WorldWideScience

Sample records for international lung cancer

  1. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  3. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)

  4. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer

  5. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  6. In-Home Coal and Wood Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenland, Sander; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; McLaughlin, John; Seow, Adeline; Duell, Eric J.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic fuel combustion from cooking and heating is an important public health issue because roughly 3 billion people are exposed worldwide. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified indoor emissions from household coal combustion as a human carcinogen (group 1) and from biomass fuel (primarily wood) as a probable human carcinogen (group 2A). Objectives We pooled seven studies from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (5,105 cases and 6,535 controls)...

  7. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  8. Internal Motion Estimation by Internal-external Motion Modeling for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhong, Zichun; Yang, Yiwei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhou, Linghong; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun

    2018-02-27

    The aim of this study is to develop an internal-external correlation model for internal motion estimation for lung cancer radiotherapy. Deformation vector fields that characterize the internal-external motion are obtained by respectively registering the internal organ meshes and external surface meshes from the 4DCT images via a recently developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm. A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal phasic DVFs with external phasic and directional DVFs. Principle component analysis is then applied to the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics, and generate model parameters to correlate the internal-external motion. The proposed model is evaluated on a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and 4DCT images from five lung cancer patients. For tumor tracking, the center of mass errors of the tracked tumor are 0.8(±0.5)mm/0.8(±0.4)mm for synthetic data, and 1.3(±1.0)mm/1.2(±1.2)mm for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. For lung tracking, the percent errors of the tracked contours are 0.06(±0.02)/0.07(±0.03) for synthetic data, and 0.06(±0.02)/0.06(±0.02) for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. The extensive validations have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed model in motion tracking for both the tumor and the lung in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  9. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  10. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  11. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  12. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  13. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  14. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  15. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  16. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  17. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  19. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  20. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  4. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  5. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  6. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  7. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  8. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  9. Impact of the new international association for the study of lung cancer staging system in non-small cell lung cancer: With comparison to the union for international cancer control 6th tumor, node, metastasis edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Ryu, Yon Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system on staging and outcome of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With a total of 501 NSCLC patients with staging according to Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), 6th TNM (TNM-6) were reclassified according to the IASLC proposed TNM staging (TNM-7). The impact of TNM-7 in comparison with TNM-6 was evaluated at three levels: change in substage, staging, and outcome. The outcome measure was to compare the stage-specific overall survival of NSCLC between the two groups of patients. A total of 214 (42.7%) patients had changed TNM staging, and 101 (20.2%) patients had changed stage groupings in TNM-7 compared to TNM-6. Among 100 patients showing changed stage grouping, 72 (14.4%) showed upstage and 29 (5.8%) demonstrated downstage. The TNM-7 system resulted in better separation of survival curves among stage-specific NSCLC than TNM-6 system, especially in separation of stage IIA vs. IIB (p 0.023) and stage IIIB vs. IV (p < 0.001). TNM-7 for lung cancer appears to be superior in defining stage-specific survival groups than TNM-6, especially between stage IIA vs. stage IIB and stage IIIB vs. stage IV.

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  11. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  12. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  13. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation; Riesgo de cancer pulmonar por radon, discordancia en reglamentacion internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  14. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  15. International variation in lung cancer mortality rates and trends among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-06-01

    There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1025-36. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Common TDP1 Polymorphisms in Relation to Survival among Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Study from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Sakoda, Lori C; Amos, Christopher I; Arnold, Susanne M; Christiani, David C; Davies, Michael P A; Field, John K; Haura, Eric B; Hung, Rayjean J; Kohno, Takashi; Landi, Maria Teresa; Liu, Geoffrey; Liu, Yi; Marcus, Michael W; O'Kane, Grainne M; Schabath, Matthew B; Shiraishi, Kouya; Slone, Stacey A; Tardón, Adonina; Yang, Ping; Yoshida, Kazushi; Zhang, Ruyang; Zong, Xuchen; Goodman, Gary E; Weiss, Noel S; Chen, Chu

    2017-12-15

    Purpose: DNA topoisomerase inhibitors are commonly used for treating small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) repairs DNA damage caused by this class of drugs and may therefore influence treatment outcome. In this study, we investigated whether common TDP1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with overall survival among SCLC patients. Experimental Design: Two TDP1 SNPs (rs942190 and rs2401863) were analyzed in 890 patients from 10 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate genotype associations with overall mortality at 36 months postdiagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. Results: Patients homozygous for the minor allele (GG) of rs942190 had poorer survival compared with those carrying AA alleles, with a HR of 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.72, P = 0.01), but no association with survival was observed for patients carrying the AG genotype (HR = 1.04, 95% CI, 0.84-1.29, P = 0.72). For rs2401863, patients homozygous for the minor allele (CC) tended to have better survival than patients carrying AA alleles (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02, P = 0.07). Results from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), and the ePOSSUM web application support the potential function of rs942190. Conclusions: We found the rs942190 GG genotype to be associated with relatively poor survival among SCLC patients. Further investigation is needed to confirm the result and to determine whether this genotype may be a predictive marker for treatment efficacy of DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7550-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  18. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  19. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  20. An international study to revise the EORTC questionnaire for assessing quality of life in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, M; Hjermstad, M J; Tomaszewski, K A; Tomaszewska, I M; Hornslien, K; Harle, A; Arraras, J I; Morag, O; Pompili, C; Ioannidis, G; Georgiou, M; Navarra, C; Chie, W-C; Johnson, C D; Himpel, A; Schulz, C; Bohrer, T; Janssens, A; Kulis, D; Bottomley, A

    2017-11-01

    The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-LC13 was the first module to be used in conjunction with the core questionnaire, the QLQ-C30. Since the publication of the LC13 in 1994, major advances have occurred in the treatment of lung cancer. Given this, an update of the EORTC QLQ-LC13 was undertaken. The study followed phases I to III of the EORTC Module Development Guidelines. Phase I generated relevant quality-of-life issues using a mix of sources including the involvement of 108 lung cancer patients. Phase II transformed issues into questionnaire items. In an international multicenter study (phase III), patients completed both the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the 48-item provisional lung cancer module generated in phases I and II. Patients rated each of the items regarding relevance, comprehensibility, and acceptance. Patient ratings were assessed against a set of prespecified statistical criteria. Descriptive statistics and basic psychometric analyses were carried out. The phase III study enrolled 200 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer from 12 centers in nine countries (Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Norway, Poland, Taiwan, and the UK). Mean age was 64 years (39 - 91), 59% of the patients were male, 82% had non-small-cell lung cancer, and 56% were treated with palliative intent. Twenty-nine of the 48 questions met the criteria for inclusion. The resulting module with 29 questions, thus currently named EORTC QLQ-LC29, retained 12 of the 13 original items, supplemented with 17 items that primarily assess treatment side-effects of traditional and newer therapies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  2. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  3. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  4. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  5. Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Primary Lung Cancer and Other Targets: Results of Consultant Meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Wulf, Joern; Lax, Ingmar; Timmerman, Robert; Zimmermann, Frank; Stojkovski, Igor; Jeremic, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and identify both advantages and disadvantages of its use in developing countries, a meeting composed of consultants of the International Atomic Energy Agency was held in Vienna in November 2006. Owing to continuous developments in the field, the meeting was extended by subsequent discussions and correspondence (2007-2010), which led to the summary presented here. The advantages and disadvantages of SBRT expected to be encountered in developing countries were identified. The definitions, typical treatment courses, and clinical results were presented. Thereafter, minimal methodology/technology requirements for SBRT were evaluated. Finally, characteristics of SBRT for developing countries were recommended. Patients for SBRT should be carefully selected, because single high-dose radiotherapy may cause serious complications in some serial organs at risk. Clinical experiences have been reported in some populations of lung cancer, lung oligometastases, liver cancer, pancreas cancer, and kidney cancer. Despite the disadvantages expected to be experienced in developing countries, SBRT using fewer fractions may be useful in selected patients with various extracranial cancers with favorable outcome and low toxicity.

  6. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  7. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  8. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  9. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  10. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  11. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  12. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  14. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  15. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  16. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  17. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  19. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  20. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  1. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  2. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  3. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  4. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  6. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  7. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  8. Tumor Size Evaluation according to the T Component of the Seventh Edition of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's TNM Classification: Interobserver Agreement between Radiologists and Computer-Aided Diagnosis System in Patients with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyoung; Chong, Se Min; Seo, Jae Seung; Lee, Sun Jin; Han, Heon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the interobserver agreement for tumor size evaluation between radiologists and the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer in patients with lung cancer. We evaluated 20 patients who underwent a lobectomy or pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer. The maximum diameter of each primary tumor was measured by two radiologists and a CAD system on CT, and was staged based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification. The CT size and T-staging of the primary tumors was compared with the pathologic size and staging and the variability in the sizes and T stages of primary tumors was statistically analyzed between each radiologist's measurement or CAD estimation and the pathologic results. There was no statistically significant interobserver difference for the CT size among the two radiologists, between pathologic and CT size estimated by the radiologists, and between pathologic and CT staging by the radiologists and CAD system. However, there was a statistically significant interobserver difference between pathologic size and the CT size estimated by the CAD system (p = 0.003). No significant differences were found in the measurement of tumor size among radiologists or in the assessment of T-staging by radiologists and the CAD system.

  9. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  10. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Pain management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  12. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  13. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  14. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  16. Pleiotropy of genetic variants on obesity and smoking phenotypes: Results from the Oncoarray Project of The International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO. Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively. The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001 in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05, respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.

  17. Combination of icotinib, surgery, and internal-radiotherapy of a patient with lung cancer severely metastasized to the vertebrae bones with EGFR mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu LL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li-Li Qu, Hai-Feng Qin, Hong-Jun Gao, Xiao-Qing Liu Department of Lung Cancer, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A 48-year-old Chinese female was referred to us regarding EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and metastasis to left scapula and vertebrae bones which caused pathological fracture at T8 and T10 thoracic vertebrae. An aggressive combined therapy with icotinib, vertebrae operation, and radioactive particle implantation and immunotherapy was proposed to prevent paraplegia, relieve pain, and control the overall and local tumor lesions. No postoperative symptoms were seen after surgery, and the pain was significantly relieved. Icotinib merited a 31-month partial response with grade 1 diarrhea as its drug-related adverse event. High dose of icotinib was administered after pelvis lesion progression for 3 months with good tolerance. Combination therapy of icotinib, surgery, and internal radiation for metastases of the vertebrae bones from non-small cell lung cancer seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor, vertebrae operation can be an encouraging option for patients with EFGR positive mutation and good prognosis indicator. Keywords: lung cancer, spinal metastasis, pathological fracture, spinal canal stenosis, icotinib

  18. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally...... demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. CONCLUSIONS: The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity...... validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. METHODS: Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC...

  19. Assessing Respiration-Induced Tumor Motion and Internal Target Volume Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. Helen; Balter, Peter; Tutt, Teresa; Choi, Bum; Zhang, Joy; Wang, Catherine; Chi, Melinda; Luo Dershan; Pan Tinsu; Hunjan, Sandeep; Starkschall, George; Rosen, Isaac; Prado, Karl; Liao Zhongxing; Chang, Joe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess three-dimensional tumor motion caused by respiration and internal target volume (ITV) for radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Respiration-induced tumor motion was analyzed for 166 tumors from 152 lung cancer patients, 57.2% of whom had Stage III or IV non-small-cell lung cancer. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during normal breathing before treatment. The expiratory phase of 4DCT images was used as the reference set to delineate gross tumor volume (GTV). Gross tumor volumes on other respiratory phases and resulting ITVs were determined using rigid-body registration of 4DCT images. The association of GTV motion with various clinical and anatomic factors was analyzed statistically. Results: The proportions of tumors that moved >0.5 cm along the superior-inferior (SI), lateral, and anterior-posterior (AP) axes during normal breathing were 39.2%, 1.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. For 95% of the tumors, the magnitude of motion was less than 1.34 cm, 0.40 cm, and 0.59 cm along the SI, lateral, and AP directions. The principal component of tumor motion was in the SI direction, with only 10.8% of tumors moving >1.0 cm. The tumor motion was found to be associated with diaphragm motion, the SI tumor location in the lung, size of the GTV, and disease T stage. Conclusions: Lung tumor motion is primarily driven by diaphragm motion. The motion of locally advanced lung tumors is unlikely to exceed 1.0 cm during quiet normal breathing except for small lesions located in the lower half of the lung

  20. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  1. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about ...

  2. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  3. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe....

  4. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efficient approach for determining four-dimensional computed tomography-based internal target volume in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Seung Gu; Kim, Eun Seog

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate efficient approaches for determining internal target volume (ITV) from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images used in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 4D CT images were analyzed for 15 patients who received SBRT for stage I NSCLC. Three different ITVs were determined as follows: combining clinical target volume (CTV) from all 10 respiratory phases (ITV 10Phases ); combining CTV from four respiratory phases, including two extreme phases (0% and 50%) plus two intermediate phases (20% and 70%) (ITV 4Phases ); and combining CTV from two extreme phases (ITV 2Phases ). The matching index (MI) of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases was defined as the ratio of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases , respectively, to the ITV 10Phases . The tumor motion index (TMI) was defined as the ratio of ITV 10Phases to CTV mean , which was the mean of 10 CTVs delineated on 10 respiratory phases. The ITVs were significantly different in the order of ITV 10Phases , ITV 4Phases , and ITV 2Phases (all p 4Phases was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p 4Phases was inversely related to TMI (r = -0.569, p = 0.034). In a subgroup with low TMI (n = 7), ITV 4Phases was not statistically different from ITV 10Phases (p = 0.192) and its MI was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p = 0.016). The ITV 4Phases may be an efficient approach alternative to optimal ITV 10Phases in SBRT for early-stage NSCLC with less tumor motion.

  6. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  7. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  8. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  11. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  12. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V 20 values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  13. Quantification and Minimization of Uncertainties of Internal Target Volume for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Cai Jing; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin Fangfang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify uncertainties in delineating an internal target volume (ITV) and to understand how these uncertainties may be individually minimized for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with NSCLC who were undergoing SBRT were imaged with free-breathing 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and 10-phase 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) for delineating gross tumor volume (GTV){sub 3D} and ITV{sub 10Phase} (ITV3). The maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT was also calculated from 10-phase 4DCT for contouring ITV{sub MIP} (ITV1). Then, ITV{sub COMB} (ITV2), ITV{sub 10Phase+GTV3D} (ITV4), and ITV{sub 10Phase+ITVCOMB} (ITV5) were generated by combining ITV{sub MIP} and GTV{sub 3D}, ITV{sub 10phase} and GTV{sub 3D}, and ITV{sub 10phase} and ITV{sub COMB}, respectively. All 6 volumes (GTV{sub 3D} and ITV1 to ITV5) were delineated in the same lung window by the same radiation oncologist. The percentage of volume difference (PVD) between any 2 different volumes was determined and was correlated to effective tumor diameter (ETD), tumor motion ranges, R{sub 3D}, and the amplitude variability of the recorded breathing signal (v) to assess their volume variations. Results: The mean (range) tumor motion (R{sub SI}, R{sub AP}, R{sub ML}, and R{sub 3D}) and breathing variability (v) were 7.6 mm (2-18 mm), 4.0 mm (2-8 mm), 3.3 mm (0-7.5 mm), 9.9 mm (4.1-18.7 mm), and 0.17 (0.07-0.37), respectively. The trend of volume variation was GTV{sub 3D}

  14. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  15. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  17. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  19. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  20. Radiodiagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung occurring in the periphery grows as superficial spreading and/or deeply invading parts in the alveolar area. The superficial spreading part develops on the internal surface of alveoli, and when this part shows a monolayer arrangement of tumor cells and is low in height, not accompanied by mucus production, the shadow is faint, and does not cause deformation or deviation of the pre-existing structures. When tumor cell have amultilayer, substantial or polyoid arrangement and marked mucus production, the shadow is dense with a clear margin and no change or occasional compression of the pre-existing architecture. The deeply invading part develops on the alveolar wall, manifesting itself primarily as interstitial hyperplasia and fibrosis. Roentogenologically, the part shows a slightly high density and convergence in the pre-existing structures. Each adenocarcinoma shows an architecture consisting of these progressing parts combined and is similar roentogenologically. Therefore, X-ray features such as the density of tumor shadow, marginal properties and presence or absence and the intensity of convergence demonstrate the rough architecture and mode and stage of tumors. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Nucleomedical diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate is most often used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. As judged from reported cases, the accuracy rate was 90%, with a false negative rate being about 5%. Lung ventilation and blood flow scintigraphy are valuable in assessing the degree of damage to lung function and the therapeutic effect rather than in finding lung cancer. In aerosol scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc labelled aerosols with different particle size depending on the purpose of diagnosis are used; the large particles deposit at the center of the trachea and small size aerosols on the periphery. Aerosol-inhaled scintigraphy is highly valuable for the diagnosis of hilus lung cancer. sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphate is used in bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastasis. But it sometimes gives false positive results such as in the case of senile bone changes. Another valuable method of diagnosis is emission CT by which various substances having affinity for the tumor can be detected by labelling them with a proton emitting nuclear species such as 11 C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O and /sup 18/F. Some cases of lung cancer, and the radionuclide methods used in the diagnosis are shown.

  2. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  4. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  5. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  6. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  7. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  8. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  9. Combination of icotinib, surgery, and internal-radiotherapy of a patient with lung cancer severely metastasized to the vertebrae bones with EGFR mutation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Li; Qin, Hai-Feng; Gao, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese female was referred to us regarding EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and metastasis to left scapula and vertebrae bones which caused pathological fracture at T8 and T10 thoracic vertebrae. An aggressive combined therapy with icotinib, vertebrae operation, and radioactive particle implantation and immunotherapy was proposed to prevent paraplegia, relieve pain, and control the overall and local tumor lesions. No postoperative symptoms were seen after surgery, and the pain was significantly relieved. Icotinib merited a 31-month partial response with grade 1 diarrhea as its drug-related adverse event. High dose of icotinib was administered after pelvis lesion progression for 3 months with good tolerance. Combination therapy of icotinib, surgery, and internal radiation for metastases of the vertebrae bones from non-small cell lung cancer seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor, vertebrae operation can be an encouraging option for patients with EFGR positive mutation and good prognosis indicator.

  10. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  11. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  13. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  14. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  15. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  16. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  17. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for multiple primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Sakai, H.; Furukawa, K.; Hayata, Y.; Kato, H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, multiple primary lung cancers have been reported with greater frequency. As for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, operative excision is usually difficult for all lesions due to problems of pulmonary function. PDT is a good therapeutic modality in the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, especially central type lung cancer, for preservation of lung function. Since 1980, 50 patients of endoscopically-evaluated early stage lung cancers have been treated with PDT at Tokyo Medical College. Within this group, 16 patients were classified as having multiple primary lung cancers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of these patients with multiple primary bronchogenic carcinoma. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  1. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  2. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  3. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  5. The findings of bronchial artery change in lung cancer with 16-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Wu Xiaomei; Cen Renli; Zhang Chaoliang; Chen Yongfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference of internal diameter of bronchial artery in big lung cancer, small lung cancer, and normal lung with multiple slice CT. Methods: MSCT angiographies of 44 patients with lung cancer confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, and 29 patients were with big lung cancer (≥3 cm) and 15 patients with small lung cancer (<3 cm). Contrast enhanced helical thin slice CT scan was performed in all patients. Three dimensional images of bronchial artery were processed on workstation. The internal diameter of bronchial artery was measured. Results: The diameter of bronchial artery was (1.9±0.4) mm in 15 small lung cancer and (2.5±0.5) mm in 29 big lung cancer, respectively. There was a significant difference in internal diameter of bronchial artery between big and small lung cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial artery in lung cancer is dilated, and the dilation of bronchial artery in big lung cancer is more prominent than in small lung cancer. (authors)

  6. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  7. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  9. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were analyzed for CTC count before and after chemotherapy. Clinical relevance of. CTCs with ... reduction (p < 0.001) in CTC count was also observed after one cycle of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with low CTC ... type of cancer in China with 21.7 % of males and. 14.3 % of females. The incidence of ...

  10. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  11. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  12. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  14. Preoperative radiological approach for hilar lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Higashino, Takanori; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in CT, MR, and nuclear medicine have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in hilar lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. In this review, we describe recent advances in the radiological approach to hilar lung cancer, focusing on mediastinal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer. (author)

  15. Approach to derive doses for case-control studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among workers internally exposed to uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Berard, Philippe; Bingham, Derek; Blanchardon, Eric; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cecile; Birchall, Alan; Puncher, Matthew; Bull, Richard; Hurtgen, Christian; Riddell, Tony; Vrijheid, Martine; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Case-control studies are currently conducted in 3 European countries (Belgium, France and the United Kingdom) to estimate the risk of lung cancer and leukaemia in relation to internal exposure to uranium and plutonium amongst workers in the nuclear industry. The project requires calculating doses absorbed by the lung and the bone marrow for many hundreds of cases and controls internally exposed. In order to establish a common approach to dose reconstruction, a detailed dosimetry protocol and a database of individual exposure were set up and will be presented. The dose reconstruction relies heavily on bioassay data, which are usually urine analysis, extending back over 50 years in some cases. Inevitably, data obtained over such a time span are of variable quality. It is important to review the monitoring practices at the various laboratories and to assess the reliability of these data in order to estimate possible biases as well as random uncertainties. Another key step in the reconstruction process is to decide upon the likely intake regimes consistent with the data. Generally, chronic intakes will be assumed and acute intakes will be added only when their existence is supported by operational data. Biokinetic models are used both to calculate intakes from bioassay data and to convert intakes to doses. The ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract model will be used along with the latest systemic models described by ICRP. These will be supplemented by the Leggett 2005 model for plutonium. These various models will be implemented by the code IMBA-Expert. Since it is essential to obtain central estimates for the doses, a particular problem is encountered with datasets consisting only of values below the limit of detection. For these cases Bayesian statistics will be employed using a non-informative prior probability distribution. (author)

  16. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  17. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  18. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  19. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  20. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  1. National Working Group Meeting on ALK diagnostics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wendy; Fox, Stephen; O'Toole, Sandra; Morey, Adrienne; Frances, Glenn; Pavlakis, Nick; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Dettrick, Andrew; Leong, Trishe; Rathi, Vivek; Spagnolo, Dominic; Hemmings, Chris; Singh, Mahendra; Moffat, David; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Wilner, Keith; Buller, Richard; Pitman Lowenthal, Susan; Arifeen, Shams; Binko, Justin; Alam, Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    The global landscape of molecular testing is rapidly changing, with the recent publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines and the ALK Atlas. The IASLC/CAP guidelines recommend that tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) be tested for ALK rearrangements in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The spur for this recommendation is the availability of novel therapies that target these rearrangements. This article is based on coverage of a Pfizer-sponsored National Working Group Meeting on ALK Diagnostics in Lung Cancer, held around the 15th World Lung Cancer Conference, in Sydney on October 31, 2013. It is based on the presentations given by the authors at the meeting and the discussion that ensued. The content for this article was discussed and agreed on by the authors. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  3. Prognosis of Lung Cancer: Heredity or Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and white patients in an equal access health system. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012;21:1841–1847. 19. Hardy D, Xia R, Liu CC, Cormier JN...Nurgalieva Z, Du XL. Racial dis- parities and survival for nonsmall-cell lung cancer in a large cohort of black and white elderly patients. Cancer 2009;115...P. In lung cancer patients, age, race-ethnicity, gender and smoking predict adverse comor- bidity, which in turn predicts treatment and survival. J

  4. An evaluation of an automated 4D-CT contour propagation tool to define an internal gross tumour volume for lung cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaede, Stewart; Olsthoorn, Jason; Louie, Alexander V.; Palma, David; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Chen, Jeff; Bzdusek, Karl; Rodrigues, George

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate an automated 4D-CT contouring propagation tool by its impact on the inter- and intra-physician variability in lung tumour delineation. Materials and methods: In a previous study, six radiation oncologists contoured the gross tumour volume (GTV) and nodes on 10 phases of the 4D-CT dataset of 10 lung cancer patients to examine the intra- and inter-physician variability. In this study, a model-based deformable image registration algorithm was used to propagate the GTV and nodes on each phase of the same 4D-CT datasets. A blind review of the contours was performed by each physician and edited. Inter- and intra-physician variability for both the manual and automated methods was assessed by calculating the centroid motion of the GTV using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the variability in the internal gross tumour volume (IGTV) overlap using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Results: The time for manual delineation was (42.7 ± 18.6) min versus (17.7 ± 5.4) min when the propagation tool was used. A significant improvement in the mean Pearson correlation coefficient was also observed. There was a significant decrease in mean DSC in only 1 out of 10 primary IGTVs and 2 out of 10 nodal IGTVs. Intra-physician variability was not significantly impacted (DSC > 0.742). Conclusions: Automated 4D-CT propagation tools can significantly decrease the IGTV delineation time without significantly decreasing the inter- and intra-physician variability.

  5. Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is globally the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Majority of lung cancer cases is diagnosed in elderly patients, aged ≥65 years. In Slovakia, 54% of new lung cancer cases are diagnosed in patients aged ≥65 years, and about 40% in patients aged ≥70 years. An experts panel created by EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) and ISGO (International Society for Geriatric Oncology) published in 2014 updated recommendations for treatment of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The brief overview of these recommendations, including a view of the new data published since 2014, is given in this article. (author)

  6. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  7. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  8. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...

  9. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengxiang Li,1 Jianbin Li,1 Zhifang Ma,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Jun Xing,1 Huanpeng Qi,1 Dongping Shang21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the positional and volumetric differences of internal target volumes defined on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT, four-dimensional CT (4DCT, and cone-beam CT (CBCT images of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with NSCLC sequentially underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans of the thorax during free breathing. The first CBCT was performed and registered to the planning CT using the bony anatomy registration during radiotherapy. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on the basis of 3DCT, maximum intensity projection (MIP of 4DCT, and CBCT. CTV3D (clinical target volume, internal target volumes, ITVMIP and ITVCBCT, were defined with a 7 mm margin accounting for microscopic disease. ITV10 mm and ITV5 mm were defined on the basis of CTV3D: ITV10 mm with a 5 mm margin in left–right (LR, anterior–posterior (AP directions and 10 mm in cranial–caudal (CC direction; ITV5 mm with an isotropic internal margin (IM of 5 mm. The differences in the position, size, Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC and inclusion relation of different volumes were evaluated.Results: The median size ratios of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP to ITVCBCT were 2.33, 1.88, and 1.03, respectively, for tumors in the upper lobe and 2.13, 1.76, and 1.1, respectively, for tumors in the middle-lower lobe. The median DSCs of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, ITVMIP, and ITVCBCT were 0.6, 0.66, and 0.83 for all patients. The median percentages of ITVCBCT not included in ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm, and ITVMIP were 0.1%, 1.63%, and 15.21%, respectively, while the median percentages of ITV10 mm, ITV5 mm

  11. Second-Line Treatment Options in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Report From an International Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gridelli, Cesare; Baas, Paul; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Crinò, Lucio; Felip, Enriqueta; Gadgeel, Shirish; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Paz-Ares, Luis; Planchard, David; Perol, Maurice; Hanna, Nasser; Sgambato, Assunta; Casaluce, Francesca; de Marinis, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients inevitably progress to first-line therapy and further active treatments are warranted. In the past few years, new second-line therapies, beyond chemotherapy agents, have become available in clinical practice. To date, several options for the second-line

  12. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuhai; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  13. Profile of lung cancer in kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basmy, Amani

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most frequent site in females, worldwide. This study is the first to explore the profile of lung cancer in Kuwait. Cases of primary lung cancer (Kuwaiti) in Kuwait cancer Registry (KCR) were grouped in 4 periods (10 years each) from 1970-2009. Epidemiological measures; age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), Standardized rate ratio (SRR) and Cumulative risk and Forecasting to year 2020-2029 used for analysis. Between years, 2000-2009 lung cancer ranked the 4th and the 9th most frequent cancer in males and females respectively. M:F ratio 1:3. Mean age at diagnosis (95%CI) was 65.2 (63.9-66.4) years. The estimated risk of developing lung cancer before the age of 75 years in males is 1.8% (1/56), and 0.6 (1/167) in females. The ASIR for male cases was 11.7, 17.1, 17.0, 14.0 cases/100,000 population in the seventies, eighties, nineties and in 2000-2009 respectively. Female ASIR was 2.3, 8.4, 5.1, 4.4 cases/100,000 population in the same duration. Lung cancer is the leading cause cancer death in males 168 (14.2%) and the fifth cause of death due to cancer in females accounting for 6.1% of all cancer deaths. The ASMR (95%CI) was 8.1 (6.6-10.0) deaths/100,000 population and 2.8 (1.3-4.3) deaths/100,000 population in males and females respectively. The estimated Mortality to incidence Ratio was 0.6. The incidence of lung cancer between years 2000-2009 is not different from that reported in the seventies. KCR is expecting the number of lung cancer cases to increase.

  14. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  15. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  16. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  17. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  18. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  19. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  20. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  1. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the h allmarks of lung cancer . Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  2. Missed lung cancer: when, where, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ciello, Annemilia; Franchi, Paola; Contegiacomo, Andrea; Cicchetti, Giuseppe; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Larici, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Missed lung cancer is a source of concern among radiologists and an important medicolegal challenge. In 90% of the cases, errors in diagnosis of lung cancer occur on chest radiographs. It may be challenging for radiologists to distinguish a lung lesion from bones, pulmonary vessels, mediastinal structures, and other complex anatomical structures on chest radiographs. Nevertheless, lung cancer can also be overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scans, regardless of the context, either if a clinical or radiologic suspect exists or for other reasons. Awareness of the possible causes of overlooking a pulmonary lesion can give radiologists a chance to reduce the occurrence of this eventuality. Various factors contribute to a misdiagnosis of lung cancer on chest radiographs and on CT, often very similar in nature to each other. Observer error is the most significant one and comprises scanning error, recognition error, decision-making error, and satisfaction of search. Tumor characteristics such as lesion size, conspicuity, and location are also crucial in this context. Even technical aspects can contribute to the probability of skipping lung cancer, including image quality and patient positioning and movement. Albeit it is hard to remove missed lung cancer completely, strategies to reduce observer error and methods to improve technique and automated detection may be valuable in reducing its likelihood. PMID:28206951

  3. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  4. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  5. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  6. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  7. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Maintenance treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian association of thoracic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Di Maio, Massimo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Belani, Chandra P; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Fidias, Panagiotis; Paz-Ares, Luis; Perrone, Francesco; Pirker, Robert; De Petris, Luigi; Stahel, Rolf

    2012-06-01

    Several randomized trials have recently investigated the role of maintenance treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with responding or stable disease after completion of first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance strategy has relevant implications in terms of potential toxicity, logistics and costs, and all of these aspects should be taken into account, together with the magnitude of benefit for the patient. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of available evidence, to help clinical practice, and to suggest priorities for future clinical research, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting on maintenance treatment of advanced NSCLC, which took place in Sperlonga (Italy) in May 2011. Based on the available evidence, panelists agreed that maintenance therapy represents a treatment option in advanced NSCLC. Maintenance should be discussed with patients not progressed after 4-6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy, who are fit (performance status 0-1) and without persistent chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Patients need to be well informed about potential advantages and disadvantages of accepting additional therapy without a "treatment-free period". Two different strategies, switch or continuation maintenance, are supported by available evidence. At the moment, there is no direct comparison between switch maintenance and continuation maintenance. For future trials, the panel recommends the use of overall survival as the primary endpoint, with pre-defined second-line treatment. Translational research is essential to identify predictive factors, and should be performed, whenever feasible, in order to achieve treatment optimization with proper patient selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Invasive Aspergillosis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J. E. G. W. Vanfleteren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis. These similarities can cause significant diagnostic difficulties with a subsequent therapeutic delay and a potential adverse outcome. Awareness of this infectious disease that can mimic lung cancer, even in an immunocompetent patient, is important. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with pulmonary aspergillosis disseminated to the brain mimicking metastatic lung cancer.

  10. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  11. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients...

  12. Roentgenological diagnoss of central segmental lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed

  13. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of

  14. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  15. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  16. HIV-Associated Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Til R; Siehl, Jan; Hentrich, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role. Currently, no established preventive screening is available, making smoking cessation the most promising preventive measure. Treatment protocols and standards are the same as for the general population. Notably, immuno-oncology will also become standard of care in a significant subset of HIV-infected patients with LC. As drug interactions and hematological toxicity must be taken into account, a multidisciplinary approach should include a physician experienced in the treatment of HIV. Only limited data is available on novel targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors in the setting of HIV. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time...

  18. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  19. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  20. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  1. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  2. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy

  3. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  4. Comparison of three approaches to delineate internal gross tumor volume based on four-dimensional CT simulation images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxiang; Li Jianbin; Zhang Yingjie; Shang Dongping; Liu Tonghai; Tian Shiyu; Xu Min; Ma Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare positional and volumetric differences of internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) delineated separately by three approaches based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) for the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NLCLC). Methods: Twenty-one patients with NLCLC underwent big bore 4DCT simulation scan of the thorax. IGTVs of the primary tumor of NSCLC were delineated using three approaches as followed: (1) the gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of the ten the respiratory phases of the 4DCT image set were delineated and the ten GTV were fused to produce IGTV 10 ; (2) the GTV delineated separately based on 0% and 50% phase were fused to produce IGTV EI+EE ; (3) the visible tumor on the MIP images were delineated to produce IGTV MIP . The position of the target center, the volume of target, the degree of inclusion (DI) and the matching index (MI) were compared reciprocally between IGTV 10 , IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP . Results: Average differences between the position of the center of IGTVs on direction of x, y and z axes were less than 1 mm, with no statistically significant difference. The volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV EI+EE , the difference was statistically significant (t=2.37, P=0.028); the volume of IGTV 10 was larger than that of IGTV MIP , but the difference was not statistically significant (t=1.95, P=0.065). The ratio of IGTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP with IGTV 10 were 0.85±0.08 and 0.92±0.11, respectively. DI of IGTV EI+EE in IGTV 10 , IGTV MIP in IGTV 10 were 84.78% ± 8. 95% and 88.47% ±9.04%. MI between IGTV 10 and IGTV EI+EE , IGTV 10 and IGTV MIP were 0.85 ±0.09, 0.86±0.09, respectively. Conclusions: The center displacement of the IGTVs delineated separately by the three different techniques based on 4DCT images are not obvious; IGTV EI+EE and IGTV MIP can not replace IGTV 10 , however, IGTV MIP is more close to IGTV 10 comparing to IGTV EI+EE . The ratio of GTV EI+EE with IGTV 10 is correlated to the tumor motion

  5. Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Bergsma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC typically presents at an advanced stage, which is often felt to be incurable, and such patients are usually treated with a palliative approach. Accumulating retrospective and prospective clinical evidence, including a recently completed randomized trial, support the existence of an oligometastatic disease state wherein select individuals with advanced NSCLC may experience historically unprecedented prolonged survival with aggressive local treatments, consisting of radiotherapy and/or surgery, to limited sites of metastatic disease. This is reflected in the most recent AJCC staging subcategorizing metastatic disease into intra-thoracic (M1a, a single extra thoracic site (M1b, and more diffuse metastases (M1c. In the field of radiation oncology, recent technological advances have allowed for the delivery of very high, potentially ablative, doses of radiotherapy to both intra- and extra-cranial disease sites, referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (or SABR, in much shorter time periods compared to conventional radiation and with minimal associated toxicity. At the same time, significant improvements in systemic therapy, including platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, molecular agents targeting oncogene-addicted NSCLC, and immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors, have led to improved control of micro-metastatic disease and extended survival sparking newfound interest in combining these agents with ablative local therapies to provide additive, and in the case of radiation and immunotherapy, potentially synergistic, effects in order to further improve progression-free and overall survival. Currently, despite the tantalizing potential associated with aggressive local therapy in the setting of oligometastatic NSCLC, well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials sufficiently powered to detect and measure the possible added benefit afforded by this approach are

  6. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival.

  7. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  8. Immune-based Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Hind; El-Bahesh, Ehab; Finianos, Antoine; Nassereddine, Samah; Tabbara, Imad

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an increasingly interesting target of pharmacological blockade. These immune inhibitors have shown promising results in front-line therapy and after failure of multiple lines, as well as in monotherapy and combination with other therapies. Vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer is also an emerging field of research that holds promising results for the future of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. This review presents a concise update on the most recent data regarding the role of checkpoint inhibitors as well as vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  10. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Distribution of lung cancer and bronchitis in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, D J.B.

    1967-01-01

    Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer and bronchitis decreased with population gradient from urban to rural areas. When this was controlled, SO/sub 2/ and smoke concentration were highly correlated with each other and with bronchitis but not with lung cancer. Conversely, lung cancer was correlated with population density whereas bronchitis was not. This study postulates that bronchitis offers some form of immunological protection against lung cancer.

  13. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  14. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference......, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through...

  15. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  16. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Treatment planning of radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, B.J.; Levitt, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinomas of the lung is the most common form of cancer in men in the United States and many other countries. In the American Cancer Society Survey 1986, cancer of the lung made up 22% of all cancer in men and 11% of all cancer in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 70.6 and 14.4 for white men and women, respectively, and 89.6 and 14.4 for black men and women/100,000 population. The disease is more common in older individuals, particularly in the 5th and 6th decade, but rises to its highest incidence in the 7th decade. The proportion of women with carcinoma of the lung has been increasing steadily, while that of the males has been decreasing somewhat. Pathologic classification of carcinoma of the lung includes squamous cell, small-cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Most of the patients, practically 48%, have squamous cell carcinoma, 16% adenocarcinoma and 15% large-cell and 19.9% small-cell carcinoma. Recent studies have shown an increase in incidence of adenocarcinoma so that it may be the most common histologic type

  18. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  19. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Lung Cancer of the Uranium Miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Shandala, N.K.; Gneusheva, G.I.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is the only world diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The paper deals with the evaluation of the occupational morbidity of the PPMCA's miners depending on their work conditions. In order to evaluate radiological risks of the malignant neoplasm incidence, we used the available medical-dosimetry data being received over the Association life. Our study covers information of 584 miners. The main part of this group includes men (87%), involved in uranium mining (sinkers, timber-men, etc.). Women accounted 13%, being involved in subsidiary works. The highest mean external doses (20 - 40 mSv/year) got those, who worked in the mines over 1980-1983, but the number of this subgroup is small - 18 persons. Generally, mean doses over next years were about 5 mSv/year. However, almost each year, maximum doses above 20 mSv/year can be observed. Internal doses to men were 42.9 mSv on average, while those to women were 23.9 mSv. When generating the medical database, we collected data of 130 mail mines, employed to the PPMCA mines. Among all cases of the malignant neoplasm incidence of miners, the highest contribution is made by the lung cancer (46%); this is well above the national data (23.3 %). The second part is digestive tract cancer (the stomach, the lower lip, and pancreas), contributing 29 % in total, and the stomach cancer contributes 16 %. Depositions of these malignancies do not exceed the national data. The problem of the further work improvement of the miners to eliminate occupational lung disease in the uranium mining operations remains important to the present. Epidemiological and radio-ecological studies will help both regulators and operators to make more objective assessment of each specific situation and to determine

  1. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ"2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ"2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ"2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  2. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  3. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  5. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  7. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  8. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    . To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...

  9. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  10. Obesity Paradox in Lung Cancer Prognosis: Evolving Biological Insights and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Yamin; Shao, Hua; Zheng, Xiao

    2017-10-01

    The survival rate of lung cancer remains low despite the progress of surgery and chemotherapy. With the increasing comorbidity of obesity in patients with lung cancer, new challenges are emerging in the management of this patient population. A key issue of interest is the prognostic effect of obesity on surgical and chemotherapeutic outcomes in patients with lung cancer, which is fueled by the growing observation of survival benefits in overweight or obese patients. This unexpected inverse relationship between obesity and lung cancer mortality, called the obesity paradox, remains poorly understood. The evolving insights into the heterogeneity of obesity phenotypes and associated biological connections with lung cancer progression in recent years may help explain some of the seemingly paradoxical relationship, and well-designed clinical studies looking at the causal role of obesity-associated molecules are expected. Here, we examine potential biological mechanisms behind the protective effects of obesity in lung cancer. We highlight the need to clarify the clinical implications of this relationship toward an updated intervention strategy in the clinical care of patients with lung cancer and obesity. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  12. Radiation therapy in aged lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Tobari, Chitose; Matsui, Kengo; Iio, Masahiro.

    1982-01-01

    The results and problems of radiotherapy were analyzed in 57 lung cancer patients more than 65 years of age (average age: 74.8 years). Of these, 45 (79%) were irradiated with a total dose exceeding 40 Gy. In these patients, the median survival was 13 months for Stages I and II, 6.5 months for Stage III, and 5 months for Stage IV. The results of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy were better than those of radiotherapy alone. Also, slightly better results were obtained in patients treated with split-course than continuous-course irradiation. In aged lung cancer patients the prognosis was highly influenced by their respiratory function. Double cancers were present in 9 (16%) of the 57 patients. (author)

  13. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Navile Murali; Venkatraman Radhakrishnan; Trivadi S. Ganesan; Rejiv Rajendranath; Prasanth Ganesan; Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy; Rajaraman Swaminathan; Shirley Sundersingh; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Tenali Gnana Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 ye...

  14. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  15. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B. Shaker (Saher); A. Dirksen (Asger); P. Lo (Pechin); L.T. Skovgaard (Lene); M. de Bruijne (Marleen); J.H. Pedersen (Jerry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were

  16. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  17. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  19. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer is hoped to reduce mortality from this common tumour, which is characterised by a dismal overall survival, relatively well defined risk groups (mainly heavy cigarette smokers and workers exposed to asbestos) and a lack of early symptoms. In the past studies using sputum cytology and chest radiography have failed to demonstrate any reduction in lung cancer mortality through screening. One of the reasons is probably the relatively poor sensitivity of both these tests in early tumours. Low radiation dose computed tomography (CT) has been shown to have a much higher sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are believed to be the most common presentation of early lung cancer. As, however, small pulmonary nodules are common and most are not malignant, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to correctly classify the detected lesions and avoid invasive procedures in benign nodules. Nodule density, size and the demonstration of growth at follow-up have been shown to be useful in this respect and may in the future be supplemented by contrast-enhanced CT and positron emission tomography. Based on these diagnostic algorithms preliminary studies of low-dose CT in heavy smokers have demonstrated a high proportion of asymptomatic, early, resectable cancers with good survival. As, however, several biases could explain these findings in the absence of the ultimate goal of cancer screening, i.e. mortality reduction, most researchers believe that randomised controlled trials including several 10000 subjects are required to demonstrate a possible mortality reduction. Only then general recommendations to screen individuals at risk of lung cancer with low-dose CT should be made. It can be hoped that international cooperation will succeed in providing results as early as possible

  1. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  2. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  3. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: A Renewed Call to Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dorothy J; Van Schil, Paul; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John J; Rusch, Valerie W; Kernstine, Kemp

    2018-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging Project has been a steady source of evidence-based recommendations for the TNM classification for lung cancer published by the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the IASLC is now issuing a call for participation in the next phase of the project, which is designed to inform the ninth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. Following the case recruitment model for the eighth edition database, volunteer site participants are asked to submit data on patients whose lung cancer was diagnosed between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2019, to the project by means of a secure, electronic data capture system provided by Cancer Research And Biostatistics in Seattle, Washington. Alternatively, participants may transfer existing data sets. The continued success of the IASLC Staging Project in achieving its objectives will depend on the extent of international participation, the degree to which cases are entered directly into the electronic data capture system, and how closely externally submitted cases conform to the data elements for the project. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lung cancer symptoms and pulse oximetry in the prognostic assessment of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Cecilia M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical oncologists continue to use performance status as a proxy for quality of life (QOL measures, as completion of QOL instruments is perceived as time consuming, may measure aspects of QOL not affected by cancer therapy, and interpretation may be unclear. The pulse oximeter is widely used in clinical practice to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection in cancer patients, but little is known on its role outside the surgical setting. We evaluated whether the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and pulse oximetry may contribute to the evaluation of lung cancer patients who received standard anticancer therapy. Methods We enrolled forty-one consecutive, newly diagnosed, patients with locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer in this study. We developed a survival model with the variables gender, age, histology, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status, wasting, LCSS symptom scores, average symptom burden index, and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Results Patient and observer-rated scores were correlated, except for the fatigue subscale. The median SpO2 was 95% (range: 86 to 98, was unrelated to symptom scores, and was weakly correlated with observer cough scores. In a multivariate survival model, SpO2 > 90% and patient scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion LCSS fatigue and appetite rating, and pulse oximetry should be studied further as prognostic factors in lung cancer patients.

  5. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  6. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  7. Choroidal Metastases as the Initial Presentation of Lung Cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with ... nonsmall cell carcinoma of the right lung, which had multiple distant metastases. KEYWORDS: ... metastasis in lung cancer is very low, reported to be ... Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: .... awareness regarding this rare presentation of lung cancer.

  8. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  9. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  10. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  11. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  13. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  14. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  15. Validation of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-An; Ma, Xiaotu; Sathe, Adwait; Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lam, Stephen; Yatabe, Yasushi; Wang, Yi-Wei; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Larsen, Jill E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiaoyun; Song, Kai; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-03-01

    The human secretin gene (SCT) encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of the 450k methylation array data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential biomarker for lung cancer. We analyzed data from TCGA and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. The analyses of TCGA 450K data for 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.98 that can be used to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from nonmalignant lung tissue. Bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells allowed us to confirm that SCT methylation is highly discriminative. By applying a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that SCT hypermethylation is frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant non-small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.92, n = 108) and small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.93, n = 40) but is less frequent in lung carcinoids (AUC = 0.54, n = 20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in samples of lung carcinoma in situ during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450k data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most other types of malignant tumors but less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with a high level of methylation was the placenta. Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, is less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors (including lung carcinoids), and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiological study on lung cancer of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Liyun; Gu Juanjuan

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer among 13360 male workers of 5 uranium mines were investigated. During the period of observation (Jan, 1971-Dec. 1985) 35 lung cancers were registered; among them 24 were in exposed group and 11 in control group. Standard mortality of lung cancer for these two groups were 21.42·10 -5 and 15.94·10 -5 , respectively. SMR were 1.83 (exposed group) and 1.44 (control group) (P<0.01). The average latent period of lung cancer in exposed group was 17.5 years, and the average cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters was 168 WLM. The average age of workers dead of lung cancer was 47.83 years. The excess RR coefficient of lung cancer was 1.07%/WLM. SMR increased with increasing cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters. The adjusted mortality of long cancer of smokers in exposed group was obviously higher than that of nonsmokers

  17. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  18. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  19. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Small cell lung cancer: chemo- and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drings, P.

    1992-01-01

    Small-Cell Lung Cancer - Chemo- and Radiotherapy: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) should be regarded as a systematic disease for which systematic therapy, i.e. chemotherapy, is considered as the cornerstone of treatment. Combination chemotherapy consisting of 2 or mostly 3 active drugs, given at an adequate dose, should be used. Thoracic radiation therapy promises both survival and local-regional control benefits to patients though its optimal role remains to be definitively established. The results of treatment have reached a plateau with a remission rate of up to 90% in stage 'limited disease' and 60% in stage 'extensive disease'. But considering long-term results diseasefree survival and cure only seem possible in 5-10% of patients with limited disease. (orig.) [de

  1. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  2. Calculation of lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands by smoking and radon exposure. Implications for the effect of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Brugmans, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Although the main cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes, part of the cases are subscribed to radon exposure, in particular α-radiation from daughter products. However, the relation between lung cancer and radon exposure is rather insecure. Based on international reports (e.g. BEIR VI) and extrapolation of lung cancer incidence in uranium mine workers to the population of the USA and subsequently to the Netherlands, the number of lung cancer cases in the Netherlands is estimated to be circa 800 per year, varying between 200-2000. Results of the analysis are summarized in this article. 10 refs

  3. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  4. Metabolic Signaling and Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by...which makes them attractive therapeutic targets. However, the development of targeted agents in lung cancer is still in its infancy, despite the...notion that metabolites can act as signaling molecules in distant metabolic pathways is gaining significant attentionand support (Figure 1A). Some of the

  5. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  6. A case of squamous cell lung cancer after treating with radiation for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Ide, Hiroshi; Siomi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Tada, Shinya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kido, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    A 77-year-old man was admitted due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film in September 1993. Small cell lung cancer was diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy of left S 3 . Because of his pulmonary and renal dysfunction, he received only 40 Gy irradiation alone, and the tumor shadow disappeared. After 38 months' observation, a new nodular shadow was detected in the left upper lung field in March 1997. A tumor was found in left B 3 by bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Because of his advanced age and hypoxia, he has had no active treatment. This was a rare case of small cell lung cancer with long term survival, treated only by radiation, in which a different histologic type of carcinoma appeared in the same radiation field. (author)

  7. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  9. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  10. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  11. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  12. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  13. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  14. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  15. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  16. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  17. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  19. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  20. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants. Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers. Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk. Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years. Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  1. The association between combined non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Wook Kim,1 Kwang-Nam Jin,2 Eun Young Heo,3 Sung Soo Park,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Deog Kyeom Kim31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Whereas the epidemiological association between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, is well known, limited studies have examined the association between lung cancer and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, a representative chronic airway inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the association between bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with COPD.Methods: A matched case–control study was conducted in a referral hospital in South Korea. Among COPD patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.7 and forced expiratory volume in one second ≤70% [% predicted] who underwent chest computed tomography (CT between January 1, 2010 and May 30, 2013, patients with lung cancer and controls matched for age, sex, and smoking history were selected. The risk of lung cancer was assessed according to the presence of underlying bronchiectasis confirmed by chest CT.Results: The study enrolled 99 cases and 198 controls. Combined bronchiectasis on chest CT was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.52, P<0.001. Significant associations were found in

  2. Compliance with PET acquisition protocols for therapeutic monitoring of erlotinib therapy in an international trial for patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, David S.; Callahan, Jason; Mileshkin, Linda; Pirzkall, Andrea; Yu, Wei; Fine, Bernard M.; Conti, Peter; Scott, Andrew M.; Macfarlane, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are widely used but have recognized limitations. Molecular imaging assessments, including changes in 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG) or 18 F-deoxythymidine (FLT) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET), may provide earlier, more robust evaluation of treatment efficacy. A prospective trial evaluated on-treatment changes in FDG and FLT PET imaging among patients with relapsed or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with erlotinib to assess the relationship between PET-evaluated response and clinical outcomes. We describe an audit of compliance with the study imaging charter, to establish the feasibility of achieving methodological consistency in a multicentre setting. Patients underwent PET scans at baseline and approximately day 14 and day 56 of treatment (n = 73, 66 and 51 studies, and n = 73, 63 and 50 studies for FDG PET and FLT PET, respectively). Blood glucose levels were within the target range for all FDG PET scans. Charter-specified uptake times were achieved in 86% (63/73) and 89% (65/73) of baseline FDG and FLT scans, respectively. On-treatment scans were less consistent: 72% (84/117) and 68% (77/113), respectively, achieved the target of ±5 min of baseline uptake time. However, 96% (112/117) and 94% (106/113) of FDG and FLT PET studies, respectively, were within ±15 min. Bland-Altman analysis of intra-individual hepatic average standardized uptake value (SUV ave ), to assess reproducibility, showed only a small difference in physiological uptake (-0.006 ± 0.224 in 118 follow-up FDG scans and 0.09 ± 0.81 in 111 follow-up FLT scans). It is possible to achieve high reproducibility of scan acquisition methodology, provided that strict imaging compliance guidelines are mandated in the study protocol. (orig.)

  3. Compliance with PET acquisition protocols for therapeutic monitoring of erlotinib therapy in an international trial for patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, David S.; Callahan, Jason; Mileshkin, Linda [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Pirzkall, Andrea; Yu, Wei; Fine, Bernard M. [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Conti, Peter [University of Southern California Kenneth Norris Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [The University of Melbourne and The Austin Hospital, Centre for PET, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Macfarlane, David [Queensland PET Service, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [The University of Melbourne and The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are widely used but have recognized limitations. Molecular imaging assessments, including changes in {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose (FDG) or {sup 18}F-deoxythymidine (FLT) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET), may provide earlier, more robust evaluation of treatment efficacy. A prospective trial evaluated on-treatment changes in FDG and FLT PET imaging among patients with relapsed or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with erlotinib to assess the relationship between PET-evaluated response and clinical outcomes. We describe an audit of compliance with the study imaging charter, to establish the feasibility of achieving methodological consistency in a multicentre setting. Patients underwent PET scans at baseline and approximately day 14 and day 56 of treatment (n = 73, 66 and 51 studies, and n = 73, 63 and 50 studies for FDG PET and FLT PET, respectively). Blood glucose levels were within the target range for all FDG PET scans. Charter-specified uptake times were achieved in 86% (63/73) and 89% (65/73) of baseline FDG and FLT scans, respectively. On-treatment scans were less consistent: 72% (84/117) and 68% (77/113), respectively, achieved the target of {+-}5 min of baseline uptake time. However, 96% (112/117) and 94% (106/113) of FDG and FLT PET studies, respectively, were within {+-}15 min. Bland-Altman analysis of intra-individual hepatic average standardized uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), to assess reproducibility, showed only a small difference in physiological uptake (-0.006 {+-} 0.224 in 118 follow-up FDG scans and 0.09 {+-} 0.81 in 111 follow-up FLT scans). It is possible to achieve high reproducibility of scan acquisition methodology, provided that strict imaging compliance guidelines are mandated in the study protocol. (orig.)

  4. Quality of Care for Lung Cancer in Taiwan: A Pattern of Care Based on Core Measures in the Taiwan Cancer Database Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ru Chien

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: It is very likely that significant variation in QOC for lung cancer in Taiwan exists among different types but not locations of hospitals, at least in the diagnostic domain. The introduction of internal benchmarking (TCDB and core measures was associated with some changes, at least in some diagnostic domains, which may lead to improvement in QOC for lung cancer in Taiwan.

  5. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  6. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  7. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  8. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  9. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  10. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  11. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Clinical analysis of lung cancer complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Keishi; Homma, Sakae; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Takaya, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristic clinical features of lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 1,028 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted in our hospital between 1985 and 2005, 17 (15 men, 2 women; mean age 73±8) were diagnosed as having lung cancer. Patient characteristics, clinical features, radiographic images, treatment and prognosis were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group A (n=5), lung cancer complicated by active tuberculosis, and group B (n=12), lung cancer with tuberculosis sequelae. All patients in group A and 8 patients (33%) in group B had either stage III or IV lung cancer, whereas 4 patients in group B had stage I lung cancer. Coexistence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same segment or lobe was seen in 80% (n=4) or 60% (n=3) of group A cases, respectively, and in 67% (n=8) or 8% (n=1) respectively, in group B. Mean survival in group A and group B was 9.2 months and 26.8 months, respectively. More attention should be paid to the possibility of development of lung cancer in individuals with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or who have had tuberculosis sequelae revealed by chest radiography. Also, the possible coexistence of lung cancer must be carefully examined in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  13. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  14. The possibility of heavy ion radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors in Japan and statisticians predict that the death rate by lung cancer will increase twice or 2.5 times within 10 years. Early detection and early resection are the first task to decrease the death rate, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be improved. In this paper, the present status of surgical treatment for lung cancer was summarized and the possibility of heavy ion therapy for lung cancer was discussed in comparison with surgical result. Overall 5-year survival rates in stages I, II, III and IV were 78%, 42% 29% and 16% respectively. The survival rate in stage I was correlated with tumor size and that in lung cancer of tumor size 2 cm or less was about 90%. If lung cancer is found at early stage, lung cancer can be cured. Limitation of detection of lung cancer is 2.3 mm in hilar squamous cell carcinoma by autofluorescence bronchoscopy and 5-10 mm in peripheral adenocarcinoma by high resolution CT. Less invasive surgery by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was applied to stage I lung cancer and the result was satisfactory. However, most lung cancer patients are heavy smokers with underlying lung diseases including chronic obstructive plumonary disease (COPD) and there are many patients not indicative for less invasive surgery. Preliminary results of heavy ion therapy showed remarkable improvement compared with that with conventional radiation therapy. Three-year survival rate of stage I in Protocol 9802 is 80%, almost the same with that in surgical result, indicating the possibility becoming the established therapeutic modality in stage I lung cancers, in patients with marginal biological function for surgical treatment, in particular. (authors)

  15. PEGylated anticancer-carbon nanotubes complex targeting mitochondria of lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Lee, Jong Yeon; Hong, Jeong Hee; Khang, Dongwoo

    2017-11-01

    Although activating apoptosis in cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria is an effective strategy for cancer therapy, insufficient targeting of the mitochondria in cancer cells restricts the availability in clinical treatment. Here, we report on a polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)-ABT737 nanodrug that improves the mitochondrial targeting of lung cancer cells. The polyethylene glycol-coated CNT-ABT737 nanodrug internalized into the early endosomes via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in advance of early endosomal escape and delivered into the mitochondria. Cytosol release of the nanodrug led to apoptosis of lung cancer cells by abruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis and generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. As such, this study provides an effective strategy for increasing the anti-lung cancer efficacy by increasing mitochondria accumulation rate of cytosol released anticancer nanodrugs.

  16. Patterns of lung cancer mortality in 23 countries: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yi-Chia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.

  17. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  18. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  19. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  20. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  1. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  2. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  3. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  4. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  5. Protein signature of lung cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Mehan

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. We applied a highly multiplexed proteomic technology (SOMAscan to compare protein expression signatures of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues with healthy adjacent and distant tissues from surgical resections. In this first report of SOMAscan applied to tissues, we highlight 36 proteins that exhibit the largest expression differences between matched tumor and non-tumor tissues. The concentrations of twenty proteins increased and sixteen decreased in tumor tissue, thirteen of which are novel for NSCLC. NSCLC tissue biomarkers identified here overlap with a core set identified in a large serum-based NSCLC study with SOMAscan. We show that large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression can be used to develop novel histochemical probes. As expected, relative differences in protein expression are greater in tissues than in serum. The combined results from tissue and serum present the most extensive view to date of the complex changes in NSCLC protein expression and provide important implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tangeretin sensitises human lung cancer cells to TRAIL- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Death receptors, Lung cancer, Tangeretin, Reactive oxygen ... strategies that specifically target molecules .... concentrations were determined using a Bio-Rad ..... suppresses invasion of colon and pancreatic cancer.

  8. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  10. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  11. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  12. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  14. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  15. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  16. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Training and Validating a Portable Electronic Nose for Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Goor, Rens; van Hooren, Michel; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Kremer, Bernd; Kross, Kenneth

    2018-05-01

    Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated whether a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (e-nose) (Aeonose, [eNose Company, Zutphen, the Netherlands]) is able to discriminate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls on the basis of their volatile organic compound pattern. In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. A total of 60 patients with lung cancer and 107 controls exhaled through an e-nose for 5 minutes. Patients were assigned either to a training group for building an artificial neural network model or to a blinded control group for validating this model. For differentiating patients with lung cancer from healthy controls, the results showed a diagnostic accuracy of 83% with a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 84%, and area under the curve of 0.84. Results for the blinded group showed comparable results, with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 86%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. This feasibility study showed that this portable e-nose can properly differentiate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. This result could have important implications for future lung cancer screening. Further studies with larger cohorts, including also more participants with early-stage tumors, should be performed to increase the robustness of this noninvasive diagnostic tool and to determine its added value in the diagnostic chain for lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  19. Total or partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer invading the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oka

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In our experience, Lung cancer surgery combined with vertebrectomy is highly aggressive surgery associated with high morbidity. But, this procedure is a promising treatment option for selected patients, for example N0M0 disease with lung cancer invading the spine.

  20. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  1. Do patients with lung cancer benefit from physical exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  3. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  4. Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Primary Lung Cancer Mimicking Benign Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Annemie; Dendooven, Amélie; Carp, Laurens; Desbuquoit, Damien; Spinhoven, Maarten J; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive. Whereas 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography is the cornerstone in staging of lung cancer, its role in diagnosis of these uncommon manifestations is less straightforward since benign entities can present with increased 18 F-FDG-uptake and, on the other hand, a number of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations do not exhibit increased uptake. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for both lesion detection and characterization. In this pictorial review we present the wide imaging spectrum of CT-findings as well as radiologic-pathologic correlation of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations. Knowledge of the many faces of lung cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary approach in these cases is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...... standard for adequate preoperative evaluation....

  6. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  7. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  8. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  9. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  10. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  11. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  12. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  13. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Contribution of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Promoter Genotypes in Taiwan Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chao, Che-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Hsu, Che-Lun; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Bau, DA-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Up-regulation of metallo-proteinase (MMP) proteins has been shown in various types of solid cancers and the genotype of MMP1 has been associated with the risk of solid cancers. The contribution of MMP1 genotype to lung cancer has been investigated in various countries, though, to our knowledge, not in Taiwan. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP1 to lung cancer risk in Taiwan population. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 healthy individuals (non-cancer patients). MMP1 rs1799750 polymorphic genotypes of each sample were determined using the typical methodology of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The percentages of 2G/2G, 1G/2G, and 1G/1G for MMP1 -1607 genotypes were 34.4%, 41.3% and 24.3% in the disease group and 33.9%, 44.0%, and 22.1% in the control group (p trend=0.6298), respectively. The results of carrier comparisons in dominant and recessive models also support the findings that 1G or 2G appears not to be a determinant allelic biomarker for Taiwan lung cancer. The MMP1 -1607 1G allele is a non-significant protective biomarker for lung cancer in Taiwan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  17. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Yuichiro

    2004-01-01

    For many years, thoracic radiotherapy had been regarded as the standard treatment for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, meta-analyses show that cisplatin-containing chemoradiotherapy is significantly superior to radiotherapy alone in terms of survival. Moreover, concurrent chemoradiotherapy yields a significantly increased response rate and enhanced survival duration when compared with the sequential approach. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is considered to be four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide combined with early concurrent twice-daily thoracic irradiation (45 Gy). If patients achieve complete remission, prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered. A 5-year survival rate of approximately 25% is expected with the state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Chemoradiotherapy is considered to be a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Several new strategies are currently being investigated to improve the survival of these patients. The incorporation of target-based drugs such as gefitinib is considered to be the most promising strategy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The incorporation of irinotecan is also a promising strategy to improve the survival of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group is conducting clinical trials to develop new treatment strategies for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. (author)

  18. New data for venous thromboembolism in patients with small cell lung cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakakos, Evangelos; Livanios, Konstantinos; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Charpidou, Adriani; Ntalakou, Eleutheria; Kainis, Llias; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Malignancy is an important predisposing factor for thromboembolic disease. Patients with malignancy display 4 to 10 times greater risk than the general population. As for lung cancer, that risk seems to further increase and become up to 20 times higher. The aim of this article is to review the International literature in order to highlight for the first time, the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1990 up to 2016, for retrospective and prospective studies that investigate the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. The incidence rate of thromboembolic disease found in these studies ranged between 6.8% and 11.5%. Thromboembolic disease is associated with a reduced survival in patients with small cell lung cancer and six factors seemed to increase the risk of thromboembolism: chemotherapy, cisplatin treatment, smoking, extensive disease, the infiltration of the superior vena cava and multiple concomitant diseases. Thromboembolic disease shows an increased incidence in patients with small cell lung cancer and more research with well-designed studies is required in order to study in detail the anticoagulation treatment and the survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

  19. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the

  20. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  1. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Squamous cell lung cancer in a male with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowroński, Marcin; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Halicka, Anna; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent and representing major public health issues. They share common risk factors and clinical manifestations. It is also suggested that TB predicts raised lung cancer risk likely related to chronic inflammation in the lungs. However, it does not seem to influence the clinical course of lung cancer provided that it is properly treated. We present a case report of a 57-year old male with concurrent TB and lung cancer. He was diagnosed with positive sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and subsequent culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Besides, his comorbid conditions were chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Later while on anti-tuberculous treatment (ATT) squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. Due to poor general condition the patient was not fit for either surgery or radical chemo- and radiotherapy. He was transferred to hospice for palliative therapy. We want to emphasize that both TB and lung cancer should be actively sought for in patients with either disorder. In addition, there is no doubt that these patients with lung cancer and with good response to TB treatment should be promptly considered for appropriate anticancer therapy.

  4. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  5. Quality of life of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanski J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jacek Polanski,1 Beata Jankowska-Polanska,2 Joanna Rosinczuk,3 Mariusz Chabowski,4 Anna Szymanska-Chabowska5 1Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Home Hospice, 2Department of Clinical Nursing, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Department of Clinical Nursing, 4Division of Nursing in Surgical Procedures, Department of Clinical Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Abstract: Lung cancer is the major cause of oncologic-related death worldwide. Due to delayed diagnosis, 5-year survival rate accounts for only 15%. Treatment includes surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation therapy; however, it is burdened by many side effects. Progress of the disease, severity of its symptoms, and side effects decrease significantly the quality of life (QoL in those patients. The level of self-assessed QoL helps in predicting survival, which is especially important among patients receiving palliative care. Patients assess their functioning in five dimensions (physical, psychological, cognitive, social, and life roles, severity of symptoms, financial problems, and overall QoL. The QoL in lung cancer patients is lower than in healthy population and patients suffering from other malignancies. It is affected by the severity and the number of symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, dyspnea, cough, pain, and blood in sputum, which are specific for lung tumors. Fatigue and respiratory problems reduce psychological dimension of QoL, while sleep problems reduce cognitive functioning. Physical dimension (related to growing disability decreases in most of the patients. Also, most of them are unable to play their family and social roles. The disease is a frequent reason of irritation, distress, and depression. Management of the disease symptoms may improve QoL. Controlling the level of fatigue, pulmonary rehabilitation, and social and spiritual support

  6. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  7. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  8. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Navile Murali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA, Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46% were positive. Results: Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion: Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries.

  9. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Aditya Navile; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Prasanth; Selvaluxmy, Ganesarajah; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Sundersingh, Shirley; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46%) were positive. Results Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS) was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries. PMID:29094084

  10. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  11. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  12. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  13. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  14. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  15. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  16. Evidence for tankyrases as antineoplastic targets in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Alexander M; Johnson, Kevin C; Stan, Radu V; Sanglikar, Aarti; Ahmed, Yashi; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Freemantle, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    New pharmacologic targets are urgently needed to treat or prevent lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer death for men and women. This study identified one such target. This is the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which is deregulated in cancers, including those lacking adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin mutations. Two poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymes regulate canonical Wnt activity: tankyrase (TNKS) 1 and TNKS2. These enzymes poly-ADP-ribosylate (PARsylate) and destabilize axin, a key component of the β-catenin phosphorylation complex. This study used comprehensive gene profiles to uncover deregulation of the Wnt pathway in murine transgenic and human lung cancers, relative to normal lung. Antineoplastic consequences of genetic and pharmacologic targeting of TNKS in murine and human lung cancer cell lines were explored, and validated in vivo in mice by implantation of murine transgenic lung cancer cells engineered with reduced TNKS expression relative to controls. Microarray analyses comparing Wnt pathway members in malignant versus normal tissues of a murine transgenic cyclin E lung cancer model revealed deregulation of Wnt pathway components, including TNKS1 and TNKS2. Real-time PCR assays independently confirmed these results in paired normal-malignant murine and human lung tissues. Individual treatments of a panel of human and murine lung cancer cell lines with the TNKS inhibitors XAV939 and IWR-1 dose-dependently repressed cell growth and increased cellular axin 1 and tankyrase levels. These inhibitors also repressed expression of a Wnt-responsive luciferase construct, implicating the Wnt pathway in conferring these antineoplastic effects. Individual or combined knockdown of TNKS1 and TNKS2 with siRNAs or shRNAs reduced lung cancer cell growth, stabilized axin, and repressed tumor formation in murine xenograft and syngeneic lung cancer models. Findings reported here uncovered deregulation of specific components of the Wnt pathway in both

  17. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER AND ROLE OF BRONCHOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a Latin word meaning "A CRAB". The Greek word for a crab is "KARKINES" and Sanskrit word is "KARKARA ” . (1 Lung cancer is one of the commonest fatal neoplastic disease s in the world . It is at the first place at central and North India and at second place at south India. It is estimated that, every year in India, about 30,000 new lung cancer cases are registered .

  18. Quality of life of lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, AYAKO; KOBAYASHI, MIKA; SAKAKIBARA, YUMI; TAMAOKA, MEIYO; FURUIYE, MASASHI; INASE, NAOHIKO; MATSUSHIMA, EISUKE

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients receive outpatient chemotherapy as an alternative to inpatient chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether quality of life (QOL) during outpatient chemotherapy was better than QOL prior to hospital discharge, and to explore possible related factors prior to hospital discharge that affected the QOL of lung cancer patients who received outpatient chemotherapy. Lung cancer inpatients who were scheduled for outpatient chemotherapy were as...

  19. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  20. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  1. Virtual bronchoscopy-guided transbronchial biopsy for aiding the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwano, Shingo, E-mail: iwano45@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550, Aichi (Japan); Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550 (Japan); Okada, Tohru [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 2638555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550 (Japan); Naganawa, Shinji [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550, Aichi (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of virtual bronchoscopy (VB) in aiding diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer by transbronchial biopsy (TBB). In addition, we sought to systematically analyze the factors that affect the diagnostic sensitivity of VB-guided TBB for the evaluation of peripheral lung cancers. Materials and methods: A hundred and twenty-two peripheral lung cancers from 122 patients (82 men and 40 women, 38-84 years; median 68.5 years) who were performed VB-guided TBB were evaluated retrospectively. VB was reconstructed from 1- or 0.5-mm slice thickness images of multi-detector CT (MDCT). Experienced pulmonologists inserted the conventional and ultrathin bronchoscopes into the target bronchus under direct vision following the VB image. Results: A definitive diagnosis was established by VB-guided TBB in 96 lesions (79%). The diagnostic sensitivity of small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm in maximal diameter (71%) was significantly lower than that of lesions >30 mm (91%, p = 0.008). For small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm (n = 76), internal opacity of the lesion was the independent predictor of diagnostic sensitivity by VB-guided TBB, and the non-solid type lung cancers were significantly lower than the solid type and part-solid type lung cancers for diagnostic sensitivity (odds ratio = 0.161; 95% confidence interval = 0.033-0.780; p = 0.023). Conclusion: Use of an ultrathin bronchoscope and simulation with VB reconstructed by high quality MDCT images is thought to improve pathological diagnosis of peripheral lung cancers, especially for solid and partly solid types. For small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm, the lesion internal opacity is a significant factor for predicting the diagnostic sensitivity, and the sensitivity was low for small non-solid type of lung cancers.

  2. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  3. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  4. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  5. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  6. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  7. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  8. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  9. Primary lung cancer coexisting with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Y; Varol, U; Unlu, M; Kayaalp, I; Ayranci, A; Dereli, M S; Guclu, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity is a clinical problem that presents a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. To clarify the clinical and survival characteristics of cases with both lung cancer and active pulmonary TB. From 2008 to 2013, 3350 TB patients admitted to the TB Department of the Chest Diseases Hospital of Izmir, Turkey, were evaluated. In 38 (1.1%) male patients, lung cancer and TB were found to coexist. Almost all of the patients were diagnosed at Stage III (n = 14, 36.8%) or IV (n = 17, 44.7%) lung cancer, whereas four (10.6%) had Stage II and three (7.9%) had Stage I disease. Squamous cell lung cancer was the predominant histology (n = 23, 60.7%). The median overall survival among patients was 13.4 months (95%CI 8.09-18.8). One-year survival rates for patients with Stages I, II, III and IV were respectively 100%, 75%, 57% and 40%. The present study demonstrates that lung cancer combined with active pulmonary TB most frequently presents as squamous cell carcinoma, with a male predominance. The overall survival of lung cancer patients did not change even with concomitant active TB.

  10. Differences in the definition of internal target volumes using slow CT alone or in combination with thin-slice CT under breath-holding conditions during the planning of stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Satoshi; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsuya; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Deloar, Hossain M.; Kawase, Takatsugu; Fukada, Junichi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Uematsu, Minoru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the delineations of the internal target volume (ITV) made from 'slow' CT alter with reference to 'thin-slice' CT. Materials and methods: Thin-slice CT images taken under breath-holding conditions and slow CT images taken under shallow-breathing conditions (8 s/image) of 11 lung cancers were used for this study. Five radiation oncologists delineated ITV of the 11 lesions using slow CT images (ITV1), and then redefined them with reference to thin-slice CT images (ITV2). SD-images (standard deviation image) were created for all patients from ITV images in order to visualize the regional variation of the ITVs. Results: The mean value of ITV2 was smaller than that initially defined by ITV1. There was no significant change in ITV1 and ITV2 between operators with regard to standard deviation in volume. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the ratio of ITV1 to ITV2 obtained on thin-slice CTs between cases with and without ground glass opacity. In cases without ground glass opacity there was a tendency for ITV2 to have a smaller volume than ITV1. Conclusions: Combined use of slow CT and thin-slice CT in delineation of ITV contours appeared to be useful in making adjustments for obscured tumor images caused by respiratory movement

  11. Radiotherapeutic results for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitomo, Osamu; Shinozaki, Jun; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nakajima, Nobuaki.

    1988-01-01

    From June 1978 to March 1984, 311 patients with lung cancer were registered at the radiological department of National Takasaki Hospital. One hundred fifty-one of them, who had been verified histologically and irradiated with total doses of more than 60 Gy for the primary lung tumor, were analized. Many patients were more than 60 years old (82 %) and had squamous cell carcinoma (64 %). These percentages may be associated with distributions of patients treated by radiotherapy because of inoperability. The five-year-relative survival rate was 13 % in all patients (54 % for Stage I, 32 % for Stage II, 0 % for Stage III, 10 % for Stage IV). Comparing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, the latter had a better prognosis for two years, but over three years, squamous cell carcinoma did. The five-year survival rate was 10 % for squamous cell carcinoma and 6 % for adenocarcinoma, showing no statistically significant difference. No predominant differences of prognosis between the older group (more than 70 years old) and the younger group (less than 70 years old) was demonstrated. Thus, old age is not always a factor in bad prognosis. (author)

  12. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pneumonia, lung cancer or Medlar's core?

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    Filippo Luciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of 57-year-old previously healthy man with six-months medical history of significant chronic cough and recurring episodes of fever. Cytology, bacteria, fungi and acid fast bacilli in the sputum were negative. CT scan, initially interpreted as suspected lung cancer, detected by chest x-ray, revealed pneumonia. Bronchoscopy is frequently necessary for the diagnosis as well as the treatment as a routine practice and in this case was applied. Our patient underwent to fiberoptic rigid bronchoscopy in the right upper lobe in general anaesthesia. Unexpectedly, a vegetal FB, Medlar's core instead a tumor, was removed. After two-months follow-up the patient was found healthy without any old or other symptoms.

  14. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

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    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  15. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  16. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Montane, Daniel Marino; Prado Lage, Yulien; Lozano Salazar; Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  17. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

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    Peng ZZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenzi Peng, Chunfang Zhang, Chaojun Duan Institute of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. Keywords: ncRNA, tumorigenesis, biomarker, network, proliferation, apoptosis 

  18. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  19. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......Introduction Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 metabolizes carcinogens from tobacco smoke in the lung. We tested whether genetically altered glutathione S-transferase pi 1 activity affects lung function and risk for tobacco-related cancer and mortality in the general population. Methods We genotyped......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p

  20. Relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutations with histologic subtyping according to International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society 2011 adenocarcinoma classification and their impact on overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited Indian data on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene activating mutations (AMs prevalence and their clinicopathologic associations. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between EGFR AM and histologic subtypes and their impact on overall survival (OS in a North Indian cohort. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who underwent EGFR mutation testing (n = 186 over 3 years period (2012-2014. EGFR mutations were tested using polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Patients were classified as EGFR AM, EGFR wild type (WT or EGFR unknown (UKN. Histologically adenocarcinomas (ADC were further categorized as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-2011 classification. Results: Overall EGFR AM prevalence was 16.6%. The ratio of exon 19 deletions to exon 21 L858R mutations was 3.17:1. Female sex (P = 0.002, never smoking status (P = 0.002, metastatic disease (P = 0.032, and nonsolid subtype of ADC (P = 0.001 were associated with EGFR AM on univariate logistic regression analysis (LRA. On multivariate LRA, solid ADC was negatively associated with EGFR AM. Median OS was higher in patients with EGFR AM (750 days as compared to EGFR-WT (459 days or EGFR-UKN (291 days for the overall population and in patients with Stage IV disease (750 days vs. 278 days for EGFR-WT, P = 0.024. On univariate Cox proportional hazard (CPH analysis, smoking, poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 2, EGFR-UKN status, and solid ADC were associated with worse OS while female sex and lepidic ADC had better OS. On multivariate CPH analysis, lepidic ADC (hazard ratio [HR] =0.12 and EGFR-WT/EGFR-UKN (HR = 2.39 and HR = 3.30 respectively were independently associated with OS in separate analyses. Conclusions: Histologic subtyping of ADC performed on small biopsies is

  1. A Review of Lung Cancer Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C S; Chan, K M J

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  2. Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrdel, U.; Kovac, V.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Erlotinib is a novel biological anti-tumour agent in the treatment of advanced non small cell lung cancer. It represents the molecularly-targeted therapy which has been studied extensively. Case report. We present a case of a patient who suffered from advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. After the progress of disease following a prior chemotherapy he was treated with erlotinib with remarkable effect which was shown at chest x ray and symptoms were quite reduced. Conclusions. In selected patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer Erlotinib improves survival and symptom control as it results in presented case. (author)

  3. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  4. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer

  5. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  6. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  7. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  8. Combined therapy for 129 patients with second primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Feng Qinfu; Wang Luhua; Zhang Yaohong; Zhao Hongfa; Weng Xinran

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the second primary lung cancer. Methods: The interval between the second primary lung cancer and the previous primary cancer ranged from 10 days to 317 months (median 49 months). Of the 129 patients treated from 1971 to 1997 by surgery only, radiotherapy only and chemotherapy only or combined therapy, 11 (8.5%) patients had stage I, 29 (22.5%) stage II, 75 (58.1%) stage III and 14 (10.9%) stage IV; 30 patients received surgery alone, 54 radiotherapy alone, 8 chemotherapy alone, 12 surgery plus radiotherapy, 20 radiotherapy plus chemotherapy, 4 surgery plus chemotherapy and 1 surgery plus radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Results: The overall 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 40.2%, 27.2% and 15.3%. The stage I, II, III and IV 2-year survival rates were 71.6%, 60.7%, 32.9% and 0%, respectively (P 49 and ≤49 months of the interval between the second primary lung cancer and the previous primary cancer (P>0.05). Conclusions: Second primary lung cancer are similar to the first primary lung cancer in clinical characteristics and prognosis. The main cause of failure is lung cancer perse. Stage and being able to operation are prognostic factors

  9. Lung Cancers Associated with Cystic Airspaces: Underrecognized Features of Early Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Sarah; Moser, Joanna; Sayer, Charlie; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Devaraj, Anand; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small. However, several tumor cell types are represented in these lesions, with adenocarcinoma predominating. The features of cystic airspaces differ among cases and include emphysematous bullae, congenital or fibrotic cysts, subpleural blebs, bronchiectatic airways, and distended distal airspaces. Once identified, these cystic lesions pose management challenges to radiologists in terms of distinguishing them from benign mimics of cancer that are commonly seen in patients who also are at increased risk of lung cancer. Rendering a definitive tissue-based diagnosis can be difficult when the lesions are small, and affected patients tend to be in groups that are at higher risk of requiring biopsy or resection. In addition, the decision to monitor these cases can add to patient anxiety and cause the additional burden of strained departmental resources. The authors have drawn from their experience, emerging evidence from international lung cancer screening trials, and large databases of lung cancer cases from other groups to analyze the prevalence and evolution of lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces and provide guidance for managing these lesions. Although there are insufficient data to support specific management guidelines similar to those for managing small solid and ground-glass lung nodules, these data and guidelines should be the direction for ongoing research on early detection of lung cancer. © RSNA, 2018.

  10. Surgical and survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Okumura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ayuko; Nakashima, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tomoaki

    2017-05-26

    Intratumoral lung abscess is a secondary lung abscess that is considered to be fatal. Therefore, surgical procedures, although high-risk, have sometimes been performed for intratumoral lung abscesses. However, no studies have examined the surgical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical and survival outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. Eleven consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, who had undergone pulmonary resection at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015, were retrospectively analysed. The post-operative prognoses were investigated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Ten of 11 patients were male and one patient was female. The median age was 64 (range, 52-80) years. Histopathologically, 4 patients had Stage IIA, 2 patients had Stage IIB, 2 patients had Stage IIIA, and 3 patients had Stage IV tumors. The median operative time was 346 min and the median amount of bleeding was 1327 mL. The post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 63.6% and 0.0%, respectively. Recurrence of respiratory infections, including lung abscesses, was not observed in all patients. The median post-operative observation period was 16.1 (range, 1.3-114.5) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.3%. No pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative prognostic factors were identified in the univariate analyses. Surgical procedures for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, although high-risk, led to satisfactory post-operative mortality rates and acceptable prognoses.

  11. CT findings of primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Won; Kim, So Seon; Woo, Young Hoon; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Jung Hyek; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1985-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 102 cases of histologically proven bronchogenic carcinoma during last 4 years from January 1980 to July 1984 at Kosin Medical College. The results were as follows: 1. The sex ratio was 86 males to 16 females and the greatest number (66.7%) of cases were seen in fourth and fifth decades. 2. The distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancer as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma 66 cases, Adenocarcinoma 10 cases, Small cell carcinoma 7 cases, Large cell carcinoma 5 cases, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1 case, Unclassified 13 cases. 3. Location of primary lesions as follows: Right lung 61 cases, Left lung 40 cases. In both lungs, the greatest number of cases were found in the upper lobes. Ratio between central and peripheral mass was 2.5:1, except adenocarcinoma (6:4). 4. CT findings were as follows: Hilar or central mass (75 cases), Peripheral mass (26), Bronchial abnormalities such as narrowing, obstruction, or displacement (60), Thickening of the posterior wall of the right upper lobe bronchus, bronchus intermedius, or left main bronchus (17), Post-obstructive changes; Atelectasis, Pneumonitis, Emphysema (34, 17, 1 respectively), Hilar adenopathy (21), Mediastinal lymph node enlargement (50), Mediastinal invasion (51), Pericardial thickening (5), SVC syndrome with collateral vessels (3), Pleural effusion (27), Pleural thickening or invasion (14), Chest wall invasion (2), Distant metastasis (26). 5. In most of patients (92 cases), the size of mass was above 3cm, but in 9 cases below 3cm. Margins of the masses were serrated or lobulated in most cases. In 5 cases, cavitary formations were noted, walls of which were thick and irregular, and air-fluid level was noted in 1 case. In 2 cases, eccentric calcification were noted within mass. 6. Among 51 cases of whom direct mediastinal invasion was suspected, 8 cases were operated upon, and this revealed that the masses were not resectable. Among the patients in

  12. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible

  13. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  14. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  15. Lung cancer during pregnancy: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer is relatively low, complicating only 0.02–0.1% of all pregnancies. The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old woman, a light smoker, who was admitted to the hospital at 27 weeks of pregnancy, with respiratory symptoms since second trimester. Chest X-ray showed total left lung opacity with contralateral mediastinal deviation, suggestive of pleural effusion, and the pleural biopsy revealed invasion by lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation test was negative. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to start fetal lung maturation and cesarean section at 29 weeks gestation. The patient received two lines of chemotherapy and bone metastasis radiotherapy, but there was progression of the disease. An EML4-ALK translocation was identified in an additional genetic test. Crizotinib 250 mg BID was started. The patient showed a progression-free survival of 9 months and died 19 months after lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Resumo: A incidência de neoplasia associada à gravidez é relativamente baixa, podendo atingir cerca de 0,02-0,1% de todas as gestações. Os autores descrevem o caso de uma gestante de 36 anos de idade, fumadora, admitida no hospital às 27 semanas de gestação com sintomas respiratórios desde o segundo trimestre. A telerradiografia do tórax mostrou opacidade total do pulmão esquerdo, com desvio contralateral do mediastino, sugestiva de derrame pleural e a biópsia pleural revelou invasão por adenocarcinoma pulmonar. A pesquisa da mutação EGFR foi negativa. Após reunião multidisciplinar, decidiu-se iniciar a maturação pulmonar fetal e cesariana às 29 semanas de gestação. A doente realizou 2 linhas de quimioterapia bem como radioterapia óssea paliativa, verificando-se progressão da doença. A translocação EML4-ALK foi identificada num teste genético adicional. Foi iniciado crizotinib 250 mg 2x dia. A

  16. Tracking the Evolution of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; McGranahan, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on intratumor heterogeneity and cancer genome evolution have been limited to small retrospective cohorts. We wanted to prospectively investigate intratumor heterogeneity in relation to clinical outcome and to determine...... as a prognostic predictor. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; TRACERx ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01888601 .)....

  17. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  18. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  19. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, Savitri C; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jansen, Margriet M G; Festen, Jan; Joosten, Frank B M; Kaanders, J Hans A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Verbeek, André L M; Marres, Henri A M

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  20. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, Savitri C; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jansen, Margriet M G; Festen, Jan; Joosten, Frank B M; Kaanders, J Hans A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Verbeek, André L M; Marres, Henri A M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  1. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  2. Brain imaging before primary lung cancer resection: a controversial topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Zoe; Internullo, Eveline; Edey, Anthony; Laurence, Isabel; Bianchi, Davide; Addeo, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in England Clin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources. Our aim was to determine local practice based on historic outcomes in this patient cohort. This retrospective study took place in a regional thoracic surgical centre in the United Kingdom. Pathology records for all patients who had undergone lung resection with curative intent during the time period January 2012-December 2014 were analysed in October 2015. Electronic pathology and radiology reports were accessed for each patient and data collected about their histological findings, TNM stage, resection margins, and the presence of brain metastases on either pre-operative or post-operative imaging. From the dates given on imaging, we calculated the number of days post-resection that the brain metastases were detected. 585 patients were identified who had undergone resection of their lung cancer. Of these, 471 had accessible electronic radiology records to assess for the radiological evidence of brain metastases. When their electronic records were evaluated, 25/471 (5.3%) patients had radiological evidence of brain metastasis. Of these, five patients had been diagnosed with a brain metastasis at initial presentation and had undergone primary resection of the brain metastasis followed by resection of the lung primary. One patient had been diagnosed with both a primary lung and a primary bowel adenocarcinoma; on review of the case, it was felt that the brain metastasis was more likely to have

  3. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  4. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  5. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  6. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  7. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  8. Liposome as nanocarrier: Site targeted delivery in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is fatal and spreading rapidly worldwide. Different clinical strategies are applied to stop this cancer. As the lung is a delicate organ, special clinical applications must be used and nanodrugs delivery systems are the most important applications of all. This review discusses the lung problems such as lung cancer, lung inflammation and bronchi constrictions followed by repetitive intake of some drugs. The objective of this review is to study how nanodrug delivery systems were synthesized and used in lung disorder treatment especially in lung cancer. The authors studied some articles from 1989 to 2015. Liposome encapsulation was done in various ways for the delivery of different drugs such as metaproterenol into liposomes caused bronchodilation, immunoliposomes bearing antibodies for doxorubicin reduced 50% inhibitory effects, radioliposomes with high penetrating ability to peripheral airways, aerosol delivery systems with deep pulmonary deposition, polymeric drug delivery having potential to improve beneficial index of drug, solid lipid liposomes, liposomal gentamicin with altered different clinical susceptibilities of resistance, transferrin conjugated liposomes to deliver cytostatic drugs to site of lungs, anti-inflammatory drugs with mannosylated liposomes, liposomal suspensions with single stranded RNAs and peptide encapsulation of liposomes. This review indicates that many animals perished with intravenous administration of drugs but survived in liposomal targeting groups.

  9. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  10. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home......-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group...

  11. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  12. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Lotan, Reuben; Stewart, David

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the clinical trials that will be conducted in the VITAL Research Program will demonstrate the true rate of lung cancer recurrence and second primary tumor incidence in patients at high...

  13. Staging by tomography: Lung, esophagus, mama and pleural cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation shows images of different types of cancer in the lung, esophagus, mama and pleura. The chest radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and PET CT contribute to detect the morphology, size, location, metastasize, malignant and benign nodules, lymph glands.

  14. Perioperative Rehabilitation in Operable Lung Cancer Patients (PROLUCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. Objectives: The safety and feasibility of a preoperative and early postoperative rehabilitation program...

  15. small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical significance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Hubei province ... diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, progression .... Table 4: Association between EGFR mutation, gender and histologic type in 138 NSCLC patients.

  16. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  17. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuber, V.; Marconett, C.N.; Shi, J.; Hua, X.; Wheeler, W.; Yang, C.; Song, L; Dale, A.M.; Laplana, M.; Risch, A.; Witoelar, A.; Thompson, W.K.; Schork, A.J.; Bettella, F.; Wang, Y; Djurovic, S.; Zhou, B.; Borok, Z.; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Graaf, J. de; Swinkels, D.W.; Aben, K.K.H.; McKay, J.; Hung, R.J.; Bikeboller, H.; Stevens, V.L.; Albanes, D.; Caporaso, N.E.; Han, Y.; Wei, Y.; Panadero, M.A.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Christiani, D.C.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Andreassen, O.A.; Houlston, R.; Amos, C.I.; Chatterjee, N.; Laird-Offringa, I.A.; Mills, I.G.; Landi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160

  18. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  19. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Supportive care during chemotherapy for lung cancer in daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Veronika; Tamási, Lilla; Gálffy, Gabriella; Losonczy, György

    2012-09-01

    Active oncotherapy, combination chemotherapy of lung cancer is accompanied with many side effects which may impair patients' quality of life and compromise the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Most side effects of chemotherapy are preventable or treatable with optimal supportive care which enhances success in patient care and treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important conditions that may be associated with combined chemotherapy of lung cancer from the practical point of view.

  3. Diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, S.; Jakimovska, M.; Jovanovska, S.; Ilieva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: A pleural effusion is defined as an abnormal amount of fluid in the space between the layers of tissue (the pleura) that line the lungs. If cancer cells are present in this fluid (pleural cavity) it is called a malignant cancerous pleural effusion. Many benign and malignant disease can cause pleural effusion.The new onset of pleural effusion may herald the presence of a previously undiagnosed malignancy, or more typically, complicate the course of a known lung tumor. Malignant pleural effusions can lead lead to an initial diagnosis of lung cancer in patients.and it was the first symptom of lung cancer. Pleural deposits of tumor cause pleuritic pain. Purpose of this presentation is to show the role of CT in diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. Material and methods: CT examinations of chest were made to 138 patients for 1 year (1/6/2011- 1/6/2012) with Siemens Somatom Emotion 16 CT Scanner. Patients were at age of 30 -81 years, 93 of them are male and 45 are female. Results: 56 (40.5%) of the patients had pleural effusion. From this group 21 37.5% had malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. 17 (81%) of them are male, and 4 (19%) are female. 9 (43%) diagnosed lung cancer for first time. Conclusion: Pleural effusion more commonly occur in patient with advanced-stage tumor who frequently have metastases to other organs and long-term survival is uncommon in this group. CT diagnosed malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer and help to choice treatment for these patients

  4. Multilevel Opportunities to Address Lung Cancer Stigma across the Cancer Control Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Studts, Jamie L; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2018-05-22

    The public health imperative to reduce the burden of lung cancer has seen unprecedented progress in recent years. Realizing fully the advances in lung cancer treatment and control requires attention to potential barriers in their momentum and implementation. In this analysis, we present and evaluate the argument that stigma is a highly significant barrier to fulfilling the clinical promise of advanced care and reduced lung cancer burden. This evaluation of lung cancer stigma is based on a multilevel perspective that incorporates the individual, persons in their immediate environment, the healthcare system, and the larger societal structure which shapes perceptions and decisions. We also consider current interventions and interventional needs within and across aspects of the lung cancer continuum, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Current evidence suggests that stigma detrimentally impacts psychosocial, communication, and behavioral outcomes over the entire lung cancer control continuum and across multiple levels. Interventional efforts to alleviate stigma in the context of lung cancer show promise, yet more work is needed to evaluate their impact. Understanding and addressing the multi-level role of stigma is a crucial area for future study in order to realize the full benefits offered by lung cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Coordinated, interdisciplinary, and well-conceptualized efforts have the potential to reduce the barrier of stigma in the context of lung cancer and facilitate demonstrable improvements in clinical care and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Primary lung cancer and extrapulmonary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Neef, Heinz; Schmidt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The incidence of second primary malignancies seems to be increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, treatment and outcome for patients with second primary lung cancer (SPLC). Between January 1996 and December 2005, 163 patients with SPLC, occurring after an extrapulmonary malignancy, were recruited by the Tumor Center of Halle (Saale), which represents a region of nearly 1.0 million inhabitants in Germany. The SPLCs were treated under curative aim (n=59), with palliative intend (n=76) or best supportive care (n=28). The incidence of SPLC was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The localization of the first tumor differed depending on the sex of the patients. The actuarial 5-year survival rate of all patients was 12.7% (median survival time 11.4 months). Univariate analysis revealed treatment strategy as a prognostic factor (p=0.0001). Patients with SPLC having undergone curative treatment turned out to have the best prognosis (median survival: 31.0 months). The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that only TNM-staging system was a multivariate and significant independent prognostic predictor for overall survival. The method of surgery, standard lung resection (e.g. lobectomy) versus limited resection had no considerable influence on overall survival (p=0.22), respectively recurrence-free survival (p=0.55). In cases of operability, standard resection must be the method of choice, because of its best survival rates. The results support the demand of an exact and short-term oncological care system to detect early stages of SPLC for patients operated upon for tumors at different sites.

  6. Treatment strategies for lung cancer brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakade, Masaharu; Kohno, Keijirou; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    1997-01-01

    Forty-one patients suffered initial relapses with brain metastasis after surgery for non-small lung cancer at our hospital between 1978 and 1995. These patients were a total of 8.4% of all cases of surgical removal, and had an average relapse period of 8.6 months ± 8.0 months after surgery on the primary lesions. Of these, surgical removal of metastasized lesions was performed on 18 patients (43%), in which the 5-year post-operative survival rate was 35.7%, and the median survival time was good at 28 months. It was found that the survival period was significantly extended in the group whose relapse period was less than one year after surgery on the primary lesions, and in the group who received cranial irradiation post-operatively on the metastasized brain lesion. Following surgery on the metastasized lesion, second relapses occurred in nine patients, and six patients suffered from second relapses in the brain, of which four did not receive cranial irradiation post-operatively. Cases of radiotherapy in patients of 70 years of age or more frequently manifested post-radiotherapy subacute neuropathy. From the above, it is thought that the following procedures should be adopted: Periodic examination for brain metastasis during the 24 months following surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma for purposes of early detection; in cases where brain metastasis is detected, if no metastasis is identified in other organs, a policy of surgical removal should be adopted where possible; and, in cases of 70 years of age or less following surgery on the metastasized lesion, cranial irradiation should be considered. (author)

  7. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  8. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  9. [Lung abscess which needed to be distinguished from lung cancer; report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Misumi, Yuki; Hida, Naoya; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sachiko

    2011-12-01

    Differential diagnosis of lung abscess from lung cancer is sometimes difficult. In February 2009, a 57-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of bloody sputum. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 2.5 cm nodule with pleural indentation, spicula and vascular involvement in the right S(3). Bronchofiberscope could not establish a definitive diagnosis. Blood test showed no abnormality. Three months later, progression of the nodule to the adjacent middle lobe was demonstrated by follow-up CT, and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed isotope accumulation in the nodule and hilar lymph node. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. The diagnosis of possible lung cancer was made by needle biopsy, and the patient underwent right upper lobectomy and partial resection of middle lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final pathological diagnosis was lung abscess. Lung abscess must be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis when abnormal shadow suspected of lung cancer is observed.

  10. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Verena; Marconett, Crystal N; Shi, Jianxin; Hua, Xing; Wheeler, William; Yang, Chenchen; Song, Lei; Dale, Anders M; Laplana, Marina; Risch, Angela; Witoelar, Aree; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Wang, Yunpeng; Djurovic, Srdjan; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Dorine; Aben, Katja K; McKay, James; Hung, Rayjean J; Bikeböller, Heike; Stevens, Victoria L; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Han, Younghun; Wei, Yongyue; Panadero, Maria Angeles; Mayordomo, Jose I; Christiani, David C; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Andreassen, Ole A; Houlston, Richard; Amos, Christopher I; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Mills, Ian G; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160 lung cancer case patients and 16 838 control subjects) and cardiovascular disease risk factors (blood lipids from 188 577 subjects, type 2 diabetes from 148 821 subjects, body mass index from 123 865 subjects, and smoking phenotypes from 74 053 subjects). We found that 6p22.1 (rs6904596, ZNF184) was associated with both lung cancer (P = 5.50x10(-6)) and blood triglycerides (P = 1.39x10(-5)). We replicated the association in 6097 lung cancer case patients and 204 657 control subjects (P = 2.40 × 10(-4)) and in 71 113 subjects with triglycerides data (P = .01). rs6904596 reached genome-wide significance in lung cancer meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.21 ,: Pcombined = 5.20x10(-9)). The large sample size provided by the lipid GWAS data and the shared genetic risk factors between the two traits contributed to the uncovering of a hitherto unidentified genetic locus for lung cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  11. Helical CT for secondary screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kiyoshi; Onishi, Tsukasa; Tominaga, Keigo; Kishiro, Izumi; Yokoyama, Kohki.

    1995-01-01

    Helical CT was used on a trial basis for secondary screening of lung cancer, and its clinical usefulness is discussed in this report. The subjects of 157 patients with abnormal shadows on plain chest X-ray images were chosen between November 1993 and August 1994. Imaging parameters used for screening CT were as follows: 50 mA, 120 kV, a couch-top movement speed of 20 mm/s, and a beam width of 10 mm. The entire lung field was scanned during a single breath-hold. Reconstructed images were generated at 10-mm intervals by the 180deg interpolation method, and films were produced. Images of the entire lung field were made during a single breath-hold in all patients. Abnormal shadows were detected in 73 of 157 patients by screening CT. These 73 patients included 14 with lung cancer, 53 with benign lesions, one under observation, and five others. The average diameter of the tumors was 11.1 mm. The lung cancers detected all arose in the periphery, and were classified into stage I (10 patients), stage IIIA (3 patients), and stage IV with bone metastases (1 patient). Lung cancers in clinical stage I (3 patients) and stage IV (1 patient) were difficult to see on plain chest X-ray films. We conclude that screening CT is useful for early diagnosis of lung cancer because the entire lung field can be imaged during a single breath-hold. Therefore, helical CT can be expected to be useful in screening for lung cancer. (author)

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of pancreatic and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Luis Lancho Tofé

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about cancer diagnosis the most important thing is early diagnosis to prevent cancer cells from spreading. We may also consider the high cost of diagnostic tests. Our approach seeks to address both problems. It uses a software based on Bayesian networks that simulates the causeeffect relationships and gets the chance of suffering a pancreatic cancer or lung cancer. This software would support doctors and save a lot of time and resources.

  13. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  14. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  15. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  16. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  17. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1996-01-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  18. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Shool of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1996-12-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  19. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal has been associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthened after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung

  20. The Japan Lung Cancer Society–Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itazawa, Tomoko; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Komiyama, Takafumi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Yuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Sakai, Shuji; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus-based computed tomographic (CT) atlas that defines lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer based on the lymph node map of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). A project group in the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) initially prepared a draft of the atlas in which lymph node Stations 1–11 were illustrated on axial CT images. Subsequently, a joint committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) and the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) was formulated to revise this draft. The committee consisted of four radiation oncologists, four thoracic surgeons and three thoracic radiologists. The draft prepared by the JROSG project group was intensively reviewed and discussed at four meetings of the committee over several months. Finally, we proposed definitions for the regional lymph node stations and the consensus-based CT atlas. This atlas was approved by the Board of Directors of JLCS and JASTRO. This resulted in the first official CT atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer authorized by the JLCS and JASTRO. In conclusion, the JLCS–JASTRO consensus-based CT atlas, which conforms to the IASLC lymph node map, was established.

  1. Sublobar resection is equivalent to lobectomy for clinical stage 1A lung cancer in solid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorki, Nasser K; Yip, Rowena; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Bauer, Thomas; Aye, Ralph; Kohman, Leslie; Sheppard, Barry; Thurer, Richard; Andaz, Shahriyour; Smith, Michael; Mayfield, William; Grannis, Fred; Korst, Robert; Pass, Harvey; Straznicka, Michaela; Flores, Raja; Henschke, Claudia I

    2014-02-01

    A single randomized trial established lobectomy as the standard of care for the surgical treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent advances in imaging/staging modalities and detection of smaller tumors have once again rekindled interest in sublobar resection for early-stage disease. The objective of this study was to compare lung cancer survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a diameter of 30 mm or less with clinical stage 1 disease who underwent lobectomy or sublobar resection. We identified 347 patients diagnosed with lung cancer who underwent lobectomy (n = 294) or sublobar resection (n = 53) for non-small cell lung cancer manifesting as a solid nodule in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program from 1993 to 2011. Differences in the distribution of the presurgical covariates between sublobar resection and lobectomy were assessed using unadjusted P values determined by logistic regression analysis. Propensity scoring was performed using the same covariates. Differences in the distribution of the same covariates between sublobar resection and lobectomy were assessed using adjusted P values determined by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the propensity scores. Lung cancer-specific survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox survival regression analysis was used to compare sublobar resection with lobectomy, adjusted for the propensity scores, surgical, and pathology findings, when adjusted and stratified by propensity quintiles. Among 347 patients, 10-year Kaplan-Meier for 53 patients treated by sublobar resection compared with 294 patients treated by lobectomy was 85% (95% confidence interval, 80-91) versus 86% (confidence interval, 75-96) (P = .86). Cox survival analysis showed no significant difference between sublobar resection and lobectomy when adjusted for propensity scores or when using propensity quintiles (P = .62 and P = .79, respectively). For those with cancers 20 mm or less in

  2. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. Brain abscess mimicking lung cancer metastases; a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Ono, Katsuichiro; Ozaki, Shinji; Kimura, Fumiaki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman came to us because of staggering, fever, dysarthria, and appetite loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple masses with surrounding edema. Chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated a mass-like lesion in the left lung and left pleural effusion. Lung cancer and multiple brain metastases were suspected. However, the brain lesions demonstrated a high intensity through diffusion-weighted MRI. The finding was an important key to differentiate brain abscesses from lung cancer metastases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Lymph Node Classification in Lung Cancer on CT Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Lau, Charles T; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Mehta, Atul C; Rice, Thomas W; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and consistent regional lymph node classification is an important element in the staging and multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. Regional lymph node definition sets-lymph node maps-have been created to standardize regional lymph node classification. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a lymph node map to supersede all preexisting lymph node maps. Our aim was to study if and how lung cancer specialists apply the IASLC lymph node map when classifying thoracic lymph nodes encountered on CT scans during lung cancer staging. From April 2013 through July 2013, invitations were distributed to all members of the Fleischner Society, Society of Thoracic Radiology, General Thoracic Surgical Club, and the American Association of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology to participate in an anonymous online image-based and text-based 20-question survey regarding lymph node classification for lung cancer staging on CT imaging. Three hundred thirty-seven people responded (approximately 25% participation). Respondents consisted of self-reported thoracic radiologists (n = 158), thoracic surgeons (n = 102), and pulmonologists who perform endobronchial ultrasonography (n = 77). Half of the respondents (50%; 95% CI, 44%-55%) reported using the IASLC lymph node map in daily practice, with no significant differences between subspecialties. A disparity was observed between the IASLC definition sets and their interpretation and application on CT scans, in particular for lymph nodes near the thoracic inlet, anterior to the trachea, anterior to the tracheal bifurcation, near the ligamentum arteriosum, between the bronchus intermedius and esophagus, in the internal mammary space, and adjacent to the heart. Use of older lymph node maps and inconsistencies in interpretation and application of definitions in the IASLC lymph node map may potentially lead to misclassification of stage and suboptimal management of lung

  5. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  6. Lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.; Beck, W.L.; Shy, C.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Sowder, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the risk of dying from lung cancer among white males who received radiation to the lung as a result of inhaling uranium dust or the dust of uranium compounds. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of workers employed in a uranium processing plant during World War II. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of exposure even after controlling for age and smoking status, but only for those who were over the age of 45 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads of more. These data suggest that older age groups may be more susceptible to radiation-induced lung cancer than younger age groups

  7. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Causes of death of patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Larry; Saunders, Rachel; Knollmann, Friedrich D

    2012-12-01

    The causes of death for patients with lung cancer are inadequately described. To categorize the immediate and contributing causes of death for patients with lung cancer. The autopsies from 100 patients who died of lung cancer between 1990 and February 2011 were analyzed. Tumor burden was judged the immediate cause of death in 30 cases, including 26 cases of extensive metastases and 4 cases with wholly or primarily lung tumor burden (causing respiratory failure). Infection was the immediate cause of death for 20 patients, including 8 with sepsis and 12 with pneumonia. Complications of metastatic disease were the immediate causes of death in 18 cases, including 6 cases of hemopericardium from pericardial metastases, 3 from myocardial metastases, 3 from liver metastases, and 3 from brain metastases. Other immediate causes of death were pulmonary hemorrhage (12 cases), pulmonary embolism (10 cases, 2 tumor emboli), and pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage (7 cases). From a functional (pathophysiologic) perspective, respiratory failure could be regarded as the immediate cause of death (or mechanism of death) in 38 cases, usually because of a combination of lung conditions, including emphysema, airway obstruction, pneumonia, hemorrhage, embolism, resection, and lung injury in addition to the tumor. For 94 of the 100 patients, there were contributing causes of death, with an average of 2.5 contributing causes and up to 6 contributing causes of death. The numerous and complex ways lung cancer kills patients pose a challenge for efforts to extend and improve their lives.

  9. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Novel agents in the management of lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, B

    2012-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Survival remains poor as approximately 80% of cases present with advanced stage disease. However, new treatments are emerging which offer hope to patients with advanced disease. Insights into cell biology have identified numerous intracellular and extracellular peptides that are pivotal in cancer cell signalling. Disrupting the function of these peptides inhibits intracellular signal transduction and diminishes uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and tumour angiogenesis. The most widely studied signalling pathway is the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) pathway. EGF signalling can be disrupted at numerous points. Blockade of the cell surface receptor is achieved by the monoclonal antibody cetuximab; intracellular tyrosine kinase activity is inhibited by erlotinib. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulates another pathway important for tumour growth. Inhibition of VEGF impairs angiogenesis and disrupts metastatic spread. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF and blocks interaction with its cell surface receptor. Clinical trials have demonstrated that disruption of these signalling pathways can improve survival in advanced lung cancer. New compounds including folate antimetabolites such as pemetrexed, proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, modified glutathione analogues such as TLK286, and other agents such as epothilones and other small molecules are currently being evaluated in patients with lung cancer. As more and more signalling peptides are targeted for manipulation, it is hoped that a new era is dawning in the treatment of advanced stage lung cancer. This review will focus on emerging new therapies in the management of lung cancer.

  11. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  12. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Estimating Rn-induced lung cancer in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to Rn among residents of single-family homes in the U.S. (approximately 70% of the housing stock) is estimated using the log-normal distribution of Rn concentrations proposed by Nero et al. (1986) and the risk model developed by the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR IV Committee. The risk model, together with the exposure distribution, predicts that approximately 14% of lung cancer deaths among such residents (about 13,300 deaths per year, or 10% of all U.S. lung cancer deaths) may be due to indoor Rn exposure. The 95% confidence interval is 7%-25%, or approximately 6600 to 24,000 lung cancer deaths. These estimated attributable risks due to Rn are similar for males and females and for smokers and nonsmokers, but higher baseline risks of lung cancer result in much larger absolute numbers of Rn-attributable cancers among males (approximately 9000) and among smokers (approximately 11,000). Because of the apparent skewness of the exposure distribution, most of the contribution to the attributable risks arises from exposure rates below 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), i.e., below the EPA action level. As a result, if all exposure rates that exceed 148 Bq m-3 (approximately 8% of homes) were eliminated, the models predict that the total annual lung cancer burden in the U.S. would drop by 4-5%, or by about 3800 lung cancer deaths, in contrast to a maximum reduction of 14% if all indoor Rn exposure above the 1st percentile were eliminated

  14. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Emin Akkoyunlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/ dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn’t detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  15. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub α/ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage

  16. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Erboy, Fatma; Arvas, Gulhan; Aslan, Turan

    2013-01-01

    A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn't detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xueyan; Hu Guoqiang; Tian Keli; Wang Mingyun

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125 I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g -1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g -1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  18. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pintos, Javier; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Danieli, Coraline; Richardson, Lesley; Bourbonnais, Robert; Gauvin, Lise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that recreational physical activities (PA) may reduce lung cancer risk, there is little evidence concerning the possible role of a potentially more important source of PA, namely occupational PA. We investigated both recreational and lifetime occupational PA in relation to lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (N CASES  = 727; N CONTROLS  = 1,351). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), separately for men and women, adjusting for smoking, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both sexes, increasing recreational PA was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (OR MEN  = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.92; OR WOMEN  = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles). For occupational PA, no association was observed among women, while increasing occupational PA was associated with increased risk among men (OR MEN  = 1.96, 95% CI 1.27-3.01). ORs were not modified by occupational lung carcinogen exposure, body mass index, and smoking level; results were similar across lung cancer histological types. Our results support the previous findings for recreational PA and lung cancer risk. Unexpectedly, our findings suggest a positive association for occupational PA; this requires replication and more detailed investigation.

  20. Bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically removed lung cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toloudi Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest an association between the presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection and the development of different types of cancer, independently of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. This has also been postulated for the development of lung cancer, however the prevalence and the exact species of the bacteria and fungi implicated, have not yet been described. Aim To determine the presence of bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically extracted samples of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods In this single-center prospective, observational study, tissue samples were surgically extracted from 32 consecutive patients with lung cancer, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of bacteria and fungi strains. Results The analysis of the electrophoresis data pointed out diversity between the samples and the strains that were identified. Mycoplasma strains were identified in all samples. Strains that appeared more often were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis and Bacillus strains, followed in descending frequency by Chlamydia, Candida, Listeria, and Haemophilus influenza. In individual patients Legionella pneumophila and Candida tropicalis were detected. Conclusions A diversity of pathogens could be identified in surgically extracted tissue samples of patients with lung cancer, with mycoplasma strains being present in all samples. These results point to an etiologic role for chronic infection in lung carcinogenesis. Confirmation of these observations and additional studies are needed to further characterize the etiologic role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis.

  1. Protocol for the CHEST Australia Trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention to reduce time-to-consult with symptoms of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Sonya R; Murchie, Peter; Campbell, Neil; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Habgood, Emily; Kutzer, Yvonne; Martin, Andrew; Goodall, Stephen; Barnes, David J; Emery, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed every year. It has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is not possible. International research has focused on screening and community interventions to promote earlier presentation to a healthcare provider to improve early lung cancer detection. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, rand...

  2. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  3. Lung Metastases in Neuroblastoma at Initial Diagnosis: A Report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Steven G.; London, Wendy B.; Zhang, Yang; Matthay, Katherine K.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew; Diller, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid cancer. Lung metastasis is rarely detected in children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database. Procedure The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis. Clinical and biological characteristics were compared between patients with and without lung metastasis. Survival for patients with and without lung metastasis was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis. Results Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis. Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p < 0.02 in each case). Five-year overall survival ± standard error for patients with lung metastasis was 34.5% ± 6.8% compared to 44.7% ± 1.3% for patients without lung metastasis (p=0.0002). However, in multivariable analysis, the presence of lung metastasis was not independently predictive of outcome. Conclusions Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels. Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome. PMID:18649370

  4. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    2002-01-01

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  5. [Molecular diagnostics of ALK-positive lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, József; Lotz, Gábor; Rásó, Erzsébet; Moldvay, Judit

    2017-09-20

    ALK translocation is the 3rd most frequent genetic aberration in lung adenocarcinoma, and several inhibitors are now clinically available in first and second line settings. Accordingly, molecular diagnostics of ALK-positive lung cancer is very important and can be done with the rational combination of several methods. All international recommendations suggest that, except for cytological samples, screening technology for ALK-positive tumors is immunohistochemistry using a validated test. It is highly recommended that in case of ALK protein positive samples gene translocation must be confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case of cytological samples FISH technique must be used as ALK diagnostics. In equivocal cases the genetic alteration of ALK can be confirmed by alternative molecular techniques such as next generation sequencing or RNAbased PCR methods. Upon administration of ALK inhibitors, acquired resistance is frequent which is mostly due to ALK amplification and/or mutation. It is evident that the diagnostics of these secondary ALK gene alterations must be done from recurrent tumors or circulating nucleic acids.

  6. Lung cancer: patient profile in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, M.; Gauna, C.; Pereira, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the profile that comes to query the patient with cancer Lung in Paraguay, as well as therapeutic limitations found in stadiums advanced. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who consulted was held at the Institute of Cancer in 2008. Inclusion criteria: patients with histologically confirmed attending their first consultation in the period from January 2008 to December 2008. Data Collection: sex, age, origin, occupation, toxic habits, reason was analyzed consultation, ECOG, histology, stage and treatment performed. Results: Of 59 patients studied there is a predominance of males (83%) from mostly in rural areas. The average age is 61 years. Of risk factors (Snuff, environmental exposure) 100% of women do not have such and only 2.3% of men; It is more frequent association of the two factors cited. Dyspne a (44%) is The most common symptom, followed by pain (20.3%), Cough / hemoptysis (17%) and finally headache (6.7%). The histological prevalence is a non-small cell cancer (98.3%) and among the Adenocarcinoma heads the frequency (56.8%), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (24.1%) and carcinoma differentiated ((19.1%), there is only one record of a Oat Cell Carcinoma. The stadium's presentation common is the Est. IV (44%) being the most frequent sites Liver metastases (26.7%) and Brain (23%) come in relatively general condition, mostly with ECOG 2 (30.5%) .. In As for treatment: one patient was performing a partial lobectomy operable; They performed chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone 24.5% and 16.9% respectively, the combination of both 10% and made no treatment, rejected or made exclusive palliative care 46% of the sample. Of 25 patients who received chemotherapy and 92% received 1st line Paclitaxel + Carboplatin and of them only 16% showed greater than 50% response. Only 6 patients performed 2nd line with Gemzitabina + cisplatin; and only one patient performed The 3rd line (Vinorelbine + Gemzitabina) and 4

  7. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  8. Lung cancer-associated tumor antigens and the present status of immunotherapy against non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Kosei; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with lung cancer is still poor. Therefore, the development and application of new therapeutic strategies are essential for improving the prognosis of this disease. Significant progress in our understanding of tumor immunology and molecular biology has allowed us to identify the tumor-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immune responses and tumor-associated antigens against not only malignant melanoma but also lung cancer have been elucidated at the molecular level. In a theoretical sense, tumor eradication is considered possible through antigen-based immunotherapy against such diseases. However, many clinical trials of cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens have resulted in objective clinical responses in only a small number of patients. Tumor escape mechanisms from host immune surveillance remain a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy. A better understanding of the immune escape mechanisms employed by tumor cells is necessary before we can develop a more effective immunotherapeutic approach to lung cancer. We review recent studies regarding the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer. (author)

  9. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  10. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad A; Barger, Jennifer F; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-08-23

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells.

  11. Serum B vitamin levels and risk of lung cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, M.; Relton, C.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Midttun, O.; Nygard, O.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Agudo, A.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Allen, N.E.; Crowe, F.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Krogh, V.; Masala, G.; Panico, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Rasmuson, T.; Hallmans, G.; Riboli, E.; Vineis, P.; Brennan, P.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The European

  12. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  13. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  14. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum targeting lung cancer signaling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balraj Singh; Navgeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer causes huge mortality to population, and pharmaceutical companies require new drugs as an alternative either synthetic or natural targeting lung cancer. The conventional therapies cause side effects, and therefore, natural products are used as a therapeutic candidate in lung cancer. Chemical diversity among natural products highlights the impact of evolution and survival of fittest. One such neglected natural product is Ganoderma lucidum used for promoting health and longevity for a longer time. The major bioconstituents of G. lucidum are mainly terpenes, polysaccharides, and proteins, which were explored for various activities ranging from apoptosis to autophagy. The bioconstituents of G. lucidum activate plasma membrane receptors and initiate various downstream signaling leading to nuclear factor-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin in cancer. The bioconstituents regulate the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle, immune response, apoptosis, and autophagy in lung cancer. This review highlights the inextricable role of G. lucidum and its bioconstituents in lung cancer signaling for the first time.

  16. PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya P. Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, display distinct biological activities and varied influences on lung cancer biology. PPARα activation generally inhibits tumorigenesis through its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Activated PPARγ is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, regulating several functions of cancer cells and controlling the tumor microenvironment. Unlike PPARα and PPARγ, whether PPARβ/δ activation is anti- or protumorigenic or even inconsequential currently remains an open question that requires additional investigation. This review of current literature emphasizes the multifaceted effects of PPAR agonists in lung cancer and discusses how they may be applied as novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.

  17. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2017-03-15

    With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  18. Low-dose CT: new tool for screening lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignant tumours as it is very common and has a poor prognosis at advanced tumour stages. Prognosis could be improved by treatment at early stages. As these stages are usually asymptomatic, a diagnostic test that would allow detection of early tumour stages in a population at risk could potentially reduce mortality from lung cancer. Previous approaches using chest radiography and sputum cytology in smokers have been disappointing. Fluorescent bronchoscopy and molecular markers are not yet applicable in clinical routine. Because of its high sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are the most common manifestation of early lung cancer, CT appears suitable as a screening test. Low-dose examination parameters can and should be used for this purpose. From clinical practice it is well known that chest CT often demonstrates small pulmonary nodules, which do not represent lung cancer. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to avoid unnecessary biopsies in benign lesions. In preliminary studies of low-dose CT using algorithms based on size and density of detected nodules a large proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers and a large proportion of early, resectable tumour stages were found with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign nodules. Before this technology can be recommended for broad application, however, further information is required regarding appropriate inclusion criteria (smoking habits, age groups) and screening intervals. Most importantly, further data are required to clarify whether lung cancer screening using low-dose CT can actually reduce mortality from lung cancer. (orig.)

  19. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  20. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Current practice when treating lung cancer in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.

    2007-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held by the radiation oncology department of South Western Sydney Area Cancer Services in March 2003. This meeting was advertised in all radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand. As a precursor to this meeting, a survey was undertaken on the use of radiotherapy for treating lung cancer. All departments in Australia and New Zealand were asked to participate. The survey considered planning techniques, delivery set-up and prescription doses for non-small-cell and small-cell lung cancer and palliative and radical treatments. A wide range in the techniques used was seen across departments, particularly when prescription doses and fractionation were considered

  2. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled...

  3. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... and progression from external exposure to tumour formation and some have also been suggested as risk predictors of future cancer, reinforcing causal reasoning. However, methodological issues such as confounding, publication bias and use of surrogate tissues instead of target tissues in studies on these markers...

  4. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kilic

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it w...

  5. 5 years survival after radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J; Strzeszynski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1973-01-01

    Radiotherapy was applied to 256 patients with lung cancer treated in the Institute of Oncology in Krakow in the years 1959-1967. Malignancy had been confirmed throughout in organs of the chest cavity, and diagnosed by microscopic examination. Eleven patients, i.e. 4%, survived 5 years. Survival rate was related to the stage of the disease and the microscopic pattern. Some patients were cured after irradiation of lung cancer, using nominal doses lower than the lethal dose for squamous cell cancer. The specific physical conditions of radiation absorption in the chest cavity evidently made the effective dose inside the cavity much higher than the nominal dose.

  6. Ulcerative Cutaneous Lesions Synchronously Present with the Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of patients with lung cancer that develop skin metastases is low. The diagnosis is usually made using clinical information and skin biopsy in patients with suspicious skin lesions and history of smoking or lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is very poor. We describe findings in a 70-year-old man with lung cancer with skin metastases. Interestingly, multiple skin lesions were the first manifestation of the underlying lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is thus very poor.

  7. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  8. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  9. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  10. Indoor Radon and Lung Cancer Risk in Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Culo, D.; Smit, G.; Suveljak, B.; Stanic, D.; Faj, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear. Our investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 188 cases of the disease appeared in Osijek town during last five years. Radon concentration was measured in homes of the patients as well as for a control group. An ecologic method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1,1km2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. For indoor radon level in the fields and belonging number of the diseases, a positive correlation coefficient was obtained, that was statistically significant, and a linear regression equation of cancer mortality rates was determined. In the mentioned population of the patients, subgroups of smokers and nonsmokers, males and females were also particularly investigated. (author)

  11. Lung cancer, analysis of the most frequent tomographic findings and histopathological correlation, in patients with primary pulmonary neoplasia diagnosed during the years 2011 and 2012, at the Hospital San Juan de Dios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Romero, Cinthia

    2013-01-01

    Tomographic images, specifically the contrasted chest tomographies, were examined in patients diagnosed in patients diagnosed with lung cancer at the Hospital San Juan de Dios during the years 2011 and 2012. The primitive tomographic behavior of lung cancer was evaluated in order to determine and characterize its presentation pattern. Each histological type of lung cancer was determined. The stage of lung cancer was classified according to the International System of Staging Tumor, Node and Metastasis. An analysis of the incidence and stage of lung cancer at the time of diagnosis was made, evidencing the fundamental role of chest tomography in the screening, diagnosis, management and control of patients with primary pulmonary neoplasia [es

  12. Recent advances in surgical management of early lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad application of low-dose computed tomography screening has resulted in the detection of many more cases of early lung cancer than ever before in modern history. Recent advances in the management of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer have focused on making therapy less traumatic, enhancing recovery, and preserving lung function. In this review, we discuss several new modalities associated with minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer. Firstly, less lung parenchyma resection via sublobar resection has become an acceptable alternative to lobectomy in patients with tumors less than 2 cm in size or with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. Secondly, thoracoscopic surgery using a single-portal or needlescopic approach to decrease chest wall trauma is becoming common practice. Thirdly, less invasive anesthesia, using nonintubated techniques, is feasible and safe and is associated with fewer intubation- and ventilator-associated complications. Fourthly, preoperative or intraoperative image-guided localization is an effective modality for identifying small and deep nodules during thoracoscopic surgery. Keywords: Anesthesia, Lung cancer, Nonintubated, Surgery, Thoracoscopy, Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS

  13. Lung abscess mimicking lung cancer developed around staples in a patient with permanent tracheostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yui; Aoki, Masaya; Suzuki, Soichi; Umehara, Tadashi; Harada, Aya; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old male with a tracheostoma due to hypopharyngeal cancer was admitted because his chest computed tomography (CT) showed a small nodule in the right middle lobe. Following a partial resection of the right middle lobe, histopathological diagnosis of the resected sample was that of organizing pneumonia. Eleven months later, chest CT showed a mass with pleural indentation and spiculation in the right middle lobe. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed significant accumulation in the middle lobe tumor mass shadow. The abnormal chest shadow that had developed around surgical staples suggested inadequate resection and tumor recurrence. As the abnormal radiological shadow was enlarging, middle lobectomy was carried out. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a lung abscess without malignant features. This is a unique case of lung abscess mimicking lung cancer which developed around staples used during partial resection of the lung.

  14. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1976-01-01

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  15. The next generation of immunotherapy: keeping lung cancer in check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Somasundaram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the deadliest malignancy with more cancer deaths per year than the next three cancers combined. Despite remarkable advances in targeted therapy, advanced lung cancer patients have not experienced a significant improvement in mortality. Lung cancer has been shown to be immunogenic and responsive to checkpoint blockade therapy. Checkpoint signals such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 dampen T cell activation and allow tumors to escape the adaptive immune response. Response rates in patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC were much higher and more durable with PD-1 blockade therapy compared to standard-of-care, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, PD-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab were rapidly approved for both squamous and nonsquamous lung cancer in the pretreated population. The advent of these new therapies have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer; however, the majority of NSCLC patients still do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition leaving an unmet need for a large and growing population. Immunotherapy combinations with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or novel immunomodulatory agents are currently being examined with the hope of achieving higher response rates and improving overall survival rate. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been theorized to increase the release of tumor antigen leading to increased responses with immunotherapy. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also destroy actively proliferating T cells. The correct combination and order of therapy is under investigation. The majority of patients who do respond to immunotherapy have a durable response attributed to the effect of adaptive immune system’s memory. Unfortunately, some patients’ tumors do progress afterward and investigation of checkpoint blockade resistance is still nascent. This review will summarize the latest efficacy and safety data for early and advanced NSCLC in both the treatment-naïve and

  16. Clinical characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients associated with multiple primary malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Shan

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients with additional malignant primary cancers.Records of lung cancer patients newly diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2000 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with second primary lung cancer and those with lung cancer only were included for detailed analysis.Of 27642 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, 283 patients (1.02% suffered previous additional primary cancers. Compared with single primary lung cancer, patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary cancers were more often women (female to male ratio 1:1.72 vs 1:2.58, P = 0.018, older (64.2 vs 60.5 years old, P<0.001, more squamous cell type (30.7% vs 20.5%, P = 0.004, less small cell (3.9% vs 15.5%, P<0.001 type, at earlier stages (17.7% vs 11.0% for stage I, P = 0.014, and more frequently with family history of cancers (7.8% vs 3.9%, P = 0.038. The most common previous primary cancers observed were colorectal (22.0%, breast (18.4%, gastric (14.4% and larynx cancers (11.9%. Approximately 42.9% of patients were diagnosed with lung cancer 2 to 6 years after diagnosis of initial primary cancers. The survival of patients with secondary lung cancer associated other malignancies was not significantly different from those with single lung cancer (P = 0.491, while synchronous multiple primary malignancies showed worse prognosis compared with those with metachronous ones or single lung cancer (p = 0.012.The possibility of second primary lung cancer should always be considered during the follow-up of related cancer types, especially those with family history of cancers. Patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary malignancies have non-inferior survival than those with single lung cancer.

  17. Prognosis and Treatment Decision Making in Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mokhles (Sahar)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and it is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnoses (12% of total new cancer cases) and to death from cancer (18% of total cancer deaths). There are two major groups of lung cancer that arise from the cells of the

  18. [Principles of radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esik, Olga; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Hideghéty, Katalin; Agócs, László; Pikó, Béla; Lengyel, Zsolt; Petrányi, Agota; Pisch, Julianna

    2002-01-01

    The long-term survival probability for Hungarian lung cancer patients is 10% worse than the best results published in the most highly developed countries (the mean 5-year survival probability in Hungary is 5%, in contrast with the 15% survival probability in the USA). On the basis of the international recommendations and personal experience, an attempt was made to formulate the guidelines for radiotherapy as one of the fundamental non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment modalities for national use. An expert panel was set up comprising physicians from 6 radiotherapeutic centers (the National Institute of Oncology / Semmelweis University, Budapest; the Beth Israel Medical Center, New York; the University of Kaposvár; the University of Essen; the University of Debrecen; and the County Hospital of Gyula). Experts in two important medical fields closely related to radiotherapy (surgery and diagnostic imaging) were also engaged in the elaboration of the manuscript. Discussion of the most important principles of the radiotherapy and an overview of the prognostic factors was followed by a critical analysis of the protocols applied in the radiotherapy of Hungarian NSCLC patients during recent decades. The new guidelines suggested for the radiotherapy of NSCLC are presented separately for the postoperative period, marginally resectable tumors, and the aggressive or non-aggressive radiotherapy of inoperable tumors. Detailed accounts are given of the techniques of external irradiation and brachytherapy, and of the acute and late radiation-induced damage of normal tissues. The authors believe that this document may be instrumental in improving the survival index of Hungarian NSCLC patients in the near future.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  20. Postoperative radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Chatani, Masashi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kurokawa, Eiji; Kodama, Ken; Doi, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    From January 1978 through December 1982, a total of 241 cases with lung cancer underwent surgery. Twenty-nine cases (operative death: 7, relative non-curative operation: 13, exploratory thoracotomy: 9) were excluded because they did not receive radiation therapy (RT). The remaining 212 cases were available for this analysis. Forty-two of them were treated with RT postoperatively. Three-year survival rates according to curability in the non-RT and RT groups were 83 % and 71 % (NS) in the curative operation group. In the relatively curative operation group, the corresponding figures were 40 % and 33 % (NS), and in the absolutely non-curative operation group, 3 % and 20 % (p < 0.01), respectively. The analysis of background factors revealed that in the curative operation group the rate of combined resection and in the relatively curative operation group pT3 and combined resection were significantly higher in the RT group than non-RT group. In the absolutely non-curative operation group, the rate of pM1 was significantly lower in RT group than the non-RT group. The pattern of failure of the RT group by histology was analysed. Local and regional failure was most common in the squamous cell carcinoma group and distant failure in the adenocarcinoma group. However, in the adenocarcinoma group local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was also frequently noted. The relationship between the radiation field and local and regional or supraclavicular lymph node failure was analysed. In the squamous cell carcinoma group, in-field failure was most common, whereas in the adenocarcinoma group, outside (marginal) failure was common, especially in the supraclavicular lymph nodes. Concerning squamous cell carcinoma, microscopic or macroscopic residual tumor at the surgical margin, which includes the chest wall, stump (BS or VS) and pericardium was well controlled in each operation group with more than 50 Gy of RT. (J.P.N.)

  1. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  2. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Joeckel, K.H.; Molik, B.

    1991-01-01

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Autopsy findings in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek, B.; Jassem, J.; Karnicka-Mlodkowska, H.; Badzio, A.; Mos-Antkowiak, R.; Dziadziuszko, R.; Szczepek, B.; Chojak, E.; Lisowska, B.; Malak, K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of autopsy in 174 small lung cancer patients treated between 1971 and 1991 at seven Polish medical centres. Eighty nine autopsied patients were previously treated with different chemotherapy regimens including 32 patients who also received chest irradiation, 74 received only supportive care and for 11 patients the data on treatment were not available. The age range at diagnosis was 28-81 years (median 57); there were 39 females (22%) and 135 males (78%). Seventy two patients had limited disease at the time of diagnosis, 86 - extensive disease and in 16 the disease extent was not determined. The primary tumor and/or metastases in regional lymph nodes were present in 157 autopsies (90%). There was a significant difference in the rate of locoregional disease found at autopsy in patients given chemotherapy and in those who received only supportive care (85% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.01). Chest radiation therapy given in limited as an adjunct to chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of persistent locoregional disease (primary tumor in the chest was found in 92% of irradiated and in 96% of nonirradiated patients). Locoregional tumor deposit only was found in 28 (16%). Distant metastases were distributed in 143 patients (82%) and were found in 25 different locations, most frequently in liver (49%), supra-renal glands (25%), peripheral lymph nodes (21%), kidneys (18%), brain (17%) and pancreas (12%). In 3 patients no tumor foci were found. The number of organs involved varied between 0 and 10 (median 3). The number of involved organs was not dependent on the disease extent at the time of diagnosis and on the type of treatment. (author)

  4. Scintiscanning of lung cancer with 67Ga-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsunobu; Ohyama, Shiro; Ohtsuka, Hassau; Hoshina, Toshifumi; Takanashi, Shuko

    1982-01-01

    The clinical value of scintigram with 67 Ga-citrate in 58 patients with primary lung cancer was investigated and discussed. The results are as follows: 1) Positive 67 Ga-scintigram was obtained in 83% of patients with primary lung cancer. The histologically confirmed positive ratios were 74% in adenocarcinoma, 94% in squamous cell carcinoma, 80% in small cell carcinoma and 100% in large cell carcinoma. 2) The positive ratios according to T category of TNM classification was 0% (0/1) in T1, 83% (20/24) in T2 and 85% (28/33) in T3. 3) According to rules for classification of lung cancer (TNM UICC 1978,) T2 cases were divided into two groups. a) In patients with hilar involvements on chest X-ray, positive accumulation to the hilar region was 88% (7/8). b) In patients without the evidence of hilar involvements on chest X-ray, the positive accumulation to the hilar region was 81% (13/16). 4) All cases extending to the mediastinum showed abnormal 67 Ga-citrate accumulation regardless of histological type. 67 Ga-citrate scanning is useful in evaluating the extent of lung cancer, especially with hilar and mediastinal involvements. Therefore 67 Ga-citrate scanning seems to be very useful for planning the radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  5. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  6. [Small-cell lung cancer: epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešek, Miloš; Mužík, Jan

    Authors present actual overview of information on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This highly aggressive type of lung cancer is diagnosed in 14.8 % of Czech lung cancer patients. Vast majority of those patients (87 %) suffer from advanced and metastatic disease in the time of diagnosis. In this issue are presented prognostic factors, staging diagnostic procedures and therapeutic recommendations. The backbone of actual SCLC treatment is combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy and less frequently, carefully in selected cases, surgical procedures. SCLC should be have as chemosensitive, chemoresistent or chemorefractory disease. Actual cytostatic combinations used in 1st line treatment, different schedules of chemoradiotherapy, drugs used in second line treatment and schedules and timing of prophylactic brain irradiation are presented. In near future, perspectively, there are some promissible data on antitumour immunotherapy based on anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1/PE-L1 antibodies also in SCLC patients.Key words: cancer immunotherapy - concomitant chemoradiotherapy - chemotherapy - chest radiotherapy - lung resections - prophylactic brain irradiation - small cell lung cancer.

  7. CT diagnosis of primary lung cancer coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Joo; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Chul

    1992-01-01

    When bronchogenic carcinoma is coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis, it is difficult to differentiate bronchogenic carcinoma from pulmonary tuberculosis radiographically. Thus, the object of this study is to define differential diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma by computed tomography. We analyzed CT scans of 27 patients with radiologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and mass of which twelve cases were pulmonary tuberculosis and fifteen cases were primary lung cancer. The location of parenchymal infiltration and the mass was the same in 60%(9/15) of the primary lung cancer in cases and 83%(10/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The common location of the mass was the both upper lobes in 92%(11/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 53%(8/15) of the primary lung cancer cases. The common locations of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy were 4R, 2R of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 4R, 10R of the primary lung cancer cases. In the feature of post enhanced lymph nodes, homogenous increased density was more frequent in primary lung cancer. Measurements of the maximum thickness part of the cavity wall was not a reliable indication of malignancy

  8. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Ayyadurai, Puvanalingam; Thanha, Luong; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple primary lung cancer may present in synchronous or metachronous form. Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer is defined as multiple lung lesions that develop at the same time, whereas metachronous multiple primary lung cancer describes multiple lung lesions that develop at different times, typically following treatment of the primary lung cancer. Patients with previously treated lung cancer are at risk for developing metachronous lung cancer, but with the success of computed tomography and positron emission tomography, the ability to detect both synchronous and metachronous lung cancer has increased. We present a case of a 63-year-old Hispanic man who came to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain, dry cough, and weight loss. He had recently been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe, with a poorly differentiated carcinoma favoring squamous cell cancer based on bronchoalveolar lavage of the right lower lobe for which treatment was started. Later, bronchoscopy incidentally revealed the patient to have an endobronchial lesion that turned out to be mixed small and large cell neuroendocrine lung cancer. Our patient had triple synchronous primary lung cancers that histologically were variant primary cancers. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer management continues to be a challenge. Our patient's case suggests that multiple primary lung cancers may still occur at a greater rate than can be detected by high-resolution computed tomography.

  9. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. Material and Methods: The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. Results: In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6–1.87. Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. Conclusions: The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:687

  10. Occupational exposure to radon for underground tourist routes in Poland: Doses to lung and the risk of developing lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy; Politański, Piotr; Zmyślony, Marek

    2017-07-14

    Radon concentrations for 31 Polish underground tourist routes were analyzed. The equivalent dose to the lung, the effective dose and the relative risk were calculated for employees of the analyzed routes on the grounds of information on radon concentrations, work time, etc. The relative risk for lung cancers was calculated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI Committee model. Equivalent doses to the lungs of workers were determined using the coefficients calculated by the Kendall and Smith. The conversion coefficient proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the report No. 33 was used for estimating the effective doses. In 13 routes, the effective dose was found to be above 1 mSv/year, and in 3 routes, it exceeded 6 mSv/year. For 5 routes, the equivalent dose to lungs was higher than 100 mSv/year, and in 1 case it was as high as 490 mSv/year. In 22.6% of underground workplaces the risk of developing lung cancer among employees was about 2 times higher than that for the general population, and for 1 tourist route it was about 5 times higher. The geometric mean of the relative risk of lung cancer for all workers of underground tourist routes was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.87). Routes were divided into: caves, mines, post-military underground constructions and urban underground constructions. The difference between levels of the relative risk of developing lung cancer for all types of underground tourist routes was not found to be significant. If we include the professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes into the group of occupational exposure, the number of persons who are included in the Category A due to occupational exposure may increase by about 3/4. The professional group of the employees of underground tourist routes should be monitored for their exposure to radon. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):687-694. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC

  11. [Utility of Multiple Increased Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Li, Junling; Liu, Yutao; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-10-20

    Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who receiving the first line chemotherapy in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristic, serum tumor markers before chemotherapy, efficacy evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Except CEA and CA125, the highest ratio of increased tumor markersin group A was CYFRA21-1 (93%), then was NSE (36%), SCC (13%) and ProGRP (12%). Patients with multiple increased tumor markers tend to have more distant metastasis (Ptumor markers have high risk of relapse, and maintenance therapy can reduce relapse risk.

  12. Challenges and future direction of molecula