated in patients with lung cancer. As more and more signalling peptides are targeted for manipulation, it is hoped that a new era is dawning in the treatment of advanced stage lung cancer. This review will focus on emerging new therapies in the management of lung cancer.

  17. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Emin Akkoyunlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/ dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn’t detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  19. Lung cancer diagnosis by trained dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao Montes, Ángela; Molins López-Rodó, Laureano; Ramón Rodríguez, Ingrid; Sunyer Dequigiovanni, Gemma; Viñolas Segarra, Núria; Marrades Sicart, Ramón María; Hernández Ferrández, Jorge; Fibla Alfara, Juan José; Agustí García-Navarro, Álvaro

    2017-12-01

    Early lung cancer (LC) diagnosis is key to improve prognosis. We explored here the diagnostic performance of a trained dog to discriminate exhaled gas samples obtained from patients with and patients without LC and healthy controls. After appropriate training, we exposed the dog (a 3-year-old cross-breed between a Labrador Retriever and a Pitbull) to 390 samples of exhaled gas collected from 113 individuals (85 patients with LC and 28 controls, which included 11 patients without LC and 17 healthy individuals) for a total of 785 times. The trained dog recognized LC in exhaled gas with a sensitivity of 0.95, a specificity of 0.98, a positive predictive value of 0.95 and a negative predictive value of 0.98. The area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.971. This study shows that a well-trained dog can detect the presence of LC in exhaled gas samples with an extremely high accuracy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub α/ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage

  1. [Small-cell lung cancer and rapidly fatal nephritic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangui, I; Msaad, S; Smaoui, M; Makni, S; Kammoun, K; Khébir, A; Boudawara, T; Ayoub, A

    2007-10-01

    Nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis is observed in 1 to 3% of patients with lung cancer. The nephrotic syndrome usually precedes the discovery of the causal tumor, but diagnosis can be concomitant or during the disease course. We describe a case of small-cell carcinoma of the lung without metastases revealed by a paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome. Complete remission of the tumor was achieved with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with resolution of the nephrotic syndrome, but tumor progression occurred together with rapidly fatal renal failure. In this case, and the review of the literature, illustrate the association between paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome and lung cancer, as well as the disease course and prognosis of the lung cancer and the accompanying glomerulopathy.

  2. Early detection of lung cancer [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Midthun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer.

  3. Bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically removed lung cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toloudi Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest an association between the presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection and the development of different types of cancer, independently of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. This has also been postulated for the development of lung cancer, however the prevalence and the exact species of the bacteria and fungi implicated, have not yet been described. Aim To determine the presence of bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically extracted samples of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods In this single-center prospective, observational study, tissue samples were surgically extracted from 32 consecutive patients with lung cancer, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of bacteria and fungi strains. Results The analysis of the electrophoresis data pointed out diversity between the samples and the strains that were identified. Mycoplasma strains were identified in all samples. Strains that appeared more often were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis and Bacillus strains, followed in descending frequency by Chlamydia, Candida, Listeria, and Haemophilus influenza. In individual patients Legionella pneumophila and Candida tropicalis were detected. Conclusions A diversity of pathogens could be identified in surgically extracted tissue samples of patients with lung cancer, with mycoplasma strains being present in all samples. These results point to an etiologic role for chronic infection in lung carcinogenesis. Confirmation of these observations and additional studies are needed to further characterize the etiologic role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis.

  4. [Molecular diagnostics of ALK-positive lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, József; Lotz, Gábor; Rásó, Erzsébet; Moldvay, Judit

    2017-09-20

    ALK translocation is the 3rd most frequent genetic aberration in lung adenocarcinoma, and several inhibitors are now clinically available in first and second line settings. Accordingly, molecular diagnostics of ALK-positive lung cancer is very important and can be done with the rational combination of several methods. All international recommendations suggest that, except for cytological samples, screening technology for ALK-positive tumors is immunohistochemistry using a validated test. It is highly recommended that in case of ALK protein positive samples gene translocation must be confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case of cytological samples FISH technique must be used as ALK diagnostics. In equivocal cases the genetic alteration of ALK can be confirmed by alternative molecular techniques such as next generation sequencing or RNAbased PCR methods. Upon administration of ALK inhibitors, acquired resistance is frequent which is mostly due to ALK amplification and/or mutation. It is evident that the diagnostics of these secondary ALK gene alterations must be done from recurrent tumors or circulating nucleic acids.

  5. Tracking the Evolution of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; McGranahan, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on intratumor heterogeneity and cancer genome evolution have been limited to small retrospective cohorts. We wanted to prospectively investigate intratumor heterogeneity in relation to clinical outcome and to determine the cl...

  6. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  7. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  8. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  9. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  10. Ganoderma lucidum targeting lung cancer signaling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balraj Singh; Navgeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer causes huge mortality to population, and pharmaceutical companies require new drugs as an alternative either synthetic or natural targeting lung cancer. The conventional therapies cause side effects, and therefore, natural products are used as a therapeutic candidate in lung cancer. Chemical diversity among natural products highlights the impact of evolution and survival of fittest. One such neglected natural product is Ganoderma lucidum used for promoting health and longevity for a longer time. The major bioconstituents of G. lucidum are mainly terpenes, polysaccharides, and proteins, which were explored for various activities ranging from apoptosis to autophagy. The bioconstituents of G. lucidum activate plasma membrane receptors and initiate various downstream signaling leading to nuclear factor-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin in cancer. The bioconstituents regulate the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle, immune response, apoptosis, and autophagy in lung cancer. This review highlights the inextricable role of G. lucidum and its bioconstituents in lung cancer signaling for the first time.

  11. Novel Genetic Associations Between Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ran; Koh, Sang-Baek; Park, Seong Yong; Kim, Hye Run; Lee, Hyojin; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, for which smoking is considered as the primary risk factor. The present study was conducted to determine whether genetic alterations induced by radon exposure are associated with the susceptible risk of lung cancer in never smokers. To accurately identify mutations within individual tumors, next generation sequencing was conduct for 19 pairs of lung cancer tissue. The associations of germline and somatic variations with radon exposure were visualized using OncoPrint and heatmap graphs. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using various tools. Alterations in several genes were implicated in lung cancer resulting from exposure to radon indoors, namely those in epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ), tumor protein p53 ( TP53 ), NK2 homeobox 1 ( NKX2.1 ), phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 ( CHD7 ), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 ( DDR2 ), lysine methyltransferase 2C ( MLL3 ), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 ( CHD5 ), FAT atypical cadherin 1 ( FAT1 ), and dual specificity phosphatase 27 (putative) ( DUSP27 ). While these genes might regulate the carcinogenic pathways of radioactivity, further analysis is needed to determine whether the genes are indeed completely responsible for causing lung cancer in never smokers exposed to residential radon.

  12. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2017-03-15

    With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  13. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  14. Lung cancer prevalence associated with radon exposure in Norwegian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfjell, Christina Søyland; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Standring, William J F; Tretli, Steinar

    2017-08-22

    Radioactive radon gas is generated from uranium and thorium in underlying rocks and seeps into buildings. The gas and its decay products emit carcinogenic radiation and are regarded as the second most important risk factor for lung cancer after active tobacco smoking. The average radon concentration in Norwegian homes is higher than in most other Western countries. From a health and cost perspective, it is important to be able to quantify the risk of lung cancer posed by radon exposure. We estimated the radon-related risk of lung cancer in Norway based on risk estimates from the largest pooled analysis of European case-control studies, combined with the hitherto largest set of data on radon concentration measurements in Norwegian homes. Based on these estimates, we calculate that radon is a contributory factor in 12 % of all cases of lung cancer annually, assuming an average radon concentration of 88 Bq/m3 in Norwegian homes. For 2015, this accounted for 373 cases of lung cancer, with an approximate 95 % confidence interval of 145 – 682. Radon most likely contributes to a considerable number of cases of lung cancer. Since most cases of radon-associated lung cancer involve smokers or former smokers, a reduction of the radon concentration in homes could be a key measure to reduce the risk, especially for persons who are unable to quit smoking. The uncertainty in the estimated number of radon-associated cases can be reduced through a new national radon mapping study with an improved design.

  15. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    2002-01-01

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  17. Identificationof potential lung cancer biomarkers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of secretomes of two lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Kovalev, Sergey V; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Kudryavtsev, Igor A

    2013-01-01

    A label-free nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics analysis on the conditioned media (CM) of two lung cancer cell lines of different histological backgrounds to identify secreted or membrane-bound proteins as novel lung cancer biomarkers was performed. Five hundred and seventy seven proteins were identified and 38% of them were classified as extracellular or membrane-bound. For the search of potential biomarkers of lung cancer a series of selection criteria were proposed. We detected known or putative lung cancer markers. In addition, 40 novel proteins were identified, whose role as biomarkers of lung cancer should be explored further.

  18. Current practice when treating lung cancer in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.

    2007-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held by the radiation oncology department of South Western Sydney Area Cancer Services in March 2003. This meeting was advertised in all radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand. As a precursor to this meeting, a survey was undertaken on the use of radiotherapy for treating lung cancer. All departments in Australia and New Zealand were asked to participate. The survey considered planning techniques, delivery set-up and prescription doses for non-small-cell and small-cell lung cancer and palliative and radical treatments. A wide range in the techniques used was seen across departments, particularly when prescription doses and fractionation were considered

  19. [Diagnosis and management of lung cancer during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerjouan, M; Jouneau, S; Corre, R; Le Ho, H; Pracht, M; Léna, H; Desrues, B

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during pregnancy is very low, but it is becoming more frequent in industrialized countries both because of the increase in smoking in young women and because women are becoming pregnant later in life. Usually, the cancer has a poor prognosis due to the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis and management are delicate, and should deal with the gestational age, the maternal prognosis, the fetal toxicity of treatments, but also with the worsening of maternal prognosis and the risk of neoplastic cells being transmitted to the fetus in case of delayed treatment. Psychological and ethical considerations complicate the decision process. We present a review of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis concerning lung cancer during pregnancy. Finally, it is important to remember that young women with lung cancer should be advised to use a reliable form of contraception. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre- and post- transplantation lung cancer in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricopi, Ciprian; Rivera, Caroline; Varnous, Shaida; Arame, Alex; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Heart transplantation after lung cancer surgery can be questionable because of the high risk of cancer recurrence. We report the results of two patients. The first underwent right lobectomy in 2008 for pT1N0 adenocarcinoma, heart-transplantation in 2010, and surgery for synchronous adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma in 2012. The second underwent left segmentectomy for pT1aN0 adenosquamous carcinoma and transplantation in 1995 and then surgery for pT1aN1 adenocarcinoma in 2013. Posttransplantation lung cancer histologic analysis results were different in both cases, demonstrating the absence of metastatic recurrence. Thus, early stage lung cancer might not be a contraindication to heart transplantation, nor are long delays be necessary before registering on a waiting list. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress in Immunotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the five-year survival rate of patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains low despite recent advances in surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Immunotherapy which utilizes the immune system to control and eradicate cancer is a viable treatment approach for malignancy. Immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer has made breakthrough progress recently. Novel immunotherapeutic agents, such as antigen-specific tumour vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors, etc, have all been evaluated in lung cancer, and some have shown prolonged survival time in phase II trials and III trails. The immune-related response criteria for the evaluation of antitumor responses with immunotherapeutic agents have been made. Now, immunotherapy will likely be a fundamentally new concept for the treatment of NSCLC.

  2. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  3. Lung cancer mortality risk among breast cancer patients treated with anti-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Benhamou, Simone; Schaffar, Robin; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2011-03-15

    The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trial reported that menopausal hormone therapy increases lung cancer mortality risk. If this is true, use of anti-estrogens should be associated with decreased lung cancer mortality risk. The authors compared lung cancer incidence and mortality among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogen therapy. Our study included all 6655 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1980 and 2003 and registered at the Geneva Cancer Registry. Among these women, 46% (3066) received anti-estrogens. All women were followed for occurrence and death from lung cancer until December 2007. The authors compared incidence and mortality rates among patients with and without anti-estrogens with those expected in the general population by Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs). After a total of 57,257 person-years, 40 women developed lung cancer. SIRs for lung cancer were not significantly decreased among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogens (0.63, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.33-1.10; and 1.12, 95% CI, 0.74-1.62, respectively) while SMR was decreased among women with anti-estrogens (0.13, 95% CI, 0.02-0.47, P<.001) but not for women without anti-estrogens (0.76, 95% CI, 0.43-1.23). Compared with expected outcomes in the general population, breast cancer patients receiving anti-estrogen treatment for breast cancer had lower lung cancer mortality. This study further supports the hypothesis that estrogen therapy modifies lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  4. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  5. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  6. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Recent advances in surgical management of early lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad application of low-dose computed tomography screening has resulted in the detection of many more cases of early lung cancer than ever before in modern history. Recent advances in the management of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer have focused on making therapy less traumatic, enhancing recovery, and preserving lung function. In this review, we discuss several new modalities associated with minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer. Firstly, less lung parenchyma resection via sublobar resection has become an acceptable alternative to lobectomy in patients with tumors less than 2 cm in size or with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. Secondly, thoracoscopic surgery using a single-portal or needlescopic approach to decrease chest wall trauma is becoming common practice. Thirdly, less invasive anesthesia, using nonintubated techniques, is feasible and safe and is associated with fewer intubation- and ventilator-associated complications. Fourthly, preoperative or intraoperative image-guided localization is an effective modality for identifying small and deep nodules during thoracoscopic surgery. Keywords: Anesthesia, Lung cancer, Nonintubated, Surgery, Thoracoscopy, Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS

  8. The next generation of immunotherapy: keeping lung cancer in check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ashwin; Burns, Timothy F

    2017-04-24

    Lung cancer is the deadliest malignancy with more cancer deaths per year than the next three cancers combined. Despite remarkable advances in targeted therapy, advanced lung cancer patients have not experienced a significant improvement in mortality. Lung cancer has been shown to be immunogenic and responsive to checkpoint blockade therapy. Checkpoint signals such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 dampen T cell activation and allow tumors to escape the adaptive immune response. Response rates in patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC were much higher and more durable with PD-1 blockade therapy compared to standard-of-care, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, PD-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab were rapidly approved for both squamous and nonsquamous lung cancer in the pretreated population. The advent of these new therapies have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer; however, the majority of NSCLC patients still do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition leaving an unmet need for a large and growing population.Immunotherapy combinations with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or novel immunomodulatory agents are currently being examined with the hope of achieving higher response rates and improving overall survival rate. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been theorized to increase the release of tumor antigen leading to increased responses with immunotherapy. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also destroy actively proliferating T cells. The correct combination and order of therapy is under investigation. The majority of patients who do respond to immunotherapy have a durable response attributed to the effect of adaptive immune system's memory. Unfortunately, some patients' tumors do progress afterward and investigation of checkpoint blockade resistance is still nascent.This review will summarize the latest efficacy and safety data for early and advanced NSCLC in both the treatment-naïve and pretreated settings. The emerging

  9. The next generation of immunotherapy: keeping lung cancer in check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Somasundaram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the deadliest malignancy with more cancer deaths per year than the next three cancers combined. Despite remarkable advances in targeted therapy, advanced lung cancer patients have not experienced a significant improvement in mortality. Lung cancer has been shown to be immunogenic and responsive to checkpoint blockade therapy. Checkpoint signals such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 dampen T cell activation and allow tumors to escape the adaptive immune response. Response rates in patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC were much higher and more durable with PD-1 blockade therapy compared to standard-of-care, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, PD-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab were rapidly approved for both squamous and nonsquamous lung cancer in the pretreated population. The advent of these new therapies have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer; however, the majority of NSCLC patients still do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition leaving an unmet need for a large and growing population. Immunotherapy combinations with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or novel immunomodulatory agents are currently being examined with the hope of achieving higher response rates and improving overall survival rate. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been theorized to increase the release of tumor antigen leading to increased responses with immunotherapy. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also destroy actively proliferating T cells. The correct combination and order of therapy is under investigation. The majority of patients who do respond to immunotherapy have a durable response attributed to the effect of adaptive immune system’s memory. Unfortunately, some patients’ tumors do progress afterward and investigation of checkpoint blockade resistance is still nascent. This review will summarize the latest efficacy and safety data for early and advanced NSCLC in both the treatment-naïve and

  10. Lung cancer in Northern Portugal: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, V; Parente, B; Araújo, A; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Figueiredo, M M; Neveda, R; Soares, M; João, F; Queiroga, H

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide. In Portugal, the disease remains the main cause of cancer death in males. This study aims to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients diagnosed and treated in northern Portugal hospitals from 2000 to 2010. Twelve hospitals in the north of Portugal contributed to this study. The demographic and clinic characteristics of the patients registered in each hospital from 2000 to 2010 and the patterns of their occurrence were analyzed. During an 11-year period (2000-2010), 9767 lung cancer patients were registered in the participating hospitals. Comparing the number of the patients registered in the year 2000 to those registered during 2010, there was a significant increase in lung cancer cases. Females represent only 20% of the total registered lung cancer cases; however, during the study period, the number of female patients increased by 30%. A significant number of the patients, 3117 (48.6%), had poor performance status at presentation. The adenocarcinoma histology became more preponderant over the study period. Most of the patients were diagnosed as stages IIIB or IV: 7206 of 9267 (77.8%). Chemotherapy was the treatment of choice for 3529 (40.4%) patients, whereas surgical treatment was achieved in 1301 (14.9%) cases. A significant number of lung cancer patients have been diagnosed and treated in hospitals in northern Portugal, and the incidence of the disease among females has been increasing. The overwhelming majority of the tumors were diagnosed in advanced stage; nevertheless, surgical treatment was possible in 14.9% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Postoperative radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Chatani, Masashi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kurokawa, Eiji; Kodama, Ken; Doi, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    From January 1978 through December 1982, a total of 241 cases with lung cancer underwent surgery. Twenty-nine cases (operative death: 7, relative non-curative operation: 13, exploratory thoracotomy: 9) were excluded because they did not receive radiation therapy (RT). The remaining 212 cases were available for this analysis. Forty-two of them were treated with RT postoperatively. Three-year survival rates according to curability in the non-RT and RT groups were 83 % and 71 % (NS) in the curative operation group. In the relatively curative operation group, the corresponding figures were 40 % and 33 % (NS), and in the absolutely non-curative operation group, 3 % and 20 % (p < 0.01), respectively. The analysis of background factors revealed that in the curative operation group the rate of combined resection and in the relatively curative operation group pT3 and combined resection were significantly higher in the RT group than non-RT group. In the absolutely non-curative operation group, the rate of pM1 was significantly lower in RT group than the non-RT group. The pattern of failure of the RT group by histology was analysed. Local and regional failure was most common in the squamous cell carcinoma group and distant failure in the adenocarcinoma group. However, in the adenocarcinoma group local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was also frequently noted. The relationship between the radiation field and local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was analysed. In the squamous cell carcinoma group, in-field failure was most common, whereas in the adenocarcinoma group, outside (marginal) failure was common, especially in the supraclavicular lymph nodes. Concerning squamous cell carcinoma, microscopic or macroscopic residual tumor at the surgical margin, which includes the chest wall, stump (BS or VS) and pericardium was well controlled in each operation group with more than 50 Gy of RT. (J.P.N.)

  12. Autopsy findings in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek, B.; Jassem, J.; Karnicka-Mlodkowska, H.; Badzio, A.; Mos-Antkowiak, R.; Dziadziuszko, R.; Szczepek, B.; Chojak, E.; Lisowska, B.; Malak, K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of autopsy in 174 small lung cancer patients treated between 1971 and 1991 at seven Polish medical centres. Eighty nine autopsied patients were previously treated with different chemotherapy regimens including 32 patients who also received chest irradiation, 74 received only supportive care and for 11 patients the data on treatment were not available. The age range at diagnosis was 28-81 years (median 57); there were 39 females (22%) and 135 males (78%). Seventy two patients had limited disease at the time of diagnosis, 86 - extensive disease and in 16 the disease extent was not determined. The primary tumor and/or metastases in regional lymph nodes were present in 157 autopsies (90%). There was a significant difference in the rate of locoregional disease found at autopsy in patients given chemotherapy and in those who received only supportive care (85% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.01). Chest radiation therapy given in limited as an adjunct to chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of persistent locoregional disease (primary tumor in the chest was found in 92% of irradiated and in 96% of nonirradiated patients). Locoregional tumor deposit only was found in 28 (16%). Distant metastases were distributed in 143 patients (82%) and were found in 25 different locations, most frequently in liver (49%), supra-renal glands (25%), peripheral lymph nodes (21%), kidneys (18%), brain (17%) and pancreas (12%). In 3 patients no tumor foci were found. The number of organs involved varied between 0 and 10 (median 3). The number of involved organs was not dependent on the disease extent at the time of diagnosis and on the type of treatment. (author)

  13. Lung and Heart Dose Variability During Radiation Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nuzhat; Guy, Christopher; Reshko, Leonid B; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that positional and anatomic variations during radiation therapy induce changes in lung and heart volumes and associated radiation doses. In this longitudinal investigation, variations in lung and heart volumes and standard dose parameters of mean lung dose, lung V 20Gy , mean heart dose, and heart V 40Gy were analyzed on weekly 4-dimensional CT scans of 15 lung cancer patients during conventionally fractionated radiochemotherapy. Tumor, individual lung lobes, and heart were delineated on the mid-ventilation phase of weekly 4-dimensional CT scans. Lung lobes and heart were also contoured on individual breathing phases of pre-, mid-, and end-of-treatment scans. Planning dose was transferred to consecutive scans via rigid registration. Volume and dose variations were assessed relative to the initial planning scan. Interfraction lung volume variability relative to week 0 was twice as large as tidal volume variability (8.0% ± 5.3% vs 4.0% ± 3.3%, P=.003). Interfraction lung volume variation ranged between 0.8% and 17.1% for individual patient means. Lower lung lobes had larger volume variability compared with upper lobes (13.5% ± 8.1% vs 7.0% ± 5.0%, Pheart volume variation was 7.2% (range, 3.4%-12.6%). Average mean heart dose variation was 1.2 Gy (range, 0.1-3.0 Gy) and average heart V 40Gy variation 1.4% (range, 0%-4.2%). Anatomic and positional variations during radiation therapy induce changes in radiation doses to lung and heart. Repeated lung and heart dose assessment will provide a better estimate of the actual delivered dose and will improve prediction models for normal tissue toxicity, if assessed in larger cohorts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients associated with multiple primary malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Shan

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients with additional malignant primary cancers.Records of lung cancer patients newly diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2000 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with second primary lung cancer and those with lung cancer only were included for detailed analysis.Of 27642 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, 283 patients (1.02% suffered previous additional primary cancers. Compared with single primary lung cancer, patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary cancers were more often women (female to male ratio 1:1.72 vs 1:2.58, P = 0.018, older (64.2 vs 60.5 years old, P<0.001, more squamous cell type (30.7% vs 20.5%, P = 0.004, less small cell (3.9% vs 15.5%, P<0.001 type, at earlier stages (17.7% vs 11.0% for stage I, P = 0.014, and more frequently with family history of cancers (7.8% vs 3.9%, P = 0.038. The most common previous primary cancers observed were colorectal (22.0%, breast (18.4%, gastric (14.4% and larynx cancers (11.9%. Approximately 42.9% of patients were diagnosed with lung cancer 2 to 6 years after diagnosis of initial primary cancers. The survival of patients with secondary lung cancer associated other malignancies was not significantly different from those with single lung cancer (P = 0.491, while synchronous multiple primary malignancies showed worse prognosis compared with those with metachronous ones or single lung cancer (p = 0.012.The possibility of second primary lung cancer should always be considered during the follow-up of related cancer types, especially those with family history of cancers. Patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary malignancies have non-inferior survival than those with single lung cancer.

  15. Prognosis and Treatment Decision Making in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mokhles (Sahar)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnoses (12% of total new cancer cases) and to death from cancer (18% of total cancer deaths). There are two major groups of lung cancer that arise from the cells of the

  16. Analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Mayak worker cohort with a model of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, V.; Jacob, P.; Kusnetzova, I.

    2004-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality in the Mayak worker cohort is analysed with the two stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis. Mayak production association includes a nuclear reactor, radiochemical plant and plutonium production plant. Reactor workers were exposed to external g-ray and neutron exposures, and workers in the radiochemical and plutonium facilities additionally to internal exposures due to plutonium inhalant ion. the cohort used in this study involves male nuclear workers for whom plutonium measurements and smoking information (smoker/non-smoker) exists and with health follow-up to the end of 1999. A Subcohort with 5421 workers and 274 lung cancer deaths is analysed. Within the TSCE model, an action of radiation was assumed both in initiation and promotion. specific emphasis was given to the distinction of the effects of external and internal exposures. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was derived from the cohort itself. Using the smoking information significantly increased the quality of the fit. Analysis showed no effect of radiation on transformation. Two models are found to five equally good fit of the data. Both models have a linear dose dependence in TSCE-model parameters for external and internal radiation. Both models have linear dependence either initiation or promotion on birth year effect. It is found that most of the lung cancer cases are due to plutonium inhalation. The estimated excess relative risk per unit dose due to the plutonium a particles is 0.13/Sv, in both models. For the g-ray component, the present analysis gives an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality of 0.02/Sv, in both models. Resulting risk for plutonium exposures is compatible with the radiation weighting factor 20. In general no strong dose or dose-rate effects were observed within the cohort. (Author)

  17. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans. PMID:21538848

  18. CT diagnosis of primary lung cancer coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Joo; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Chul

    1992-01-01

    When bronchogenic carcinoma is coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis, it is difficult to differentiate bronchogenic carcinoma from pulmonary tuberculosis radiographically. Thus, the object of this study is to define differential diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma by computed tomography. We analyzed CT scans of 27 patients with radiologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and mass of which twelve cases were pulmonary tuberculosis and fifteen cases were primary lung cancer. The location of parenchymal infiltration and the mass was the same in 60%(9/15) of the primary lung cancer in cases and 83%(10/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The common location of the mass was the both upper lobes in 92%(11/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 53%(8/15) of the primary lung cancer cases. The common locations of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy were 4R, 2R of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 4R, 10R of the primary lung cancer cases. In the feature of post enhanced lymph nodes, homogenous increased density was more frequent in primary lung cancer. Measurements of the maximum thickness part of the cavity wall was not a reliable indication of malignancy

  19. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. [Utility of Multiple Increased Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Li, Junling; Liu, Yutao; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-10-20

    Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who receiving the first line chemotherapy in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristic, serum tumor markers before chemotherapy, efficacy evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Except CEA and CA125, the highest ratio of increased tumor markersin group A was CYFRA21-1 (93%), then was NSE (36%), SCC (13%) and ProGRP (12%). Patients with multiple increased tumor markers tend to have more distant metastasis (Ptumor markers have high risk of relapse, and maintenance therapy can reduce relapse risk.

  1. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. Material and Methods: The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. Results: In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6–1.87. Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. Conclusions: The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:687

  2. Molecular identification of individuals at high risk for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, J F; Neft, R E; Gilliland, F D; Crowell, R E; Belinsky, S A

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the work reviewed herein was to evaluate whether a cancerization field-consisting of cells with genetic alterations can be detected within normal-appearing bronchial epithelium. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for trisomy 7, cancerization fields were detected in the majority of cancer patients and also in significant percentages of cancer-free tobacco smokers and former uranium miners. These results suggest that molecular analyses may enhance the power of detecting premalignant changes in bronchial epithelium and may ultimately lead to identifying persons at greatest risk for developing lung cancer.

  3. Early Palliative Care With Standard Care or Standard Care Alone in Improving Quality of Life of Patients With Incurable Lung or Non-colorectal Gastrointestinal Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Liver Cancer; Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Malignant Mesothelioma; Pancreatic Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukus, A. E-mail: akuku@pu.kielce.pl; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A

    1999-04-02

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described.

  5. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  6. Challenges and future direction of molecular research in air pollution-related lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahadin, Maizatul Syafinaz; Ab Mutalib, Nurul Syakima; Latif, Mohd Talib; Greene, Catherine M; Hassan, Tidi

    2018-04-01

    Hazardous air pollutants or chemical release into the environment by a variety of natural and/or anthropogenic activities may give adverse effects to human health. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), heavy metals and particulate matter (PM) affect number of different human organs, especially the respiratory system. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reported that ambient air pollution is a cause of lung cancer. Recently, the agency has classified outdoor air pollution as well as PM air pollution as Group 1 carcinogens. In addition, several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between air pollutants to lung cancer risks and mortality. However, there are only a few studies examining the molecular effects of air pollution exposure specifically in lung cancer due to multiple challenges to mimic air pollution exposure in basic experimentation. Another major issue is the lack of adequate adjustments for exposure misclassification as air pollution may differ temporo-spatially and socioeconomically. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current molecular understanding of air pollution-related lung cancer and potential future direction in this challenging yet important research field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions between cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter in the Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Cohen, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Pope, C Arden; Krewski, Daniel; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans. However, there are gaps in the epidemiologic literature, including assessment of possible joint effects of cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We present estimates of interaction on the additive scale between these risk factors from Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective US cohort study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982. Estimates of the relative excess risk of lung cancer mortality due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, 4.83), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37), respectively, using the 25th and 75th percentiles as cutpoints for fine particulate matter. This suggests small increases in lung cancer risk among persons with both exposures beyond what would be expected from the sum of the effects of the individual exposures alone. Although reductions in cigarette smoking will achieve the greatest impact on lung cancer rates, these results suggest that attempted reductions in lung cancer risk through both tobacco control and air quality management may exceed expectations based on reducing exposure to either risk factor alone. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Interest in internet lung cancer support among rural cardiothoracic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jacquelyn; Stams, Victor; Phelps, Beth; Boley, Theresa; Hazelrigg, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    The Internet may provide an alternative option for rural lung cancer patients who lack access to on-site cancer support; however, Internet access and use among rural patients is unknown. An anonymous waiting-room survey was administered to all outpatient cardiothoracic surgery patients over 3 mo. Survey questions included age, gender, and diagnosis, possession of a home computer and Internet service, estimated Internet use, and use of the Internet for health information. Patients with known or suspected lung cancer were asked to indicate their interest in on-site and Internet cancer support. There were 597 returned surveys (response rate 96%). The mean age was 64.6 y (SE 0.55), and 58% were men. Diagnoses included known or possible lung cancer (15.4%), lung disease (9.5%), heart disease (30.4%), other diagnoses (13.9%), and undetermined (30.6%). There were 343 patients (57.4%) with a home computer and 299 (50.1%) with home Internet service. Average Internet use was 8.5 h per wk (n = 298), and 225 patients used the Internet for health information. Of the 92 patients with lung cancer, 10 indicated interest in on-site support services while 37 expressed interest in Internet-based support. Based on survey results, a slight majority of rural patients have a home computer and Internet access. Internet use for health information appears relatively common. Overall interest for support services among lung cancer patients appears modest with a greater interest in Internet-based services compared with on-site support. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  10. Lung Cancer Risk Following Detection of Pulmonary Scarring by Chest Radiography in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Pinsky, Paul F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Furuno, Jon P.; Lan, Qing; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibrotic scars are frequently found in proximity to lung cancer at the time of cancer diagnosis. However, the nature of the relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer remains uncertain. Our objective was to test whether localized pulmonary scarring is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods Cohort analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We included 66 863 cancer-free trial participants aged 55 to 74 years, who received a baseline chest radiographic examination and were followed up subsequently for up to 12 years. We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer associated with scarring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking, and in relation to laterality of scarring. The main outcome measure was incident lung cancer. Results Scarring was present on the baseline chest radiograph for 5041 subjects (7.5%). Scarring was associated with elevated lung cancer risk (809 lung cancer cases [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-1.8]). This association was specific for cancer in the lung ipsilateral to the scar (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4) and absent for contralateral cancer (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2). Ipsilateral lung cancer risk was elevated throughout the follow-up period (interval-specific HRs, 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, and 1.7 during 0.01-2.00, 2.01-4.00, 4.01-6.00, and 6.01-12.00 years after baseline chest radiography, respectively). Conclusions The relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer was specific to the same lung and extended over time. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that localized inflammatory processes associated with scarring promote the subsequent development of lung cancer. PMID:19029496

  11. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...... of the treatment chain are explained, including imaging techniques and beam delivery techniques. Clinical studies using different motion management techniques are reviewed, and finally future directions for image guidance and motion management are outlined....

  12. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic-related nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Ling, Min-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to human lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess lung cancer risk caused by inhalation exposure to nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs at the population level in Taiwan appraised with recent published data. A human respiratory tract model was linked with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate deposition fraction and internal organic-specific PAHs doses. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed to estimate potential lung cancer risk. We reanalyzed particle size distribution, total-PAHs, particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and PM concentrations. A dose-response profile describing the relationships between external B[a]P concentration and lung cancer risk response was constructed based on population attributable fraction (PAF). We found that 90% probability lung cancer risks ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) for traffic-related nano and ultrafine particle-bound PAHs, indicating a potential lung cancer risk. The particle size-specific PAF-based excess annual lung cancer incidence rate due to PAHs exposure was estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 population, indicating a mild risk factor for lung cancer. We concluded that probabilistic risk assessment linked PAF for limiting cumulative PAHs emissions to reduce lung cancer risk plays a prominent role in future government risk assessment program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation analysis of lung cancer and urban spatial factor: based on survey in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Wangyue; Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiji

    2016-09-01

    The density of particulate matter (PM) in mega-cities in China such as Beijing and Shanghai has exceeded basic standards for health in recent years. Human exposure to PMs has been identified as traceable and controllable factor among all complicated risk factors for lung cancer. While the improvement of air quality needs tremendous efforts and time, certain revision of PM's density might happen associated with the adjustment of built environment. It is also proved that urban built environment is directly relevant to respiratory disease. Studies have respectively explored the indoor and outdoor factors on respiratory diseases. More comprehensive spatial factors need to be analyzed to understand the cumulative effect of built environment upon respiratory system. This interdisciplinary study examines the impact of both indoor (including age of housing, interval after decoration, indoor humidity etc.) and outdoor spatial factors (including density, parking, green spaces etc.) on lung cancer. A survey of lung cancer patients and a control group has been conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 472 interviewees are randomly selected within a pool of local residents who have resided in Shanghai for more than 5 years. Data are collected including their socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, and external and internal residential area factors. Regression models are established based on collected data to analyze the associations between lung cancer and urban spatial factors. Regression models illustrate that lung cancer presents significantly associated with a number of spatial factors. Significant outdoor spatial factors include external traffic volume (P=0.003), main plant type (P=0.035 for trees) of internal green space, internal water body (P=0.027) and land use of surrounding blocks (P=0.005 for residential areas of 7-9 floors, P=0.000 for residential areas of 4-6 floors, P=0.006 for business/commercial areas over 10 floors, P=0.005 for business/commercial areas of

  14. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings...

  15. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation.

  16. Nanomedicine as an emerging platform for metastatic lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Peer, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic lung cancer is one of the most common cancers leading to mortality worldwide. Current treatment includes chemo- and pathway-dependent therapy aiming at blocking the spread and proliferation of these metastatic lesions. Nanomedicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that offers unprecedented access to living cells and promises the state of the art in cancer detection and treatment. Development of nanomedicines as drug carriers (nanocarriers) that target cancer for therapy draws upon principles in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, biology, and engineering. Given the zealous activity in the field as demonstrated by more than 30 nanocarriers already approved for clinical use and given the promise of recent clinical results in various studies, nanocarrier-based strategies are anticipated to soon have a profound impact on cancer medicine and human health. Herein, we will detail the latest innovations in therapeutic nanomedicine with examples from lipid-based nanoparticles and polymer-based approaches, which are engineered to deliver anticancer drugs to metastatic lung cells. Emphasis will be placed on the latest and most attractive delivery platforms, which are developed specifically to target lung metastatic tumors. These novel nanomedicines may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention carrying new class of drugs such as RNAi and mRNA and the ability to edit the genome using the CRISPER/Cas9 system. Ultimately, these strategies might become a new therapeutic modality for advanced-stage lung cancer.

  17. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  19. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  20. CT evaluation of complications of cryoablation treatment in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Caiqiao; Chen Yao; Zhang Zhitian; Su Jinzhan; Huang Zhen; Bao Kaikai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the complications of percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation treatment in patients with lung cancer on CT. Methods: Ten patients with unresectable lung cancer were treated by cryotherapy under CT guidance with Argon-Helium cryoablation system. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT was performed to assess changes before and after treatment, complications and treatment response. Results: Ice ball coverage immediately after surgery was satisfactory in all patients. There were a few complications including worsening hoarseness (1), small pneumothorax (1), and small amount of bleeding at the site of probe puncture (1). Conclusion: Percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation guided by CT is an effective treatment for lung cancer without severe complications. (authors)

  1. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery for Lung Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreddy, Narsireddy; Babu, Anish; Muralidharan, Ranganayaki; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on targeted gene therapy for lung cancer, using nanoparticle carriers to overcome the limitations of conventional treatment methods. The main goal of targeted gene therapy is to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies by improving the bioavailability, stability, and target specificity of gene therapeutics and to reduce off-target effects. Polymer-based nanoparticles, an alternative to lipid and inorganic nanoparticles, efficiently carry nucleic acid therapeutics and are stable in vivo. Receptor-targeted delivery is a promising approach that can limit non-specific gene delivery and can be achieved by modifying the polymer nanoparticle surface with specific receptor ligands or antibodies. This review highlights the recent developments in gene delivery using synthetic and natural polymer-based nucleic acid carriers for lung cancer treatment. Various nanoparticle systems based on polymers and polymer combinations are discussed. Further, examples of targeting ligands or moieties used in targeted, polymer-based gene delivery to lung cancer are reviewed.

  2. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  3. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those....... Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based...

  4. Radiation sensitivity of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.; Degraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, G.; Mitchell, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Minna, J.D.; Levitt, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    X-Ray survival curves were determined using a panel of 17 human lung cancer cell lines, with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In contrast to classic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, NSCLC cell lines were generally less sensitive to radiation as evidenced by higher radiation survival curve extrapolation numbers, surviving fraction values following a 2Gy dose (SF2) and the mean inactivation dose values (D) values. The spectrum of in vitro radiation responses observed was similar to that expected in clinical practice, although mesothelioma was unexpectedly sensitive in vitro. Differences in radiosensitivity were best distinguished by comparison of SF2 values. Some NSCLC lines were relatively sensitive, and in view of this demonstrable variability in radiation sensitivity, the SF2 value may be useful for in vitro predictive assay testing of clinical specimens. (author)

  5. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review and concen......INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  6. Genetic polymorphisms and non-small-cell lung cancer: future paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Ramon Andrade Bezerra de [Serviço de Oncologia Médica, Instituto Português de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Ciências Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algarve, Faro (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses some current issues about genetic polymorphisms studied in the non-small-cell lung cancer translational field. Furthermore, it discusses about new potential biomarkers regarding lung cancer risk and prognosis.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  8. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated u...

  9. Inhalable magnetic nanoparticles for targeted hyperthermia in lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Wiedmann, Timothy S; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer (specifically, non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Poor response rates and survival with current treatments clearly indicate the urgent need for developing an effective means to treat NSCLC. Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive approach for tumor ablation, and is based on heat generation by magnetic materials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. However, inadequate delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to tumor cells can result in sub-lethal temperature change and induce resistance while non-targeted delivery of these particles to the healthy tissues can result in toxicity. In our studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of tumor-targeted SPIO nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia of lung cancer. EGFR-targeted, inhalable SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for targeting lung tumor cells as well as for magnetic hyperthermia-mediated antitumor efficacy in a mouse orthotopic model of NSCLC. Our results show that EGFR targeting enhances tumor retention of SPIO nanoparticles. Further, magnetic hyperthermia treatment using targeted SPIO nanoparticles resulted in significant inhibition of in vivo lung tumor growth. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential for developing an effective anticancer treatment modality for the treatment of NSCLC based on targeted magnetic hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Katz, R.; Zhang, C.X.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the high background and the control area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 2 ]2'' 2 Rn and 220 Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli

  11. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Malvezzi, Matteo; Rosso, Tiziana; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. International network of cancer genome projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Thomas J.; Anderson, Warwick; Aretz, Axel; Barker, Anna D.; Bell, Cindy; Bernabé, Rosa R.; Bhan, M. K.; Calvo, Fabien; Eerola, Iiro; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Guttmacher, Alan; Guyer, Mark; Hemsley, Fiona M.; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Kerr, David; Klatt, Peter; Kolar, Patrik; Kusuda, Jun; Lane, David P.; Laplace, Frank; Lu, Youyong; Nettekoven, Gerd; Ozenberger, Brad; Peterson, Jane; Rao, T. S.; Remacle, Jacques; Schafer, Alan J.; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Stratton, Michael R.; Vockley, Joseph G.; Watanabe, Koichi; Yang, Huanming; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Bobrow, Martin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dressler, Lynn G.; Dyke, Stephanie O. M.; Joly, Yann; Kato, Kazuto; Kennedy, Karen L.; Nicolás, Pilar; Parker, Michael J.; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Shaw, Kenna M.; Wallace, Susan; Wiesner, Georgia L.; Zeps, Nikolajs; Lichter, Peter; Biankin, Andrew V.; Chabannon, Christian; Chin, Lynda; Clément, Bruno; de Alava, Enrique; Degos, Françoise; Ferguson, Martin L.; Geary, Peter; Hayes, D. Neil; Johns, Amber L.; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Penny, Robert; Piris, Miguel A.; Sarin, Rajiv; Scarpa, Aldo; van de Vijver, Marc; Futreal, P. Andrew; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Bayés, Mónica; Bowtell, David D. L.; Campbell, Peter J.; Estivill, Xavier; Grimmond, Sean M.; Gut, Ivo; Hirst, Martin; López-Otín, Carlos; Majumder, Partha; Marra, Marco; McPherson, John D.; Ning, Zemin; Puente, Xose S.; Ruan, Yijun; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Swerdlow, Harold; Velculescu, Victor E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Xue, Hong H.; Yang, Liu; Spellman, Paul T.; Bader, Gary D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Flicek, Paul; Getz, Gad; Guigó, Roderic; Guo, Guangwu; Haussler, David; Heath, Simon; Hubbard, Tim J.; Jiang, Tao; Jones, Steven M.; Li, Qibin; López-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, Ruibang; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Ouellette, B. F. Francis; Pearson, John V.; Quesada, Victor; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Sander, Chris; Speed, Terence P.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Valencia, Alfonso; Wheeler, David A.; Wu, Honglong; Zhao, Shancen; Zhou, Guangyu; Lathrop, Mark; Thomas, Gilles; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Axton, Myles; Gunter, Chris; Miller, Linda J.; Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed A.; Wang, Jianxin; Yung, Christina K.; Cross, Anthony; Liang, Yong; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Guberman, Jonathan; Hsu, Jack; Chalmers, Don R. C.; Hasel, Karl W.; Kaan, Terry S. H.; Lowrance, William W.; Masui, Tohru; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vergely, Catherine; Cloonan, Nicole; Defazio, Anna; Eshleman, James R.; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Gardiner, Brooke A.; Kench, James G.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Tempero, Margaret A.; Waddell, Nicola J.; Wilson, Peter J.; Gallinger, Steve; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; DePinho, Ronald A.; Thayer, Sarah; Shazand, Kamran; Beck, Timothy; Sam, Michelle; Timms, Lee; Ballin, Vanessa; Ji, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiuqing; Chen, Feng; Hu, Xueda; Yang, Qi; Tian, Geng; Zhang, Lianhai; Xing, Xiaofang; Li, Xianghong; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan; Yu, Jun; Tost, Jörg; Brennan, Paul; Holcatova, Ivana; Zaridze, David; Brazma, Alvis; Egevad, Lars; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Banks, Rosamonde Elizabeth; Uhlén, Mathias; Viksna, Juris; Ponten, Fredrik; Skryabin, Konstantin; Birney, Ewan; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Foekens, John A.; Martin, Sancha; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Sotiriou, Christos; van't Veer, Laura; Birnbaum, Daniel; Blanche, Hélène; Boucher, Pascal; Boyault, Sandrine; Masson-Jacquemier, Jocelyne D.; Pauporté, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tabone, Eric; Theillet, Charles; Treilleux, Isabelle; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Decaens, Thomas; Franco, Dominique; Gut, Marta; Samuel, Didier; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Eils, Roland; Brors, Benedikt; Korbel, Jan O.; Korshunov, Andrey; Landgraf, Pablo; Lehrach, Hans; Pfister, Stefan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Reifenberger, Guido; Taylor, Michael D.; von Kalle, Christof; Majumder, Partha P.; Pederzoli, Paolo; Lawlor, Rita T.; Delledonne, Massimo; Bardelli, Alberto; Gress, Thomas; Klimstra, David; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nakamura, Yusuke; Miyano, Satoru; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Campo, Elias; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Montserrat, Emili; González-Díaz, Marcos; Jares, Pedro; Himmelbaue, Heinz; Bea, Silvia; Aparicio, Samuel; Easton, Douglas F.; Collins, Francis S.; Compton, Carolyn C.; Lander, Eric S.; Burke, Wylie; Green, Anthony R.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kallioniemi, Olli P.; Ley, Timothy J.; Liu, Edison T.; Wainwright, Brandon J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the

  13. Results of adrenalectomy in lung cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalón-Monzón, A; Castanedo-Álvarez, D; Hevia-Suárez, M A; Álvarez-Múgica, M; Medina-González, A; Escaf-Barmadah, S

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to report our centre's experience over the past 15 years with patients with lung carcinoma and adrenal metastases treated sequentially with lung resection and adrenalectomy. We analysed a retrospective series of 19 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for lung carcinoma metastasis. All patients were operated on at the same centre, between October 2000 and October 2015. We performed a descriptive analysis and an overall survival and disease-free survival analysis. The study included 13 men and 6 women. The most common primary lung tumour was adenocarcinoma, 87.5% of which were G3. In 7 patients, the adrenal metastasis was detected synchronously, and in 12 patients it was detected metachronously. The median size of the metastasis was 63mm. Twenty-one percent of the cases presented local recurrence, and 79% presented distant metastasis. The median DFS was 21.5 months, while the DFS at 5 years was calculated at 58.33%. The median overall survival was 37.3 months, while survival at 5 years was calculated at 42.86%. None of the prognostic factors evaluated were statistically significant. Adrenalectomy in cases of isolated lung carcinoma metastasis can offer increased overall survival. Age and the degree of differentiation of the primary lung carcinoma are the factors that most influence poorer survival. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... the relationships between ambient air pollution and biological markers of dose and early response. The evidence for each marker was evaluated using assessment criteria which rate a group of studies from A (strong) to C (weak) on amount of evidence, replication of findings, and protection from bias. Biomarkers...

  15. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  16. Radon in dwellings and lung cancer - a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the lung cancer risk associated with radon exposure inside dwellings is presented. The risk factors found for miners are discussed and modified according to the lower mean breathing rates inside dwellings and the differences in atmosphere. Statistical information on the lung cancer incidence in the Norwegian population indicates that a 'doubling exposure rate' of radon daughters inside dwellings may be about 2-3 WLM/yr. This corresponds to a radon concentration of about 10-15 pCi/l. These values are used in a discussion of the consequences of a future reduction of the mean ventilation rates in modern houses. (author)

  17. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Lowenstein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT. Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66 and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation. Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04, while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24 or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45. The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening.

  18. Renal Impairment Hampers Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Quarter of Lung Cancer Patients with Bone Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Katalin; Puskás, Rita; Kakuk, Tímea

    2017-01-01

    Renal function impairment in lung cancer patients with bone metastases was investigated, as this can limit the application of bisphosphonates representing the gold standard in the management of such cases. Clinicopathological data of 570 lung cancer patients were retrospectively analysed for chan......Renal function impairment in lung cancer patients with bone metastases was investigated, as this can limit the application of bisphosphonates representing the gold standard in the management of such cases. Clinicopathological data of 570 lung cancer patients were retrospectively analysed...

  19. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  20. An externally and internally deformable, programmable lung motion phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit, E-mail: amit.sawant@utsouthwestern.edu [UT Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam “diaphragm” that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external–internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom—(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Results: The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0

  1. Chitosan-folate decorated carbon nanotubes for site specific lung cancer delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul Pratap; Sharma, Gunjan; Sonali; Singh, Sanjay; Bharti, Shreekant; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L; Koch, Biplob; Muthu, Madaswamy S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate chitosan-folate conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the lung cancer targeted delivery of docetaxel. The chitosan-folate conjugate was synthesized and the conjugation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release study. The in vitro cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and cell cycle analysis of the docetaxel/coumarin-6 loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes were carried out to compare the effectiveness of the formulations. The biocompatibility and safety of chitosan-folate conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes was analyzed by lung histopathology in comparison with marketed docetaxel formulation (Docel™) and acylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The cellular internalization study shown that the chitosan-folate conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes could be easily internalized into the lung cancer cells through a folate receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. The IC 50 values exhibited that chitosan-folate conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes could be 89-fold more effective than Docel™ in human lung cancer cells (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  3. Can dogs smell lung cancer? First study using exhaled breath and urine screening in unselected patients with suspected lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Tore; Sundstrøm, Stein; Buvik, Turid; Gederaas, Odrun Arna; Haaverstad, Rune

    2014-03-01

    On the basis of our own experience and literature search, we hypothesised that a canine olfactory test may be useful for detecting lung cancer in an unselected population of patients suspected to have lung cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 93 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with suspected lung cancer. Exhaled breath and urine were sampled before the patients underwent bronchoscopy. The canine olfactory test was performed in a double-blinded manner. Sensitivity and specificity were outcome measures. With 99% sensitivity, the olfactory test demonstrated that dogs have the ability to distinguish cancer patients from healthy individuals. With an intensified training procedure, the exhaled breath and urine tests showed sensitivity rates of 56-76% and specificity rates of 8.3-33.3%, respectively, in our heterogeneous study population. Although the olfactory test appears to be a promising tool for the detection of cancer, the main challenge is to determine whether the test can sufficiently discriminate between patients at risk, patients with benign disease, and patients with malignant disease. We need to gain a deeper understanding of this test and further refine it before applying it as a screening tool for lung cancer in clinical settings.

  4. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  5. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  6. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  7. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  8. Lung Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Patulin Isolated from Penicillium vulpinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Monteillier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most lethal form of cancer in the world. Its development often involves an overactivation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB pathway, leading to increased cell proliferation, survival, mobility, and a decrease in apoptosis. Therefore, NF-κB inhibitors are actively sought after for both cancer chemoprevention and therapy, and fungi represent an interesting unexplored reservoir for such molecules. The aim of the present work was to find naturally occurring lung cancer chemopreventive compounds by investigating the metabolites of Penicillium vulpinum, a fungus that grows naturally on dung. Penicillium vulpinum was cultivated in Potato Dextrose Broth and extracted with ethyl acetate. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract was performed by measuring NF-κB activity using a HEK293 cell line transfected with an NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter gene. The mycotoxin patulin was identified as a nanomolar inhibitor of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that its mechanism of action involved an inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation and was independent from the NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα degradation process. Enhancing its interest in lung cancer chemoprevention, patulin also exhibited antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antimigration effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of the Wnt pathway.

  9. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  10. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierada, David S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Pinsky, Paul F. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Garg, Kavita [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F726, Box 6510, Aurora, CO (United States); Hart, Eric M. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kazerooni, Ella A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R. [University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Radiology-JTN370, Birmingham, AL (United States); Aberle, Denise R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  11. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  12. CT-Screening for lung cancer does not increase the use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Iachina, Maria; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer has recently been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, but screening may have adverse mental health effects. We calculated risk ratios for prescription of anti-depressive (AD) or anxiolytic (AX) medication redeemed at Danish pharmacies for participants in The Danish...... Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)....

  13. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J M; van Putten, Michel J A M; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  14. Quantification of growth patterns of screen-detected lung cancers : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Koning, Harry J.; Groen, Harry J.M.; van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; Weenink, Carla; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although exponential growth is assumed for lung cancer, this has never been quantified in vivo. Aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify growth patterns of lung cancers detected in the Dutch-Belgian low-dose computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening trial (NELSON), in order to

  15. Development and Usability Testing of a Computer-Tailored Decision Support Tool for Lung Cancer Screening: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Comer, Robert Skipworth; Goyal, Anurag; Vode, Emilee Christine; Hanna, Nasser; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-11-16

    Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed. Our objective is to develop a computer-tailored decision support tool that meets the certification criteria of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument version 4.0 that will support shared decision making in lung cancer screening decisions. Using a 3-phase process, we will develop and test a prototype of a computer-tailored decision support tool in a sample of lung cancer screening-eligible individuals. In phase I, we assembled a community advisory board comprising 10 screening-eligible individuals to develop the prototype. In phase II, we recruited a sample of 13 screening-eligible individuals to test the prototype for usability, acceptability, and satisfaction. In phase III, we are conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 60 screening-eligible participants who have never been screened for lung cancer. Outcomes tested include lung cancer and screening knowledge, lung cancer screening health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy), perception of being prepared to engage in a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, occurrence of a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, and stage of adoption for lung cancer screening. Phases I and II are complete. Phase III is underway. As of July 15, 2017, 60 participants have been enrolled into the study, and have completed the baseline survey, intervention, and first

  16. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  17. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Aftab, Blake T. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Rudin, Charles M. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K., E-mail: rhales1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  18. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  19. Crystalline silica exposure, radiological silicosis, and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H.; Hughes, J.; Weill, H.; Seixas, N.; Demers, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The role of silicosis as either a necessary or incidental condition in silica associated lung cancer remains unresolved. To address this issue a cohort analysis of dose-response relations for crystalline silica and lung cancer mortality was conducted among diatomaceous earth workers classified according to the presence or absence of radiological silicosis.
METHODS—Radiological silicosis was determined by median 1980 International Labour Organisation system readings of a panel of three "B" readers for 1809 of 2342 white male workers in a diatomaceous earth facility in California. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for lung cancer, based on United States rates for 1942-94, were calculated separately for workers with and without radiological silicosis according to cumulative exposures to respirable crystalline silica (milligrams per cubic meter × years; mg/m3-years) lagged 15years.
RESULTS—Eighty one cases of silicosis were identified, including 77 with small opacities of ⩾1/0 and four with large opacities. A slightly larger excess of lung cancer was found among the subjects with silicosis (SMR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 4.03) than in workers without silicosis (SMR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87to 1.57). An association between silica exposure and lung cancer risk was detected among those without silicosis; a statistically significant (p = 0.02) increasing trend of lung cancer risk was seen with cumulative exposure, with SMR reaching 2.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 4.20) at the highest exposure level (⩾5.0 mg/m3-years). A similar statistically significant (p = 0.02) dose-response gradient was observed among non-silicotic subjects when follow up was truncated at 15 years after the final negative radiograph (SMR 2.96, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.08 at ⩾5.0 mg/m3-years), indicating that the association among non-silicotic subjects was unlikely to be accounted for by undetected radiological silicosis.
CONCLUSIONS—The dose-response relation observed between

  20. CT screening for lung cancer brings forward early disease. The Randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem

    2012-01-01

    were randomised to five annual low-dose CT screenings or no screening. Two experienced chest radiologists read all CT scans and registered the location, size and morphology of nodules. Nodules between 5 and 15 mm without benign characteristics were rescanned after 3 months. Growing nodules (>25% volume......BackgroundThe effects of low-dose CT screening on disease stage shift, mortality and overdiagnosis are unclear. Lung cancer findings and mortality rates are reported at the end of screening in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial.Methods4104 men and women, healthy heavy smokers/former smokers...

  1. Nanoparticle Drones to Target Lung Cancer with Radiosensitizers and Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Kumar, Rajiv; Moreau, Michele; Dabney, Raymond; Herman, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up a new, previously unimaginable world in cancer diagnosis and therapy, leading to the emergence of cancer nanomedicine and nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. Smart nanomaterials (nanoparticle drones) can now be constructed with capability to precisely target cancer cells and be remotely activated with radiation to emit micrometer-range missile-like electrons to destroy the tumor cells. These nanoparticle drones can also be programmed to deliver therapeutic payloads to tumor sites to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we examine the state-of-the-art and potential of nanoparticle drones in targeting lung cancer. Inhalation (INH) (air) versus traditional intravenous ("sea") routes of navigating physiological barriers using such drones is assessed. Results and analysis suggest that INH route may offer more promise for targeting tumor cells with radiosensitizers and cannabinoids from the perspective of maximizing damage to lung tumors cells while minimizing any collateral damage or side effects.

  2. Nanoparticle Drones to Target Lung Cancer with Radiosensitizers and Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Ngwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up a new, previously unimaginable world in cancer diagnosis and therapy, leading to the emergence of cancer nanomedicine and nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. Smart nanomaterials (nanoparticle drones can now be constructed with capability to precisely target cancer cells and be remotely activated with radiation to emit micrometer-range missile-like electrons to destroy the tumor cells. These nanoparticle drones can also be programmed to deliver therapeutic payloads to tumor sites to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we examine the state-of-the-art and potential of nanoparticle drones in targeting lung cancer. Inhalation (INH (air versus traditional intravenous (“sea” routes of navigating physiological barriers using such drones is assessed. Results and analysis suggest that INH route may offer more promise for targeting tumor cells with radiosensitizers and cannabinoids from the perspective of maximizing damage to lung tumors cells while minimizing any collateral damage or side effects.

  3. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  4. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  5. Personalizing Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Burns, Timothy F.; Ramfidis, Vasilis S.; Socinski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not a single disease entity, but rather a collection of distinct molecularly driven neoplasms, has permanently shifted the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC to a personalized approach. This personalization of NSCLC therapy is typified by the dramatic response rates seen in EGFR mutant NSCLC when treated with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and in ALK translocation–driven NSCLC when treated with ALK inhibitors. Targeted therapeutic approaches in NSCLC necessitate consideration of more invasive biopsy techniques aimed at providing sufficient tissue for both histological determination and molecular profiling in all patients with stage IV disease both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of disease progression. Comprehensive genotyping efforts have identified oncogenic drivers in 62% lung adenocarcinomas and an increasing proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. The identification of these oncogenic drivers and the triage of patients to clinical trials evaluating novel targeted therapeutic approaches will increasingly mold a landscape of personalized lung cancer therapy where each genotype has an associated targeted therapy. This review outlines the state of personalized lung cancer therapy as it pertains to individual NSCLC genotypes. PMID:24258572

  6. Susceptibility loci of CNOT6 in the general mRNA degradation pathway and lung cancer risk-A re-analysis of eight GWASs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yanru; Liu, Hongliang; Ready, Neal; Han, Younghun; Hung, Rayjean J; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Brüske, Irene; Risch, Angela; Ye, Yuanqing; Wu, Xifeng; Christiani, David C; Goodman, Gary; Chen, Chu; Amos, Christopher I; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-04-01

    mRNA degradation is an important regulatory step for controlling gene expression and cell functions. Genetic abnormalities involved in mRNA degradation genes were found to be associated with cancer risks. Therefore, we systematically investigated the roles of genetic variants in the general mRNA degradation pathway in lung cancer risk. Meta-analyses were conducted using summary data from six lung cancer genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung and additional two GWASs from Harvard University and deCODE in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis (eQTL) was used for in silico functional validation of the identified significant susceptibility loci. This pathway-based analysis included 6816 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 68 genes in 14 463 lung cancer cases and 44 188 controls. In the single-locus analysis, we found that 20 SNPs were associated with lung cancer risk with a false discovery rate threshold of lung cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.18) in the eight GWASs. In the eQTL analysis, we found that levels of CNOT6 mRNA expression were significantly correlated with the rs2453176 T allele, which provided additional biological basis for the observed positive association. The CNOT6 rs2453176 SNP may be a new functional susceptible locus for lung cancer risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  8. Validation of Metabolomic, Diagnostic, and Prognostic Classifiers of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    metabolites, some of which may be unique markers of exposure in the military that may exacerbate smoking -induced lung cancer. • What was...patients who had indeterminate pulmonary nodules detected by LDCT, some of which were confirmed to be cancer. However, we may be able to avoid... systems , or other organizations (foreign or domestic) – that were involved with the project. Partner organizations may have provided financial or in-kind

  9. Functional Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    as a tumor suppressor. To investigate the consequences of RBM10 mutations in vivo, we have taken advantage of a technique developed by the lab of...injection samples to the median corrected RPM in tumor samples. (E) Violin plots of representative mutants identified as enriched in tumor samples. Data...cancer-associated genes contribute to the initiation and maintenance of lung cancer. In addition, many of the techniques developed here, e.g. CRISPR

  10. Inducing of complete necrosis of recurred lung cancer by cryoablation; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Hye; Ham, Soo Youn; Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the lungs are a common site of metastasis from extrathoracic malignancies. Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for lung malignancies. However, some of the patients are poor surgical candidates due to various reasons. Currently, image-guided ablation is used as one of the lung cancer treatment modalities. Cryoablation has been adapted as one of the treatments of lung tumors and a growing body of literature has shown that it is a safe and effective option. We report a case of successful cryoablation for a metastatic lesion from surgically resected primary lung cancer.

  11. Evaluation of a Serum Lung Cancer Biomarker Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Han, Xiaozhen; Choi, Humberto; Seeley, Meredith; Scherer, Richard; Doseeva, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    A panel of 3 serum proteins and 1 autoantibody has been developed to assist with the detection of lung cancer. We aimed to validate the accuracy of the biomarker panel in an independent test set and explore the impact of adding a fourth serum protein to the panel, as well as the impact of combining molecular and clinical variables. The training set of serum samples was purchased from commercially available biorepositories. The testing set was from a biorepository at the Cleveland Clinic. All lung cancer and control subjects were >50 years old and had smoked a minimum of 20 pack-years. A panel of biomarkers including CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), CYFRA21-1 (cytokeratin-19 fragment 21-1), CA125 (carbohydrate antigen 125), HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), and NY-ESO-1 (New York esophageal cancer-1 antibody) was measured using immunoassay techniques. The multiple of the median method, multivariate logistic regression, and random forest modeling was used to analyze the results. The training set consisted of 604 patient samples (268 with lung cancer and 336 controls) and the testing set of 400 patient samples (155 with lung cancer and 245 controls). With a threshold established from the training set, the sensitivity and specificity of both the 4- and 5-biomarker panels on the testing set was 49% and 96%, respectively. Models built on the testing set using only clinical variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.68, using the biomarker panel 0.81 and by combining clinical and biomarker variables 0.86. This study validates the accuracy of a panel of proteins and an autoantibody in a population relevant to lung cancer detection and suggests a benefit to combining clinical features with the biomarker results.

  12. Susceptibility loci for lung cancer are associated with mRNA levels of nearby genes in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Justin Dang Uy; Lamontagne, Maxime; Couture, Christian; Conti, Massimo; Pare, Peter D.; Sin, Don D.; Hogg, James C.; Nickle, David; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; Laviolette, Michel; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies identified three genetic loci reproducibly associated with lung cancer in populations of European ancestry, namely 15q25, 5p15 and 6p21. The goals of this study are first to confirm whether these loci are associated with lung cancer in a French Canadian population and second to

  13. Improving the quality of lung cancer care in Ontario: the lung cancer disease pathway initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Ung, Yee C; Assouad, Nathalie; Chyjek, Anna; Sawka, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Before 2008, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) undertook provincial cancer control quality-improvement initiatives on a programmatic basis. CCO has now added Disease Pathway Management (DPM) to its quality improvement strategy, with the intent of achieving high-quality care, processes, and patient experience across the patient pathway for specific cancers. The three goals of DPM are: to describe and share evidence-based best practice along the cancer continuum for specific cancers; identify quality-improvement priorities for specific cancers and catalyze action; monitor performance against best practice for specific cancers. The objective of this article is to describe the process by which the CCO lung cancer (LC) DPM was initiated and some of its early successes. In 2009, LC DPM began with a draft LC disease pathway map and the establishment of five multidisciplinary working groups, each focused on a phase of the LC patient journey: prevention, screening, and early detection; diagnosis; treatment; palliative care, end-of-life care, and survivorship; and patient experience. The working groups held 25 meetings of 2-hour duration and developed concepts for 17 quality-improvement projects across the patient journey. Eight were selected for detailed discussion at