WorldWideScience

Sample records for international lens design

  1. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  2. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  3. A Correlation of Thin Lens Approximation to Thick Lens Design by Using Coddington Factors in Lens Design and Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    FARSAKOĞLU, Ö. Faruk

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Coddington factors on aberration functions has been analysed using thin lens approximation. Minimizing spherical aberrations of singlet lenses using Coddington factors in lens design depending on lens manufacturing is discussed. Notation of lens test plate pairs used in lens manufacturing is also presented in terms of Coddington shape factors.

  4. Lens design and local minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    The widespread belief that local minima exist in the least squares lens-design error function is not confirmed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) optimization program. LASL finds the optimum-mimimum region, which is characterized by small parameter gradients of similar size, small performance improvement per iteration, and many designs that give similar performance. Local minima and unique prescriptions have not been found in many-parameter problems. The reason for these absences is that image errors caused by a change in one parameter can be compensated by changes in the remaining parameters. False local minima have been found, and four cases are discussed

  5. Algorithm design of liquid lens inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lu-Lin; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2008-08-01

    In mobile lens domain, the glass lens is often to be applied in high-resolution requirement situation; but the glass zoom lens needs to be collocated with movable machinery and voice-coil motor, which usually arises some space limits in minimum design. In high level molding component technology development, the appearance of liquid lens has become the focus of mobile phone and digital camera companies. The liquid lens sets with solid optical lens and driving circuit has replaced the original components. As a result, the volume requirement is decreased to merely 50% of the original design. Besides, with the high focus adjusting speed, low energy requirement, high durability, and low-cost manufacturing process, the liquid lens shows advantages in the competitive market. In the past, authors only need to inspect the scrape defect made by external force for the glass lens. As to the liquid lens, authors need to inspect the state of four different structural layers due to the different design and structure. In this paper, authors apply machine vision and digital image processing technology to administer inspections in the particular layer according to the needs of users. According to our experiment results, the algorithm proposed can automatically delete non-focus background, extract the region of interest, find out and analyze the defects efficiently in the particular layer. In the future, authors will combine the algorithm of the system with automatic-focus technology to implement the inside inspection based on the product inspective demands.

  6. Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Wang, Te-Yuan; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Liu, Te-Shu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chin-Tang

    2012-05-07

    We present a simple freeform lens design method for an application to LED collimating illumination. The method is derived from a basic geometric-optics analysis and construction approach. By using this method, a highly collimating lens with LED chip size of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm and optical simulation efficiency of 86.5% under a view angle of ± 5 deg is constructed. To verify the practical performance of the lens, a prototype of the collimator lens is also made, and an optical efficiency of 90.3% with a beam angle of 4.75 deg is measured.

  7. Lens Design Using Group Indices of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to lens design is described in which the ratio of the group velocity to the speed of light (the group index) in glass is used, in conjunction with the more familiar phase index of refraction, to control certain chromatic properties of a system of thin lenses in contact. The first-order design of thin-lens systems is illustrated by examples incorporating the methods described.

  8. Design of a hyperbolic microwave metallic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1979-12-01

    Due to problems caused by multiple reflections in the cavity walls of the EBT fusion research device, the use of a horn becomes important for the directivity of waves in the millimetric range. An ordinary dielectric lens cannot be used because of plasma-wall interactions. Microwave metallic lenses, designed to focus the energy into a plane wave, can improve the directivity considerably. By implementing a 70-GHz standard-gain horn with a delay-type hyperbolic lens, which consists of a solid metallic disk with a number of equal size small holes has indicated a gain of 15 dB over the no lens case

  9. Photon nanojet lens: design, fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Sichao; Shao, Jinhai; Lu, Bing-Rui; Chen, Yifang; Mehfuz, Reyad; Drakeley, Stacey; Huang, Fumin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanolens with super resolution, based on the photon nanojet effect through dielectric nanostructures in visible wavelengths, is proposed. The nanolens is made from plastic SU-8, consisting of parallel semi-cylinders in an array. This paper focuses on the lens designed by numerical simulation with the finite-difference time domain method and nanofabrication of the lens by grayscale electron beam lithography combined with a casting/bonding/lift-off transfer process. Monte Carlo simulation for injected charge distribution and development modeling was applied to define the resultant 3D profile in PMMA as the template for the lens shape. After the casting/bonding/lift-off process, the fabricated nanolens in SU-8 has the desired lens shape, very close to that of PMMA, indicating that the pattern transfer process developed in this work can be reliably applied not only for the fabrication of the lens but also for other 3D nanopatterns in general. The light distribution through the lens near its surface was initially characterized by a scanning near-field optical microscope, showing a well defined focusing image of designed grating lines. Such focusing function supports the great prospects of developing a novel nanolithography based on the photon nanojet effect. (paper)

  10. A lazy way to design infrared lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, RongSheng; Wu, JianDong; Chen, LongJiang; Yu, Kun; Pang, HaoJun; Hu, BaiZhen

    2017-08-01

    We designed a compact middle-wave infrared (MWIR) lens with a large focal length ratio (about 1.5:1), used in the 3.7 to 4.8 μm range. The lens is consisted of a compact front group and a re-imaging group. Thanks to the compact front group configuration, it is possible to install a filter wheel mechanism in such a tight space. The total track length of the lens is about 50mm, which includes a 2mm thick protective window and a cold shield of 12mm. The full field of view of the lens is about 3.6°, and F number is less than 1.6, the image circle is about 4.6mm in diameter. The design performance of the lens reaches diffraction limitation, and doesn't change a lot during a temperature range of -40°C +60°C. This essay proposed a stepwise design method of infrared optical system guided by the qualitative approach. The method fully utilize the powerful global optimization ability, with a little effort to write code snippet in optical design software, frees optical engineer from tedious calculation of the original structure.

  11. Metasurface axicon lens design at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyammahi, Saleimah; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-08-01

    The emerging field of metasurfaces is promising to realize novel optical devices with miniaturized flat format and added functionalities. Metasurfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit full control of amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves. Using the metasurface, the wavefront of light can be manipulated permitting new functionalities such as focusing and steering of the beams and imaging. One optical component which can be designed using metasurfaces is the axicon. Axicons are conical lenses used to convert Gaussian beams into nondiffraction Bessel beams. These unique devices are utilized in different applications ranging from optical trapping and manipulation, medical imaging, and surgery. In this work, we study axicon lens design comprising of planar metasurfaces which generate non-diffracting Bessel beams at visible wavelengths. Dielectric metasurfaces have been used to achieve high efficiency and low optical loss. We measured the spot size of the resulted beams at different planes to demonstrate the non-diffraction properties of the resulted beams. We also investigated how the spot size is influenced by the axicon aperture. Furthermore, we examined the achromatic properties of the designed axicon. Comparing with the conventional lens, the metasurface axicon lens design enables the creation of flat optical device with wide range of depth of focus along its optical axis.

  12. Particle swarm optimization applied to automatic lens design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a novel application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to lens design. A mathematical model is constructed, and merit functions in an optical system are employed as fitness functions, which combined radiuses of curvature, thicknesses among lens surfaces and refractive indices regarding an optical system. By using this function, the aberration correction is carried out. A design example using PSO is given. Results show that PSO as optical design tools is practical and powerful, and this method is no longer dependent on the lens initial structure and can arbitrarily create search ranges of structural parameters of a lens system, which is an important step towards automatic design with artificial intelligence.

  13. Design of a nonimaging Fresnel lens for solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, R.; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering; Suzuki, Akio [UNESCO, Paris (France)

    1999-04-01

    An optimum convex shaped nonimaging Fresnel lens is designed following the edge ray principle. The lens is evaluated by tracing rays and calculating a projective optical concentration ratio. This Fresnel lens is intended for use in evacuated tube type solar concentrators, generating mid-temperature heat to drive sorption cycles, or provide industrial process heat. It can also be used along with a secondary concentrator in photovoltaic applications. (author)

  14. SIMION, Electrostatic Lens Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, David A.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SIMION is an electrostatic lens analysis and design program. In SIMION an electrostatic lens is defined as a two-dimensional electrostatic potential array containing both electrode and non-electrode points. The potential array is refined using over-relaxation methods allowing voltage contours and ion trajectories to be computed and plotted. Planar and cylindrical symmetry assumptions allow the two-dimensional fields to support three-dimensional ion trajectory calculations. In addition, the user has the option of writing simple programs which can among other actions control field scale factors, dynamically adjust electrodes, and define explicit three-dimensional field functions (e.g. a quadrupole) used in lieu of array fields in specified portions of the potential array. Magnetic fields can be specified for computing ion trajectories in many electrostatic and magnetic field environments. An interactive graphics interface that uses a high resolution color display and mouse allows the user to view electrodes, trajectories, and contours on the screen prior to plotting, and a memory zoom feature permits expansion of selected areas in the current view. The mouse can be operated to edit the potential array, initialize voltage gradients, or resize the potential array. 2 - Method of solution: SIMION is designed to model the electrostatic fields and forces created by a collection of shaped electrodes given certain symmetry assumptions. The electrostatic fields are modeled as boundary value problem solutions of a Laplace elliptical partial differential equation. A finite difference technique called dynamically self-adjusting over-relaxation is applied to the two-dimensional potential array of points representing electrode and non-electrode regions to obtain a best estimate of the voltages for those points within the array that depict non-electrode regions. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used for numerical integration of

  15. Accelerating convergence in automatic lens design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    Among the various factors that slow lens optimization-insufficient performance targets, the absence of a unique solution, false local minima, a poorly scaled change vector, failure to find the optimum damping number, and failure to equalize the parameter gradients-the importance of parameter gradient equalization has been insufficiently recognized. Gradients can be approximately equalized by scaling the lens to a suitable size while it is being optimized. For best results, the size of the damping number should also be optimized during each iteration. If these two procedures are followed, scaling the change vector is usually not crucial. To illustrate the importance of parameter equalization, a lens optimization is analyzed

  16. Design of LED projector based on gradient-index lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liyong; Zhu, Xiangbing; Cui, Haitian; Wang, Yuanhang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new type of projector light path is designed to eliminate the deficits of existing projection systems, such as complex structure and low collection efficiency. Using a three-color LED array as the lighting source, by means of the special optical properties of a gradient-index lens, the complex structure of the traditional projector is simplified. Traditional components, such as the color wheel, relay lens, and mirror, become unnecessary. In this way, traditional problems, such as low utilization of light energy and loss of light energy, are solved. With the help of Zemax software, the projection lens is optimized. The optimized projection lens, LED, gradient-index lens, and digital micromirror device are imported into Tracepro. The ray tracing results show that both the utilization of light energy and the uniformity are improved significantly.

  17. Daylighting System Based on Novel Design of Linear Fresnel lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tuan Pham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a design and optical simulation of a daylighting system using a novel design of linear Fresnel lens, which is constructed based on the conservation of optical path length and edge ray theorem. The linear Fresnel lens can achieve a high uniformity by using a new idea of design in which each groove of the lens distributes sunlight uniformly over the receiver so that the whole lens also uniformly distributes sunlight over the receiver. In this daylighting system, the novel design of linear Fresnel lens significantly improves the uniformity of collector and distributor. Therefore, it can help to improve the performance of the daylighting system. The structure of the linear Fresnel lenses is designed by using Matlab. Then, the structure of lenses is appreciated by ray tracing in LightToolsTM to find out the optimum lens shape. In addition, the simulation is performed by using LightToolsTM to estimate the efficiency of the daylighting system. The results show that the designed collector can achieve the efficiency of ~80% with the tolerance of ~0.60 and the concentration ratio of 340 times, while the designed distributor can reach a high uniformity of >90%.

  18. LASL lens design procedure: simple, fast, precise, versatile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1978-11-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory general-purpose lens design procedure optimizes specific lens prescriptions to obtain the smallest possible image spots and therefore near-spherical wave fronts of light converging on all images in the field of view. Optical image errors are analyzed in much the same way that they are measured on the optical bench. This lens design method is made possible by using the full capabilities of large electronic computers. First, the performance of the whole lens is sampled with many precisely traced skew rays. Next, lens performance is analyzed with spot diagrams generated by the many rays. Third, lens performance is optimized with a least squares system aimed at reducing all image errors to zero. This statistical approach to lens design uses skew rays and precisely measured ray deviations from ideal image points to achieve greater accuracy than was possible with the classical procedure, which is based on approximate expressions derived from simplified ray traces developed for pencil-and-paper calculations

  19. Design of a new two element OSLD Badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.; Munish Kumar; Ratna, P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Muthe, K.P.; Biju, K.; Sunil, C.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Normally the dose to the vicinity of the eye is received by the occupational radiation workers who handle radioisotopes or doctors who perform interventional radiographic procedures. The Eye dosimeters provide an estimate of the radiation dose to the lens of the eye. In the recent ICRP-2011 recommendations, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for all the occupational workers. To ensure that the dose limit for the eye lens does not exceed the prescribed dose limits, various eye lens dosimeters have been designed and are being used internationally. All these eye dosimeters consist of one natural LiF based thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) element sealed in a plastic holder. The design of the eye dosimeter and place of wear (near the eye) plays an important role in correct estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye. It is generally seen that the eye dosimeter when worn with the head strap on the forehead near the eye, the dose the element receives can be easily correlated to the eye dose. This paper presents the design of a new Eye lens dosimeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors for its possible use by the occupational workers covering the medical, industrial and nuclear facilities for assessing the Hp(3)

  20. Athermal design and analysis of glass-plastic hybrid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of security market, the glass-plastic hybrid lens has gradually become a choice for the special requirements like high imaging quality in a wide temperature range and low cost. The reduction of spherical aberration is achieved by using aspherical surface instead of increasing the number of lenses. Obviously, plastic aspherical lens plays a great role in the cost reduction. However, the hybrid lens has a priority issue, which is the large thermal coefficient of expansion of plastic, causing focus shift and seriously affecting the imaging quality, so the hybrid lens is highly sensitive to the change of temperature. To ensure the system operates normally in a wide temperature range, it is necessary to eliminate the influence of temperature on the hybrid lens system. A practical design method named the Athermal Material Map is summarized and verified by an athermal design example according to the design index. It includes the distribution of optical power and selection of glass or plastic. The design result shows that the optical system has excellent imaging quality at a wide temperature range from -20 ° to 70 °. The method of athermal design in this paper has generality which could apply to optical system with plastic aspherical surface.

  1. Photographic zoom fisheye lens design for DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Sasian, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Photographic fisheye lenses with fixed focal length for cameras with different sensor formats have been well developed for decades. However, photographic fisheye lenses with variable focal length are rare on the market due in part to the greater design difficulty. This paper presents a large aperture zoom fisheye lens for DSLR cameras that produces both circular and diagonal fisheye imaging for 35-mm sensors and diagonal fisheye imaging for APS-C sensors. The history and optical characteristics of fisheye lenses are briefly reviewed. Then, a 9.2- to 16.1-mm F/2.8 to F/3.5 zoom fisheye lens design is presented, including the design approach and aberration control. Image quality and tolerance performance analysis for this lens are also presented.

  2. Monitoring the eye lens: how do the international organisations react?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended to lower the limit of the dose to the eye lens for occupationally exposed persons to a mean value of 20 mSv y -1 (averaged over 5 y, with a maximum of 50 mSv y -1 ); already in the autumn of 2011, both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) took over this reduction in their respective draft basic safety standards. Even prior to this (and since then, increasingly so), several international activities were started (among other things, the following ones): (1) the ICRP adopted a stylised model of the eye to calculate dose conversion coefficients for its report ICRP 116; (2) the European Commission has funded the ORAMED project dealing with radiation protection in medicine; (3) in its standard IEC 62387 on passive dosimetry systems, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has laid down requirements for Hp(3) eye dosemeters; (4) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the IAEA provide a range of practical advice in the standard ISO 15382 (still a draft) and in a technical document IAEA TecDoc on both radiation protection and on dosimetry; (5) for most cases, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends both phantoms (the slab and the cylinder). In short: most national procedures can orientate themselves on international ones; some questions, however, remain open. (authors)

  3. Recent Developments In High Speed Lens Design At The NPRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdowell, M. W.; Klee, H. W.

    1987-09-01

    Although the lens provides the link between the high speed camera and the outside world, there has over the years been little evidence of co-operation between the optical design and high speed photography communities. It is still only too common for a manufacturer to develop a camera of improved performance and resolution and then to combine this with a standard camera lens. These lenses were often designed for a completely different recording medium and, more often than not, their use results in avoidable degradation of the overall system performance. There is a tendency to assume that a specialized lens would be too expensive and that pushing the aperture automatically implies more complex optical systems. In the present paper some recent South African developments in the design of large aperture lenses are described. The application of a new design principle, based on the work earlier this century of Bernhard Schmidt, shows that ultra-fast lenses need not be overly complex and a basic four-element lens configuration can be adapted to a wide variety of applications.

  4. Electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design using computer optimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe the detailed design of a five-element electrostatic afocal-zoom lens. • The simplex optimization is used to optimize lens voltages. • The method can be applied to multi-element electrostatic lenses. - Abstract: Electron optics is the key to the successful operation of electron collision experiments where well designed electrostatic lenses are needed to drive electron beam before and after the collision. In this work, the imaging properties and aberration analysis of an electrostatic afocal-zoom lens design were investigated using a computer optimization technique. We have found a whole new range of voltage combinations that has gone unnoticed until now. A full range of voltage ratios and spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients were systematically analyzed with a range of magnifications between 0.3 and 3.2. The grid-shadow evaluation was also employed to show the effect of spherical aberration. The technique is found to be useful for searching the optimal configuration in a multi-element lens system.

  5. A Computational Lens on Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we briefly review the collective effort of design researchers to weave theory with empirical results, in order to gain a better understanding of the processes of learning. We seek to respond to this challenging agenda by centring on the evolution of one sub-field: namely that which involves investigations within a…

  6. Ultra-compact SWIR telephoto lens design with SMS method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Infante Herrero, Jose Manuel; Fuente, Marta de la; Biot Marí, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose two new optical structures, using the Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces (SMS) method, comprised of 2 reflecting surfaces and 2 refracting surfaces, 800mm focal length, f/8 (aperture diameter 100 mm) and 1.18 0 diagonal field of view in the SWIR band. The lens surfaces are rotational symmetric and calculated to have good control of non-paraxial rays. We have achieved designs with excellent performance, and with total system length of less than 60 mm.

  7. Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, N.G.M.; Dubbelman, M.; Hermans, E.A.; Ringens, P.J.; Polak, B.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 and type 2 on the internal structure of the lens. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls: One hundred seven patients with DM type 1, 106 patients with DM type 2, and 75 healthy control subjects.

  8. Design of electrohydrodynamic lens for stabilizing of eletrohydrodynamic jet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Yoon-Soo; Hwang, Jungho; Yu, Tae-U

    2008-01-01

    The generation of micro patterns from conductive material suspensions is gaining significant interests for its usages in the fabrication of flexible display elements and flexible printed circuit boards. In this paper, we presented the results of line patterns of silver nanoparticles obtained by using various types of focusing lenses for electrohydrodynamic jet printing. The pattern widths were measured as 80∼100 μm when the electrohydrodynamic lens having a cone-type inner hole and a cone-type outer wall was used. Electric field strengths were calculated by a commercial solver packages for the four types of electrohydrodynamic lenses. A lens having a cone-type inner hole and a cone-type outer wall of thinner thickness was found to be the best design.

  9. Adjustable internal structure for reconstructing gradient index profile of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2014-03-01

    Employing advanced technologies in studying the crystalline lens of the eye has improved our understanding of the refractive index gradient of the lens. Reconstructing and studying such a complex structure requires models with adaptable internal geometry that can be altered to simulate geometrical and optical changes of the lens with aging. In this Letter, we introduce an optically well-defined, geometrical structure for modeling the gradient refractive index profile of the crystalline lens with the advantage of an adjustable internal structure that is not available with existing models. The refractive index profile assigned to this rotationally symmetric geometry is calculated numerically, yet it is shown that this does not limit the model. The study provides a basis for developing lens models with sophisticated external and internal structures without the need for analytical solutions to calculate refractive index profiles.

  10. Optimum design of nonimaging Fresnel lens; Hiketsuzo fureneru renzu no saiteki sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, R.; Komai, K.; Akisawa, A.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, A. [Unesco, Paris (France). Associations in Japan

    1999-11-25

    An optimum convex shaped nonimaging Fresnel lens is designed following the edge ray principle. The lens is evaluated by tracing rays and calculating a projective optical concentration ratio. This Fresnel lens can used as concentrator in photovoltaic and solar thermal applications. (author)

  11. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  12. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  13. Design of a secondary lens using gaussian function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Long, Nguyen Ngoc; Van Phuoc, Nguyen; Voznak, Miroslav; Zdralek, Jaroslav

    2018-04-01

    In the article, it is recognized that the high-intensity discharge (HID) fishing lamp becomes obsolete, so we designed a free secondary lens for an LED fishing/working lamp (LFWL) to serve the lighting needs of fishing and the on-board activities on fishing boats through gaussian decomposition for taking the place it. The results proved that it is really useful to the board, sea-surface, and underwater. Moreover, the lighting efficiency of 91 % with the power consumption reducing more than 3 times could be achieved when the proposed LED fishing/working lamps are used instead of the HID fishing lamps.

  14. A framework of cloud supported collaborative design in glass lens moulds based on aspheric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Wang, Yu; Na, Jingxin; Zhi, Yanan; Fan, Yufeng

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric mould design includes the top-down design and reversal design. In this paper, a new framework of reversal design is proposed combining with cloud supported collaborative design (CSCD) based on aspheric measurement. The framework is a kind of collaborative platform, which is composed of eight modules, including the computerized aspheric precision measurement module (CAPM), computer-aided optical design of aspheric lens system (CAOD), computer-aided design of lens mould (CADLM), FEM(finite element method) simulation of lens molding module (FEMLM), computer-aided manufacture of lens and moulds (CAMLM), measurement data analysis module (MDAM), optical product lifecycle management module (OPLM) and cloud computing network module (CCNM). In this framework, the remote clients send an improved requirement or fabrication demand about optical lens system through CCNM, which transfers this signal to OPLM. In OPLM, one main server is in charge of the task distribution and collaborative work of other six modules. The first measurement data of aspheric lens are produced by clients or our proposed platform CAPM, then are sent to CAOD for optimization and the electronic drawings of lens moulds are generated in CADLM module. According the design drawings, the FEMLM could give the lens-molding simulation parameters through FEM software. The simulation data are used for the second design of moulds in CADLM module. In this case, the moulds could be fabricated in CAMLM by ultra-precision machine, and the aspheric lens could be also produced by lens-molding machine in CAMLM. At last, the final shape of aspheric lens could be measured in CAPM and the data analysis could be conducted in MDAM module. Through the proposed framework, all the work described above could be performed coordinately. And the optimum design data of lens mould could be realized and saved, then shared by all the work team.

  15. Evaluation of internal boiler components and gases using a high-temperature infrared (IR) lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammaker, Robert G.; Colsher, Richard J.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Madding, Robert P.

    1996-03-01

    Fuel accounts for an average of seventy percent of the yearly operational and maintenance costs of all the fossil stations in the United States. This amounts to 30 billion dollars spent for fuel each year. In addition, federal and state environmental codes have been enforcing stricter regulations that demand cleaner environments, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are a by-product of the fossil fuel flame. If the burn of the flame inside a boiler could be optimized, the usage of fuel and the amounts of pollution produced would be significantly reduced, and many of the common boiler tube failures can be avoided. This would result in a major dollar savings to the utility industry, and would provide a cleaner environment. Accomplishing these goals will require a major effort from the designers and operators that manufacture, operate, and maintain the fossil stations. Over the past few years re-designed burners have been installed in many boilers to help control the temperatures and shape of the flame for better performance and NOx reduction. However, the measurement of the processes and components inside the furnace, that could assist in determining the desired conditions, can at times be very difficult due to the hostile hot environment. In an attempt to resolve these problems, the EPRI M&D Center and a core group of EPRI member utilities have undertaken a two-year project with various optical manufacturers, IR manufacturers, and IR specialists, to fully develop an optical lens that will withstand the high furnace temperatures. The purpose of the lens is to explore the possibilities of making accurate high temperature measurements of the furnace processes and components in an ever-changing harsh environment. This paper provides an introduction to EPRI's internal boiler investigation using an IR high temperature lens (HTL). The paper describes the objectives, approach, benefits, and project progress.

  16. Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator Design Based on Geometric Optics and Blackbody Radiation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jayroe, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Fresnel lenses have been used for years as solar concentrators in a variety of applications. Several variables effect the final design of these lenses including: lens diameter, image spot distance from the lens, and bandwidth focused in the image spot. Defining the image spot as the geometrical optics circle of least confusion and applying blackbody radiation equations the spot energy distribution can be determined. These equations are used to design a fresnel lens to produce maximum flux for a given spot size, lens diameter, and image distance. This approach results in significant increases in solar efficiency over traditional single wavelength designs.

  17. Freeform Lens Design for Scattering Data with General Radiant Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Cristian E.; Sabra, Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    We show the existence of a lens, when its lower face is given, such that it refracts radiation emanating from a planar source, with a given field of directions, into the far field that preserves a given distribution of energies. Conditions are shown under which the lens obtained is physically realizable. It is shown that the upper face of the lens satisfies a pde of Monge-Ampère type.

  18. Design and development of a zoom lens objective for the fast breeder test reactor periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Shukla, R.P.

    2003-10-01

    A three lens optically compensated zoom lens useful for the 5 meter long periscope in the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been designed, fabricated and tested. The zoom lens fabricated using radiation resistant glasses has a zoom ratio of 2.5 with a focal length range of l00 mm to 250 mm. The zoom lens objective has been designed for viewing the objects kept at a distance in the range of 1.5 m to 3 m from the objective lens. It is found that the zoom lens objective can be used for resolving objects with a linear resolution of 0.2 mm inside the reactor when viewed with an eye piece of focal length 50 mm. (author)

  19. Practical integrated design of a condenser-objective lens for transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenping; Wu Jian; Zhou Zhen; Gui Lijiang; Han Li

    2009-01-01

    A condenser-objective lens is designed through combination of separating and integrating to consider the effect of the front condenser field on its objective performance. A practical lens model including magnetic pole piece, magnetic circuit and coil windings is built to optimize its rear field. The front field can be integrated into the rear one by simply adjusting the position of the specimen and the excitation on the condenser-objective lens. Optical performance of the integrated lens is researched as both a condenser lens and an imaging one. The total aberrations at the specimen plane are 0.01nm under STEM operation mode and its spherical aberration coefficient is 1.5mm when being an imaging objective lens, which can meet for high resolution microanalysis and TEM imaging.

  20. Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing; Zheng, Huai; Qin, Zong; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bulong; Liu, Sheng

    2012-06-18

    A conformal phosphor coating can realize a phosphor layer with uniform thickness, which could enhance the angular color uniformity (ACU) of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging. In this study, a novel freeform lens was designed for simultaneous realization of LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating. The detailed algorithm of the design method, which involves an extended light source and double refractions, was presented. The packaging configuration of the LED modules and the modeling of the light-conversion process were also presented. Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations were conducted to validate the design method by comparisons with a conventional freeform lens. It is demonstrated that for the LED module with the present freeform lens, the illumination uniformity and ACU was 0.89 and 0.9283, respectively. The present freeform lens can realize equivalent illumination uniformity, but the angular color uniformity can be enhanced by 282.3% when compared with the conventional freeform lens.

  1. Design of Magnetic Charged Particle Lens Using Analytical Potential Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batat, A. H.; Yaseen, M. J.; Abbas, S. R.; Al-Amshani, M. S.; Hasan, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the current research was to benefit from the potential of the two cylindrical electric lenses to be used in the product a mathematical model from which, one can determine the magnetic field distribution of the charged particle objective lens. With aid of simulink in matlab environment, some simulink models have been building to determine the distribution of the target function and their related axial functions along the optical axis of the charged particle lens. The present study showed that the physical parameters (i.e., the maximum value, Bmax, and the half width W of the field distribution) and the objective properties of the charged particle lens have been affected by varying the main geometrical parameter of the lens named the bore radius R.

  2. Design of an Acceleration / Deceleration Lens System for Ion Beam Focusing Emerging from Penning Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khabeary, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, design of the deceleration lens system has been done by using SIMION 3D version 7.0 computer program. A parallel beam of singly charged argon ions of diameter 2. mm with energy of 5 KeV emerging from Penning ion source was started at a distance of 140 mm before entering the Einzel lens system (three cylinder electrodes ). In order to design this deceleration lens system, two and three cylinder lenses with different parameters are studied. Ion beam emittance as a function of the gap width of the deceleration lens system has been studied for singly charged argon ion trajectories. Influence of the deceleration voltage applied on the deceleration electrode with different voltages of the four electrodes on the ion beam emittance has been investigated with gap widths of 3, 7, 9, 11 and 15 nun. The deceleration lens system was also used as an acceleration lens system by changing and optimising the voltage on each electrode of the deceleration lens system and of the intermediate electrode of the Einzel lens

  3. Attitudes towards Internationalism through the Lens of Cognitive Effort, Global Mindset, and Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joan; Platania, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we examine attitudes towards internationalism through the lens of a specific set of constructs necessary in defining an effective global leader. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates responded to items measuring need for cognition, cultural intelligence, and a set of items measuring the correlates of global mindset. In…

  4. Dose to the lens of the eye when scanning internal auditory meati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    With particular reference to the lens of the eye when CT scanning the internal auditory meati (IAMs), the practice of angling the scanner gantry to avoid the orbits completely justifies itself, reducing dosage to 5% of that given by a pre-orbital scan. (author)

  5. Improving the lens design and performance of a contemporary electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, Andreas; Smith, Nathan B.; Sankin, Georgy; Kuntz, Nicholas John; Madden, John Francis; Fovargue, Daniel E.; Mitran, Sorin; Lipkin, Michael Eric; Simmons, Walter Neal; Preminger, Glenn M.; Zhong, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), a noninvasive first-line therapy for millions of nephrolithiasis patients, has not improved substantially in the past two decades, especially in regard to stone clearance. Here, we report a new acoustic lens design for a contemporary electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripter, based on recently acquired knowledge of the key lithotripter field characteristics that correlate with efficient and safe SWL. The new lens design addresses concomitantly three fundamental drawbacks in EM lithotripters, namely, narrow focal width, nonidealized pulse profile, and significant misalignment in acoustic focus and cavitation activities with the target stone at high output settings. Key design features and performance of the new lens were evaluated using model calculations and experimental measurements against the original lens under comparable acoustic pulse energy (E+) of 40 mJ. The −6-dB focal width of the new lens was enhanced from 7.4 to 11 mm at this energy level, and peak pressure (41 MPa) and maximum cavitation activity were both realigned to be within 5 mm of the lithotripter focus. Stone comminution produced by the new lens was either statistically improved or similar to that of the original lens under various in vitro test conditions and was significantly improved in vivo in a swine model (89% vs. 54%, P = 0.01), and tissue injury was minimal using a clinical treatment protocol. The general principle and associated techniques described in this work can be applied to design improvement of all EM lithotripters. PMID:24639497

  6. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  7. Millimeter positron focusing using a hybrid lens design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C.K.; Kwan, P.Y.; Shan, Y.Y.; Naik, P.S.; Weng, H.M.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2004-01-01

    The study of metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor systems with low energy positrons is made considerably easier if structures of millimeter dimension can be studied. For this reason the production of a positron beam of sub-millimeter dimension has been a long-term goal of the positron research group at the university of Hong Kong. The hybrid lens system employed consists of a standard Soa extraction lens in a magnetic field free region followed by a gridded Einzel lens that focuses positrons into a 100G magnetic funnel at an energy of 10keV for transportation to the target. Here we report on the present progress, by showing the capability of obtaining millimeter diameter focusing at a preliminary 7.5 kV beam energy. (orig.)

  8. Design method of freeform light distribution lens for LED automotive headlamp based on DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianshe; Huang, Jianwei; Su, Ping; Cui, Yao

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform light distribution lens for light-emitting diode (LED) automotive headlamp based on digital micro mirror device (DMD). With the Parallel optical path architecture, the exit pupil of the illuminating system is set in infinity. Thus the principal incident rays of micro lens in DMD is parallel. DMD is made of high speed digital optical reflection array, the function of distribution lens is to distribute the emergent parallel rays from DMD and get a lighting pattern that fully comply with the national regulation GB 25991-2010.We use DLP 4500 to design the light distribution lens, mesh the target plane regulated by the national regulation GB 25991-2010 and correlate the mesh grids with the active mirror array of DLP4500. With the mapping relations and the refraction law, we can build the mathematics model and get the parameters of freeform light distribution lens. Then we import its parameter into the three-dimensional (3D) software CATIA to construct its 3D model. The ray tracing results using Tracepro demonstrate that the Illumination value of target plane is easily adjustable and fully comply with the requirement of the national regulation GB 25991-2010 by adjusting the exit brightness value of DMD. The theoretical optical efficiencies of the light distribution lens designed using this method could be up to 92% without any other auxiliary lens.

  9. Computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Eric [San Francisco, CA; Riot, Vincent [Oakland, CA; Coffee, Keith [Diablo Grande, CA; Woods, Bruce [Livermore, CA; Tobias, Herbert [Kensington, CA; Birch, Jim [Albany, CA; Weisgraber, Todd [Brentwood, CA

    2011-11-22

    A computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack, using input from a designer related to, for example, particle size range to be considered, characteristics of the gas to be flowed through the system, the upstream temperature and pressure at the top of a first focusing lens, the flow rate through the aerodynamic focusing lens stack equivalent at atmosphere pressure; and a Stokes number range. Based on the design parameters, the method and system determines the total number of focusing lenses and their respective orifice diameters required to focus the particle size range to be considered, by first calculating for the orifice diameter of the first focusing lens in the Stokes formula, and then using that value to determine, in iterative fashion, intermediate flow values which are themselves used to determine the orifice diameters of each succeeding focusing lens in the stack design, with the results being output to a designer. In addition, the Reynolds numbers associated with each focusing lens as well as exit nozzle size may also be determined to enhance the stack design.

  10. Designing and testing glaser lens for focusing low energy charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    A Glaser lens is an iron shielded solenoid magnet having bell-shaped distribution of axial field along the central z-axis. Like a simple solenoid, it also rotates the beam about the axis and focuses it. The axial field can be generated analytically from one of the several devised expressions for scalar potentials or it can be computed using 2D codes. One or more of the methods can be used to set the geometrical and electrical parameters of a Glaser solenoid of particular focal length (f) for focusing a beam of given rigidity (Bρ). The measured field data along the axis of a designed and constructed lens is used to verify the design. A scheme of sectionalizing a thick lens into a number of thin lenses improves the values of the cardinal points. The section model is proposed for the first time to track particles through an accurately designed Glaser solenoid. It can be used to study electric and magnetic combined lens and/ or uni-potential lens too. It is of interest and benefit for the accelerator persons in general and lens designers in particular. (author)

  11. Athermal design for mid-wave infrared lens with long EFFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Tingwen

    2016-10-01

    When the environment temperature has changed, then each parameter in infrared lens has also changed, thus the image quality became bad, so athermal technology is one of key technology in designing infrared lens. The temperature influence of each parameter in infrared lens is analyzed in the paper. In the paper, an athermal mid-wave infrared optical system with long focal length by Code-v optical design software was presented. The parameters of the athermal infrared system are 4.0 f/number, 704mm effective focal length (EFL) , 1° field of view and 3.7-4.8 μm spectrum region 100% cold shield efficiency. When the spatial frequency is 16lp/mm, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of all the field of view was above 0.5 from the working temperature range -40° to 60°. From the image quality and thermal analysis result, we knew that the lens had good athermal performance.

  12. The sloan lens acs survey. II. Stellar populations and internal structure of early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Léon V.; Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    We use HST images to derive effective radii and effective surface brightnesses of 15 early-type (E+S0) lens galaxies identified by the SLACS Survey. Our measurements are combined with stellar velocity dispersions from the SDSS database to investigate for the first time the distribution of lens

  13. Mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lithium lens and transformer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.; Hojvat, C.; Lennox, A.J.; Biallas, G.; Cilyo, F.; Leininger, M.; McCarthy, J.; Sax, W.; Snowdon, S.

    1983-03-01

    A lithium-lens focusing device will be used for the collection of 8-GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab Tevatron I Project. The details of the mechanical and electrical design of the Fermilab lens and its associated toroidal transformer are discussed. The lens, with a radium of 1 cm and length 15 cm, is expected to achieve gradients of 1000 T/m for a focal distance of 0.225 m. The gradient requires a current on the order of 5 x 10 5 A, resulting in large electromagnetic and thermal stresses. The power-supply discharge current and the effect of the inductance of the power leads and connections are minimized by the use of a toroidal matching transformer surrounding the lens itself

  14. High convergence efficiency design of flat Fresnel lens with large aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jieyao; Zhao, Changming; Guan, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    This paper designed a circle-shaped Fresnel lens with large aperture as part of the solar pumped laser design project. The Fresnel lens designed in this paper simulate in size 1000mm×1000mm, focus length 1200mm and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material in order to conduct high convergence efficiency. In the light of design requirement of concentric ring with same width of 0.3mm, this paper proposed an optimized Fresnel lens design based on previous sphere design and conduct light tracing simulation in Matlab. This paper also analyzed the effect of light spot size, light intensity distribution, optical efficiency under four conditions, monochromatic parallel light, parallel spectrum light, divergent monochromatic light and sunlight. Design by 550nm wavelength and under the condition of Fresnel reflection, the results indicated that the designed lens could convergent sunlight in diffraction limit of 11.8mm with a 78.7% optical efficiency, better than the sphere cutting design results of 30.4%.

  15. Spatial filter lens design for the main laser of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korniski, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), being designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), comprises 192 laser beams The lasing medium is neodymium in phosphate glass with a fundamental frequency (1ω) of 1 053microm Sum frequency generation in a pair of conversion crystals (KDP/KD*P) will produce 1 8 megajoules of the third harmonic light (3ω or λ=351microm) at the target The purpose of this paper is to provide the lens design community with the current lens design details of the large optics in the Main Laser This paper describes the lens design configuration and design considerations of the Main Laser The Main Laser is 123 meters long and includes two spatial filters one 13 5 meters and one 60 meters These spatial filters perform crucial beam filtering and relaying functions We shall describe the significant lens design aspects of these spatial filter lenses which allow them to successfully deliver the appropriate beam characteristic onto the target For an overview of NIF please see ''Optical system design of the National Ignition Facility,'' by R Edward English. et al also found in this volume

  16. Design and Optimization of Fresnel Lens for High Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical optimization design is proposed, in which the solar direct light spectrum and multijunction cell response range are taken into account in combination, particularly for the Fresnel concentrators with a high concentration and a small aspect ratio. In addition, the change of refractive index due to temperature variation in outdoor operation conditions is also considered in the design stage. The calculation results show that this novel Fresnel lens achieves an enhancement of energy efficiency of about 10% compared with conventional Fresnel lens for a given solar spectrum, solar cell response, and corrected sunshine hours of different ambient temperature intervals.

  17. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power.

  18. Micro sized implantable ball lens-based fiber optic probe design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    A micro sized implantable ball lens-based fiber optic probe design is described for continuous monitoring of brain activity in freely behaving mice. A prototype uses a 500-micron ball lens and a highly flexible 350-micron-diameter fiber bundle, which are enclosed by a 21G stainless steel sheath. Several types and thickness of brain tissue, consisting of fluorescent probes such as GFP, GCaMP3 calcium indicator, are used to evaluate the performance of the imaging probe. Measured working distance is approximately 400-μm, but is long enough to detect neural activities from cortical and cerebellar tissues of mice brain.

  19. Design and analysis of all-dielectric subwavelength focusing flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we numerically designed and experimentally demonstrated a compact photonic structure for the subwavelength focusing of light using all-dielectric absorption-free and nonmagnetic scattering objects distributed in an air medium. In order to design the subwavelength focusing flat lens, an evolutionary algorithm is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method for determining the locations of cylindrical scatterers. During the multi-objective optimization process, a specific objective function is defined to reduce the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and diminish side lobe level (SLL) values of light at the focal point. The time-domain response of the optimized flat lens exhibits subwavelength light focusing with an FWHM value of 0.19λ and an SLL value of 0.23, where λ denotes the operating wavelength of light. Experimental analysis of the proposed flat lens is conducted in a microwave regime and findings exactly verify the numerical results with an FWHM of 0.192λ and an SLL value of 0.311 at the operating frequency of 5.42 GHz. Moreover, the designed flat lens provides a broadband subwavelength focusing effect with a 9% bandwidth covering frequency range of 5.10 GHz-5.58 GHz, where corresponding FWHM values remain under 0.21λ. Also, it is important to note that the designed flat lens structure performs a line focusing effect. Possible applications of the designed structure in telecom wavelengths are speculated upon for future perspectives. Namely, the designed structure can perform well in photonic integrated circuits for different fields of applications such as high efficiency light coupling, imaging and optical microscopy, with its compact size and ability for strong focusing.

  20. Optical design of transmitter lens for asymmetric distributed free space optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Traczyk, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    We present a method of transmitter lens design dedicated for light distribution shaping on a curved and asymmetric target. In this context, target is understood as a surface determined by hypothetical optical detectors locations. In the proposed method, ribbon-like surfaces of arbitrary shape are considered. The designed lens has the task to transform collimated and generally non-uniform input beam into desired irradiance distribution on such irregular targets. Desired irradiance is associated with space-dependant efficiency of power flow between the source and receivers distributed on the target surface. This unconventional nonimaging task is different from most illumination or beam shaping objectives, where constant or prescribed irradiance has to be produced on a flat target screen. The discussed optical challenge comes from the applications where single transmitter cooperates with multitude of receivers located in various positions in space and oriented in various directions. The proposed approach is not limited to optical networks, but can be applied in a variety of other applications where nonconventional irradiance distribution has to be engineered. The described method of lens design is based on geometrical optics, radiometry and ray mapping philosophy. Rays are processed as a vector field, each of them carrying a certain amount of power. Having the target surface shape and orientation of receivers distribution, the rays-surface crossings map is calculated. It corresponds to the output rays vector field, which is referred to the calculated input rays spatial distribution on the designed optical surface. The application of Snell's law in a vector form allows one to obtain surface local normal vector and calculate lens profile. In the paper, we also present the case study dealing with exemplary optical network. The designed freeform lens is implemented in commercially available optical design software and irradiance three-dimensional spatial distribution is

  1. Design Research through the Lens of Sociology of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Hilde Østerås; Seim, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    The use of an approach to design research inspired by Sociology of Technology offers a nuanced understanding of design processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how terminology derived from the socio-technical theory of Actor Network (ANT) can be used to understand the complexity of design...... processes by viewing these processes as building and alignment of networks. The applicability of ANT in design research is demonstrated in an analysis of an action research based case study. In this case study a socio-technical approach called “workspace design” is employed in a process of re......-design of existing workspace and work practice in an industrial company. The case study (i) illustrates a socio-technical approach to design research and (ii) shows how ANT terminology can be applied in an analysis of the course of events in a design process with numerous actors involved....

  2. The International School Industry: Examining International Schools through an Economic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2006-01-01

    Based upon the results of a quantitative analysis of tuition revenues generated by international schools, it is argued that international schools can be examined in terms of a global multi-billion dollar industry and that business theory can be, and is being, applied in international schools today. This article proposes that international schools…

  3. Design of retinal-projection-based near-eye display with contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhang; Chen, Chao Ping; Mi, Lantian; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jingxin; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Weiqian; Yu, Bing; Li, Yang; Maitlo, Nizamuddin

    2018-04-30

    We propose a design of a retinal-projection-based near-eye display for achieving ultra-large field of view, vision correction, and occlusion. Our solution is highlighted by a contact lens combo, a transparent organic light-emitting diode panel, and a twisted nematic liquid crystal panel. Its design rules are set forth in detail, followed by the results and discussion regarding the field of view, angular resolution, modulation transfer function, contrast ratio, distortion, and simulated imaging.

  4. New reversing freeform lens design method for LED uniform illumination with extended source and near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhili; Zhang, Honghai; Zheng, Huai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In light-emitting diode (LED) array illumination (e.g. LED backlighting), obtainment of high uniformity in the harsh condition of the large distance height ratio (DHR), extended source and near field is a key as well as challenging issue. In this study, we present a new reversing freeform lens design algorithm based on the illuminance distribution function (IDF) instead of the traditional light intensity distribution, which allows uniform LED illumination in the above mentioned harsh conditions. IDF of freeform lens can be obtained by the proposed mathematical method, considering the effects of large DHR, extended source and near field target at the same time. In order to prove the claims, a slim direct-lit LED backlighting with DHR equal to 4 is designed. In comparison with the traditional lenses, illuminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens increases significantly from 0.45 to 0.84, and CV(RMSE) decreases dramatically from 0.24 to 0.03 in the harsh condition. Meanwhile, luminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens is obtained as high as 0.92 at the condition of extended source and near field. This new method provides a practical and effective way to solve the problem of large DHR, extended source and near field for LED array illumination.

  5. Mechanical design of a power-adjustable spectacle lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Asuncion; Barbero, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    Power-adjustable spectacle lenses, based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle, can be used to provide affordable spectacles for subjective refractive errors measurement and its correction. A new mechanical frame has been designed to maximize the advantages of this technology. The design includes a mechanism to match the interpupillary distance with that of the optical centers of the lenses. The frame can be manufactured using low cost plastic injection molding techniques. A prototype has been built to test the functioning of this mechanical design.

  6. The protection of juveniles under Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ojong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the legislative framework on the adminitration of juvenile justice in Cameroon may currently be adequate and in compliance with the international conventions ratified by the State, the implementation of the national law should be the primary mechanism through which human rights are realized. Cameroon is usually said to be a State with good laws but poor implementation. With recourse to the normative and empirical methods, this article explores the provisions on the protection of juveniles in Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of internationally recognized principles. It looks at the provisions as they are interpreted and applied by the Courts. The prospect being to invite the Government and all the stakeholders to embark on establishing the structures provided for and ensure effectiveness in the enforcement of juvenile justice in the country so as to overcome the current weaknesses that the system is experiencing.

  7. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurh, P.G.; Tang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam. For the

  8. The design of a liquid lithium lens for a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.; Geer, S.; Hassanein, A.; Holtkamp, N.; Lebrun, P.; Neuffer, D.; Norem, J.; Palmer, R.; Reed, C.; Silvestrov, G.; Spentzouris, P.; Tollestrup, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The last stage of ionization cooling for the muon collider requires a multistage liquid lithium lens. This system uses a large (approximately0.5 MA) pulsed current through liquid lithium to focus the beam while energy loss in the lithium removes momentum which is replaced by linacs. The beam optics are designed to maximize the 6 dimensional transmission from one lens to the next while minimizing emittance growth. The mechanical design of the lithium vessel is constrained by a pressure pulse due to the sudden ohmic heating, and the stress on the Be window. The authors describe beam optics, the liquid lithium pressure vessel, pumping, power supplies, as well as the overall optimization of the system

  9. Beyond Reflection through an Academic Lens: Refraction and International Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Monica; Roselle, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Students today are becoming more interested in international opportunities for study, and are drawn to alternative programs such as international service learning and international internships. These programs, however, must be carefully designed. In this paper, the authors propose using tools that go beyond the traditional understanding of…

  10. Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Fei; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Xiaobing; Liu, Sheng

    2010-01-18

    Application specific LED packaging (ASLP) is an emerging technology for high performance LED lighting. We introduced a practical design method of compact freeform lens for extended sources used in ASLP. A new ASLP for road lighting was successfully obtained by integrating a polycarbonate compact freeform lens of small form factor with traditional LED packaging. Optical performance of the ASLP was investigated by both numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo ray tracing method and experiments. Results demonstrated that, comparing with traditional LED module integrated with secondary optics, the ASLP had advantages of much smaller size in volume (approximately 1/8), higher system lumen efficiency (approximately 8.1%), lower cost and more convenience for customers to design and assembly, enabling possible much wider applications of LED for general road lighting. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. Installation errors of horizontal and vertical deviations had more effects on the shape and uniformity of radiation pattern compared with rotational deviation. The tolerances of horizontal, vertical and rotational deviations of this lens were 0.11 mm, 0.14 mm and 2.4 degrees respectively, which were acceptable in engineering.

  11. Measurements of a Newly Designed BPM for the Tevatron Electron Lens 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpine, V. E.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Fellenz, B.; Olson, M.; Kuznetsov, G.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Shiltsev, V. D.; Zhang, X. L.

    2006-11-01

    Fermilab has developed a second electron lens (TEL-2) for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron as part of its Run II upgrade program. Operation of the beam position monitors (BPMs) in the first electron lens (TEL-1) showed a systematic transverse position difference between short proton bunches (2 ns sigma) and long electron pulses (˜1 us) of up to ˜1.5 mm. This difference was attributed to frequency dependence in the BPM system. The TEL-2 BPMs utilize a new, compact four-plate design with grounding strips between plates to minimize crosstalk. In-situ measurements of these new BPMs are made using a stretched wire pulsed with both proton and electron beam formats. In addition, longitudinal impedance measurements of the TEL-2 are presented. Signal processing algorithm studies indicate that the frequency-dependent transverse position offset may be reduced to ˜0.1 mm for the beam structures of interest.

  12. Performance of a slow positron beam using a hybrid lens design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C.K.; Naik, P.S.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Weng, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Hong Kong positron beam employs conventional magnetic field transport to the target, but has a special hybrid lens design around the positron moderator that allows the beam to be focused to millimeter spot sizes at the target. The good focusing capabilities of the beam are made possible by extracting work-function positrons from the moderator in a magnetic field free region using a conventional Soa lens thus minimizing beam canonical angular momentum. An Einzel lens is used to focus the positrons into the magnetic funnel at the end of transportation magnetic field while at the same time bringing up the beam energy to the intermediate value of 7.5 keV. The beam is E x B filtered at this intermediate energy. The final beam energy is obtained by floating the Soa-Einzel system, E x B filter and flight tube, and accelerating the positrons just before the target. External beam steering saddle coils fine tune the position, and the magnetic field around the target chamber is adjusted so as to keep one of the beam foci always on the target. The system is fully computer controlled. Variable energy-Doppler broadened annihilation radiation (VEDBAR) data for a GaN sample are shown which demonstrate the performance of the positron beam system

  13. Improved design of three-dimensional lens for low concentrator PV modules; Teishukogata taiyo denchiyo sanjigen lens no koseinoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma, S; Yoshioka, K; Saito, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Attention is paid to reduction in area required for solar cells by solar concentration as a means of solving cost limits of solar cells and unstable supply of Si materials. Low concentration solar cells are effective from the aspects of utilization of scattered light and unnecessary ray tracing. The optical concentration ratio was calculated of three-dimensional lens having design values of various north/south and east/west direction allowable incidence half angles. The three-dimensional lens are designed by cutting a rectangular parallelepiped by the two-dimensional composite elliptical plane designed by various allowable incidence half angles from two directions of north/south and east/west. Using Perez`s sky solar radiation models and meteorological data HASP, calculated were the annual accumulated global radiation ratio on an inclined surface and the optical efficiency. Calculated were the solar cell area ratio and solar concentration area ratio of the concentration type to obtain solar radiation the same as that of the planar type. From the optimization calculation, it was found that lens are optimal which have design values of north/south and east/west direction allowable incidence half angles of 30-70deg. The solar cell area ratio is 57% and the solar concentration area ratio is 1.2 times. It was found that by making the module area 1.2 times, more than 40% of the solar cells used can be saved. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Design and development of permanent magnet based focusing lens for J-Band Klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kumud; Itteera, Janvin; Ukarde, Priti; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K., E-mail: kumuds@barc.gov.in [Control Instrumentation Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Bandyopadhay, Ayan; Meena, Rakesh; Rawat, Vikram; Joshi, L.M [Microwave Tubes Division, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India)

    2014-07-01

    Applying permanent magnet technology to beam focusing in klystrons can reduce their power consumption and increase their reliability of operation. Electromagnetic design of the beam focusing elements, for high frequency travelling wave tubes, is very critical. The magnitude and profile of the magnetic field need to match the optics requirement from beam dynamics studies. The rise of the field from cathode gun region to the uniform field region (RF section) is important as the desired transition from zero to peak axial field must occur over a short axial distance. Confined flow regime is an optimum choice to minimize beam scalloping but demands an axial magnetic field greater than 2 - 3 times the Brillouin flow field. This necessitates optimization in the magnet design achieve high magnetic field within given spatial constraints. Electromagnetic design and simulations were done using 3D Finite element method (FEM) analysis software. A permanent magnet based focusing lens for a miniature J-Band klystron has been designed and developed at Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper presents the design, simulation studies, beam transmission and RF tests results for J Band klystron with permanent magnet focusing lens. (author)

  15. Analytic free-form lens design for imaging applications with high aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan Carlos; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    A new three-dimensional analytic optics design method is presented that enables the coupling of three ray sets with only two free-form lens surfaces. Closely related to the Simultaneous Multiple Surface method in three dimensions (SMS3D), it is derived directly from Fermat's principle, leading to multiple sets of functional differential equations. The general solution of these equations makes it possible to calculate more than 80 coefficients for each implicit surface function. Ray tracing simulations of these free-form lenses demonstrate superior imaging performance for applications with high aspect ratio, compared to conventional rotational symmetric systems.

  16. Design and evaluation of a freeform lens by using a method of luminous intensity mapping and a differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essameldin, Mahmoud; Fleischmann, Friedrich; Henning, Thomas; Lang, Walter

    2017-02-01

    Freeform optical systems are playing an important role in the field of illumination engineering for redistributing the light intensity, because of its capability of achieving accurate and efficient results. The authors have presented the basic idea of the freeform lens design method at the 117th annual meeting of the German Society of Applied Optics (DGAOProceedings). Now, we demonstrate the feasibility of the design method by designing and evaluating a freeform lens. The concepts of luminous intensity mapping, energy conservation and differential equation are combined in designing a lens for non-imaging applications. The required procedures to design a lens including the simulations are explained in detail. The optical performance is investigated by using a numerical simulation of optical ray tracing. For evaluation, the results are compared with another recently published design method, showing the accurate performance of the proposed method using a reduced number of mapping angles. As a part of the tolerance analyses of the fabrication processes, the influence of the light source misalignments (translation and orientation) on the beam-shaping performance is presented. Finally, the importance of considering the extended light source while designing a freeform lens using the proposed method is discussed.

  17. Preliminary Mechanical Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Carlo; Gobbi, Giorgia; Perini, Diego; Stancari, Giulio

    2017-07-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a hollow beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic field that drives the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters is analyzed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the feasibility study of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar devices.

  18. Preliminary Mechanical Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Carlo [CERN; Gobbi, Giorgia [CERN; Perini, Diego [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a hollow beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic field that drives the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters is analyzed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the feasibility study of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar devices.

  19. Challenges of implementating a doctoral program in an international exchange in Cuba through the lens of Kanter's empowerment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Judith M; Abdul Hernandéz, C

    2014-08-01

    The literature in international education focuses primarily on the experiences of western students in developing countries, international students in western universities, the development of an educational program in a developing country, or internationalization of curricula in western universities. There is little in the literature that addresses the challenges students and participating faculty face when implementing a graduate program in a developing country. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the challenges of implementing a doctoral program in an international exchange through the lens of Kanter's theory of empowerment. Recommendations to address these challenges will be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Symmetric lens with extended depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2008-01-01

    The lens surface profile is derived based on the instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data. The lens design based on instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data has many useful applications in software assisted image focusing technology.

  1. The rectenna design on contact lens for wireless powering of the active intraocular pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H W; Jeng, B M; Chen, C Y; Huang, H Y; Chiou, J C; Luo, C H

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a wireless power harvesting system with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication for noninvasive intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement on soft contact lens substructure. The power harvesting IC consists of a loop antenna, an impedance matching network and a rectifier. The proposed IC has been designed and fabricated by CMOS 0.18 um process that operates at the ISM band of 5.8 GHz. The antenna and the power harvesting IC would be bonded together by using flip chip bonding technologies without extra wire interference. The circuit utilized an impedance transformation circuit to boost the input RF signal that improves the circuit performance. The proposed design achieves an RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 35% at 5.8 GHz.

  2. Design and analysis of a curved cylindrical Fresnel lens that produces high irradiance uniformity on the solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C

    2009-04-10

    A new type of convex Fresnel lens for linear photovoltaic concentration systems is presented. The lens designed with this method reaches 100% of geometrical optical efficiency, and the ratio (Aperture area)/(Receptor area) is up to 75% of the theoretical limit. The main goal of the design is high uniformity of the radiation on the cell surface for each input angle inside the acceptance. The ratio between the maximum and the minimum irradiance on points of the solar cell is less than 2. The lens has been designed with the simultaneous multiple surfaces (SMS) method of nonimaging optics, and ray tracing techniques have been used to characterize its performance for linear symmetry systems.

  3. [System design of open-path natural gas leakage detection based on Fresnel lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Liu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Cui, Yi-Ben; Wang, Min; He, Ying; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Ruan, Jun; Geng, Hui

    2009-03-01

    Based on the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in conjunction with second harmonic wave detection, a long open-path TDLAS system using a 1.65 microm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser was developed, which is used for detecting pipeline leakage. In this system, a high cost performance Fresnel lens is used as the receiving optical system, which receives the laser-beam reflected by a solid corner cube reflector, and focuses the receiving laser-beam to the InGaAs detector. At the same time, the influences of the concentration to the fluctuation of light intensity were taken into account in the process of measurement, and were eliminated by the method of normalized light intensity. As a result, the measurement error caused by the fluctuation of light intensity was made less than 1%. The experiment of natural gas leakage detection was simulated, and the detection sensitivity is 0.1 x 10(-6) (ratio by volume) with a total path of 320 m. According to the receiving light efficiency of the optical system and the detectable minimum light intensity of the detector, the detectable maximal optical path of the system was counted to be 2 000 m. The results of experiment show that it is a feasible design to use the Fresnel lens as the receiving optical system and can satisfy the demand of the leakage detection of natural gas.

  4. Fitting an MSD (mini scleral design) rigid contact lens in advanced keratoconus with INTACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Sorbara, Luigina

    2011-12-01

    Keratoconus is a bilateral degenerative disease characterized by a non-inflammatory, progressive central corneal ectasia (typically asymmetric) and decreased vision. In its early stages it may be managed with spectacles and soft contact lenses but more commonly it is managed with rigid contact lenses. In advanced stages, when contact lenses can no longer be fit, have become intolerable, or corneal damage is severe, a penetrating keratoplasty is commonly performed. Alternative surgical techniques, such as the use of intra-stromal corneal ring segments (INTACS) have been developed to try and improve the fit of rigid contact lenses in keratoconic patients and avoid penetrating keratoplasties. This case report follows through the fitting of rigid contact lenses in an advanced keratoconic cornea after an INTACS procedure and discusses clinical findings, treatment options, and the use of mini-scleral and scleral lens designs as they relate to the challenges encountered in managing such a patient. Mini-scleral and scleral lenses are relatively easy to fit, and can be of benefit to many patients, including advanced keratoconic patients, post-INTAC patients and post-penetrating keratoplasty patients. 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  6. Graphic Designer/Production Coordinator | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Provides design and graphic services for print- and Web-based publishing;; Initiates designs and carries out ... process, ensuring that such suppliers meet appropriate standards of quality and service at reasonable cost; ... Internal Services.

  7. Direct design of achromatic lens for Lambertian sources in collimating illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Xu, Xiping; Jiang, Zhaoguo; Wang, Hongshu

    2017-10-01

    Illumination design used to redistribute the spatial energy distribution of light source is a key technique in lighting applications. However, there is still no effective illumination design method for the removing of the chromatic dispersion. What we present here is an achromatic lens design to enhance the efficiency and uniform illumination of white light-emitting diode (LED) with diffractive optical element (DOE). We employ the chromatic aberration value (deg) to measure the degree of chromatic dispersion in illumination systems. Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation results indicate that the chromatic dispersion of the modified achromatic collimator significantly decreases from 0.5 to 0.1 with LED chip size of 1.0mm×1.0mm and simulation efficiency of 90.73%, compared with the traditional collimator. Moreover, with different corrected wavelengths we compared different chromatic aberration values that followed with the changing pupil percent. The achromatic collimator provided an effective way to achieve white LED with low chromatic dispersion at high efficiency and uniform illumination.

  8. International differences in design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.C.; McFarlane, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review a number of separate research studies and civil engineering nuclear projects from the authors' experience, with a view to examining the apparent differences in approach taken by different nationalities in the civil engineering design and specification of nuclear facilities. In particular, the development of design codes applicable to the UK nuclear power industry is reviewed and comparisons made with the highly regulated approach adopted in other major nuclear power generating countries. Significant differences resulting from the use of specific design codes and regulations are identified. (author)

  9. Design and fabrication of PMMA-micromachined fluid lens based on electromagnetic actuation on PMMA–PDMS bonded membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Kyoo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Ju Chan; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kong, Seong Ho

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-micromachined fluid lens with an optimally designed built-in electromagnetic actuator was demonstrated in this study. Through a finite element method, the number of winding turns and the distance between magnetic moments were estimated to design an effective and miniaturized electromagnetic actuator. The lens body composed of PMMA structures was simply and rapidly micromachined using computer numerical control micro-milling. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes for electromagnetic actuation were bonded to the PMMA structures by using the proposed PMMA–PDMS bonding technique, which uses an SiO 2 intermediate layer. A physical repulsive force produced by the electromagnetic actuator applies a controllable fluidic pressure to a fluidic chamber that is sealed with the PDMS membrane, thus allowing dynamic focusing. The focus tunability of the fabricated lens was 67 diopters with a focus hysteresis of less than 1 mm and a response time of 2 ms. The solenoid of the built-in actuator showed negligible thermal crosstalk to the lens. (paper)

  10. All-optical microscope autofocus based on an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected IR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathe-Peters, M; Annibale, P; Lohse, M J

    2018-02-05

    Microscopic imaging at high spatial-temporal resolution over long time scales (minutes to hours) requires rapid and precise stabilization of the microscope focus. Conventional and commercial autofocus systems are largely based on piezoelectric stages or mechanical objective actuators. Objective to sample distance is either measured by image analysis approaches or by hardware modules measuring the intensity of reflected infrared light. We propose here a truly all-optical microscope autofocus taking advantage of an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected infrared probe beam. We implement a feedback-loop based on the lateral position of a totally internally reflected infrared laser on a quadrant photodetector, as an indicator of the relative defocus. We show here how to treat the combined contributions due to mechanical defocus and deformation of the tunable lens. As a result, the sample can be kept in focus without any mechanical movement, at rates up to hundreds of Hertz. The device requires only reflective optics and can be implemented at a fraction of the cost required for a comparable piezo-based actuator.

  11. International Peer Reviews of Design Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    International peer reviews: Design and safety assessment review service: - Review of design requirements; - Review in support of licensing; - Review in support of severe accident management; - Review in support of modifications; - Review in relation to periodic safety, or life extension; - Reviews take place at any time in NPP lifecycle from concept, through design and operations

  12. Business model design through a designer's lens : Translating, transferring and transforming cognitive configurations into action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.; Badke-Schaub, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic managers are challenged to take advantage of digitalisation opportunities related to services of social media and web 2.0 technologies. Business innovations such as crowd sourcing platforms require a new way of integrating business to technology, articulated in a new business model designs

  13. Optimization design of periscope type 3X zoom lens design for a five megapixel cellphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Chao, Yu-Hao; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a periscope type 3X zoom lenses design for a five megapixel cellphone camera. The configuration of optical system uses the right angle prism in front of the zoom lenses to change the optical path rotated by a 90° angle resulting in the zoom lenses length of 6 mm. The zoom lenses can be embedded in mobile phone with a thickness of 6 mm. The zoom lenses have three groups with six elements. The half field of view is varied from 30° to 10.89°, the effective focal length is adjusted from 3.142 mm to 9.426 mm, and the F-number is changed from 2.8 to 5.13.

  14. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  15. Trifocal intraocular lenses: a comparison of the visual performance and quality of vision provided by two different lens designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen KG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kjell G Gundersen,1 Rick Potvin2 1IFocus Øyeklinikk AS, Haugesund, Norway; 2Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USA Purpose: To compare two different diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL designs, evaluating longer-term refractive outcomes, visual acuity (VA at various distances, low contrast VA and quality of vision.Patients and methods: Patients with binocularly implanted trifocal IOLs of two different designs (FineVision [FV] and Panoptix [PX] were evaluated 6 months to 2 years after surgery. Best distance-corrected and uncorrected VA were tested at distance (4 m, intermediate (80 and 60 cm and near (40 cm. A binocular defocus curve was collected with the subject’s best distance correction in place. The preferred reading distance was determined along with the VA at that distance. Low contrast VA at distance was also measured. Quality of vision was measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire near subset and the Quality of Vision questionnaire.Results: Thirty subjects in each group were successfully recruited. The binocular defocus curves differed only at vergences of −1.0 D (FV better, P=0.02, −1.5 and −2.00 D (PX better, P<0.01 for both. Best distance-corrected and uncorrected binocular vision were significantly better for the PX lens at 60 cm (P<0.01 with no significant differences at other distances. The preferred reading distance was between 42 and 43 cm for both lenses, with the VA at the preferred reading distance slightly better with the PX lens (P=0.04. There were no statistically significant differences by lens for low contrast VA (P=0.1 or for quality of vision measures (P>0.3.Conclusion: Both trifocal lenses provided excellent distance, intermediate and near vision, but several measures indicated that the PX lens provided better intermediate vision at 60 cm. This may be important to users of tablets and other handheld devices. Quality of vision appeared similar between the two lens designs

  16. Design of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array for uniform light-emitting diode lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangzhen; Wang, Lili; Li, Fuli; Kong, Depeng

    2012-09-01

    One kind of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array is designed simply for LED lighting based on geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. This design method imposes no restriction on the source intensity pattern. The designed element has compact construction and can produce multiple shapes of illumination distribution. Taking square lighting as an example, tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits for applying the element in the assembly process. This element can produce on-axis lighting and off-axis lighting.

  17. Partner Positioning: Examining International Higher Education Partnerships through a Mutuality Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships…

  18. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  19. The neutronic design and performance of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Christopher M.

    Neutron scattering research is performed primarily at large-scale facilities. However, history has shown that smaller scale neutron scattering facilities can play a useful role in education and innovation while performing valuable materials research. This dissertation details the design and experimental validation of the LENS TMR as an example for a small scale accelerator driven neutron source. LENS achieves competitive long wavelength neutron intensities by employing a novel long pulse mode of operation, where the neutron production target is irradiated on a time scale comparable to the emission time of neutrons from the system. Monte Carlo methods have been employed to develop a design for optimal production of long wavelength neutrons from the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies ranging from 7 to 13 MeV proton energy. The neutron spectrum was experimentally measured using time of flight, where it is found that the impact of the long pulse mode on energy resolution can be eliminated at sub-eV neutron energies if the emission time distribution of neutron from the system is known. The emission time distribution from the TMR system is measured using a time focussed crystal analyzer. Emission time of the fundamental cold neutron mode is found to be consistent with Monte Carlo results. The measured thermal neutron spectrum from the water reflector is found to be in agreement with Monte Carlo predictions if the scattering kernels employed are well established. It was found that the scattering kernels currently employed for cryogenic methane are inadequate for accurate prediction of the cold neutron intensity from the system. The TMR and neutronic modeling have been well characterized and the source design is flexible, such that it is possible for LENS to serve as an effective test bed for future work in neutronic development. Suggestions for improvements to the design that would allow increased neutron flux into the instruments are provided.

  20. Human work interaction design meets international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, P.; Clemmensen, T.; Barricelli, B.R.

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  1. An International Collaboration in Nursing Education Viewed through the Lens of Critical Social Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, David N.; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli

    2002-01-01

    An international educational exchange program involving nursing students was examined using Habermas' theory of communicative action. Politics and economics were found to inhibit active communication and the potential benefits of shared understanding through interaction. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  2. Optical design of soft multifocal contact lens with uniform optical power in center-distance zone with optimized NURBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-02-05

    This study aims to develop a new optical design method of soft multifocal contact lens (CLs) to obtain uniform optical power in large center-distance zone with optimized Non-Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS). For the anterior surface profiles of CLs, the NURBS design curves are optimized to match given optical power distributions. Then, the NURBS in the center-distance zones are fitted in the corresponding spherical/aspheric curves for both data points and their centers of curvature to achieve the uniform power. Four cases of soft CLs have been manufactured by casting in shell molds by injection molding and then measured to verify the design specifications. Results of power profiles of these CLs are concord with the given clinical requirements of uniform powers in larger center-distance zone. The developed optical design method has been verified for multifocal CLs design and can be further applied for production of soft multifocal CLs.

  3. Design and Fabrication of a Radio Frequency GRIN Lens Using 3D Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    of focusing a uniform plane wave to a point outside the lens. We begin with the Eikonal limit approach, to provide a first estimate for the...wavelength, lenses that operate at RF wavelengths are physically only a few times larger than the wavelength. Therefore, approximations such as Eikonal ...challenges the Eikonal limit. A near-field solution has to be considered for more exact results. We compare the focal length calculated by this

  4. Smart Design : First International Conference Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Good product designs merge materials, technology and hardware into a unified user experience; one where the technology recedes into the background and people benefit from the capabilities and experiences available. By focusing on functional gain, critical awareness and emotive connection, even the most multifaceted and complex technology can be made to feel straightforward and become an integral part of daily life. Researchers, designers and developers must understand how to progress or appropriate the right technical and human knowledge to inform their innovations. The 1st International Smart Design conference provides a timely forum and bring together researchers and practitioners to discuss issues, identify challenges and future directions, and share their R&D findings and experiences in the areas of design, materials and technology. This proceedings of the 1st Smart Design conference held at Nottingham Trent University in November 2011 includes summaries of the talks given on topics ranging from intel...

  5. Design of TIR collimating lens for ordinary differential equation of extended light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianjing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The source of LED has been widely used in our daily life. The intensity angle distribution of single LED is lambert distribution, which does not satisfy the requirement of people. Therefore, we need to distribute light and change the LED's intensity angle distribution. The most commonly method to change its intensity angle distribution is the free surface. Generally, using ordinary differential equations to calculate free surface can only be applied in a point source, but it will lead to a big error for the expand light. This paper proposes a LED collimating lens based on the ordinary differential equation, combined with the LED's light distribution curve, and adopt the method of calculating the center gravity of the extended light to get the normal vector. According to the law of Snell, the ordinary differential equations are constructed. Using the runge-kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equation solution, the curve point coordinates are gotten. Meanwhile, the edge point data of lens are imported into the optical simulation software TracePro. Based on 1mm×1mm single lambert body for light conditions, The degrees of collimating light can be close to +/-3. Furthermore, the energy utilization rate is higher than 85%. In this paper, the point light source is used to calculate partial differential equation method and compared with the simulation of the lens, which improve the effect of 1 degree of collimation.

  6. Sequential Schooling or Lifelong Learning? International Frameworks through the Lens of English Higher Professional and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Stan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review three international frameworks, including the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), in relation to one country's higher professional and vocational education system. Design/methodology/approach: The frameworks were examined in the context of English higher work-related…

  7. Design of an internal dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of radiation dose is an essential element of radiation protection programs at nuclear facilities. To protect workers and demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, dosimetry programs must be established based on sound technical basis. Historically, external exposure was controlled by occupational dose limits. Internal exposure to radionuclides was limited by maximum permissible body burden and maximum permissible concentration. With the issuance of ICRP 26, ICRP 30, DOE Order 5480.11, DOE/EH-0256T, and the new 10 CFR 20, it has become a requirement that internal dose be assessed and the sum of internal and external doses be maintained below regulatory limits. Nuclear facilities are required to have internal dose evaluation programs adequate to demonstrate compliance with radiation protection standards (RPSs). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a DOE facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in an ancient salt bed 2,150 feet underground. Internal dose measurement is required to support waste handling activities. This paper describes the technical basis for the WIPP Internal Dosimetry Program. (author)

  8. Unique rod lens/video system designed to observe flow conditions in emergency core coolant loops of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques and equipment are described which are used for video recordings of the single- and two-phase fluid flow tests conducted with the PKL Spool Piece Measurement System designed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G Inc. The instrumented spool piece provides valuable information on what would happen in pressurized water reactor emergency coolant loops should an accident or rupture result in loss of fluid. The complete closed-circuit television video system, including rod lens, light supply, and associated spool mounting fixtures, is discussed in detail. Photographic examples of test flows taken during actual spool piece system operation are shown

  9. Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…

  10. Monitoring programmes for internal exposure: designing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. It can be also used as a tool for making the standing programmes consistent with the most recent publications on internal dosimetry, such as ISO 20553 'Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material', specific publications of the IAEA and ICRP, and including the conclusions of the OMINEX Project ('Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposures') and IDEAS Project. It is established that the general purpose of the monitoring is verify that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and document that the protection complies with legal requirements. The criteria for a particular monitoring programme designing is based on the magnitude of the probable intake and the possibility of detecting a significant event when it occurs. So, the risk assessment for each work process must be evaluated and each worker is classified accordingly. This classification implies the acceptance of reference effective dose values (1 y 6 mSv/y ). (author) [es

  11. International tokamak reactor conceptual design overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) Workshop is an unique collaborative effort among Euratom, Japan, the USA and the USSR, under the auspices of the IAEA, to assess, define, design, construct and operate the next major experiment in the World Tokamak Program beyond the TFTR, JET, JT-60, T-15 generation. During the Zero-Phase (1979), a technical data base assessment was performed, leading to a positive assessment of feasibility. During Phase-I (1/80-6/81), a conceptual design was developed to define the concept. The programmatic objectives are that INTOR should: (1) be the maximum reasonable step beyond the TFTR, JET, JT-60, T-15 generation of tokamaks, (2) demonstrate the plasma performance required for tokamak DEMOs, (3) test the development and integration into a reactor system of those technologies required for a DEMO, (4) serve as a test facility for blanket, tritium production, materials, and plasma engineering technology, (5) test fusion reactor component reliability, (6) test the maintainability of a fusion reactor, and (7) test the factors affecting the reliability, safety and environmental acceptability of a fusion reactor. A conceptual design has been developed to define a device which is consistent with these objectives. The design concept could, with a reasonable degree of confidence, be developed into a workable engineering design of a tokamak that met the performance objectives of INTOR. There is some margin in the design to allow for uncertainty. While design solutions have been found for all of the critical issues, the overall design may not yet be optimal. (author)

  12. The Acoustic Lens Design and in Vivo Use of a Multifunctional Catheter Combining Intracardiac Ultrasound Imaging and Electrophysiology Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Cannata, Jonathan; Liu, Ruibin; Zhao, Jian Zhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Nguyen, Hien; Chia, Raymond; Dentinger, Aaron; Wildes, Douglas; Thomenius, Kai E.; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Kim, Kang; O’Donnell, Matthew; Sahn, David

    2009-01-01

    A multifunctional 9F intracardiac imaging and electrophysiology mapping catheter was developed and tested to help guide diagnostic and therapeutic intracardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures. The catheter tip includes a 7.25-MHz, 64-element, side-looking phased array for high resolution sector scanning. Multiple electrophysiology mapping sensors were mounted as ring electrodes near the array for electrocardiographic synchronization of ultrasound images. The catheter array elevation beam performance in particular was investigated. An acoustic lens for the distal tip array designed with a round cross section can produce an acceptable elevation beam shape; however, the velocity of sound in the lens material should be approximately 155 m/s slower than in tissue for the best beam shape and wide bandwidth performance. To help establish the catheter’s unique ability for integration with electrophysiology interventional procedures, it was used in vivo in a porcine animal model, and demonstrated both useful intracardiac echocardiographic visualization and simultaneous 3-D positional information using integrated electroanatomical mapping techniques. The catheter also performed well in high frame rate imaging, color flow imaging, and strain rate imaging of atrial and ventricular structures. PMID:18407850

  13. International tokamak reactor conceptual design overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) Workshop is an unique collaborative effort among Euratom, Japan, the USA and USSR. The Zero-Phase of the INTOR Workshop, which was conducted during 1979, assessed the technical data base that would support the construction of the next major device in the tokamak program to operate in the early 1990s and defined the objectives and characteristics of this device. The INTOR workshop was extended into phase-1, the Definition Phase, in early 1980. The objective of the Phase-1 Workshop was to develop a conceptual design of the INTOR experiment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the work of the Phase-1 INTOR Workshop (January 1980-June 1981, with emphasis upon the conceptual design

  14. Lens Systems Incorporating A Zero Power Corrector Principle Of The Design And Its Application In Large Aperture, Moderate Field Of View Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H. W.; McDowell, M. W.

    1986-02-01

    A new lens design concept, based on the use of a zero (or near zero) power corrector, will be described. The logical development of the design, based on the work of Schmidt', Houghton' and others will be discussed and examples will be given of moderate field of view lenses with apertures ranging from f/0.35 to f/2. It will also be shown that the lens configuration is relatively insensitive to the aperture stop location and that for less demanding applications only very basic optical glass types need be used.

  15. An International Academic Partnership through a Policy Implementation Lens: Top-Down, Bottom-Up or Somewhere in Between?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieser, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Leaders of higher education institutions are eager to identify effective internationalization strategies in today's fast-paced, interconnected global environment. International academic partnerships are a common yet understudied strategy designed to take advantage of globalization's opportunities and to meet an institution's internationalization…

  16. International linear collider reference design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  17. International linear collider reference design report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R and D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade

  18. Motion-free hybrid design laser beam propagation analyzer using a digital micromirror device and a variable focus liquid lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2010-06-01

    To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.

  19. Contrast visual acuity after multifocal intraocular lens implantation:aspheric versus spherical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate contrast visual acuity (CVA after implantation of an aspheric apodized diffractive intraocular lens (IOL or a spherical apodized diffractive IOL in cataract surgery.METHOD: This prospective randomized controlled study with a 12-month follow-up compared the results of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL (30 eyes and a spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL (30 eyes. CVA with best distance correction was measured at 4 contrast levels (100%, 25%, 10% and 5% under 3 levels of chart luminance [250, 85 and 25 candelas per square meter (cd/m2] using a multi-functional visual acuity tester (MFVA-100.RESULTS:At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in 100% CVA and 25% CVA under 250cd/m2 (P100%=0.875 and P25%=0.057 and 85cd/m2 (P100%=0.198 and P25%=0.193 between the aspheric group and the spherical group. However, the 10% CVA and 5% CVA were significant better in aspheric group than spherical group under 250cd/m2 (P10%=0.042 and P5%=0.007 and 85cd/m2 (P10%=0.002 and P5%=0.039. Under the luminance level of 25cd/m2, no significant differences was found in the 100% CVA between the 2 group (P100%=0.245, while aspheric group had better visual acuity in the remaining 3 contracts (P25%=0.023, P10%=0.026 and P5%=0.002, respectively.CONCULSION:The aspheric AcrySof ReSTOR SN6AD3 IOL provided patients with better low-contrast visual acuity than the spherical AcrySof ReSTOR SN60D3 IOL.Keyword:cataract surgery; intraocular lens; contrast sensitivity; visual acuity

  20. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  1. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  2. Principles for the design and calibration of radiation protection dosemeters for operational and protection quantities for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J. M.; Gualdrini, G.; Daures, J.; Mariotti, F.

    2011-01-01

    The work package two of the ORAMED project-Collaborative Project (2008-2011) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme-is devoted to the study of the eye lens dosimetry. A first approach is to implement the use of H p (3) by providing new sets of conversion coefficients and well suited calibration and type test procedures. This approach is presented in other papers in the proceedings of this conference. Taking into account that the eye lens is an organ close to the surface of the body, another approach would be to directly estimate the absorbed dose to the eye lens, D lens,est through a special calibration procedure although this quantity is not directly measurable. This paper is a methodological paper that tries to identify the critical aspects of a dosimetry in terms of D lens . (authors)

  3. Wood lens design philosophy based on a binary additive manufacturing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Peter L.; Bailey, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using additive manufacturing techniques in optical engineering to construct a gradient index (GRIN) optic may overcome a number of limitations of GRIN technology. Such techniques are maturing quickly, yielding additional design degrees of freedom for the engineer. How best to employ these degrees of freedom is not completely clear at this time. This paper describes a preliminary design philosophy, including assumptions, pertaining to a particular printing technique for GRIN optics. It includes an analysis based on simulation and initial component measurement.

  4. A study of optical design and optimization applied to lens module of laser beam shaping of advanced modern optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chen, Zhen Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    This study used the aspheric lens to realize the laser flat-top optimization, and applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Using the characteristics of aspheric lens to obtain the optimized high quality Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using two aspheric lenses in the aspheric surface optical system to complete 80% spot narrowing under standard deviation of 0.6142.

  5. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m(2) from 0.02m(2) (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope.

  6. Study on the quantitative rod internal pressure design criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Han, Hee Tak

    1991-01-01

    The current rod internal pressure criterion permits fuel rods to operate with internal pressures in excess of system pressure only if internal overpressure does not cause the diametral gap enlargement. In this study, the generic allowable internal gas pressure not violating this criterion is estimated as a function of rod power. The results show that the generic allowable internal gas pressure decreases linearly with the increase of rod power. Application of the generic allowable internal gas pressure for the rod internal pressure design criterion will result in the simplication of the current design procedure for checking the diametral gap enlargement caused by internal overpressure because according to the current design procedure the cladding creepout rate should be compared with the fuel swelling rate at each axial node at each time step whenever internal pressure exceeds the system pressure. (Author)

  7. 6th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This book details the state-of-the-art of research and development in design computing and design cognition. It features more than 35 papers that were presented at the Sixth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, DCC’14, held at University College, London, UK. Inside, readers will find the work of expert researchers and practitioners that explores both advances in theory and application as well as demonstrates the depth and breadth of design computing and design cognition. This interdisciplinary coverage, which includes material from international research groups, examines design synthesis, design cognition, design creativity, design processes, design theory, design grammars, design support, and design ideation. Overall, the papers provide a bridge between design computing and design cognition. The confluence of these two fields continues to build the foundation for further advances and leads to an increased understanding of design as an activity whose influence continues to spread. ...

  8. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  9. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  10. The garden and the layered landscape: landscape urbanism through the lens of garden design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.I.; Dahl, Caroline; Diedrich, Lisa; Lindholm, Gunilla; Vicenzotti, Vera; Vogel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    In the era of globalization, also landscape architects and urban designers have learnt to think big–in large scales and far-reaching visions. Landscape is called upon as the model and the medium of urbanism, feeding into a grand narrative of saving the day when architecture as the ordering principle

  11. Optics design for J-TEXT ECE imaging with field curvature adjustment lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, W. D.; Xie, J., E-mail: jlxie@ustc.edu.cn [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Chen, M.; Ren, X. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zhuang, G.; Yang, Z. [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas. Of particular importance has been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) for imaging T{sub e} fluctuations. Key to the success of ECEI is a large Gaussian optics system constituting a major portion of the focusing of the microwave radiation from the plasma to the detector array. Both the spatial resolution and observation range are dependent upon the imaging optics system performance. In particular, it is critical that the field curvature on the image plane is reduced to decrease crosstalk between vertical channels. The receiver optics systems for two ECEI on the J-TEXT device have been designed to ameliorate these problems and provide good performance with additional field curvature adjustment lenses with a meniscus shape to correct the aberrations from several spherical surfaces.

  12. 7th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the peer-reviewed and revised versions of papers from the Seventh International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC'16), held at Northwestern University, Evanston (Chicago), USA, from 27–29 June 2016. The material presented here reflects cutting-edge design research with a focus on artificial intelligence, cognitive science and computational theories. The papers are grouped under the following nine headings, describing advances in theory and applications alike and demonstrating the depth and breadth of design computing and design cognition: Design Creativity; Design Cognition - Design Approaches; Design Support; Design Grammars; Design Cognition - Design Behaviors; Design Processes; Design Synthesis; Design Activity and Design Knowledge. The book will be of particular interest to researchers, developers and users of advanced computation in design across all disciplines, and to all readers who need to gain a better understanding of designing.

  13. Brochure: Partnering by design | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... Partnerships are key to IDRC's business model. Other organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of research and turn to IDRC. IDRC partners with donors and international organizations to: Promote greater collaboration among research funders and enhance effectiveness in development ...

  14. Design Optimization of Internal Flow Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Ingemann

    The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies.......The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies....

  15. Hydroxyapatite implants with designed internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T M; Halloran, J W; Hollister, S J; Feinberg, S E

    2001-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft material in the clinics for decades. Traditionally, the pores in these HAs are either obtained from the coralline exoskeletal patterns or from the embedded organic particles in the starting HA powder. Both processes offer very limited control on the pore structure. A new method for manufacturing porous HA with designed pore channels has been developed. This method is essentially a lost-mold technique with negative molds made with Stereolithography and a highly loaded curable HA suspension as the ceramic carrier. Implants with designed channels and connection patterns were first generated from a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) software and Computer Tomography (CT) data. The negative images of the designs were used to build the molds on a stereolithography apparatus with epoxy resins. A 40 vol% HA suspension in propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate (PNPGDA) and iso-bornyl acrylate (IBA) was formulated. HA suspension was cast into the epoxy molds and cured into solid at 85 degrees C. The molds and acrylate binders were removed by pyrolysis, followed by HA green body sintering. With this method, implants with six different channel designs were built successfully and the designed channels were reproduced in the sintered HA implants. The channels created in the sintered HA implants were between 366 microm and 968 microm in diameter with standard deviations of 50 microm or less. The porosity created by the channels were between 26% and 52%. The results show that HA implants with designed connection pattern and well controlled channel size can be built with the technique developed in this study. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  16. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  17. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil...

  18. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  19. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  20. Development of Fresnel lens for improvement of rear visibility; Shikai kojo Fresnel lens no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, K; Sanada, C; Tsukino, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Fresnel lenses have been widely used to increase the visual field around vehicles for drivers. However, internal reflection in these lenses has been an obstacle in producing dear images. This internal glow is generated by incident light from an unexpected direction reflecting on the non-lens surface or radiating from the non-lens surface of the Fresnel lens. The cause of internal glow has been made dear combining louver film with the lens. The newly developed technology removes obstacles in producing dear images by reducing internal glow. 7 figs.

  1. The new international certification and design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnen, W.H.P.M.; Heineman, H.

    1995-01-01

    ISO/TC 67 deals with standardization of Equipment for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries at a global level. The paper will provide the reader with insight in the Certification system as well as its link with Design. It will explain how the total process fits in the business structure of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry, with the focus on the emerging concepts such as partnering, turn key contracts, the developments in the EC and the need to reduce costs at a global basis. The paper will also address the topic of Design Principles based on the results of the study performed for ISO/TC 67. The paper will provide a framework that can be used by the industry in how to deal with issues such as, there shall the activity of the Operator be focused on when ordering equipment or services and how the manufacturer or service provider should prepare himself to become an equal partner with regard to the required equipment, service and its associated technology now and in the future. In the changing world with ever increasing focus on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), the topic efficiency, technology, equipment performance and functionality should not be overlooked or been given less attention. The Certification and Design principles, implemented in standards, aim predominantly at Fitness for Purpose of equipment and/or services to regain the balance. A further aim is to limit consequential costs due to deficiencies in the broadest sense, allowing the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry to produce oil and gas in a cost effective manner with the highest possible HSE targets

  2. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  3. International team releases design, cost for next great particle smasher

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "An internationl team has released a preliminary design and cost estimate for the International Linear Collider (ILC), the hoped-for straight-shot particle smasher that many researchers say is the future of their field."

  4. INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEMS DESIGN AND EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper the question of the development of a methodological approach to the determination of logistics systems’ performance and grounding of the most effective goods’ delivery schemes, based on the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, vector optimization approaches and discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes (phase method is considered. Methodology. To achieve the goals of the research, the model of logistic system represented by multiple object that defined by the structure and content. The object is represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and inhomogeneous sets (sequences, corteges, which at each stage of cargo delivery present sets of technological operations of their processing, choices and decisions algorithms. Multiple structure of objects is constructive three, consisting of the carrier, signatures and axiomatic. To determine the effective scheme of delivery, applied discrete maximum principle using vector optimization criterion. Findings. In this article, logistics system of delivery is presented in the form of a multi-stage (phase of the process. Each stage reviews a plurality of discrete activities sets, which includes the possible technology cycles of operations in goods handling. At each stage of a multi-phase delivery process from the supplier to the consumer, these sets are different. Considered a model example solving the problem of vector optimization options for delivery of goods by the road in the international logistics system for the five-step process. Optimization performed on the basis of three indicators. Originality. In this paper, the choice of the most effective way of delivery goods produced using the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, using the discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes, based on the vector optimization criterion. At each of its stages are formed a plurality of valid solutions as

  5. Protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  6. Seeing through a Different Lens: What Do Interns Learn when They Make Video Cases of Their Own Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaen, Cheryl L.; Lundeberg, Mary; Terpstra, Marjorie; Cooper, Marjorie; Fu, Jing; Niu, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This study included four preservice interns at a Midwestern university in the United States who were learning to facilitate interactive discussions in English language arts. The authors investigated how the interns' perceptions of their self-selected audience influenced what they noticed, talked about, and learned as they constructed a video case…

  7. Internal design of technical systems under conditions of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoshchekov, P S; Morozov, V V; Fedorov, V V

    1982-03-01

    An investigation is made of a model of internal design of a complex technical system in the presence of uncertain factors. The influence of an opponent on the design is examined. The concepts of hierarchical and balanced compatibility between the criteria of the designer, the opponent and the segregations functions are introduced and studied. The connection between the approach proposed and the methods of artificial intelligence is discussed. 5 references.

  8. Overview of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) engineering design activities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1988), ITER Documentation Series, No. 1] project is a multiphased project, presently proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community (EC), the Government of Japan (JA), the Government of the Russian Federation (RF), and the Government of the United States (US), ``the Parties.'' The ITER project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention, and has since been brought to a high level of development in all major fusion programs in the world. The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER design is being developed, with support from the Parties' four Home Teams and is in progress by the Joint Central Team. An overview of ITER Design activities is presented.

  9. Archaeological Survey Within Designated Portions of the Proposed Len Small Floodway in Dogtooth Bend, Alexander County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Tuscaloosa and London . 123 Len Small Flood t av Sun e v Morrow, C.A . 1987 Blades and Cobden Chert : A Technological Argument for Their Role as Markers o f...unid . maker’s mark "INA" w/ unicorn 1 - - - - - 11AX361 Total= 44 Trinomial Artifact Cate gory Comments n= 1 Z 4 5. 2~ Raw Materia l 11AX368 8...whiteware, maker’s mark . . .E CHINA" w/ unicorn , crazed 1 - - - - 11AX412 18 whiteware, plain crazed= 11 1 3 11AX412 Total= 98 Size G r Trinomial E

  10. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  11. Preliminary Design Concept for a Reactor-internal CRDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Tae Wan; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Keung Koo

    2013-01-01

    A rod ejection accident may cause severer result in SMRs because SMRs have relatively high control rod reactivity worth compared with commercial nuclear reactors. Because this accident would be perfectly excluded by adopting a reactor-internal CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism), many SMRs accept this concept. The first concept was provided by JAERI with the MRX reactor which uses an electric motor with a ball screw driveline. Babcock and Wilcox introduced the concept in an mPower reactor that adopts an electric motor with a roller screw driveline and hydraulic system, and Westinghouse Electric Co. proposes an internal Control Rod Drive in its SMR with an electric motor with a latch mechanism. In addition, several other applications have been reported thus far. The reactor-internal CRDM concept is now widely adopted in many SMR designs, and this concept may also be applied in an evolutionary reactor development. So the preliminary study is conducted based on the SMART CRDM design. A preliminary design concept for a reactor-internal CRDM was proposed and evaluated through an electromagnetic analysis. It was found that there is an optimum design for the motor housing, and the results may contribute to the realization a reactor-internal CRDM for an evolutionary reactor development. More detailed analysis results will be reported later

  12. Design and analyses of an ultra-thin flat lens for wave front shaping in the visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kai; Li, Yiyan; Tian, Xuelong; Zeng, Dajun; Gao, Xueli

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-thin flat lens is proposed for focusing circularly polarized light in the visible range. Anisotropic C-shaped nanoantennas with phase discontinuities are used to form the metasurface of the lens. The phase response of the C-shaped nanoantennas can be manipulated by simply rotating the angle of the unit nanoantenna. A 600 nm incident circularly polarized light is focused by the proposed techniques. Good agreements are observed by using our MoM and a commercial FDTD software package. The computation time spent by using MoM is approximately 10–100 times smaller than using FDTD. All the results show the proposed nanoantenna array has a great potential for nanoscale optical microscopy, solar cell energy conversion enhancement, as well as integrated optical circuits. - Highlights: • Successfully focusing a 600 nm light using a circularly C-shaped nanoantenna array. • The computation time spent by using MoM is approximately 10–100 times smaller than FDTD. • A good agreement is observed using our MoM to the classic FDTD method.

  13. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  15. Exchange of tears under a contact lens is driven by distortions of the contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Ross, David S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the flow of the post-lens tear film under a soft contact lens to understand how the design parameters of contact lenses can affect ocular health. When a soft contact lens is inserted, the blinking eyelid causes the lens to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the eye. The deformed contact lens acts to assume its un-deformed shape and thus generates a suction pressure in the post-lens tear film. In consequence, the post-lens tear fluid moves; it responds to the suction pressure. The suction pressure may draw in fresh fluid from the edge of the lens, or it may eject fluid there, as the lens reassumes its un-deformed shape. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of the flow of the post-lens tear fluid in response to the mechanical suction pressure of a deformed contact lens. We predict the amount of exchange of fluid exchange under a contact lens and we explore the influence of the eye's shape on the rate of exchange of fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 5th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 5th International Conference on Research into Design – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design across boundaries. The special features of the book are the variety of insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the largest collection of research from India. For practitioners and educators, it is exposure to an empirically validated suite of theories, models, methods and tools that can be taught and practiced for design-led innovation.

  17. International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering & Advanced Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Nigrelli, Vincenzo; Oliveri, Salvatore; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Rizzuti, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (JCM 2016), held on 14-16 September, 2016, in Catania, Italy. It reports on cutting-edge topics in product design and manufacturing, such as industrial methods for integrated product and process design; innovative design; and computer-aided design. Further topics covered include virtual simulation and reverse engineering; additive manufacturing; product manufacturing; engineering methods in medicine and education; representation techniques; and nautical, aeronautics and aerospace design and modeling. The book is divided into eight main sections, reflecting the focus and primary themes of the conference. The contributions presented here will not only provide researchers, engineers and experts in a range of industrial engineering subfields with extensive information to support their daily work; they are also intended to stimulate new research directions, advanced applications of t...

  18. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  20. 55th International Conference of Machine Design Departments 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Berka, Ondrej; Petr, Karel; Lopot, František; Dub, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 55th International Conference of Machine Design Departments 2014 (ICMD 2014) which was hosted by the Czech Technical University in September 2014. It features scientific articles which solve progressive themes from the field of machine design. The book addresses a broad range of themes including tribology, hydraulics, materials science, product innovation and experimental methods. It presents the latest interdisciplinary high-tech work. People with an interest in the latest research results in the field of machine design and manufacturing engineering will value this book with contributions of leading academic scientists and experts from all around the world.

  1. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Setchi, Rossi; Cimatti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (SDM-17) held in Bologna, Italy, in April 2017. The conference covered a wide range of topics from cutting-edge sustainable product design and service innovation, sustainable processes and technology for the manufacturing of sustainable products, sustainable manufacturing systems and enterprises, decision support for sustainability, and the study of the societal impact of sustainability including research for circular economy. Application areas are wide and varied, and the book provides an excellent overview of the latest research and development in the area of Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

  2. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel......The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding...... of development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...

  3. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  4. International institutions for nuclear energy: issues of assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Among the more attractive of candidate institutions and rules-of-trade for advanced fuel cycles are: extension of full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards as a condition of fuel assurances or technology transfer; international jurisdiction over spent fuel (custody or ownership); an IAEA remote near-real-time verification system for spent fuel remaining under national management; a convention on uniform nuclear fuel identification (tagging) designed to assist safeguards planners, trace diversionary pathways, assign liability, and enhance the credibility of fuel-cycle sanctions; international nuclear service centers for bulk processing operations (heavy water production, enrichment and reprocessing); and fuel-cycle specific regulations. Some risk-reduction measures, for example on internationally managed, remote shutdown and restart-delay system for bulk processing facilities, raise questions of acceptability. Despite uncertainties about international acceptability and hazards of enrichment technology transfer later in this century, it appears feasible to reduce proliferation risks associated with nuclear fuel cycles - existing ones and those under review within the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). 6 refereces

  5. 5th International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Design thinking, the label given to the acts of designing, has become a paradigmatic view that has transcended the discipline of design and is now widely used in business and elsewhere. As a consequence there is an increasing interest in design research. This is because of the realization that design is part of the wealth creation of a nation and needs to be better understood and taught. The continuing globalization of industry and trade has required nations to re-examine where their core contributions lie if not in production efficiency. Design is a precursor to manufacturing for physical objects and is the precursor to implementation for virtual objects. At the same time, the need for sustainable development requires the design of new products and processes, which feeds a movement towards design innovations and inventions. The papers in this volume are from the Fifth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC’12) held at Texas A & M University, USA. They represent the state-of-th...

  6. Design and construction of focusing lens to be applied to the XRF analysis. Final report for the period 1 December 1993 - 30 November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yiming

    1996-01-01

    The construction and performance test for assembled and monolithic lenses have been done. Experimental setups and procedures for the determination of focussing capability of the lenses (diameter of the X-ray beam), beam profile at the focal plane, and transmission efficiency were designed and provided the necessary data. The results of the test of both lenses (assembled and monolithic) are good. The fact that the monolithic lens is significantly better as far as the spot size and gain factor are concerned, proves the advantages of the new technology for production of focussing optics for XRF analysis. The spot size of X-ray microbeam (200 μm) is adequate for many applications of XRF technique for trace element determination with both advantageous detection limits and imaging capability

  7. International conference on design, fabrication and economy of metal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference on Design, Fabrication and Economy of Metal Structures held on 24-26 April 2013 in Miskolc, Hungary which contain 99 papers covering: Structural optimization Thin-walled structures Stability Fatigue Frames Fire Fabrication Welding technology Applications Steel-concrete composite Special problems The authors are from 23 different countries, ensuring that the themes covered are of worldwide interest and importance. The International Institute of Welding (IIW), the International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO), the TÁMOP 4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0001 project entitled “Increasing the quality of higher education through the development of research - development and innovation program at the University of Miskolc supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund” and many other sponsors helped organizers to collect these valuable studies, the results of which will provoke discussion, and provide an i...

  8. Harnessing Multiple Internal Reflections to Design Highly Absorptive Acoustic Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-05-01

    The rapid development of metasurfaces has enabled numerous intriguing applications with acoustically thin sheets. Here we report the theory and experimental realization of a nonresonant sound-absorbing strategy using metasurfaces by harnessing multiple internal reflections. We theoretically and numerically show that the higher-order diffraction of thin gradient-index metasurfaces is tied to multiple internal reflections inside the unit cells. Highly absorbing acoustic metasurfaces can be realized by enforcing multiple internal reflections together with a small amount of loss. A reflective gradient-index acoustic metasurface is designed based on the theory, and we further experimentally verify the performance using a three-dimensional printed prototype. Measurements show over 99% energy absorption at the peak frequency and a 95% energy absorption bandwidth of around 600 Hz. The proposed mechanism provides an alternative route for sound absorption without the necessity of high absorption of the individual unit cells.

  9. Color corrected Fresnel lens for solar concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new linear convex Fresnel lens with its groove side down is described. The design philosophy is similar to the highly concentrating two focal Fresnel lens but including a correction for chromatic aberration. A solar concentration ratio as high as 80 is achieved. For wide acceptance angles the concentration nears the theoretical maximum. (author)

  10. 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Liu, Ying; Theobald, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volumes consists of 59 peer-reviewed papers, presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (SDM-16) held in Chania, Crete Greece in April 2016. Leading-edge research into sustainable design and manufacturing aims to enable the manufacturing industry to grow by adopting more advanced technologies, and at the same time improve its sustainability by reducing its environmental impact. SDM-16 covers a wide range of topics from sustainable product design and service innovation, sustainable process and technology for the manufacturing of sustainable products, sustainable manufacturing systems and enterprises, decision support for sustainability, and the study of societal impact of sustainability including research for circular economy. Application areas are wide and varied. The book will provide an excellent overview of the latest research and development in the area of Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

  11. ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] reactor building design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs

  12. Optimizing the design of international safeguards inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Coulter, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Whitty, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Efficient implementation of international inspections for verifying the operation of a nuclear facility requires that available resources be allocated among inspection activities to maximize detection of misoperation. This report describes a design and evaluation method for selecting an inspection system that is optimal for accomplishing inspection objectives. The discussion includes methods for identifying system objectives, defining performance measures, and choosing between candidate systems. Optimization theory is applied in selecting the most preferred inspection design for a single nuclear facility, and an extension to optimal allocation of inspection resources among States containing multiple facilities is outlined. 3 figures, 5 tables

  13. 6th International Conference on Research into Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; ICoRD 2017; Research into design for communities

    2017-01-01

    This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 6th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2017) – the largest in India in this area – written by eminent researchers from across the world on design process, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design for communities. While design traditionally focused on the development of products for the individual, the emerging consensus on working towards a more sustainable world demands greater attention to designing for and with communities, so as to promote their sustenance and harmony - within each community and across communities. The special features of the book are the insights into the product and system innovation process, and the host of methods and tools from all major areas of design research for the enhancement of the innovation process. The main benefit of the book for researchers in various areas of design and innovation are access to the latest quality research in this area, with the...

  14. Single lens to lens duplication: The missing link

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Rupal; Jethani, Jitendra; Saluja, Praveen; Bharti, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lens include a wide range from lens coloboma to primary aphakia and doubling of lens. There have been few case reports of double lens; the etiology suggested is metaplastic changes in the surface ectoderm that leads to formation of two lens vesicles and hence resulting in double lens. We report a case with bilobed lens, which raises the possibility of explaining the etiology of double lens.

  15. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good

  16. Entropy Minimization Design Approach of Supersonic Internal Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.

  17. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  18. Lens system for SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.; Sancho, M.; Garcia-Galan, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful version of the charge-density method is applied to the study of a combined objective and emission lens, suitable for highly localized analysis of a flat sample surface. This lens can extract secondary ions of equal or opposite polarity to that of the primary particles. A computer simulation of the ion trajectories for both modes is made. The behaviour for different values of the geometric parameters and polarizations is analyzed and useful data for design such as primary beam demagnification and secondary image position are given. (author) 4 refs

  19. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  20. FFAG Designs for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Machida, S.

    2009-05-04

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) aims to produce a design report for a neutrino factory. One component of that design is a linear nonscaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG) that will accelerate to the final energy of 25 GeV. An FFAG is used to reduce the machine cost by maximizing the number of passes made through the RF cavities. We present some design options for this FFAG, individually optimized for cost. We study the addition of nonlinear magnets to the lattice to improve the performance of the lattice and consider the negative effects of doing so.

  1. Design considerations for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now completing a definition phase as a beginning of a three-year design effort. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide further and more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been of prime importance, since it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. The major levels of mechanical stress in the structure appear in the cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The cases of the poloidal-field (PF) coils must be made thin or segmented to minimize eddy current heating during inductive plasma operation. As a result, the winding packs of both the TF and PF coils includes significant fractions of steel. The TF winding pack provides support against in-plane separating loads but offers little support against out-of-plane loads, unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. The removal of heat due to nuclear and ac loads has not been a fundamental limit to design, but certainly has non-negligible economic consequences. We present here preliminary ITER magnetic systems design parameters taken from trade studies, designs, and analyses performed by the Home Teams of the four ITER participants, by the ITER Magnet Design Unit in Garching, and by other participants at workshops organized by the Magnet Design Unit. The work presented here reflects the efforts of many, but the responsibility for the opinions expressed is the authors'. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Using the Lens of “Social Construction of Technology” to Understand the Design and Implementation of Aadhaar (UID) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sivamalai, Lewin

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; Extant Research on e-government projects has shown that multiple stakeholders are at play always, each with their own divergent interests. And many a time, differences in stakeholder expectations from a project has resulted in projects failing or being abandoned after initial usage. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) studies look at the development history of a technology in order to understand how that particular technology has evolved, b...

  3. Preliminary design of the new Proton Synchrotron Internal Dump core

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091975; Nuiry, François-Xavier

    The luminosity of the LHC particle accelerator at CERN is planned to be upgraded in the first half of 2020s, requiring also the upgrade of its injector accelerators, including the Proton Synchrotron (PS). The PS Internal Dumps are beam dumps located in the PS accelerator ring. They are safety devices designed to stop the circulating proton beam in order to protect the accelerator from damage due to an uncontrolled beam loss. The PS Internal Dumps need to be upgraded to be able to withstand the future higher intensity and energy proton beams. The dump core is a block of material interacting with the beam. It is located in ultra-high vacuum and moved into the beam path in 150 milliseconds by an electromagnet and spring-based actuation mechanism. The circulating proton beam is shaved by the core surface during thousands of beam revolutions. The preliminary new dump core design weighs 13 kilograms and consists of an isostatically pressed fine-grain graphite and a precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr. The ...

  4. Key Success Factors and Guidance for International Collaborative Design Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Soetanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the built environment (BE sector, the co-creation process of design demands understanding of requirements (as viewed by parties involved, mobilisation of tacit knowledge, negotiation, and complex exchange of information. The need to collaborate over distance has further exacerbated the complexity of the process, and, in itself, represents a significant challenge for BE professionals who are increasingly expected to undertake this process within globally distributed virtual teams. The research aims to identify key success factors and develop guidance for international collaborative design projects, via the implementation of collaborative design courses in UK and Canadian universities over three academic years. Questionnaire surveys, focus groups, observation of online meetings, personal reflections provided data for the analysis. The findings reveal the significance of the perceived risk of collaboration and a difference in preferred communication mode between architects and civil/structural engineers. These findings suggest the impact of training in the subject discipline, and that the opportunity for co-located working has helped the development of trust. The guidance is aimed at BE educators who wish to implement this activity in their courses.

  5. 16th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Gamboa, Dorabela; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA’16), which was held in Porto, Portugal from December 1 to16, 2016. ISDA 2016 was jointly organized by the Portugual-based Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto and the US-based Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs) to serve as a forum for the dissemination of state-of-the-art research and development of intelligent systems, intelligent technologies, and applications. The papers included address a wide variety of themes ranging from theories to applications of intelligent systems and computational intelligence area and provide a valuable resource for students and researchers in academia and industry alike. .

  6. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Frédéric; Krob, Daniel; Marchal, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the fourth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2013) international conference which took place in Paris (France) from December 4-6, 2013. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2013 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization

  7. 7th International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Goubault, Eric; Krob, Daniel; Stephan, François

    2017-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the seventh edition of the international conference « Complex Systems Design & Management Paris» (CSD&M Paris 2016) which took place in Paris (France) on the December 13-14, 2016 These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautic & aerospace, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, healthcare & welfare services, software & e-services, transportation), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, system is modeling tools) and system types (artificial ecosystems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, transportation systems). The CSD&M Paris 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit orga...

  8. 6th International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, Jean-Claude; Bonjour, Eric; Krob, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the sixth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management Paris » (CSD&M Paris 2015) international conference which took place in Paris (France) on November 23-25, 2015. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautics & aerospace, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, health & welfare, software & e-services, transportation), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systems modeling tools) and systems types (artificial ecosystems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, transportation systems). The CSD&M Paris 2015 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, address...

  9. 5th International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Morel, Gérard; Roussel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the fifth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2014) international conference which took place in Paris (France) on the November 12-14, 2014. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautic & aerospace, transportation & systems, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, health & welfare services, software & e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2014 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, addres...

  10. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Intense Neutron Source Lab.; Jameson, R.A.; Blind, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Teplyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fur Angewandte Phys.; Ferdinand, R.; Lagniel, J.-M. [CEA Saclay LNS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miyahara, A. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Olivier, M. [CEA DSM, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piechowiak, E. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States); Tanabe, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  11. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M.; Teplyakov, V.; Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J.; Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K.; Miyahara, A.; Olivier, M.; Piechowiak, E.; Tanabe, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.)

  12. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... transmittal fee to it, for its own benefit, in respect of any international application filed through it... the World Trade Organization.'' Article 6(2) provides that ``[t]he international design application...) provides for domestic benefit claims with respect to international design applications designating the...

  13. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather E; Nomerotski, Andrei; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E; Pöschl, Roman; Reuter, Jürgen; Riemann, Sabine; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Servant, Geraldine; Tait, Tim M P

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  14. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Burrows, Philip N.; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  15. Effect of irradiation in design of LMFBR internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Cowan, A.; Vries, M. de; Heesen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Internal structures of nuclear power reactors are essentially made with the austenitic stainless steels Types 304L and 316L. In service these structures receive low to moderate neutron doses. In this paper, the work undertaken by the European Fast Breeder Working Group is reviewed. Conclusions drawn to this date are presented and tentative reduction factors to be used in design are discussed in terms of the number of displacements per atom (dpa) and the quantity of helium generated in the steel (appm He). For the lower core structure which operates at about 400 0 C existing design rules can be used for parts which are subjected to less than 2 dpa despite a reduction in ductility and toughness which occurs above about 0.8 dpa. For the above core structure which operates at about 550 0 C interim and rather conservative stress reduction factors are proposed which can become effective at helium levels as low as 10 -4 appm. Particular attention is paid to: - irradiation temperature, - neutron flux and fluence, - steel type and grade, - heat treatment and boron distribution, - weld metal composition and procedure (TIG,MMA,...), to ensure that service conditions are represented as closely as possible

  16. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fujii, Keisuke [National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tokai (Japan); Gao, Yuanning [Unlisted; Hoang, Andre [Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Logan, Heather E. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nomerotski, Andrei [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pöschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL); Reuter, Jürgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Savoy-Navarro, Aurore [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Servant, Geraldine [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tait, Tim P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  17. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  18. Refractive neutron lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, P.V.; Kolchevsky, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Model of the refractive neutron lens is proposed. System of N lenses acts as one thin lens with a complex refraction index n*. The maximum number N max of individual lenses for 'thick' neutron lens is calculated. Refractive neutron lens properties (resolution, focal depth) as function of resolution factor F 0 =ρbc/μ and depth of field factor dF 0 =λF 0 =λρbc/μ are calculated. It is shown that micro resolution of the refractive neutron optics is far from the wavelength in size and its open possibilities for progress in refractive neutron optics. (authors)

  19. EDEL: ENEA dosemeter for eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Paolo; Mariotti, Francesca; Campani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of International Commission on Radiological Protection statement in 2011 on tissue reaction, eye lens radiation protection played an important role in exposed personnel dosimetry. For this reason, the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) Individual Monitoring Service decided to study a prototype to fulfil specific requests (e.g. for survey in interventional department and intercomparisons). On the basis of such preliminary investigation, a new eye lens dosemeter was developed. The new dosemeter, named EDEL (ENEA Dosemeter for Eye Lens), was characterised in terms of H p (3), the operational quantity related to eye lens monitoring. The investigation was performed experimentally and optimised using the Monte Carlo MCNP6 code. The new prototype was thought to fulfil two main requests: the reliability of the dosimetric data and the portability of the dosemeter itself. The new dosemeter will soon be supplied to the collaborating hospitals for workplace test measurements. (authors)

  20. Re-evaluating Science and Technology trough the lens of Arts and Graphic Design. A case study in La Spezia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locritani, Marina; Stroobant, Mascha; Talamoni, Roberta; Merlino, Silvia; Guccinelli, Giacomo; Benvenuti, Lucrezia; Zatta, Consuelo; Stricker, Federica; Zappa, Franco; Sgherri, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    The Human society is getting more and more involved with scientific and environmental issues both in terms of consciousness of good practices or participation in legislative decision-making processes. A common effort to preserve our planet is asked every day, for example through recycling practices, reduction of pollutant emission, use of alternative energies and awareness of risks natural and human-induced hazards. In addition, public opinion is often involved for issues of scientific interest (e.g. genetically modified organisms GMO). Unfortunately, the Eurobarometer (Eurobarometer Special 419 Report, Public perceptions of Science, Research and Innovation, 2014) indicates, especially for the Italian population, a low interest in science and therefore a lack of confidence in the potential of the research. It is hence important for people to be informed of the progress made by science and the importance of the researchers' role. Education, awareness and dissemination of scientific results and issues must be made through simple and appealing channels that must reach all levels of society and age groups: from children to older people. A common and comprehensible language for everyone can be found in Graphic Arts. For this reasons, the working group for science dissemination of La Spezia has increased, in recent years, close relationship with some artists (especially graphic designers). The collaboration between two different worlds (art and science) has allowed us to see an unusual approach and to translate concepts developed in images which everyone can understand also under an emotional point of view. Different techniques and tools based on the target to be reached have been employed. 1. Conferences. Gender differences issues in science professions and more generally in society has been addressed through interactive conferences and round tables during the European Researchers' Night 2015 and other occasions for general public. Arguments and questions were described

  1. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  2. 2nd International Conference on Digital Enterprise Design and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Lonjon, Antoine; Panetto, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the « Digital Enterprise Design & Management » (DED&M 2014) international conference that took place in Paris (France) from February 4 to February 5, 2014 . These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Digital Enterprise, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on digital uses, digital strategies, digital infrastructures and digital governance from an Enterprise Architecture point of view. The DED&M 2014 conference is organized under the guidance of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy  and benefits from the supports of both the Orange – Ecole Polytechnique – Télécom ParisTech “Innovation and Regulation” Chair and the Dassault Aviation – DCNS – DGA – Thales – Ecole Polytechnique – ENSTA ParisTech – Télécom ParisTech  “Complex Systems Engineering” Chair.  .

  3. 1st international conference on digital enterprise design and management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Rowe, Frantz

    2013-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the first edition of the « Digital Enterprise Design & Management » (DED&M 2013) international conference that took place in Paris (France) from February 12 to February 13, 2013. (Website: http://www.dedm2013.dedm.fr/) These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Digital Enterprise, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on digital uses, digital strategies, digital infrastructures and digital governance from an Enterprise Architecture point of view. The DED&M 2013 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non profit organization (http://www.cesames.net/). and benefits from the support of the "Innovation and Regulation of Digital Services" Chair (Orange, Ecole Polytechnique and Telecom ParisTech) and of the "Complex Systems Engineering" Chair (Dassault Aviation - DCNS - DGA - Thales - Ecole Polytechnique - ENSTA ParisTech – Telecom ParisTech).

  4. Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Betz, M; Brax, P; Brun, P; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Carosi, G P; Caspers, F; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Chelouche, D; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dratchnev, I; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; González-Díaz, D; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Isern, J; Imai, K; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Karuza, M; Krčmar, M; Kousouris, K; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Limousin, O; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Matsuki, S; Muratova, V N; Nones, C; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Weltman, A; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO will be about 4-5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than CAST, currently the most powerful axion helioscope, reaching sensitivity to axion-photon couplings down to a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ GeV$^{-1}$ and thus probing a large fraction of the currently unexplored axion and ALP parameter space. IAXO will also be sensitive to solar axions produced by mechanisms mediated by the axion-electron coupling $g_{ae}$ with sensitivity $-$for the first time$-$ to values of $g_{ae}$ not previously excluded by astrophysics. With several other possible physics cases, IAXO has the potential to serve as a multi-purpose facility for generic axion and ALP research in the next decade. In this paper we present the conceptual design of IAXO, w...

  5. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; McEwan Paterson, James; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    A review is given about the planned International Linear Collider. Especially described are the technical design, the accelerator layout and design, the R and D during the technical design phase, and the detectors. (HSI)

  6. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; McEwan Paterson, James; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    A review is given about the planned International Linear Collider. Especially described are the technical design, the accelerator layout and design, the R and D during the technical design phase, and the detectors. (HSI)

  7. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  8. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each...

  9. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  10. Capsular 'pits' in the human lens.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. L.; Brown, N. A.; Shun-Shin, G. A.; Smith, G. T.

    1992-01-01

    The lens capsule is an atypical basement membrane surrounding the lens epithelial cells and lens fibres which make up the remainder of the human lens. A seemingly unreported morphological change visible in the lens capsule with the biomicroscope is described.

  11. Flat dielectric metasurface lens array for three dimensional integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Ying; Wu, Xiongxiong

    2018-05-01

    In conventional integral imaging, the singlet refractive lens array limits the imaging performance due to its prominent aberrations. Different from the refractive lens array relying on phase modulation via phase change accumulated along the optical paths, metasurfaces composed of nano-scatters can produce phase abrupt over the scale of wavelength. In this letter, we propose a novel lens array consisting of two neighboring flat dielectric metasurfaces for integral imaging system. The aspherical phase profiles of the metasurfaces are optimized to improve imaging performance. The simulation results show that our designed 5 × 5 metasurface-based lens array exhibits high image quality at designed wavelength 865 nm.

  12. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  13. Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    joint development programs are important because of their potential to reduce costs and increase partnership benefits such as interoperability, economies ...have actualized by discussing what characteristics research has shown as crucial to international joint development program outcomes. The study team... characteristics of international joint development programs that result in positive or negative cost, scheduling, and end-product outcomes, such as a final

  14. Designing Curriculum for Real-World International Business Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Bernard M.; Wright, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Economies continue to become more integrated through international trade and foreign investment, as well as by more, and more, complex global supply changes. With the expansion in the level and scope of international business (IB), it becomes all the more important that university graduates seeking careers in IB be able to "successfully hit…

  15. A high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet incorporating a single octupole lens for a low spherical aberration probe forming lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.

  16. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  17. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  18. Complex Systems Design & Management : Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Caseau, Yves; Krob, Daniel; Rauzy, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the third edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2012) international conference that took place in Paris (France) from December 12-14, 2012. (Website: http://www.csdm2012.csdm.fr)  These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture& engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic  tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2012 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization (http://www.cesames.net).

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  1. The lens and cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Andrew G

    2004-08-01

    It is conservatively estimated that some form of lens opacity is present in 5% to 7% of horses with otherwise clinically normal eyes.These opacities can range from small epicapsular remnants of the fetal vasculature to dense and extensive cataract. A cataract is defined technically as any opacity or alteration in the optical homogeneity of the lens involving one or more of the following: anterior epithelium, capsule, cortex, or nucleus. In the horse, cataracts rarely involve the entire lens structure (ie, complete cataracts) and are more usually localized to one anatomic landmark or sector of the lens. Complete cataracts are invariably associated with overt and significant visual disability. Focal or incomplete cataracts alone seldom cause any apparent visual dysfunction in affected horses,however.

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  8. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  14. Viewing Ascension Health From A Design Thinking Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie W. Nixon

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, I discuss how the design thinking concepts of empathy, related worlds, prototyping, ethnography, and story could enhance Ascension Health’s organizational design and ultimately its delivery of healthcare services.  When organization design integrates a design thinking lens, more meaningful and innovative processes are developed both internally among organizational actors and externally with end users.

  15. Refer to AP1000 for discussing the betterment of seismic design of internal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhenbang; Zhang Renyan

    2014-01-01

    As a reference technique of AP1000, This paper discussed the betterment of seismic design of nuclear power plant in three ways. (1) Establish design criteria and guidelines for protection from seismic interaction; (2) Nuclear power plant seismic design of eliminating or weaken operation-basis earthquake; (3) Develop the seismic margin analysis (SMA) of the nuclear power plant. These three aspect are frontier technology in internal seismic design of internal nuclear power plant, and also these three technology are related intimately. (authors)

  16. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator \\& in the Technical Design Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  17. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  18. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  19. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.

    2011-01-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has generated a

  20. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; /Brookhaven; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.

    2011-10-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has

  1. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  2. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong, E-mail: fchen1@me.com

    2016-12-15

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  3. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "When we understand this system, we will have a much clearer picture of how galaxies are changed by being part of a bigger cluster of galaxies," he added. B1359+154 was discovered in 1999 by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, an international collaboration of astronomers who use radio telescopes to search the sky for gravitational lenses. Images made by the NSF's Very Large Array in New Mexico and by Britain's MERLIN radio telescope showed six objects suspected of being gravitational-lens images, but the results were inconclusive. Rusin and his team used the VLBA and HST in 1999 and 2000 to make more-detailed studies of B1359+154. The combination of data from the VLBA and HST convinced the astronomers that B1359+154 actually consists of six lensed images of a single background galaxy. The VLBA images were made from data collected during observations at a radio frequency of 1.7 GHz. "This is a great example of modern, multi-wavelength astronomy," said Rusin. "We need the radio telescopes to detect the gravitational lenses in the first place, then we need the visible-light information from Hubble to show us additional detail about the structure of the system." Armed with the combined VLBA and HST data about the positions and brightnesses of the six images of the background galaxy as well as the positions of the three intermediate galaxies, the astronomers did computer simulations to show how the gravitation of the three galaxies could produce the lens effect. They were able to design a computer model of the system that, in fact, produces the six images seen in B1359+154. "Our computer model certainly is not perfect, and we need to do more observations of this system to refine it, but we have clearly demonstrated that the three galaxies we see can produce a six-image lens system," said Martin Norbury, a graduate student at Jodrell Bank Observatory in Britain. "We think this work will give us an excellent tool for studying much-denser clusters of

  4. On the design of invoicing practices in international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe advance an explanation for the choice of the invoice currency of international trade contracts on the basis of strategic bargaining considerations. The choice of the invoice currency originates in a situation in which each trader takes into account the other party's bargaining power.

  5. Conceptual design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO wi...

  6. Ethical Considerations in Designing the International Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    As awareness of the need for ethical business behavior increases, businesspeople must address the issue of an ethical standard acceptable for use in international business or, in individual situations, which country's ethical standards will be respected. Ethical absolutes cannot be determined without cultural bias. Legalistic, religious, and…

  7. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Robust Design 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The symposium concerns the topic of robust design from a practical and industry orientated perspective. During the 2 day symposium we will share our understanding of the need of industry with respect to the control of variance, reliability issues and approaches to robust design. The target audience...

  8. International conference on engineering design in welded construction. Opening speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the welding in different industrial areas and especially in nuclear energy industry is outlined in the paper. It is also emphasized the importance of the design phase and the need of developing of good design rules to deal with fatigue and other problems in welded joints

  9. International manufacturing and logistics: application of a design method in five case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, G.C.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    International manufacturing and logistics has become an important topic for an increasing number of industrial firms. In this paper, a design method will be described which is aimed at supporting managers in decisions regarding the (re)design of international logistic structures. The heart of this

  10. Safety design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamaki, Daiju; Katsuta, Hiroji; Moeslang, Anton; Jameson, R.A.; Martone, Marcello; Shannon, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    In the Conceptual Design Activity of the IFMIF, major subsystems, as well as the entire facility is carefully designed to satisfy the safety requirements for any possible construction sites. Each subsystem is qualitatively analyzed to identify possible hazards to the workers, public and environments using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The results are reflected in the design and operation procedure. Shielding of radiation, particularly neutron around the test cell is one of the most important issue in normal operation. Radiation due to beam halo and activation is a hazard for operation personnel in the accelerator system. For the maintenance, remote handling technology is designed to be applied in various facilities of the IFMIF. Lithium loop and target system hold the majority of the radioactive material in the facility. Tritium and beryllium-7 are generated by the nuclear reaction during operation and thus needed to be removed continuously. They are also the potential hazards of airborne source in off-normal events. Minimization of inventory, separation and immobilization, and multiple confinement are considered in the design. Generation of radioactive waste is anticipated to be minor, but waste treatment systems for gas, liquid and solid wastes are designed to minimize the environmental impact. Lithium leak followed by a fire is a major concern, and extensive prevention plan is made in the target design. One of the design option considered is composed of; primary enclosure of the lithium loop, secondary containment filled with positive pressure argon, and an air tight lithium cell made of concrete with a steel lining. This study will report some technical issues considered in the design of IFMIF. It was concluded that the IFMIF can be designed and constructed to meet or exceed current safely standards for workers, public and the environment with existing technology and reasonable construction cost. (J.P.N.)

  11. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  12. Refractive x-ray lens for high pressure diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    A stacked compound refractive x-ray lens was designed to produce a efficiently focused (φ 2 and a peak gain of 12, is well matched to these requirements. It is composed of many plastic chips made by molding, which is allowing many identical chips to be made precisely. Other advantages of this lens include high throughput, simple energy tunability and easy installation. (author)

  13. The Zoom Lens: A Case Study in Geometrical Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Alan; Scepanovic, Misa

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a case study on a motion picture company considering the purchase of a newly developed zoom lens in which students act as the engineers designing the zoom lens based on the criteria of company's specifications. Focuses on geometrical optics. Includes teaching notes and classroom management strategies. (YDS)

  14. DESIGNING AND PROTOTYPING OF AN ALTERNATIVE ELLIPTIC INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    AKSOY, Nadir; İÇİNGÜR, Yakup

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn the conventional internal combustion engines, the elements of linear movement cause the friction power to increase the manufacturing economy to deteriorate and also cause vibration. The diameter of intake valves, which is smaller than the diameter of the cylinder, causes the volumetric efficiency to decrease. In the two stroke engines, in which the number of work per cycle is increased, power output per unit volume (kW/liter) is higher; however, specific fuel consumption decreases ...

  15. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  16. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) neutral beam design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Brook, J.W.; Spampinato, P.T.; Mueller, J.P.; Luzzi, T.E.; Sedgley, D.W.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on ITER neutral beam design: ion dump; neutralizer and module gas flow analysis; vacuum system; cryogenic system; maintainability; power distribution; and system cost

  17. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  18. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  19. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. ... while instances of violence against women are partly linked to land ... by poor street design, and to develop people-centred alternatives.

  20. Evolutionary algorithm for optimization of nonimaging Fresnel lens geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N; Nishikawa, T

    2010-06-21

    In this study, an evolutionary algorithm (EA), which consists of genetic and immune algorithms, is introduced to design the optical geometry of a nonimaging Fresnel lens; this lens generates the uniform flux concentration required for a photovoltaic cell. Herein, a design procedure that incorporates a ray-tracing technique in the EA is described, and the validity of the design is demonstrated. The results show that the EA automatically generated a unique geometry of the Fresnel lens; the use of this geometry resulted in better uniform flux concentration with high optical efficiency.

  1. DRS // CUMULUS Oslo 2013. The 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Merete Nielsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This international conference is a springboard for sharing ideas and concepts about contemporary design education research. Contributors are invited to submit research that deals with different facets of contemporary approaches to design education research. All papers will be double-blind peer-reviewed. This conference is open to research in any aspect and discipline of design education. Conference theme:Design Learning for Tomorrow - Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD

  2. Teaching interpersonal skills in an international design-build course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Karhu, Markku; Christensen, Cecillia

    2011-01-01

    in that its chief purpose is to bring into focus the fact that students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process. This is in stark contrast to a teacher giving lectures about communication, leaving the students passive listeners......The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (Metropolia) started the CDIO concept in the autumn of 2008. The aim with this was to reform the B.Sc. courses to guide students to become better and more efficient engineers. The working conditions...... of an International Communication Course for the engineering students and to emphasize the importance of including a course like this into the CDIO concept, to be worked on in the process of further development. The course described in this paper is a strictly non-engineering course in communication; it is special...

  3. Addressing Sustainable International Branch Campus Development through an Organizational Structure Lens: A Comparative Analysis of China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgos, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) in China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accounts for a significant portion of the overall growth of IBCs globally. Conversely the largest exporter of IBCs globally is the United States, with several U.S. IBCs located in each of these importing countries. With the intention of focusing…

  4. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  5. A catoptric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambauske, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a catoptric lens for combining energies transmitted by several sources such as lasers; said lens comprising mirrors, the reflective surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis of symmetry. By means of these reflecting surfaces, which are generated by the nutation of portions of quadratic conics about the axis of symmetry, it is possible to focus the energy emmited by several lasers at the focus of the exit-mirror reflecting surface. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr

  6. Analysis of international content of ranked nursing journals in 2005 using ex post facto design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Molly C; Lin, Shu-Yuan; McKenna, Hugh P; Seers, Kate; Keeney, Sinead

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine articles in ISI-ranked nursing journals and to analyse the articles and journals, using definitions of international and article content. Growing emphasis on global health includes attention on international nursing literature. Contributions from Latin America and Africa have been reported. Attention to ranked nursing journals to support scholarship in global health is needed. Using an ex post facto design, characteristics of 2827 articles, authors and journals of 32 ranked nursing journals for the year 2005 were analysed between June 2006 and June 2007. Using definitions of international and of article content, research questions were analysed statistically. (a) 928 (32·8%) articles were international; (b) 2016 (71·3%) articles were empirical or scholarly; (c) 826 (89·3%) articles reflecting international content were scholarly or empirical; (d) among international articles more were empirical (66·3 % vs. 32·8 %; χ(2) ((1)) = 283·6, P international articles more were scholarly (29·2 % vs. 22·7 %; χ(2) ((1)) = 15·85, P international, based on author characteristics; (f) 20 (62·5 %) journals were led by an international editorial team; and (g) international journals had more international articles (3·6 % vs. 29·2 %; χ(2) ((1)) = 175·75, P international journals (t = -14·43, P international journals. Results indicate the need to examine the international relevance of the nursing literature. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The design of the Work Programme in international context

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This report compares the design and procurement of the Work Programme (WP) with pertinent experience in Australia, the USA and the Netherlands. It considers the risks in the implementation of performance based contracts, their implications for the WP, and their address in the other countries. The review finds that contract and procurement systems in the comparator countries have been in flux as policy makers have sought to secure the advantages of contracting out whilst minimising attendant r...

  8. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, optimal closed-loop test design for control is studied. Simple design formulas are derived based on the asymptotic theory of Ljung. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The

  9. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  10. Characterization of lens based photoacoustic imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalloor Joseph Francis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the challenges in translating photoacoustic (PA imaging to clinical applications includes limited view of the target tissue, low signal to noise ratio and the high cost of developing real-time systems. Acoustic lens based PA imaging systems, also known as PA cameras are a potential alternative to conventional imaging systems in these scenarios. The 3D focusing action of lens enables real-time C-scan imaging with a 2D transducer array. In this paper, we model the underlying physics in a PA camera in the mathematical framework of an imaging system and derive a closed form expression for the point spread function (PSF. Experimental verification follows including the details on how to design and fabricate the lens inexpensively. The system PSF is evaluated over a 3D volume that can be imaged by this PA camera. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging phantom and an ex vivo human prostate tissue sample.

  11. Characterization of lens based photoacoustic imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Kalloor Joseph; Chinni, Bhargava; Channappayya, Sumohana S; Pachamuthu, Rajalakshmi; Dogra, Vikram S; Rao, Navalgund

    2017-12-01

    Some of the challenges in translating photoacoustic (PA) imaging to clinical applications includes limited view of the target tissue, low signal to noise ratio and the high cost of developing real-time systems. Acoustic lens based PA imaging systems, also known as PA cameras are a potential alternative to conventional imaging systems in these scenarios. The 3D focusing action of lens enables real-time C-scan imaging with a 2D transducer array. In this paper, we model the underlying physics in a PA camera in the mathematical framework of an imaging system and derive a closed form expression for the point spread function (PSF). Experimental verification follows including the details on how to design and fabricate the lens inexpensively. The system PSF is evaluated over a 3D volume that can be imaged by this PA camera. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging phantom and an ex vivo human prostate tissue sample.

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optimum Structural Design,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    problemA posed in Eqs. ing fixes the relative size of some preselect- I and 2 i4 that o dinding the corAect set ed group of finite elements. The reduced oJ...optimal design are very hard to be cements), the analytical formulations shown in the fo- investigated. regoing ar very simplified t appears worth...scalar r that is not an eigenvalue of reduced somewhat by noting that (2), we consider the matrix -1 -1 A [D + (m - rk)P NP ’ ]/k 2-28 which leads to

  13. The Role of Aquaporins in Ocular Lens Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Kevin L.; Petrova, Rosica S.; Gletten, Romell B.; Donaldson, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), by playing essential roles in the maintenance of ocular lens homeostasis, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the overall optical properties of the lens over many decades of life. Three aquaporins, AQP0, AQP1 and AQP5, each with distinctly different functional properties, are abundantly and differentially expressed in the different regions of the ocular lens. Furthermore, the diversity of AQP functionality is increased in the absence of protein turnover by age-related modifications to lens AQPs that are proposed to alter AQP function in the different regions of the lens. These regional differences in AQP functionality are proposed to contribute to the generation and directionality of the lens internal microcirculation; a system of circulating ionic and fluid fluxes that delivers nutrients to and removes wastes from the lens faster than could be achieved by passive diffusion alone. In this review, we present how regional differences in lens AQP isoforms potentially contribute to this microcirculation system by highlighting current areas of investigation and emphasizing areas where future work is required. PMID:29231874

  14. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-08-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing an overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  15. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-05-15

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  16. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective

  17. A Tribute to Len Barton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This article constitutes a short personal tribute to Len Barton in honour of his work and our collegial relationship going back over 30 years. It covers how Len saw his intellectual project of providing critical sociological and political perspectives on special education, disability and inclusion, and his own radical political perspectives. Len's…

  18. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  19. Institutionalising Design Education and Design Promotion in Australia: From Early British Influences to Wider International Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Industrial design has grown in Australia from a series of unnamed activities clustered about an emerging 19th century manufacturing industry into a recognised profession. This transformation largely occurred because of the emergence of specific design education and the support offered by professional design associations. Designers working for the…

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  1. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  2. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  3. The Lens of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  6. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Agreement and protocol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains protocol 1 to the agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community, the government of Japan, the Government of the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States of America on cooperation in the engineering design activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which activities shall be conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  7. Design and analysis of CANDU NPP internal structures for Japanese conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.; Murakami, H.

    1991-01-01

    The design and analysis approach for the CANDU 6 Internal Concrete Structure (ICS) for Japanese seismic conditions is described. The approach consists of a seismic analysis to determine the design level accelerations; followed by a detailed finite element analysis to determine the section forces for each shell element. The extent of the design modifications for the original structure to meet the Japanese design conditions is given. (author)

  8. Minimum Lens Size Supporting the Leaky-Wave Nature of Slit Dipole Antenna at Terahertz Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamat Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a slit dipole antenna backed by an extended hemispherical silicon lens and investigated the minimum lens size in which the slit dipole antenna works as a leaky-wave antenna. The slit dipole antenna consists of a planar feeding structure, which is a center-fed and open-ended slot line. A slit dipole antenna backed by an extended hemispherical silicon lens is investigated over a frequency range from 0.2 to 0.4 THz with the center frequency at 0.3 THz. The numerical results show that the antenna gain responses exhibited an increased level of sensitivity to the lens size and increased linearly with increasing lens radius. The lens with the radius of 1.2λo is found to be the best possible minimum lens size for a slit dipole antenna on an extended hemispherical silicon lens.

  9. Dosimetric studies of the eye lens using a new dosemeter – Surveys in interventional radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Domazet, W.

    2014-01-01

    During interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, medical staff can receive high doses to their eye lenses. The Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose study organized in Argentina in 2010 found incipient opacity in 50% of IC physicians and 41% of IC technicians/nurses. These results, added to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which lowered their former occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens, led us to assess the eye lens dose, Hp(3), during interventional procedures. To this end, a new dosemeter was designed and calibrated at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina to evaluate Hp(3). Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)), and Hp(3) were assessed for 3 months in two IC and IR departments. An Alderson phantom was used to simulate monthly exposures of five occupational staff members. Hp(3) and Hp(10) were obtained monthly for 14 occupational staff members exposed to 121 IR and IC procedures. We concluded that the annual effective dose and Hp(3) were lower than 0.3 and 10 mSv, respectively and the average cumulative Hp(3) for working life was lower than 400 and 200 mSv for physicians and technicians/scrub nurse, respectively. An occupational annual dose constraint of 0.3 mSv was calculated. - Highlights: • An eye lens dosimeters was designed at the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of CNEA. • A successful dosimetric survey in two interventional departments was done. • The annual effective dose and the annual eye lens dose are lower than the ICRP dose thresholds. • In order to reduce doses actions should be promoted to maximize radiation protection

  10. Computer optimization of retarding lens systems for ESCA spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannberg, B.; Skoellermo, A.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of four-element electrostatic lenses as retarding systems between source and analyzer in ESCA spectrometers is calculated. The potential distribution in the lens is defined by an axial potential of the type phi(z)=V 0 +Σ(Vsub(i)-Vsub(i-1))/2 - tanh (ω/asub(i)(z-zsub(i))). For a given general shape of the lens and a given retardation ratio, the potentials of the two middle electrodes are fitted to give a paraxial image with a prescribed magnification at the exit slit of the lens system. The equipotential surfaces forming the electrodes are found by calculating the potential in an off-axis point, using the series expansion. All third-order geometrical and first-order chromatic aberrations of the lenses are calculated and used together with the second-order aberrations of the analyzer to calculate optimum dimensions of the lens elements and of the emittance-defining slits. A computer program, of which one part calculates the lens properties and one the properties of the entire system lens-analyzer, is described. Two lens systems are presented in some detail. The first one is intended for use with a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer. The angular acceptance is here defined by an aperture stop inside the lens. In this system, the image position and magnification can be kept constant for retardation ratios at least between 1:2 and 60:1, with moderate potentials on the middle electrodes. The second lens system is designed for a magnetic spectrometer of the π√2-type. Here, the central trajectory in the lens is slightly curved by the magnetic field, and the angular acceptance is defined by a baffle after the lens. This system is optimized for a constant retardation ratio of 5:1. (Auth.)

  11. International seminar on the safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors: material presented at the international seminar 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This seminar on international, national and bilateral cooperation programmes on the safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors was held in Tokyo, Japan (1997) and hosted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan. More than 70 participants attended the seminar. Represented were experts from OECD/NEA member countries and Russia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the ISTC, the INSC and the Russian INSC. Eighteen papers were presented in five sessions. The seminar was structured around four main areas of cooperation: cooperative programmes of the OECD/NEA, programmes of international organisations, bi-lateral programmes, and national programmes of OECD/NEA member countries having reactors of the VVER type. General conclusions, followed by specific technical conclusions are included

  12. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  13. Oxygen transport through soft contact lens and cornea: Lens characterization and metabolic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahendra

    The human cornea requires oxygen to sustain metabolic processes critical for its normal functioning. Any restriction to corneal oxygen supply from the external environment (e.g., by wearing a low oxygen-permeability contact lens) can lead to hypoxia, which may cause corneal edema (swelling), limbal hyperemia, neovascularization, and corneal acidosis. The need for adequate oxygen to the cornea is a major driving force for research and development of hypertransmissible soft contact lenses (SCLs). Currently, there is no standard technique for measuring oxygen permeability (Dk) of hypertransmissible silicone-hydrogel SCLs. In this work, an electrochemistry-based polarographic apparatus was designed, built, and operated to measure oxygen permeability in hypertransmissible SCLs. Unlike conventional methods where a range of lens thickness is needed for determining oxygen permeabilities of SCLs, this apparatus requires only a single lens thickness. The single-lens permeameter provides a reliable, efficient, and economic tool for measuring oxygen permeabilities of commercial hypertransmissible SCLs. The single-lens permeameter measures not only the product Dk, but, following modification, it measures separately diffusivity, D, and solubility, k, of oxygen in hypertransmissible SCLs. These properties are critical for designing better lens materials that ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cornea. Metabolism of oxygen in the cornea is influenced by contact-lens-induced hypoxia, diseases such as diabetes, surgery, and drug treatment, Thus, estimation of the in-vivo corneal oxygen consumption rate is essential for gauging adequate oxygen supply to the cornea. Therefore, we have developed an unsteady-state reactive-diffusion model for the cornea-contact-lens system to determine in-vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate. Finally, a metabolic model was developed to determine the relation between contact-lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) and corneal oxygen deficiency. A

  14. Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2010-01-01

    A plasmonic leak-free focusing lens with two asymmetric concentric ring slits under radially polarized illumination is proposed. Each ring slit in the plasmonic lens is designed to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with a relative initial phase controlled by the ring slit parameters. Through mutual interference of the SPPs with different phases excited by the two concentric ring slits at the output metal–dielectric interface, the field intensity towards the center of the focusing lens can be enhanced while that leaking to the counter-focus direction is effectively suppressed. The optimal parameters of the plasmonic leak-free lens are theoretically obtained by satisfying the above condition and its focusing performance is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Furthermore, a plasmonic leak-free lens with multiple double-slit groups is proposed and discussed, which exhibits a higher energy density at the focusing spot of the output interface

  15. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ginjaume, Merce; O’Connor, Una; Kopec, Renata; Sans Merce, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. (paper)

  16. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  17. Design and Preliminary Testing of the International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Blaschak, Johnathan; Eldridge, Erin A.; Brazzel, Jack P.; Spehar, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    The International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target (PDT) was designed to allow a docking spacecraft to judge its alignment relative to the docking system. The PDT was designed to be compatible with relative sensors using visible cameras, thermal imagers, or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technologies. The conceptual design team tested prototype designs and materials to determine the contrast requirements for the features. This paper will discuss the design of the PDT, the methodology and results of the tests, and the conclusions pertaining to PDT design that were drawn from testing.

  18. Effect of infrared radiation on the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Eman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infrared (IR radiation is becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes and in many instruments used for diagnostic and therapeutic application to the human eye. Aim : The present study was designed to investigate the effect of IR radiation on rabbit′s crystalline lens and lens membrane. Materials and Methods: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were used in the present work. The rabbits were classified into three groups; one of them served as control. The other two groups were exposed to IR radiation for 5 or 10 minutes. Animals from these two irradiated groups were subdivided into two subgroups; one of them was decapitated directly after IR exposure, while the other subgroup was decapitated 1 hour post exposure. IR was delivered from a General Electric Lamp model 250R 50/10, placed 20 cm from the rabbit and aimed at each eye. The activity of Na + -K + ATPase was measured in the lens membrane. Soluble lens proteins were extracted and the following measurements were carried out: estimation of total soluble protein, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. For comparison between multiple groups, analysis of variance was used with significance level set at P < 0.001. Results: The results indicated a change in the molecular weight of different lens crystalline accompanied with changes in protein backbone structure. These changes increased for the groups exposed to IR for 10 minutes. Moreover, the activity of Na + -K + ATPase significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions: The protein of eye lens is very sensitive to IR radiation which is hazardous and may lead to cataract.

  19. An investigation of structural design methodology for HTGR reactor internals with ceramic materials (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-03-01

    To advance the performance and safety of HTGR, heat-resistant ceramic materials are expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. C/C composite and superplastic zirconia are the promising materials for this purpose. In order to use these new materials as reactor internals in HTGR, it is necessary to establish a structure design method to guarantee the structural integrity under environmental and load conditions. Therefore, C/C composite expected as reactor internals of VHTR is focused and an investigation on the structural design method applicable to the C/C composite and a basic applicability of the C/C composite to representative structures of HTGR were carried out in this report. As the results, it is found that the competing risk theory for the strength evaluation of the C/C composite is applicable to design method and C/C composite is expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. (author)

  20. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, George S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  1. An empirical test of new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Sáiz Pérez, M.E.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    We consider new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Applying an empirical model on climate change that comprises benefit and cost estimates from abatement for 12 world regions, we analyze how the design of an agreement affects the success

  2. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS IN DESIGN EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF AN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COURSE IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dundar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss role of international exchange programs in design education based on experiences and outputs of the summer school course ICSA (Inter-Cultural Study of Architecture held in Japan with the participation of Japanese and Turkish students for 50 days under the collaboration of Mukogawa Women’s University (MWU, Japan and Bahcesehir University (BSU, Turkey. After the introduction, chapter One will compare educational methods used in architectural design courses. Chapter Two will mainly provide general observations of ICSA in Japan summer school course. In chapter Three, contributions of international exchange programs to design education will be discussed in terms of two different approaches. Finally, chapter Four will outline the main arguments discussed in this paper.

  3. Optical design of two-axes parabolic trough collector and two-section Fresnel lens for line-to-spot solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carlos; León, Noel; García, Héctor; Aguayo, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    Solar tracking concentrators are optical systems that collect the solar energy flux either in a line or spot using reflective or refractive surfaces. The main problem with these surfaces is their manufacturing complexity, especially at large scales. In this paper, a line-to-spot solar tracking concentrator is proposed. Its configuration allows for a low-cost solar concentrator system. It consists of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) and a two-section PMMA Fresnel lens (FL), both mounted on a two-axis solar tracker. The function of the PTC is to reflect the incoming solar radiation toward a line. Then, the FL, which is placed near the focus, transforms this line into a spot by refraction. It was found that the system can achieve a concentration ratio of 100x and concentrate an average solar irradiance of 518.857W/m2 with an average transmittance of 0.855, taking into account the effect of the chromatic aberration.

  4. Challenges, constraints, and results of lens design for 17 micron-bolometer focal plane arrays in 8-12 micron waveband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert; Franks, John

    2011-06-01

    In the 8-12 micron waveband Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) are available with a 17 micron pixel pitch in different arrays sizes (e.g. 512 x 480 pixels and 320 x 240 pixels) and with excellent electrical properties. Many applications become possible using this new type of IR-detector which will become the future standard in uncooled technology. Lenses with an f-number faster than f/1.5 minimize the diffraction impact on the spatial resolution and guarantee a high thermal resolution for uncooled cameras. Both effects will be quantified. The distinction between Traditional f-number (TF) and Radiometric f-number (RF) is discussed. Lenses with different focal lengths are required for applications in a variety of markets. They are classified by their Horizontal field of view (HFOV). Respecting the requirements for high volume markets, several two lens solutions will be discussed. A commonly accepted parameter of spatial resolution is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)-value at the Nyquist frequency of the detector (here 30cy/mm). This parameter of resolution will be presented versus field of view. Wide Angle and Super Wide Angle lenses are susceptible to low relative illumination in the corner of the detector. Measures to reduce this drop to an acceptable value are presented.

  5. Selection of the optimum magnet design for the International Linear Collider positron source helical undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of possible undulator designs for the International Linear Collider positron source has resulted in a superconducting bifilar wire design being selected. After a comprehensive paper study and fabrication of the two preeminent designs, the superconducting undulator was chosen instead of the permanent magnet alternative. This was because of its superior performance in terms of magnetic field strength and quality, operational flexibility, risk of radiation damage, ease in achieving the required vacuum, and cost. The superconducting undulator design will now be developed into a complete system design for the full 200 m long magnet that is required.

  6. The effect of pipecol angles for the magnetic electron lens on the aberration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khshab, A. M.; Al-Khshab, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    The symmetric mag etic objective lens of great importance for the electronic microscopes intended for hi g resolution. Such lens is determined, not only by its geometries structure and shape parameters, but also by the influence of the variation of the pole piece angles. the results show that the Objective lens having the pole piece angle of 55 a has a considerable effect on the electron optical Properties. When this pole piece is appropriately and highly saturated, the lens possesses low spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients. This hind of pole piece lens leads to more favourable design than other lenses. (authors). 14 refs., 7 figs.1 table

  7. Optimization of electrostatic lens systems for low-energy scanning microcolumn applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Kim, Dae-Wook; Ahn, Seungjoon; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Ho-Seob; Ahn, Seong Joon

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of a low-energy scanning microcolumn is proposed by adopting a modified Einzel lens sandwiched between an aligner and a deflector. The modified Einzel lens is composed of four electrodes, and the two center electrodes are specially designed quadrupole lenses having keyhole type rather than circular apertures. The outer electrodes of the Einzel lens having circular apertures are grounded, and the quadrupole lens is operated by applying the quadrupole voltages. The effects of the separated deflector system and the static quadrupole lens were investigated by analyzing the scanning electron beam spot at the target, and the results show that the proposed system can improve the performance of the scanning microcolumn

  8. Performance of the CERN plasma lens in laboratory and beam tests at the Antiproton Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewicz, R.; Lubrano di Scampamorte, M.; Milner, S.; Pedersen, F.; Riege, H.; Christiansen, J.; Frank, K.; Stetter, M.; Tkotz, R.; Boggasch, E.

    1991-01-01

    The CERN plasma lens is based on a dynamic z-pinch which creates during 500 ns a cylindrical plasma current conductor of 290 mm length and 38 to 45 mm diameter. The lens is designed for pulsed pinched currents of 400 kA and magnetic field gradients of 200 T/m produced with stored energies of 56 kJ. Life tests of different lens components were carried through at a repetition rate of 4.8 s/pulse. The results of the first beam tests of the plasma lens at the CERN antiproton source are very encouraging in view of other potential plasma lens applications

  9. An Interactive Ambulatory Nephrology Curriculum for Internal Medicine Interns: Design, Implementation, and Participant Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alexis C; Warburton, Karen M; Miller, Rachel K; Negoianu, Dan; Cohen, Jordana B

    2017-09-01

    While diminishing nephrology fellow recruitment is a known issue, more work is needed to evaluate possible interventions to reverse this trend. We designed and implemented a curriculum to increase exposure to ambulatory nephrology among internal medicine interns. The curriculum focused on key aspects of outpatient nephrology practice, including supervised clinic visits, formal themed didactic content, and an online interactive forum with assigned evidence-based readings and small-group responses to relevant cases. We obtained postcourse surveys from all participating interns. Of the 43 interns who took part in the first year of the ambulatory nephrology curriculum, 100% reported a positive didactic experience and 91% reported a positive interactive online experience. 77% reported an improvement in their familiarity with clinical nephrology practice (median 2-point increase in familiarity score on a 7-point scale, P<0.001 by signed rank testing). Qualitative feedback included praise for the high-yield topics covered by the lectures and energizing teachers. In conclusion, we successfully implemented an ambulatory nephrology curriculum using a framework that integrated formal didactics, interactive online learning, and key clinical components of outpatient nephrology care. Future investigation will evaluate whether early implementation of this curriculum is associated with increased pursuit of nephrology as a career. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  11. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  12. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  13. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  14. Gravitational-Like Lens Based on Graphene Ripple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Chen, Shuyue; Ma, Ning; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a semiclassical study on carrier movement in curved graphene. A previous attempt was made to show that curved graphene is a readily available and cheap laboratory material used to study general relativity effects, especially if the electron energies satisfy 4μeV ≪ |E| ≪ 3eV. Furthermore, a gravitational-like lens can be constructed based on a special graphene ripple; this lens has neither chromatic nor cometic aberration. One can design an ideal electron lens using a graphene ripple.

  15. Aero-Thermo-Structural Design Optimization of Internally Cooled Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Martin, T. J.; Dennis, B. H.; Lee, E.; Han, Z.-X.

    1999-01-01

    A set of robust and computationally affordable inverse shape design and automatic constrained optimization tools have been developed for the improved performance of internally cooled gas turbine blades. The design methods are applicable to the aerodynamics, heat transfer, and thermoelasticity aspects of the turbine blade. Maximum use of the existing proven disciplinary analysis codes is possible with this design approach. Preliminary computational results demonstrate possibilities to design blades with minimized total pressure loss and maximized aerodynamic loading. At the same time, these blades are capable of sustaining significantly higher inlet hot gas temperatures while requiring remarkably lower coolant mass flow rates. These results suggest that it is possible to design internally cooled turbine blades that will cost less to manufacture, will have longer life span, and will perform as good, if not better than, film cooled turbine blades.

  16. Electronic states in a quantum lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Ulloa, S. E.; Marin-Antuna, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a model to find analytically the electronic states in self-assembled quantum dots with a truncated spherical cap (''lens'') geometry. A conformal analytical image is designed to map the quantum dot boundary into a dot with semispherical shape. The Hamiltonian for a carrier confined in the quantum lens is correspondingly mapped into an equivalent operator and its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the corresponding Dirichlet problem are analyzed. A modified Rayleigh-Schro''dinger perturbation theory is presented to obtain analytical expressions for the energy levels and wave functions as a function of the spherical cap height b and radius a of the circular cross section. Calculations for a hard wall confinement potential are presented, and the effect of decreasing symmetry on the energy values and eigenfunctions of the lens-shape quantum dot is studied. As the degeneracies of a semicircular geometry are broken for b≠a, our perturbation approach allows tracking of the split states. Energy states and electronic wave functions with m=0 present the most pronounced influence on the reduction of the lens height. The method and expressions presented here can be straightforwardly extended to deal with more general Hamiltonians, including strains and valence-band coupling effects in Group III--V and Group II--VI self-assembled quantum dots

  17. Elevated temperature design of KALIMER reactor internals accounting for creep and stress-rupture effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, Bong

    2000-01-01

    In most LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breed Reactor) design, the operating temperature is very high and the time-dependent creep and stress-rupture effects become so important in reactor structural design. Therefore, unlike with conventional PWR, the normal operating conditions can be basically dominant design loading because the hold time at elevated temperature condition is so long and enough to result in severe total creep ratcheting strains during total service lifetime. In this paper, elevated temperature design of the conceptually designed baffle annulus regions of KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) reactor internal structures is carried out for normal operating conditions which have the operating temperature 530 deg. C and the total service lifetime of 30 years. For the elevated temperature design of reactor internal structures, the ASME Code Case N-201-4 is used. Using this code, the time-dependent stress limits, the accumulated total inelastic strain during service lifetime, and the creep-fatigue damages are evaluated with the calculation results by the elastic analysis under conservative assumptions. The application procedures of elevated temperature design of the reactor internal structures using ASME code case N-201-4 with the elastic analysis method are described step by step in detail. This paper will be useful guide for actual application of elevated temperature design of various reactor types accounting for creep and stress-rupture effects. (author)

  18. The neutron silicon lens. An update of the thermal neutron lens results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Daymond, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the Neutron Silicon Lens (NSL) and provides and update on the experimental results achieved to date. The NSL design is a cylindrical neutron lens based on the use of multiple neutron mirrors supported and separated by silicon wafers. Such lenses would have many applications in both the primary and scattered beams on neutron instruments, and would lead to immediate improvements where the sample to be illuminated is small, as in high pressure or engineering strain scanning instruments. (author)

  19. The neutron silicon lens. An update of the thermal neutron lens results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.W.; Daymond, M.R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the Neutron Silicon Lens (NSL) and provides and update on the experimental results achieved to date. The NSL design is a cylindrical neutron lens based on the use of multiple neutron mirrors supported and separated by silicon wafers. Such lenses would have many applications in both the primary and scattered beams on neutron instruments, and would lead to immediate improvements where the sample to be illuminated is small, as in high pressure or engineering strain scanning instruments. (author)

  20. Innovative designs and technologies of nuclear power. IV International scientific and technical conference. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    IV International scientific and technical conference “Innovative designs and technologies of nuclear power” has been organized and is conducted by JSC NIKIET with support from Rosatom State Corporation, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Nuclear Society of Russia. The conference topics include: innovative designs of nuclear facilities for various applications, nuclear fuel and new materials, closed fuel cycle technologies, SNF and RW management, technological answers to nonproliferation problems, small power reactors (stationary, transportable, floatable, propulsion, space), integrated codes of a new generation for safety analysis of nuclear power plants and fuel cycles, controlled fusion [ru

  1. Nonlinearity measure and internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perev, Kamen [Systems and Control Department, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Cl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper considers the problem of internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design. The nonlinearity measure concept is used for quantifying the control system degree of nonlinearity. The linearizing effect of a modified internal model control structure is presented by comparing the nonlinearity measures of the open-loop and closed-loop systems. It is shown that the linearization properties are improved by increasing the control system local feedback gain. However, it is emphasized that at the same time the stability of the system deteriorates. The conflicting goals of stability and linearization are resolved by solving the design problem in different frequency ranges.

  2. Bilateral cataract formation via acute spontaneous fracture of the lens following treatment of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy V. Sychev

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Acute transient cataracts that develop during correction of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are thought to result from osmotic lens swelling. In this case report, internal fracture of the lens was produced by mechanical forces generated in the process of lens swelling occurring as a consequence of initial hyperglycemia and its subsequent correction. This case represents a rare ocular complication of hyperglycemia correction, and provides new evidence that mechanical forces can be part of diabetic cataractogenesis.

  3. Nonpolarizing beam splitter designed by frustrated total internal reflection inside a glass cube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueke; Shao, Jianda; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2006-06-20

    A method for the design of an all-dielectric nonpolarizing prism beam splitter utilizing the principle of frustrated total internal reflection is reported. The nonpolarizing condition for a prism beam splitter is discussed, and some single layer design examples are elaborated. The concept can be applied to a wide range of wavelengths and arbitrary transmittance values, and with the help of a computer design program examples of 400-700 nm, T(p)=T(s)=0.5+/-0.01, with incident angles of 45 degrees and 62 degrees are given. In addition, the sensitivity and application of the design are also discussed.

  4. Dose limits to the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, N.

    2016-01-01

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  5. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  6. Improved integrating-sphere throughput with a lens and nonimaging concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, D B; Snail, K A; Hanssen, L M

    1995-12-01

    A reflectometer design utilizing an integrating sphere with a lens and nonimaging concentrator is described. Compared with previous designs where a collimator was used to restrict the detector field of view, the concentrator-lens combination significantly increases the throughput of the reflectometer. A procedure for designing lens-concentrators is given along with the results of parametric studies. The measured angular response of a lens-concentrator system is compared with ray-trace predictions and with the response of an ideal system.

  7. An acoustic Maxwell’s fish-eye lens based on gradient-index metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Bao-guo; Tian Ye; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed a two-dimensional acoustic Maxwell’s fish-eye lens by using the gradient-index metamaterials with space-coiling units. By adjusting the structural parameters of the units, the refractive index can be gradually varied, which is key role to design the acoustic fish-eye lens. As predicted by ray trajectories on a virtual sphere, the proposed lens has the capability to focus the acoustic wave irradiated from a point source at the surface of the lens on the diametrically opposite side of the lens. The broadband and low loss performance is further demonstrated for the lens. The proposed acoustic fish-eye lens is expected to have the potential applications in directional acoustic coupler or coherent ultrasonic imaging. (paper)

  8. Design of reactor internals in larger high-temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.

    1981-01-01

    In his paper, the author analyzes and summarizes the present state of the art with emphasis on the prototype reactor THTR 300 MWe, because in addition to spherical fuel elements, this type includes other features of future HTR design such as the same flow direction of cooland gas through the core. The paper on hand also elaborates design guidelines for reactor internals applicable with large HTR's of up to 1200 MWe. Proved designs will be altered so as to meet the special requirements of larger cores with spherical elements to be reloaded according to the OTTO principle. This paper is furthermore designed as a starting point for selective and swift development of reactor internals for large HTR's to be refuelled according to the OTTO principle. (orig./GL) [de

  9. Design and analysis of push pipe joint under internal pressure and temperature loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Alam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Pipe joints flanged or welded are commonly used in industry for different applications ranging from sewerage to the high pressure and temperature applications. However, with the rapidly changing technological trends, for optimized space such as for heat exchanger applications, pipe joint design needs special consideration, especially for the internal pipe where no flanged/bolted joint due to space constraint can be used. In addition, where joint opening/closing is the requirement for maintenance or other functional purposes, it becomes inevitable to use some special design. In this paper, a push joint proposed is designed, analyzed, optimized and tested for safe stress and operating conditions. An experimental test rig is designed and tests are performed for internal pressure and temperature separately and joint's behaviour is analyzed in detail for any leaks. FEA results are compared and verified with the mathematical results. Based on the experimental observations, the joint is safe as no leaks are observed. (author)

  10. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  11. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  12. Proceedings of the 2. international conference on containment design and operation. Vol. 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S R

    1991-12-31

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: plenary; commissioning and operation; regulatory and performance requirements; reliability, risk and severe accident evaluation; future containment systems; severe accident evaluation; activity transport experiments; activity transport analysis; containment design; future and filtered vent containment systems; containment response; hydrogen combustion. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors, and to Canadian experiments. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  13. Interim report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Overview of the lens, radiogenic cataract, and equivalent dose limit for the lens newly recommended by the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Yamauchi, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued the statement on tissue reactions. This stimulated interest in many countries. The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established in the Japanese Health Physics Society, and in April 2013, started discussion about the international developments and recent studies related to the dosimetry of the lens of the eye. This committee now publishes the interim report consisting of parts I-VI. Of these, this Part I overviews the structure of the eye and lens, cataract types and the scientific evidence of its new dose threshold and equivalent dose limit newly recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The third international conference on containment design and operation includes in volume 2 of the publication sessions on the following topics: structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  15. The Design and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for International Students at Morehead State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donell Cochran

    2017-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…

  16. Educational Technology Research Journals: "International Journal of Technology and Design Education", 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, James M.; Jones, Brian; Cooper, Jessica Rose; McAllister, Laura; Ware, Mark B.; West, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends of the "International Journal of Technology and Design Education" over the past decade (2005-2014). The researchers looked at trends in article topics, research methods, authorship, and article citations by analyzing keyword frequencies, performing word counts of article titles, classifying studies…

  17. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United... States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United States Section Memorandum for the Commissioner...

  18. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The third international conference on containment design and operation includes in volume 2 of the publication sessions on the following topics: structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  19. An internal pilot design for prospective cancer screening trials with unknown disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2015-10-13

    For studies that compare the diagnostic accuracy of two screening tests, the sample size depends on the prevalence of disease in the study population, and on the variance of the outcome. Both parameters may be unknown during the design stage, which makes finding an accurate sample size difficult. To solve this problem, we propose adapting an internal pilot design. In this adapted design, researchers will accrue some percentage of the planned sample size, then estimate both the disease prevalence and the variances of the screening tests. The updated estimates of the disease prevalence and variance are used to conduct a more accurate power and sample size calculation. We demonstrate that in large samples, the adapted internal pilot design produces no Type I inflation. For small samples (N less than 50), we introduce a novel adjustment of the critical value to control the Type I error rate. We apply the method to two proposed prospective cancer screening studies: 1) a small oral cancer screening study in individuals with Fanconi anemia and 2) a large oral cancer screening trial. Conducting an internal pilot study without adjusting the critical value can cause Type I error rate inflation in small samples, but not in large samples. An internal pilot approach usually achieves goal power and, for most studies with sample size greater than 50, requires no Type I error correction. Further, we have provided a flexible and accurate approach to bound Type I error below a goal level for studies with small sample size.

  20. The design and implementation of an international trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    The inclusion of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol reflects an important decision to address climate-change issues through flexible market mechanisms. The author addresses a number of policy issues that must be considered in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG)

  1. International cooperation in the safety and environmental assessment for the ITER engineering design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Baker, D.J.; Bartels, H-W.

    1998-01-01

    The ITER Project includes design and assessment activities to ensure the safety and environmental attractiveness of ITER and demonstrate that it can be sited in any of the sponsoring Parties with a minimum of site-specific redesign. This paper highlights some of the efforts to develop an international consensus approach for ITER safety design and assessment, including: development of general safety and environmental design criteria; development of quantitative dose-release assessment criteria; development of a radiation protection program; waste characterization; and development of safety analysis guidelines. The high level of interaction, cooperation and collaboration between the Joint Central Team and the Home Teams, and between the safety team and designers, and the spirit of consensus that has guided them have resulted in a safe design for ITER and a safety design and assessment that can meet the needs of the potential host countries. (author)

  2. Active liquid-crystal deflector and lens with Fresnel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Giichi; Yamano, Shohei; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    A new type of tunable Fresnel deflector and lens composed of liquid crystal was developed. Combined structure of multiple interdigitated electrodes and the high-resistivity (HR) layer implements the saw-tooth distribution of electrical potential with only the planar surfaces of the transparent substrates. According to the numerical calculation and design, experimental devices were manufactured with the liquid crystal (LC) material sealed into the sandwiched flat glass plates of 0.7 mm thickness with rubbed alignment layers set to an anti-parallel configuration. Fabricated beam deflector with no moving parts shows the maximum tilt angle of +/-1.3 deg which can apply for optical image stabilizer (OIS) of micro camera. We also discussed and verified their lens characteristics to be extended more advanced applications. Transparent interdigitated electrodes were concentrically aligned on the lens aperture with the insulator gaps under their boundary area. The diameter of the lens aperture was 30 mm and the total number of Fresnel zone was 100. Phase retardation of the beam wavefront irradiated from the LC lens device can be evaluated by polarizing microscope images with a monochromatic filter. Radial positions of each observed fringe are plotted and fitted with 2nd degree polynomial approximation. The number of appeared fringes is over 600 in whole lens aperture area and the correlation coefficients of all approximations are over 0.993 that seems enough ideal optical wavefront. The obtained maximum lens powers from the approximations are about +/-4 m-1 which was satisfied both convex and concave lens characteristics; and their practical use for the tunable lens grade eyeglasses became more prospective.

  3. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: performance and regulatory requirements; radionuclide behaviour; severe accident design and analysis; operation, maintenance, leaking and aging of containment systems; thermal hydraulic behaviour of containment systems; hydrogen mixing and mitigation; design methods and concepts; code validation; structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  4. Proceedings of the third international conference on containment design and operation. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The second international conference on containment design and operation included sessions on the following topics: performance and regulatory requirements; radionuclide behaviour; severe accident design and analysis; operation, maintenance, leaking and aging of containment systems; thermal hydraulic behaviour of containment systems; hydrogen mixing and mitigation; design methods and concepts; code validation; structural analysis and response tests; passive safety systems; aerosol behaviour; containment reliability, integrity, and risk assessment; hydrogen deflagration and detonation. Due prominence was given to CANDU and other PHWR reactors. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  5. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowicz, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to `foster the exchange of scientific and technical information`, and `encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world`. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  6. Improving Internal Communication Management in SMEs: Two Case Studies in Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Eskelinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective information management is a success factor for business growth, but small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face challenges in transferring knowledge and information from one organizational unit to another. In this study of two case companies, participative business model development processes were designed to identify challenges and solutions in internal communication management. A service design approach based on CIMO logic (context, intervention, mechanism, and output showed that the participative business model technique and process can identify problems and challenges in internal communication management, as well as in the prioritization of actions. The process is a creative service design process including both divergent and convergent phases. The process increased motivation among personnel to find solutions, encouraged communication, and created joint understanding on how to solve problems. The technique helped to bring tacit information into use.

  7. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the HTTR through international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, I.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to 'foster the exchange of scientific and technical information', and 'encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world'. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) are effective vehicles for implementing the above. The CRP on Design and Evaluation of Heat Utilization Systems for HTTR has started in September 1994 and is aimed at promoting international co-operation to identify the most promising heat utilization system(s) to be demonstrated at the HTTR, for the benefit of current operators and future designers and constructors of HTGRs. Participating Member States are collaborating by exchanging existing technical information on the technology of heat utilization systems, by developing design concepts and by performing evaluations of candidate systems for potential demonstration with the HTTR. In this report, the systems are reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  8. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  9. Human lens colouration, age and cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscott, R.J.W.; Garner, B.; Hood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The human lens biosynthesises UV filter compounds which effectively remove light in the 300-400nm band. These chemicals are present either as an aid to visual acuity, or to filter out damaging UV radiation. The primate UV filters are 3-hydroxykynurenine analogues derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. We have recently demonstrated that these endogenous UV filters are not innocuous, but are in fact capable of binding to proteins, including the crystalline proteins which make up the bulk of the lens. Thus, over time, the levels of protein - bound UV filters increase and this results in the human lens becoming progressively more yellow as we age. This colouration affects our colour vision and it may also be responsible for the brown colour of lenses which is the hallmark of age-related nuclear cataract. An understanding of the intrinsic instability of the endogenous UV filters, combined with changes in the internal transport of these and other small molecular weight compounds including antioxidants, such as glutathione, is allowing us to gain an insight into the processes responsible for the development of age-related cataract: the major cause of world blindness

  10. Design of complex bone internal structure using topology optimization with perimeter control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaejong; Sutradhar, Alok; Shah, Jami J; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2018-03-01

    Large facial bone loss usually requires patient-specific bone implants to restore the structural integrity and functionality that also affects the appearance of each patient. Titanium alloys (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V) are typically used in the interfacial porous coatings between the implant and the surrounding bone to promote stability. There exists a property mismatch between the two that in general leads to complications such as stress-shielding. This biomechanical discrepancy is a hurdle in the design of bone replacements. To alleviate the mismatch, the internal structure of the bone replacements should match that of the bone. Topology optimization has proven to be a good technique for designing bone replacements. However, the complex internal structure of the bone is difficult to mimic using conventional topology optimization methods without additional restrictions. In this work, the complex bone internal structure is recovered using a perimeter control based topology optimization approach. By restricting the solution space by means of the perimeter, the intricate design complexity of bones can be achieved. Three different bone regions with well-known physiological loadings are selected to illustrate the method. Additionally, we found that the target perimeter value and the pattern of the initial distribution play a vital role in obtaining the natural curvatures in the bone internal structures as well as avoiding excessive island patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystalline lens radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Pasquier, D.; Castelain, B.; Lartigau, E.; Warnet, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cyto-protection reported in. vitro and in. vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cyto-protective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathione pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Arnifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radio-protectants, could be further test?r for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. (author)

  12. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures

  13. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  14. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  15. Probabilistic evaluation of concrete containment capacity for beyond design basis internal pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    For beyond design basis internal pressure loading, experimental studies have demonstrated that the most probable failure mode governing the ultimate functional capacity of concrete containments is leak rather than break. Based on leak rates measured in experiments, a prediction formula for leak rate as functions of containment liner size and internal pressure has been postulated. The determination of liner tear is cast in a probabilistic framework. In calculating leakage, particular attention is paid to the evaluation of leakage versus rupture and the loading rates that may be required to leapfrog over a leakage mode. (orig.)

  16. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  17. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  18. New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjin

    2012-07-01

    Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurisić, Darija; Skegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-12-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in different aspects of lens care handling and wearing habits. In our research 50 asymptomatic lens wearers filled out a questionnaire containing demographic data, lens type, hygiene and wearing habits, lenses and lens care system replacement schedule and self-evaluation of contact lens handling hygiene. We established criteria of compliance according to available manufacturer's recommendations, prior literature and our clinical experience. Only 2 (4%) of patients were fully compliant SCL wearers. The most common non-compliant behaviours were insufficient lens solution soaking time (62%), followed by failure to daily exchange lens case solution and showering while wearing lenses. 44% of patients reported storing lenses in saline solution. Mean lens storage case replacement was 3.6 months, with up to 78% patients replacing lens case at least once in 3 months. Average grade in self evaluating level of compliance was very good (4 +/- 0.78) (from 1-poor level of hygiene to 5-great level of hygiene). Lens wearers who reported excessive daily lens wear and more than 10 years of lens wearing experience were also found to be less compliant with other lens system care procedures. (t = -2.99, df=47, p rate, self grading was relatively high. Therefore, these results indicate the need for patient education and encouragement of better lens wearing habits and all of the lens maintenance steps at each patient visit.

  20. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not obscure...

  2. Straylight Measurements in Contact Lens Wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Engelbrecht, Leonore A.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the effect of contact lens wear on straylight in rigid and soft contact lens wearers and (2) to relate findings to morphological changes and subjective complaints. Methods: Straylight was measured using the Oculus C-Quant during contact lens wear and after contact lens

  3. Apron layout design and flight-to-gate assignment at Lanseria International airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard, T.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is continuously increasing and more efficient air transport systems are required to handle the air travel demand. The study investigates the expansion of Lanseria International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa. Expansion of Lanseria requires a study of the airport apron layout to ensure efficient passenger-aircraft flow as well as the efficient flow of aircraft to and from the airport. The candidate layout designs are based on the layout concept of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, USA. In the study, different airport apron layouts were compared, including the existing layout of Atlanta Airport, via a simulation model of each. Designs based mainly on passenger transfer distance between the terminal building and aircraft were evaluated. The cross-entropy method was used to develop a generic flight-to-gate assignment program that minimises passenger transfer distances.

  4. Design of a control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Liu Wufeng; Shao Caojie; Lin Feiyu; Zhang Jianchuan; Xiao Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    It is described in this paper the design of the control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility, in which there are many different kinds of units need to be monitored and controlled. The control system is composed of several subsystems which are designed to control the gas-jet temperature, chamber vacuum, valves and molecular pumps. A human-computer interaction interface is also realized to do the data acquisition, data processing and display. The whole system has been working stably and safely, it fully meets the requirements of physical experiments in the internal target facility. In January of 2010, the first physics experiment of the radioactive electron capture was finished successfully with the aids of this control system. (authors)

  5. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  6. Visualization of transverse diffusion paths across fiber cells of the ocular lens by small animal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghefi, Ehsan; Hunter, Peter J; Jacobs, Marc D; Pontre, Beau; Donaldson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The sense of vision requires that light penetrate through the ocular lens. Experiments, performed and published by many research groups, have suggested that the lens, which has no blood vessels, relies on internally directed ion and water fluxes for its circulation, survival and transparency. We investigated the internal diffusive pathways of the lens in order to better understand the constraints that may be operating on directional lens fluxes. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, was used to measure tissue properties and diffusivity throughout cultured bovine lenses. A range of concentric regions of signal intensity was distinguished inside the lens, by both T2-weighted signal and mean diffusivity. Diffusivity mapping of the lens revealed novel anisotropic polar and equatorial zones of pronounced diffusivity directed transverse to the fiber cells. In contrast, an inner zone including the lens nucleus showed isotropic and weak diffusivity. Our results lend support to models of internally directed lens micro-circulation, by placing non-structural diffusive constraints on global patterns of fluid circulation

  7. Immunohistochemical studies of lens crystallins in the dysgenetic lens (dyl) mutant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Sanyal, S.

    1984-01-01

    The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been

  8. QA role in advanced energy activities: Reductionism, emergence, and functionalism; presuppositions in designing internal QA audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1988-06-01

    After a brief overview of the mission of Fermilab, this paper explores some of the problems associated with designing internal QA audits. The paper begins with several examples of how audits should not be designed, then goes on to analyze two types of presuppositions about organizational structure (reductionism and emergence) that can be misleading and skew the data sample if folded too heavily into the checklist. A third type of presupposition (functionalism), is proposed as a viable way of achieving a more well-rounded measure of the performance of an organization, i.e. its effectiveness, not just compliance.

  9. Biomass downdraft gasifier with internal cyclonic combustion chamber: design, construction, and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Krushna; Bhoi, Prakash; Huhnke, Raymond; Bellmer, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory downdraft gasifier design with unique biomass pyrolysis and tar cracking mechanism is evolved at Oklahoma State University. This design has an internal separate combustion section where turbulent, swirling high-temperature combustion flows are generated. A series of research trials were conducted using wood shavings as the gasifier feedstock. Maximum tar cracking temperatures were above 1100°C. Average volumetric concentration levels of major combustible components in the product gas were 22% CO and 11% H(2). Hot and cold gas efficiencies were 72% and 66%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Structural Design of the Common Research Model Wing Box for Aeroelastic Tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the use of alternative internal structural designs within a full-scale wing box structure for aeroelastic tailoring, with a focus on curvilinear spars, ribs, and stringers. The baseline wing model is a fully-populated, cantilevered wing box structure of the Common Research Model (CRM). Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Twelve parametric studies alter the number of internal structural members along with their location, orientation, and curvature. Additional evaluation metrics are considered to identify design trends that lead to lighter-weight, aeroelastically stable wing designs. The best designs of the individual studies are compared and discussed, with a focus on weight reduction and flutter resistance. The largest weight reductions were obtained by removing the inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straight-rotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. For some configurations, the differences between curved and straight ribs were smaller, which provides motivation for future optimization-based studies to fully exploit the trade-offs.

  11. Design strategies for the International Space University's variable gravity research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    A variable gravity research facility named 'Newton' was designed by 58 students from 13 countries at the International Space University's 1989 summer session at the Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourge, France. The project was comprehensive in scope, including a political and legal foundation for international cooperation, development and financing; technical, science and engineering issues; architectural design; plausible schedules; and operations, crew issues and maintenance. Since log-term exposure to zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body, the main goal was to design a unique variable gravity research facility which would find a practical solution to this problem, permitting a manned mission to Mars. The facility would not duplicate other space-based facilities and would provide the flexibility for examining a number of gravity levels, including lunar and Martian gravities. Major design alternatives included a truss versus a tether based system which also involved the question of docking while spinning or despinning to dock. These design issues are described. The relative advantages or disadvantages are discussed, including comments on the necessary research and technology development required for each.

  12. A cost-effective methodology to internalize nuclear safety in nuclear reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, M.; Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology to perform nuclear reactor design, balancing safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage, is presented in this work. The goal of this integral methodology is to take into account safety aspects in an optimization design process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance. Design parameter effects on characteristic or critical safety variables, chosen from reactor behavior during accidents (safety performance indicators), are synthesized on Design Maps. These maps allow one to compare the safety indicator with limits, which are determined by design criteria or regulations, and to transfer these restrictions to the design parameters. In this way, reactor dynamic response and other safety aspects are integrated in a global optimization process, by means of additional rules to the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical calculations. An application of the methodology, implemented in Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program 3 (IREP3) code, to optimize safety systems of CAREM prototype is presented. It consists in balancing the designs of the Emergency Injection System (EIS), the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS), the primary circuit water inventory and the containment height, to cope with loss of coolant and loss of heat sink (LOHS) accidental sequences, taking into account cost and reactor performance. This methodology turns out to be promising to internalize cost-efficiently safety issues. It also allows one to evaluate the incremental costs of implementing higher safety levels

  13. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  14. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  15. Analysis of a time-lens based optical frame synchronizer and retimer for 10G Ethernet aiming at a Tb/s optical router/switch design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes experimentally and by numerical simulations an optical frame retimer and synchronizer unit for 10 Gbit/s Ethernet input frames. The unit is envisaged to be applied in the design of an optically transparent router for Optical Time Division Multiplexed (OTDM) links, aggregating...... traffic from several 10 Gbit/s Ethernet (10 GE) links. The scheme is based on time-lenses implemented through a combination of a sinusoidally driven optical phase modulation and linear dispersion. Our analysis extracts the operation range of the scheme used for synchronization and retiming in the context...

  16. Engineering constraints and computer-aided optimization of electrostatic lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, H.W.G. van der; Barth, J.E.; Adriaanse, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    An optimization tool for the design of electrostatic lens systems with axial symmetry is presented. This tool is based on the second-order electrode method combined with a multivariable numerical optimization procedure. The second-order electrode method makes a cubic spline approximation to the axial potential for a given electrode shape. With the help of this approximation, a numerical optimization can be done. To demonstrate this optimization tool, a lens system for Auger analyses is optimized. It is shown that variations in the practical constraints imposed on the design, like maximum electrode potential or maximum lens diameter, have strong effects on the obtainable lens quality. It is concluded that a numerical optimization does not take over the lens designer's job, but allows him to thoroughly examine the optical consequences of engineering choices by finding the optimum design for each set of constraints. (orig.)

  17. Lightweight Inexpensive Ozone Lidar Telescope Using a Plastic Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Notari, Anthony; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive lightweight ozone lidar telescope was designed, constructed and operated during an ozone lidar field campaign. This report summarizes the design parameters and performance of the plastic Fresnel lens telescope and shows the ozone lidar performance compared to Zemax calculations.

  18. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new.

  19. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In

    1995-12-01

    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new

  20. Surveying the citizen science landscape: an exploration of the design, delivery and impact of citizen science through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Linda; Fradera, Roger; Riesch, Hauke; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy

    2016-07-22

    This paper provides a short introduction to the topic of citizen science (CS) identifying the shift from the knowledge deficit model to more inclusive, participatory science. It acknowledges the benefits of new technology and the opportunities it brings for mass participation and data manipulation. It focuses on the increase in interest in CS in recent years and draws on experience gained from the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme launched in England in 2007. The drivers and objectives for OPAL are presented together with background information on the partnership, methods and scales. The approaches used by researchers ranged from direct public participation in mass data collection through field surveys to research with minimal public engagement. The supporting services focused on education, particularly to support participants new to science, a media strategy and data services. Examples from OPAL are used to illustrate the different approaches to the design and delivery of CS that have emerged over recent years and the breadth of opportunities for public participation the current landscape provides. Qualitative and quantitative data from OPAL are used as evidence of the impact of CS. While OPAL was conceived ahead of the more recent formalisation of approaches to the design, delivery and analysis of CS projects and their impact, it nevertheless provides a range of examples against which to assess the various benefits and challenges emerging in this fast developing field.

  1. Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards: Safeguards-by-Design at Enrichment Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Jon D.; McGinnis, Brent R.; Morgan, James B.; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar; Shipwash, Jacqueline L.

    2011-01-01

    The Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards (NGS3) was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) in Washington, D.C. on 14-15 December 2010; this meeting focused on the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) concept. There were approximately 100 participants from 13 countries, comprised of safeguards policy and technical experts from government and industry. Representatives also were present from the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the European Atomic Energy Agency (Euratom), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The primary objective of this meeting was to exchange views and provide recommendations on implementation of the SBD concept for four specific nuclear fuel cycle facility types: gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), GEN III and GEN IV reactors, aqueous reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities. The general and facility-specific SBD documents generated from the four working groups, which were circulated for comment among working group participants, are intended to provide a substantive contribution to the IAEA's efforts to publish SBD guidance for these specific types of nuclear facilities in the near future. The IAEA has described the SBD concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the DOE is working to establish SBD as a global norm through DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. This paper describes the discussion topics and final recommendations of the Enrichment Facilities Working

  2. Overview of internal fire hazards aspects of ABWR design for United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroki [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) is a generation III+ reactor, the most modern operational generation of nuclear power plants. The UK ABWR design is proposed for development and construction in the United Kingdom (UK), and under review by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) through Generic Design Assessment (GDA). The UK ABWR design has mainly two types of the safety system: ''preventing'' and ''mitigating'' a fault and their consequences. The prevention of internal hazards starts with design processes and procedures. These processes lead to limiting the sources of potential hazards. The mitigative safety systems are required to ensure the fundamental safety functions (FSFs): control of reactivity, Fuel cooling, long term heat removal, confinement/containment of radioactive materials, and others. Implementation of the safety philosophy is based upon redundant and diverse safety systems that deliver the FSFs. Three mechanical divisions are provided, each of which contains redundant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) capable of carrying out all the FSFs. The safety divisions are separated by robust barriers which act to contain a hazard in an affected division and prevent the spread of the hazard to a different division. The deterministic assessments and the hazard schedule argue that the rooms containing SSCs providing the FSFs are located in different fire safety divisions. The approach to maintaining the FSFs during and after internal fires is to ensure fires do not spread beyond that division to affect redundant equipment in other divisions. During the GDA process, it is demonstrated that generally barrier compartmentation (the divisional barrier walls, ceilings and floors) is sufficient to contain the postulated fires. The UK ABWR design has sufficient capability of withstanding the postulated internal fire hazard to achieve the FSFs. Further development is being undertaken with feedback in the GDA

  3. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  4. Single lens laser beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  5. Eye lens dose estimation during interventional radiology and its impact on the existing radiation protection and safety program: in the context with new International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Interventional radiology procedures are used for diagnosing certain medical conditions. The radiologists and medical professionals are exposed to ionizing radiation from X-rays of the equipments and also from scattered radiation during these procedures. The radiation exposure to the eye is more important to be assessed while performing such procedures. ICRP has revised the annual dose limit to the lens of the eye from 150 mSv to 20 mSv. In view of this revision, a study was carried out to evaluate the dose to the lens of the eye during interventional radiology. The paper gives the details of calibration of TLDs using a head phantom, predict annual equivalent dose and also highlight the dependence of dose on the position of TLD on the head. It is observed the predicted annual equivalent doses to the lens of eye are in the range of 25 mGy to 37 mGy. The selection of dosimeter placement may also result in an uncertainty of -14% to 20%. (author)

  6. Internal combustion engines a detailed introduction to the thermodynamics of spark and compression ignition engines, their design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Rowland S

    1979-01-01

    Internal Combustion of Engines: A Detailed Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines, Their Design and Development focuses on the design, development, and operations of spark and compression ignition engines. The book first describes internal combustion engines, including rotary, compression, and indirect or spark ignition engines. The publication then discusses basic thermodynamics and gas dynamics. Topics include first and second laws of thermodynamics; internal energy and enthalpy diagrams; gas mixtures and homocentric flow; and state equation. The text ta

  7. A planar parabolic refractive nickel lens for high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Nagamine, Masaru; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Itou, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    A compound refractive nickel lens focusing 174 keV X-rays to 5 µm with a gain of 4 is presented. A compound refractive lens made of nickel and designed for focusing high-energy synchrotron X-rays is presented. The lens consists of 600 parabolic grooves and focuses X-rays in one plane only (planar lens). The lenses made and investigated by us earlier exhibited low transmission and irregularities in the focused beam profile. Since then, improvements in lens manufacturing technology have been made. The present lens gives an almost Gaussian profile and produces four times higher intensity at its maximum compared with the intensity of primary X-ray beams of 174 keV

  8. Isofocusing lens with cylindrical electrodes for charged particle beam with finite emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpak, E.V.; Smirnova, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    An axially symmetric lens, consisting of three cylindrical electrodes and designed for shaping the beams of charged particles with final emittance, is studied. The potentials on the lens electrodes, which ensure the maintenance of the crossover formed by the lens, are calculated. The dependences of the ratios of potentials on the lens electrodes are analyzed for different values of R 0 /R 0 1 ratios, where R 0 and R 1 are maximum values of initial values of coordinates and the slopes in the crossover, respectively. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Measurements on a Gabor lens for neutralizing and focusing a 30 keV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovic, J.A.; Hren, R.; Lee, G.; Mills, F.E.; Schmidt, C.W.; Wendt, J.; Young, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have reported previously on the use of a Gabor lens (also referred to as a plasma or space charge lens) to focus and neutralize a low energy proton beam. A different lens geometry and a higher anode voltage have been adopted to overcome a lack of stability present in the previous design. They report on studies in progress to measure the focusing properties of the Gabor lens and determine whether it can be used to match a 30 keV proton beam into radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) Accelerator. 10 refs., 4 figs

  10. Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging of mammals crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A.; Hoennicke, M.G.; Safatle, A.M.V.; Cusatis, C.; Moraes Barros, P.S.; Morelhao, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline lenses are transparent biological materials where the organization of the lens fibers can also be affected by changes at molecular level, and therefore the structure and morphology of the tissue can be correlated to the loss of transparency of the lens. In this work, internal structure of mammal lenses regarding the long-range ordering of the fibers are investigated by diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) radiography. Moreover, DEI and absorption X-ray synchrotron radiographs for healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are compared. Significant differences in healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are observed

  11. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  15. International Conference on Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, U

    2017-01-01

    The book presents the best articles presented by researchers, academicians and industrial experts in the International Conference on “Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering (I-DAD 2016)”. The book discusses new concept designs, analysis and manufacturing technologies, where more swing is for improved performance through specific and/or multifunctional linguistic design aspects to downsize the system, improve weight to strength ratio, fuel efficiency, better operational capability at room and elevated temperatures, reduced wear and tear, NVH aspects while balancing the challenges of beyond Euro IV/Barat Stage IV emission norms, Greenhouse effects and recyclable materials. The innovative methods discussed in the book will serve as a reference material for educational and research organizations, as well as industry, to take up challenging projects of mutual interest.

  16. A feasibility study of conceptual design for international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Hamada, Akiyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Clean energy is more and more required worldwide in proportion to actualization of global environmental issues including global warming. Therefore, it is an urgent task to realize promotion of worldwide introduction of clean energy which exists abundantly and is widely distributed in the world, such as hydropower and solar energy, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. However, since the renewable energy, differing from so called fossil fuel, is impossible to transport for long distance and store as it is, its utilization is subject to be limited. As one possible resolution of this kind of issues, 'International clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology' which enables conversion of renewable energy from low cost hydropower into hydrogen energy and also into the transportable and storable form, is a meaningful concept. This system technology enables dealing of this hydrogen energy in international market as in the same manner as fossil fuel. It is considered to enable promotion of international and large scale introduction of such clean energy, along with the contribution to diversified and stabilized international energy supply. In this study, based upon the above-mentioned point of view and assumption of two sites, one on supply side and another on demand side of hydrogen energy, three systems are presumed. One of the systems consists of liquid hydrogen as transportation and storage medium of hydrogen, and the others intermediately convert hydrogen into methanol or ammonia as an energy carrier. A overall conceptual design of each system spanning from hydrogen production to its utilization, is conducted in practical way in order to review the general technical aspects and economical aspects through cost analysis. This study is administrated through the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a part of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (so-called WE-NET) Program with funding from

  17. A planar lens based on the electrowetting of two immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaoxuan; Park, Jihwan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and characterization of a planar liquid lens based on electrowetting. The working concept of electrowetting two immiscible liquids is demonstrated with measurement and characterization of contact angles with regard to externally applied electric voltages. Consequently, a planar liquid lens is designed and implemented based on this competitive electrowetting. A droplet of silicone oil confined in an aqueous solution (1% KCl) works as a liquid lens. Electrowetting then controls the shape of the confined silicone oil and the focal length of the liquid lens varies depending upon an applied dc voltage. A unique feature of this lens design is the double-ring planar electrodes beneath the hydrophobic substrate. While an outer ring electrode provides an initial boundary for the silicone oil droplet, an inner ring works as the actuation electrode for the lens. Further, the planar electrodes, instead of vertical or out-of-plane wall electrodes, facilitate the integration of liquid lenses into microfluidic systems. With the voltage applied in the range of 50–250 V, the confined silicone oil droplet changed its shape and the optical magnification of a 3 mm-diameter liquid lens was clearly demonstrated. Moreover, focal lengths of liquid lenses with diameters of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were characterized, respectively. The obtained results suggest that a larger lens diameter yields a longer focal length and a wider range of focal length change in response to voltage. The demonstrated liquid lens has a simple structure and is easy to fabricate

  18. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m 2 ) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  19. International Students' Engagement in Their University's Social Media: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Momoko; Harrigan, Paul; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the lived experiences of the international students using their university's social media, through a lens of customer engagement (CE) in the services marketing literature. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was conducted in an Australian university. Three semi-structured focus groups with…

  20. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  1. Design and assembly of a torsion pendulum for the measurement of internal friction at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, J. M.; Gallego, I.; No, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the assembly, operation and specifications of an inverted torsion pendulum designed to measure internal friction at low temperatures (from 4.2 K to 500 K). The high precision mechanics allow us to obtain internal friction spectra with low levels of noise from amplitudes as small as 2x10''7. The inertia components of the pendulum have been built with specific materials, so that the resonance frequency of the pendulum can be changed within two orders of magnitude (0.1-10Hz). In addition, the sample can be in situ deformed at any temperature and can be inserted into the pendulum at liquid nitrogen temperature. The operation of the pendulum, all the control p recesses and data acquisition are completely automated. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Design and Implementation of the International Genetics and Translational Research in Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Genetic association studies of transplantation outcomes have been hampered by small samples and highly complex multifactorial phenotypes, hindering investigations of the genetic architecture of a range of comorbidities which significantly impact graft and recipient life expectancy. We describe here the rationale and design of the International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network. The network comprises 22 studies to date, including 16494 transplant recipients and 11669 donors, of whom more than 5000 are of non-European ancestry, all of whom have existing genomewide genotype data sets. We describe the rich genetic and phenotypic information available in this consortium comprising heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplant cohorts. We demonstrate significant power in International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network to detect main effect association signals across regions such as the MHC region as well as genomewide for transplant outcomes that span all solid organs, such as graft survival, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after transplantation, and for delayed graft function in kidney only. This consortium is designed and statistically powered to deliver pioneering insights into the genetic architecture of transplant-related outcomes across a range of different solid-organ transplant studies. The study design allows a spectrum of analyses to be performed including recipient-only analyses, donor-recipient HLA mismatches with focus on loss-of-function variants and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  3. Proceedings of the second international workshop on design and construction of final repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, G R

    1995-11-01

    Many international radioactive waste disposal programs are in the design and construction phases for underground laboratories and repositories. To provide a forum for discussion Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in 1992 initiated an international workshop series in which the organizations considering disposal in hard crystalline rock could meet to discuss issues relevant to The Design and Construction of Final Repositories. The first workshop with the theme `Excavation through water conducting major fracture zones` was hosted by SKB in Saestaholm, Sweden on 1993 March 30 to 31 and the workshop proceedings are SKB Technical Report 94-06. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited hosted the second workshop with the theme `Factors influencing repository design and layout` in Winnipeg, Canada on 1994 February 15 to 17. Thirty-eight people from organizations in eight countries and representative of the European Community participated in the Workshop. This report is the summary of the second workshop. The discussions at the Workshop were recorded and reproduced in the summary. Some editorial license was used to provide the text that follows. The participants were given the opportunity to comment on the text prior to publication. Unfortunately some individual speakers could not be identified on the recording of the Workshop discussions and are labelled `unidentified` in the text. (author).

  4. Proceedings of the second international workshop on design and construction of final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    Many international radioactive waste disposal programs are in the design and construction phases for underground laboratories and repositories. To provide a forum for discussion Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in 1992 initiated an international workshop series in which the organizations considering disposal in hard crystalline rock could meet to discuss issues relevant to The Design and Construction of Final Repositories. The first workshop with the theme 'Excavation through water conducting major fracture zones' was hosted by SKB in Saestaholm, Sweden on 1993 March 30 to 31 and the workshop proceedings are SKB Technical Report 94-06. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited hosted the second workshop with the theme 'Factors influencing repository design and layout' in Winnipeg, Canada on 1994 February 15 to 17. Thirty-eight people from organizations in eight countries and representative of the European Community participated in the Workshop. This report is the summary of the second workshop. The discussions at the Workshop were recorded and reproduced in the summary. Some editorial license was used to provide the text that follows. The participants were given the opportunity to comment on the text prior to publication. Unfortunately some individual speakers could not be identified on the recording of the Workshop discussions and are labelled 'unidentified' in the text. (author)

  5. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahruddin, N A; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Sabarudin, A; Bakar, K A

    2016-01-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure. (paper)

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists ...

  9. Design of a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Pressure vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Kai

    2008-08-15

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a light water reactor with supercritical steam conditions which has been investigated within the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission. Due to the supercritical pressure of 25 MPa, water, used as moderator and as coolant, flows as a single phase through the core and can be directly fed to the turbine. Using the technology of coal fired power plants with supercritical steam conditions, the heat-up in the core is done in several steps to achieve the targeted high steam outlet temperature of 500.C without exceeding available cladding material limits. Based on a first design of a fuel assembly cluster for a HPLWR with a single pass core, the surrounding internals and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are dimensioned for the first time, following the safety standards of the nuclear safety standards commission in Germany. Furthermore, this design is extended to the incorporation of core arrangements with two and three passes. The design of the internals and the RPV are verified using mechanical or, in the case of large thermal deformations, combined mechanical and thermal stress analyses. Additionally, a passive safety component for the feedwater inlet of the RPV of the HPLWR is designed. Its purpose is the reduction of the mass flow rate in case of a LOCA for a feedwater line break until further steps are executed. Starting with a simple vortex diode, several steps are executed to enhance the performance of the diode and adapt it to this application. Then, this first design is further optimized using combined 1D and 3D flow analyses. Parametric studies determine the performance and characteristic for changing mass flow rates for this backflow limiter. (orig.)

  10. Design of the upper internals structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Novendstern, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) is located above the core and is supported from the head at four locations. It is designed to perform the following primary functions: provide secondary core holddown in the event of a malfunction of the core hydraulic holddown system; provide support for routing all in-vessel instrumentation to core assemblies; maintain alignment between the core assemblies, the UIS and the closure head; provide guidance and crossflow protection for the control rod drivelines; and mix/duct flow to the upper region of the vessel outlet plenum to minimize rapid temperature changes to components during a reactor trip transient. In accomplishing these functions, the UIS will experience a sodium environment with temperatures up to 1200 0 F (649 0 C), and as many as 7 x 10 8 cycles of fluid temperature fluctuations up to 250 0 F (121 0 C) at full power operation. It must be designed to survive these conditions in combination with seismic and flow-induced vibration loadings for its 30 year design life. The design program of designing to controlled functional requirements and design conditions is discussed. Included is a description of the significant parts of the design and the approach used to balance the requirement of tight joints. The thermal and hydraulic environment including the results of a comprehensive test program are discussed. The test program results establish the basis of the thermal boundary used in the structural evaluation, and the UIS vibration characteristics. A summary of the areas which have required design changes is included with a summary of the structural evaluation of these changes

  11. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator R&D in the Technical Design Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Hélène Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  12. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author)

  13. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author).

  14. Portraiture lens concept in a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J.; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2017-11-01

    A small form-factor lens was designed for the purpose of portraiture photography, the size of which allows use within smartphone casing. The current general requirement of mobile cameras having good all-round performance results in a typical, familiar, many-element design. Such designs have little room for improvement, in terms of the available degrees of freedom and highly-demanding target metrics such as low f-number and wide field of view. However, the specific application of the current portraiture lens relaxed the requirement of an all-round high-performing lens, allowing improvement of certain aspects at the expense of others. With a main emphasis on reducing depth of field (DoF), the current design takes advantage of the simple geometrical relationship between DoF and pupil diameter. The system has a large aperture, while a reasonable f-number gives a relatively large focal length, requiring a catadioptric lens design with double ray path; hence, field of view is reduced. Compared to typical mobile lenses, the large diameter reduces depth of field by a factor of four.

  15. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  16. Intraocular camera for retinal prostheses: Refractive and diffractive lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michelle Christine

    The focus of this thesis is on the design and analysis of refractive, diffractive, and hybrid refractive/diffractive lens systems for a miniaturized camera that can be surgically implanted in the crystalline lens sac and is designed to work in conjunction with current and future generation retinal prostheses. The development of such an intraocular camera (IOC) would eliminate the need for an external head-mounted or eyeglass-mounted camera. Placing the camera inside the eye would allow subjects to use their natural eye movements for foveation (attention) instead of more cumbersome head tracking, would notably aid in personal navigation and mobility, and would also be significantly more psychologically appealing from the standpoint of personal appearances. The capability for accommodation with no moving parts or feedback control is incorporated by employing camera designs that exhibit nearly infinite depth of field. Such an ultracompact optical imaging system requires a unique combination of refractive and diffractive optical elements and relaxed system constraints derived from human psychophysics. This configuration necessitates an extremely compact, short focal-length lens system with an f-number close to unity. Initially, these constraints appear highly aggressive from an optical design perspective. However, after careful analysis of the unique imaging requirements of a camera intended to work in conjunction with the relatively low pixellation levels of a retinal microstimulator array, it becomes clear that such a design is not only feasible, but could possibly be implemented with a single lens system.

  17. Interim report on the Global Design Effort Global International Linear Collider (ILC) R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, M.

    2011-04-30

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  18. Negotiating designs of multi-purpose reservoir systems in international basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Given increasing agricultural and energy demands, coordinated management of multi-reservoir systems could help increase production without further stressing available water resources. However, regional or international disputes about water-use rights pose a challenge to efficient expansion and management of many large reservoir systems. Even when projects are likely to benefit all stakeholders, agreeing on the design, operation, financing, and benefit sharing can be challenging. This is due to the difficulty of considering multiple stakeholder interests in the design of projects and understanding the benefit trade-offs that designs imply. Incommensurate performance metrics, incomplete knowledge on system requirements, lack of objectivity in managing conflict and difficulty to communicate complex issue exacerbate the problem. This work proposes a multi-step hybrid multi-objective optimization and multi-criteria ranking approach for supporting negotiation in water resource systems. The approach uses many-objective optimization to generate alternative efficient designs and reveal the trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This enables informed elicitation of criteria weights for further multi-criteria ranking of alternatives. An ideal design would be ranked as best by all stakeholders. Resource-sharing mechanisms such as power-trade and/or cost sharing may help competing stakeholders arrive at designs acceptable to all. Many-objective optimization helps suggests efficient designs (reservoir site, its storage size and operating rule) and coordination levels considering the perspectives of multiple stakeholders simultaneously. We apply the proposed approach to a proof-of-concept study of the expansion of the Blue Nile transboundary reservoir system.

  19. Design considerations for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] magnet systems: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now completing a definition phase as a beginning of a three-year design effort. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide further and more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been of prime importance, since it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. The major levels of mechanical stress in the structure appear in the cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The cases of the poloidal-field (PF) coils must be made thin or segmented to minimize eddy current heating during inductive plasma operation. As a result, the winding packs of both the TF and PF coils includes significant fractions of steel. The TF winding pack provides support against in-plane separating loads but offers little support against out-of-plane loads, unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. The removal of heat due to nuclear and ac loads has not been a fundamental limit to design, but certainly has non-negligible economic consequences. We present here preliminary ITER magnet systems design parameters taken from trade studies, designs, and analyses performed by the Home Teams of the four ITER participants, by the ITER Magnet Design Unit in Garching, and by other participants at workshops organized by the Magnet Design Unit. The work presented here reflects the efforts of many, but the responsibility for the opinions expressed is the authors'. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Development of mathematical pediatric phantoms for internal dose calculations: designs, limitations, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    Mathematical phantoms of the human body at various ages are employed with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes for calculation of photon specific absorbed fractions. The author has developed a pediatric phantom series based on the design of the adult phantom, but with explicit equations for each organ so that organ sizes and marrow distributions could be assigned properly. Since the phantoms comprise simple geometric shapes, predictive dose capability is limited when geometry is critical to the calculation. Hence, there is a demand for better phantom design in situations where geometry is critical, such as for external irradiation or for internal emitters with low energy photons. Recent advances in computerized axial tomography (CAT) present the potential for derivation of anatomical information, which is so critical to development of phantoms, and ongoing developmental work on compuer architecture to handle large arrays for Monte Carlo calculations should make complex-geometry dose calculations economically feasible within this decade

  1. Beam Delivery System Dogleg Design and Integration for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, J

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed to investigate the option of moving the positron source to the end of the main linac as a part of the central integration in the International Linear Collider(ILC) project. The positron source incorporates an undulator at the end of the main linac and the photons generated in the undulator are transported to the target, located at a distance of around 400 m. The dogleg design has been optimised to provide the required transverse offset at the location of the target and to give minimum emittance growth at 500 GeV. The design of the dogleg, the layout changes and the tolerances on beam tuning as a result of locating this dogleg in the beginning of the beam delivery system (BDS) are presented.

  2. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  3. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Avadhani, P; Abraham, Ajith

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at INDIA-2012: International conference on  Information system Design and Intelligent Applications held on January 5-7, 2012 in Vishakhapatnam, India. This conference was organized by Computer Society of India (CSI), Vishakhapatnam chapter well supported by Vishakhapatnam Steel, RINL, Govt of India. It contains 108 papers contributed by authors from six different countries across four continents. These research papers mainly focused on intelligent applications and various system design issues. The papers cover a wide range of topics of computer science and information technology discipline ranging from image processing, data base application, data mining, grid and cloud computing, bioinformatics among many others. The various intelligent tools like swarm intelligence, artificial intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, bio-inspired algorithms have been applied in different papers for solving various challenging IT related problems.

  4. 3rd International Conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Jyotsna; Udgata, Siba; Bhateja, Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    The third international conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (INDIA – 2016) held in Visakhapatnam, India during January 8-9, 2016. The book covers all aspects of information system design, computer science and technology, general sciences, and educational research. Upon a double blind review process, a number of high quality papers are selected and collected in the book, which is composed of three different volumes, and covers a variety of topics, including natural language processing, artificial intelligence, security and privacy, communications, wireless and sensor networks, microelectronics, circuit and systems, machine learning, soft computing, mobile computing and applications, cloud computing, software engineering, graphics and image processing, rural engineering, e-commerce, e-governance, business computing, molecular computing, nano-computing, chemical computing, intelligent computing for GIS and remote sensing, bio-informatics and bio-computing. These fields are not...

  5. 2nd International Conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Satapathy, Suresh; Sanyal, Manas; Sarkar, Partha; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The second international conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (INDIA – 2015) held in Kalyani, India during January 8-9, 2015. The book covers all aspects of information system design, computer science and technology, general sciences, and educational research. Upon a double blind review process, a number of high quality papers are selected and collected in the book, which is composed of two different volumes, and covers a variety of topics, including natural language processing, artificial intelligence, security and privacy, communications, wireless and sensor networks, microelectronics, circuit and systems, machine learning, soft computing, mobile computing and applications, cloud computing, software engineering, graphics and image processing, rural engineering, e-commerce, e-governance, business computing, molecular computing, nano computing, chemical computing, intelligent computing for GIS and remote sensing, bio-informatics and bio-computing. These fields are not only ...

  6. Chitah: Strong-gravitational-lens hunter in imaging surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, James H. H.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chiueh, Tzihong; More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Philip J.; Coupon, Jean; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul

    2015-07-07

    Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. Current and upcoming imaging surveys will contain thousands of new lensed quasars, augmenting the existing sample by at least two orders of magnitude. To find such lens systems, we built a robot, Chitah, that hunts for lensed quasars by modeling the configuration of the multiple quasar images. Specifically, given an image of an object that might be a lensed quasar, Chitah first disentangles the light from the supposed lens galaxy and the light from the multiple quasar images based on color information. A simple rule is designed to categorize the given object as a potential four-image (quad) or two-image (double) lensed quasar system. The configuration of the identified quasar images is subsequently modeled to classify whether the object is a lensed quasar system. We test the performance of Chitah using simulated lens systems based on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. For bright quads with large image separations (with Einstein radius ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gt 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1$) simulated using Gaussian point-spread functions, a high true-positive rate (TPR) of $\\sim 90\\%$ and a low false-positive rate of $\\sim 3\\%$ show that this is a promising approach to search for new lens systems. We obtain high TPR for lens systems with ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gtrsim 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5$, so the performance of Chitah is set by the seeing. We further feed a known gravitational lens system, COSMOS 5921+0638, to Chitah, and demonstrate that Chitah is able to classify this real gravitational lens system successfully. Our newly built Chitah is omnivorous and can hunt in any ground-based imaging surveys.

  7. Design optimization of twin-fluid atomizers with an internal mixing chamber for heavy fuel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Barreras, Felix; Lozano, Antonio [LITEC, CSIC - Univ. Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 10, 50018 - Zaragoza (Spain); Lincheta, Eduardo [CECYEN, Universidad de Matanzas, Highway to Varadero, km 31/2, 44740 - Matanzas (Cuba)

    2009-02-15

    The present work is devoted to determine the magnitude of the main parameters that yield the optimum results for twin-fluid nozzles with an internal mixing chamber. The focus is placed on the study of the interaction of both air and liquid flows at the internal chamber and its effects on the resulting spray. To this end, some experiments have been performed for different air central channel diameters and liquid ports, as well as for several experimental conditions (air and liquid mass flow rates), in order to understand the influence of the flow conditions at the mixing chamber on the size of the droplets produced. It has been demonstrated that under certain experimental conditions the atomizing fluid discharged to the internal chamber is choked. The sonic condition is achieved for different air and liquid mass flow rates as a function of the air central channel diameter. It has also been obtained that to achieve the best results with moderate atomizing fluid flow rates, it is convenient to operate in choked conditions. This is an important result that will help in the optimum design of this type of nozzles. (author)

  8. Redeveloping Nicosia International Airport: an extroverting Y2 group design project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiatros, S.

    2017-11-01

    This article follows the timeline of the 'Nicosia International Airport: The Return' Integrated Design Project which was undertaken by Year 2 students of Civil Engineering and Geomatics at the Cyprus University of Technology in Cyprus. The Nicosia International Airport was the first and main airport of the Republic of Cyprus since its independence from the British Empire in 1960. The airport remains closed since the Turkish invasion of 1974 and is located in the buffer zone administered by the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus. In this work, the innovative aspects of a project to inspire and train engineering students are highlighted, while special attention is given to the dissemination and outreach of the project through the social media. The attracted attention of national media and the project's impact on the local society had a cyclical effect, further inspiring students to work hard and act as responsible professional engineers. 'Nicosia International Airport: The Return' is a case study of how an academic engineering project can have societal impact, by inspiring students, engaging practitioners from a wide spectrum of disciplines, captivating the general public and raising the profile of Civil Engineering in the society.

  9. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  10. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-06-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users.

  11. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users

  12. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  13. Gravitational Lens: Deep Space Probe Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Following the calculation of the semi-major axis is the eccentricity e, which measures the eccentricity of the gravity assist orbit. e = 1 + rpv2... eccentricity and the semi-major axis. The parameter is a property of conic sections dictated by the expression p = a(1 − e2) [10] (3.24) After the parameter...term attitude actuation. They were chosen over the inclusion of CMGs and reaction wheels because while CMGs and reaction wheels would decrease the

  14. Terahertz Harmonic Operation of Microwave Fresnel Zone Plate Lens and Antenna: Frequency Filtering and Space Resolution Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo D. Hristov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the binary Fresnel zone plate (FZP lens frequency-harmonic and space-resolution focusing, and its application as a FZP lens antenna. A microwave FZP lens antenna (FZPA radiates both at design (90 GHz and terahertz (THz odd harmonic frequencies. Frequency and space domain antenna operation are studied analytically by use of the vector diffraction integral applied to a realistic printed FZPA. It is found that all harmonic gain peaks are roughly identical in form, bandwidth, and top values. At each harmonic frequency, the FZPA has a beamwidth that closely follows the Rayleigh resolution criterion. If the lens/antenna resolution is of prime importance and the small aperture efficiency is a secondary problem the microwave-design FZP lens antenna can be of great use at much higher terahertz frequencies. Important feature of the microwave FZP lens is its broader-zone construction compared to the equal in resolution terahertz-design FZP lens. Thus, unique and expensive microtechnology for the microwave FZP lens fabrication is not required. High-order harmonic operation of the FZP lens or lens antenna could find space resolution and frequency filtering applications in the terahertz and optical metrology, imaging tomography, short-range communications, spectral analysis, synchrotron facilities, and so on.

  15. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, Esteban [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben J., E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-23

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m{sup 2}). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h{sup −1}. The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  16. International cooperation: forum and consortium for the system design and the ISER-PIUS demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    It is a wide recognition that the light water reactor (LWR) era will last long into the next century and that need is felt for establishing its foundation to be shared by all the countries concerned including now developing countries. From this perspective, the paper provides a justification account for the joint development of ISER-PIUS as a cheap and safe LWR for international use, if so allowed, with the auspices of the international nuclear agency; IAEA. Incentives for developing ISER-PIUS ranges from 'safety and nuclear economy improvements' in developed countries to 'safe and economical SMPR (small and medium sized power reactor introduction' in developing countries. The present report presents some views and comments concerning the four important issues emphasized by IAEA Director General Dr. Hans Blix: the urgency of the need to change the energy supply system in the country concerned, establishment of a suitable organizational structure, provision of qualified manpower, and required level of industrial support. An experimental and-or demonstration reactor will be a prerequisite in order both to demonstrate once for all that there is a unique reactor which can accomodate even the tests for the conventional DBA (design bases accidents) and to collect optimized design data for stable operation and maintenance of such a new reactor. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie, Esteban; Stuart, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m 2 ). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h −1 . The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  18. Development of a Laue lens for nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, N.

    2008-04-01

    The Laue lenses we study focuses in the domain of 0.1-1 MeV thanks to Bragg diffraction in the volume of a large number of small crystal tiles. The focal length of a typical Laue lens system is of the order of 100 m. This requirement calls for two formation flying satellites maintaining lens and detector at the focal distance. The major breakthrough of Laue lenses is to decouple collecting area from detector area. Concentrating a signal from the large area of a Laue lens onto a small focal spot dramatically increases the signal over background ratio with respect to present technologies. Here is the reason for the long awaited leap in sensitivity. The objective of the present thesis was to improve the concept, finding viable technical solutions towards a future space mission. Two aspects of the lens development have been highlighted in this thesis: the first one is an analytical model of the lens that is used to calculate and improve the performance of a certain configuration, the second aspect concerns the search and the characterization of diffracting media of interest. The lens model developed relies on a fast semi-analytical simulation library, permitting to build several design- and optimisation-tools. For the configuration of a given lens, this code computes the resulting effective area and point spread function in a handful of seconds. The model helps finding lens configurations (mass, pack ratio of the lens rings,...) which are automatically refined to match with effective area and energy coverage constraints. These tools have been used to investigate various design aspects, such as the influence of focal length, size, mosaic spread, structure and materials of crystals, etc... The central evaluation criterion in the model is a figure of merit, based on the compactness of the focal spot and the intensity of the collected signal. The second part of this work addresses the actual search and characterization of crystals potentially interesting for Laue lenses

  19. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities

  20. A conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor for the Central Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, J.R.; Parker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) superconducting magnet system is nearing completion by the ITER Design Team, and one of the Central Solenoid (CS) designs is presented. The CS part of this magnet system will be a vertical stack of eight modules, approximately 16 m high, each having a approximate dimensions of: 4.1-m o.d., 2.8-m i.d., 1.9-m h. The peak field at the bore is approximately 13.5 T. Cable-in-conduit conductor with Nb 3 Sn composite wire will be used to wind the coils. The overall coil fabrication will use the insulate-wind-react-impregnate method. Coil modules will be fabricated using double-pancake coils with all splice joints located in the low-field region on the outside of the coils. All coils will be structurally graded with high-strength steel reinforcement which is co-wound with the conductor. We describe details of the CS coil design and analysis

  1. Design of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) neutral beam system beamline, United States concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.; Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; DeVries, G.E.; Lietzke, A.F.; Kunkel, W.B.; Kwan, J.W.; Matuk, C.A.; Nakai, T.; Stearns, J.W.; Soroka, L.; Wells, R.P.; Lindquist, W.B.; Neef, W.S.; Reginato, L.L.; Sedgley, D.W.; Brook, J.W.; Luzzi, T.E.; Myers, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Design of a neutral beamline for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is described. The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to watercooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules that can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of D degree into three ports with a total of nine modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port. To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW at 1.3 MeV; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is removed from service. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 35 m from the port into the torus. Neutron shielding in the drift duct provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus. Alternative component choices are also discussed for the evolving design. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date

  3. Building international experiences into an engineering curriculum - a design project-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Victor; Castillo, Luciano; Carbajal, Gerardo; Hajela, Prabhat

    2014-07-01

    This paper is a descriptive account of how short-term international and multicultural experiences can be integrated into early design experiences in an aerospace engineering curriculum. Such approaches are considered as important not only in fostering a student's interest in the engineering curriculum, but also exposing them to a multicultural setting that they are likely to encounter in their professional careers. In the broader sense, this programme is described as a model that can be duplicated in other engineering disciplines as a first-year experience. In this study, undergraduate students from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Universidad del Turabo (UT) in Puerto Rico collaborated on a substantial design project consisting of designing, fabricating, and flight-testing radio-controlled model aircraft as a capstone experience in a semester-long course on Fundamentals of Flight. The two-week long experience in Puerto Rico was organised into academic and cultural components designed with the following objectives: (i) to integrate students in a multicultural team-based academic and social environment, (ii) to practise team-building skills and develop students' critical thinking and analytical skills, and finally (iii) to excite students about their engineering major through practical applications of aeronautics and help them decide if it is a right fit for them.

  4. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, D.B. (comp.)

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  5. Development of a 3D finite element model of lens microcirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaghefi Ehsan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that in the absence of a blood supply, the ocular lens operates an internal microcirculation system. This system delivers nutrients, removes waste products and maintains ionic homeostasis in the lens. The microcirculation is generated by spatial differences in membrane transport properties; and previously has been modelled by an equivalent electrical circuit and solved analytically. While effective, this approach did not fully account for all the anatomical and functional complexities of the lens. To encapsulate these complexities we have created a 3D finite element computer model of the lens. Methods Initially, we created an anatomically-correct representative mesh of the lens. We then implemented the Stokes and advective Nernst-Plank equations, in order to model the water and ion fluxes respectively. Next we complemented the model with experimentally-measured surface ionic concentrations as boundary conditions and solved it. Results Our model calculated the standing ionic concentrations and electrical potential gradients in the lens. Furthermore, it generated vector maps of intra- and extracellular space ion and water fluxes that are proposed to circulate throughout the lens. These fields have only been measured on the surface of the lens and our calculations are the first 3D representation of their direction and magnitude in the lens. Conclusion Values for steady state standing fields for concentration and electrical potential plus ionic and fluid fluxes calculated by our model exhibited broad agreement with observed experimental values. Our model of lens function represents a platform to integrate new experimental data as they emerge and assist us to understand how the integrated structure and function of the lens contributes to the maintenance of its transparency.

  6. Integrated Lens Antennas for Multi-Pixel Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    Future astrophysics and planetary experiments are expected to require large focal plane arrays with thousands of detectors. Feedhorns have excellent performance, but their mass, size, fabrication challenges, and expense become prohibitive for very large focal plane arrays. Most planar antenna designs produce broad beam patterns, and therefore require additional elements for efficient coupling to the telescope optics, such as substrate lenses or micromachined horns. An antenna array with integrated silicon microlenses that can be fabricated photolithographically effectively addresses these issues. This approach eliminates manual assembly of arrays of lenses and reduces assembly errors and tolerances. Moreover, an antenna array without metallic horns will reduce mass of any planetary instrument significantly. The design has a monolithic array of lens-coupled, leaky-wave antennas operating in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies. Electromagnetic simulations show that the electromagnetic fields in such lens-coupled antennas are mostly confined in approximately 12 15 . This means that one needs to design a small-angle sector lens that is much easier to fabricate using standard lithographic techniques, instead of a full hyper-hemispherical lens. Moreover, this small-angle sector lens can be easily integrated with the antennas in an array for multi-pixel imager and receiver implementation. The leaky antenna is designed using double-slot irises and fed with TE10 waveguide mode. The lens implementation starts with a silicon substrate. Photoresist with appropriate thickness (optimized for the lens size) is spun on the substrate and then reflowed to get the desired lens structure. An antenna array integrated with individual lenses for higher directivity and excellent beam profile will go a long way in realizing multi-pixel arrays and imagers. This technology will enable a new generation of compact, low-mass, and highly efficient antenna arrays for use in multi

  7. Holographic Rovers: Augmented Reality and the Microsoft HoloLens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toler, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Augmented Reality is an emerging field in technology, and encompasses Head Mounted Displays, smartphone apps, and even projected images. HMDs include the Meta 2, Magic Leap, Avegant Light Field, and the Microsoft HoloLens, which is evaluated specifically. The Microsoft HoloLens is designed to be used as an AR personal computer, and is being optimized with that goal in mind. Microsoft allied with the Unity3D game engine to create an SDK for interested application developers that can be used in the Unity environment.

  8. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  9. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Postma, Barry D

    2005-01-01

    ...) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants...

  10. General Description of the Mechanic Design of the Pressure Vessel and the Internal Mechanical Component of the CAREM Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, F.; Horro, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the CAREM reactor pressure vessel and its main internal mechanical components and summarizes the functional requirements and approaches applied for their design, together with a review of the normative applicable in each case

  11. Strategic Learning Capability: Through the Lens of Environmental Jolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanna; Lee, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to deepen the understanding of strategic learning through the lens of environmental jolts. Design/methodology/approach: Strategic learning is explained from the three paradigms of organizational learning. Findings: Organizational learning provides a firm foundation to develop and elaborate the concept of strategic learning…

  12. Time-lens based optical packet pulse compression and retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    recovery, resulting in a potentially very efficient solution. The scheme uses a time-lens, implemented through a sinusoidally driven optical phase modulation, combined with a linear dispersion element. As time-lenses are also used for pulse compression, we design the circuit also to perform pulse...

  13. Mechanically assisted liquid lens zoom system for mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Berge, B.

    2006-08-01

    Camera systems with small form factor are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently feature auto focus functionality. Ready to market solutions without moving parts have been developed by using the electrowetting technology. Besides virtually no deterioration, easy control electronics and simple and therefore cost-effective fabrication, this type of liquid lenses enables extremely fast settling times compared to mechanical approaches. As a next evolutionary step mobile phone cameras will be equipped with zoom functionality. We present first order considerations for the optical design of a miniaturized zoom system based on liquid-lenses and compare it to its mechanical counterpart. We propose a design of a zoom lens with a zoom factor of 2.5 considering state-of-the-art commercially available liquid lens products. The lens possesses auto focus capability and is based on liquid lenses and one additional mechanical actuator. The combination of liquid lenses and a single mechanical actuator enables extremely short settling times of about 20ms for the auto focus and a simplified mechanical system design leading to lower production cost and longer life time. The camera system has a mechanical outline of 24mm in length and 8mm in diameter. The lens with f/# 3.5 provides market relevant optical performance and is designed for an image circle of 6.25mm (1/2.8" format sensor).

  14. Retinal images in the human eye with implanted intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marek; Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    A typical proceeding in cataract is based on the removal of opaque crystalline lens and inserting in its place the artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The quality of retinal image after such procedure depends, among others, on the parameters of the IOL, so the design of the implanted lens is of great importance. An appropriate choice of the IOL material, especially in relation to its biocompatibility, is often considered. However the parameter, which is often omitted during the IOL design is its chromatic aberration. In particular lack of its adequacy to the chromatic aberration of a crystalline lens may cause problems. In order to fit better chromatic aberration of the eye with implanted IOL to that of the healthy eye we propose a hybrid - refractive-diffractive IOL. It can be designed in such way that the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of an eye with implanted IOL equals the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of a healthy eye. In this study we compare the retinal image quality calculated numerically on the basis of the well known Liou-Brennan eye model with typical IOL implanted with that obtained if the IOL is done as hybrid (refractive-diffractive) design.

  15. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hon Shing; Evans, Jennifer R; Allan, Bruce D S

    2014-05-01

    Following cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, loss of accommodation or postoperative presbyopia occurs and remains a challenge. Standard monofocal IOLs correct only distance vision; patients require spectacles for near vision. Accommodative IOLs have been designed to overcome loss of accommodation after cataract surgery. To define (a) the extent to which accommodative IOLs improve unaided near visual function, in comparison with monofocal IOLs; (b) the extent of compromise to unaided distance visual acuity; c) whether a higher rate of additional complications is associated the use of accommodative IOLs. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 10 October 2013. We include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared implantation of accommodative IOLs to implantation of monofocal IOLs in cataract surgery. Two authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. All included trials used the 1CU accommodative IOL (HumanOptics, Erlangen, Germany) for their intervention group. One trial had an additional arm with the AT-45 Crystalens accommodative IOL (Eyeonics Vision). We performed a separate analysis comparing 1CU and AT-45 IOL. We included four RCTs, including 229 participants (256 eyes

  16. Dose limits to the eye lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, N.

    2016-09-15

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  17. A Study on an Analysis and Design of the Internal Structure of Heumgyeonggak-nu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Yun, Yong-Hyun; Ham, Seon Young; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ki, Ho-Chul; Yoon, Myung-Kyoon

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the internal structure of a Heumgyeonggak-nu (欽敬閣漏) was designed, and the power transmission mechanism was analyzed. Heumgyeonggak-nu is an automated water clock from the Joseon Dynasty that was installed within Heumgyeonggak (欽敬閣), and it was manufactured in the 20th year of the reign of King Sejong (1438). As descriptions of Heumgyeonggak-nu in ancient literature have mostly focused on its external shape, the study of its internal mechanism has been difficult. A detailed analysis of the literature record on Heumgyeonggak-nu (e.g., The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty) indicates that Heumgyeonggaknu had a three-stage water clock, included a waterfall or tilting vessel (欹器) using the overflowed water, and displayed the time using a ball. In this study, the Cheonhyeong apparatus, water wheel, scoop, and various mechanism wheels were designed so that 16 fixed-type scoops could operate at a constant speed for the water wheel with a diameter of 100 cm. As the scoop can contain 1.25 l of water and the water wheel rotates 61 times a day, a total of 1,220 l of water is required. Also, the power gear wheel was designed as a 366-tooth gear, which supported the operation of the time signal gear wheel. To implement the movement of stars on the celestial sphere, the rotation ratio of the celestial gear wheel to the diurnal motion gear ring was set to 366:365. In addition, to operate the sun movement apparatus on the ecliptic, a gear device was installed on the South Pole axis. It is expected that the results of this study can be used for the manufacture and restoration of the operation model of Heumgyeonggak-nu.

  18. A Study on an Analysis and Design of the Internal Structure of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the internal structure of a Heumgyeonggak-nu (欽敬閣漏 was designed, and the power transmission mechanism was analyzed. Heumgyeonggak-nu is an automated water clock from the Joseon Dynasty that was installed within Heumgyeonggak (欽敬閣, and it was manufactured in the 20th year of the reign of King Sejong (1438. As descriptions of Heumgyeonggak-nu in ancient literature have mostly focused on its external shape, the study of its internal mechanism has been difficult. A detailed analysis of the literature record on Heumgyeonggak-nu (e.g., The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty indicates that Heumgyeonggaknu had a three-stage water clock, included a waterfall or tilting vessel (欹器 using the overflowed water, and displayed the time using a ball. In this study, the Cheonhyeong apparatus, water wheel, scoop, and various mechanism wheels were designed so that 16 fixed-type scoops could operate at a constant speed for the water wheel with a diameter of 100 cm. As the scoop can contain 1.25 l of water and the water wheel rotates 61 times a day, a total of 1,220 l of water is required. Also, the power gear wheel was designed as a 366-tooth gear, which supported the operation of the time signal gear wheel. To implement the movement of stars on the celestial sphere, the rotation ratio of the celestial gear wheel to the diurnal motion gear ring was set to 366:365. In addition, to operate the sun movement apparatus on the ecliptic, a gear device was installed on the South Pole axis. It is expected that the results of this study can be used for the manufacture and restoration of the operation model of Heumgyeonggak-nu.

  19. Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mainly due to the ICRP recommendation to decrease the exposure limit for eye lenses, the eye lens dosimetry has to be reconsidered. This paper gives an overview of the issues raised after this recommendation; that is to say, the choice and definition of the operational quantity to be monitored, the type testing and calibration of dosimeters aimed at measuring eyes lens 'doses', the design of existing eye lens dosimeters and their wearing conditions. Finally, a criterion to choose between a direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent at three millimeters depth, H p (3), with a dedicated dosimeter, and an indirect evaluation of H p (3) through whole-body monitoring is presented. (authors)

  20. Refractive lens exchange with a multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferrer-Blasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and predictability after refractive lens exchange with multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients underwent bilateral implantation with AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens with +4.00 D near addition. Patients were divided into myopic and hyperopic groups. Monocular best corrected visual acuity at distance and near and monocular uncorrected visual acuity at distance and near were measured before and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: After surgery, uncorrected visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.15 and 0.11 ± 0.14 logMAR for the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively (50% and 46.67% of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better in the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively. The safety and efficacy indexes were 1.05 and 0.88 for the myopic and 1.01 and 0.86 for the hyperopic groups at distance vision. Within the myopic group, 20 eyes remained unchanged after the surgery, and 3 gained >2 lines of best corrected visual acuity. For the hyperopic group, 2 eyes lost 2 lines of best corrected visual acuity, 21 did not change, and 3 eyes gained 2 lines. At near vision, the safety and efficacy indexes were 1.23 and 1.17 for the myopic and 1.16 and 1.13 for the hyperopic groups. Best corrected near visual acuity improved after surgery in both groups (from 0.10 logMAR to 0.01 logMAR in the myopic group, and from 0.10 logMAR to 0.04 logMAR in the hyperopic group. CONCLUSIONS: The ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens in refractive lens exchange demonstrated good safety, efficacy, and predictability in correcting high ametropia and presbyopia.

  1. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Wei, L.; Poelma, R.H.; Vollebregt, S.; Wei, J.; Urbach, Paul; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material

  2. 21 CFR 886.1400 - Maddox lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maddox lens. 886.1400 Section 886.1400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1400 Maddox lens. (a) Identification. A Maddox lens is a device...

  3. Crystalline lens power and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Morgan, Ian G; Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationships between the refractive power of the crystalline lens, overall refractive error of the eye, and degree of nuclear cataract. All phakic participants of the population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study with an age of 50+ years were included. Calculation of the refractive lens power was based on distance noncycloplegic refractive error, corneal refractive power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length according to Bennett's formula. The study included 1885 subjects. Mean refractive lens power was 25.5 ± 3.0 D (range, 13.9-36.6). After adjustment for age and sex, the standardized correlation coefficients (β) of the association with the ocular refractive error were highest for crystalline lens power (β = -0.41; P lens opacity grade (β = -0.42; P lens power (β = -0.95), lower corneal refractive power (β = -0.76), higher lens thickness (β = 0.30), deeper anterior chamber (β = 0.28), and less marked nuclear lens opacity (β = -0.05). Lens thickness was significantly lower in eyes with greater nuclear opacity. Variations in refractive error in adults aged 50+ years were mostly influenced by variations in axial length and in crystalline lens refractive power, followed by variations in corneal refractive power, and, to a minor degree, by variations in lens thickness and anterior chamber depth.

  4. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to replace the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a...

  5. Second International Workshop on Software Engineering and Code Design in Parallel Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKeefe, Matthew (Editor); Kerr, Christopher L. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts and technical papers from the Second International Workshop on Software Engineering and Code Design in Parallel Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications, held June 15-18, 1998, in Scottsdale, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop is to bring together software developers in meteorology and oceanography to discuss software engineering and code design issues for parallel architectures, including Massively Parallel Processors (MPP's), Parallel Vector Processors (PVP's), Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP's), Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) multi-processors, and clusters. Issues to be discussed include: (1) code architectures for current parallel models, including basic data structures, storage allocation, variable naming conventions, coding rules and styles, i/o and pre/post-processing of data; (2) designing modular code; (3) load balancing and domain decomposition; (4) techniques that exploit parallelism efficiently yet hide the machine-related details from the programmer; (5) tools for making the programmer more productive; and (6) the proliferation of programming models (F--, OpenMP, MPI, and HPF).

  6. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  7. A review of international pharmacy-based minor ailment services and proposed service design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariyam; García-Cárdenas, Victoria; Williams, Kylie; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2018-01-05

    The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design considerations for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the US TIBER concept. The nuclear heating generated during operation is removed from the windings by helium flowing through the conductor. The heat in the coil case is removed through a separate cooling circuit operating at approximately 20 K. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete coil cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Perubahan Sosial Berbasis Tasawuf: Studi Kasus Fethullah Gülen Dan Gülen Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sulaiman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims at analyzing Fethullah Gülen and the Gülen Movement which have succeeded in performing social change based on the teaching of Sufism. He did Sufism creativity in order that Sufism teaching was able to respond the changes that occur in the modernlife. He believed that, only by reinterpretation and contextualization of Sufism, the spiritual dimension of Islam would be able to perform the transformation or social change among the Muslims. Therefore, by using Max Weber’s theory of social action, this paper will analyze three key teachings of Sufism of Gülen: ascetic (zuhd, inbisat (expansion, and hizmet. Based on the Weber's theory, Gülen occupied a very central and authoritative position: agent/actor, action and meaning. As a source of meaning and interpreter of meaning, the key concepts of Sufism were transformed by Gülen to the internal and external communities so that they had made a move to do social movements and humanity. For the followers of Gülen, the movement was called the Gülen Movement or the Hizmet Movement which was engaged in the fields of education, health care, humanitarian assistance, and the mass media. All forms of movement were entirely based on the spiritual values of Islam that had been formulated by Gülen. الملخص: يهدف هذا البحث إلى تحليل شخصية فتح الله غولن وحركته الذي تمكن من القيام بالتغيير الاجتماعي على أساس التعاليم الصوفية. إن فتح الله غولن قام بإحياء التصوف في صورته الجدّية والحيوية في حياة الإنسان المعاصر. ويعتقد أن إعادة التفسير لتعاليم التصوف مع مراعاة الواقع قادرة على التغيير الاجتماعي بين المسلمين. من أجل ذلك، أن استخدام نظرية ويبر، يمكن تحليل تعاليم التصوف الثلاثة

  10. ECTOPIC LENS EXTRACTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  11. Fabrication and Performance of a Lithium X-Ray Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Khounsary, Ali; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Nash, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) are arrays of concave lenses whose simple design and ease in implementation and alignment make them an attractive optic to focus x-rays. Factors considered in designing CRLs include lens material, fabrication, and assembly. Lithium is a desirable material because it provides the largest index of refraction decrement per unit absorption length of any solid elements. Lithium is a difficult material to handle and fabricate because it is rather malleable and more importantly, it reacts with moisture, and to a lesser extent, with oxygen and nitrogen in air. It also tends to adhere to molds and dies. We report on the fabrication and performance of a parabolic lithium lens consisting of 32 lenslets. Lenslets are fabricated in a precision press using an indenter with a parabolic profile and a 100 μm tip radius. The indenter is made of stainless steel and is figured using a computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine. The lens is designed to have a 1.7 m focal length at 10 keV energy. In an experiment conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm monochromatic undulator beam strikes the lens. A focal length of 1.71, a focal spot size of 24 μm × 34 μm, and a peak intensity gain of over 18 are obtained.

  12. Fabrication and Performance of a Lithium X-Ray Lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Kristina; Khounsary, Ali; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Nash, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) are arrays of concave lenses whose simple design and ease in implementation and alignment make them an attractive optic to focus x-rays. Factors considered in designing CRLs include lens material, fabrication, and assembly. Lithium is a desirable material because it provides the largest index of refraction decrement per unit absorption length of any solid elements. Lithium is a difficult material to handle and fabricate because it is rather malleable and more importantly, it reacts with moisture, and to a lesser extent, with oxygen and nitrogen in air. It also tends to adhere to molds and dies.We report on the fabrication and performance of a parabolic lithium lens consisting of 32 lenslets. Lenslets are fabricated in a precision press using an indenter with a parabolic profile and a 100 μm tip radius. The indenter is made of stainless steel and is figured using a computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine. The lens is designed to have a 1.7 m focal length at 10 keV energy. In an experiment conducted at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm monochromatic undulator beam strikes the lens. A focal length of 1.71, a focal spot size of 24 μm x 34 μm, and a peak intensity gain of over 18 are obtained

  13. Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2017-05-26

    The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying.

  14. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest

  15. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  16. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-18

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

  17. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Rita A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors. Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  18. Design and Implementation of the Control System of an Internal Combustion Engine Test Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Koç

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate tests and performance analysis of engines are required to minimize measurement errors and so the use of the advanced test equipment is imperative. In other words, the reliable test results depend on the measurement of many parameters and recording the experimental data accurately which is depended on engine test unit. This study aims to design the control system of an internal combustion engine test unit. In the study, the performance parameters of an available internal combustion engine have been transferred to computer in real time. A data acquisition (DAQ card has been used to transfer the experimental data to the computer. Also, a user interface has been developed for performing the necessary procedures by using LabVIEW. The dynamometer load, the fuel consumption, and the desired speed can easily be adjusted precisely by using DAQ card and the user interface during the engine test. Load, fuel consumption, and temperature values (the engine inlet-outlet, exhaust inlet-outlet, oil, and environment can be seen on the interface and also these values can be recorded to the computer. It is expected that developed system will contribute both to the education of students and to the researchers’ studies and so it will eliminate a major lack.

  19. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) - design overview and deployment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Petrovic, B.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, lightwater cooled, pressurized reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or about 335 MWe). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international team - led by Westinghouse - that includes 19 organizations from 10 countries. In year 2002 it has initiated the pre-application review with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), aiming at final design approval around 2010, and deployment in next decade (about 2015), consistent with the prediction of the growing energy supply gap in both developing and developed countries. This paper describes the reactor layout (i.e., its integral design, with the steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique s afety-by-design T M IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ''safety-bydesign'' TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves its safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant with reduced off-site emergency response requirements. The modular IRIS - with each module rated at ∼335 MWe - is an ideal size for smaller energy grids as it allows introducing sequentially single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs at a time. IRIS naturally can be also deployed in multiple modules in areas requiring a larger amount of power increasing with time, thus fulfilling the needs of larger, developed countries as well. The performed top-down economic analysis indicates that the cost of generated electricity is competitive with other nuclear and non

  20. Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a liquid lens with two tunable interfaces formed by two kinds of immiscible liquids. The proposed liquid lens uses liquid pressure to change the shape of the interfaces. It can provide a large tunable range of optical power and improved optical performance. By applying suitable liquids the gravity effect can also be negligible. To prove the principles, a liquid lens with 7 mm aperture was fabricated. The optical performance indicates that the proposed liquid lens can provide a large tunable range of both positive and negative powers even using liquids with small differences in refractive indices. The resolution is better than 50 lp mm −1 under white light environment. The spherical aberration and coma are also largely reduced. The proposed liquid lens can also provide the optical designer with the freedom to choose the combination of liquids to reduce or even correct aberrations

  1. Cogeneration of Electricity and Potable Water Using The International Reactor Innovative And Secure (IRIS) Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Binder, J.L.; Kostin, V.I.; Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Conti, D.; Alonso, G.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide demand for potable water has been steadily growing and is projected to accelerate, driven by a continued population growth and industrialization of emerging countries. This growth is reflected in a recent market survey by the World Resources Institute, which shows a doubling in the installed capacity of seawater desalination plants every ten years. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh/m3 of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, a dedicated 1000 MW power plant for every one million people would be required to meet our water needs with desalted water. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. The thermal energy produced in a nuclear plant can provide both electricity and desalted water without the production of greenhouse gases. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple a desalination plant with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design. The use of small-to-medium sized nuclear power plants allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and water capacity in more appropriate increments and allows countries to consider siting plants at a broader number of distributed locations. To meet these needs, a modified version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant design has been developed for the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water. The modular, passively safe features of IRIS make it especially well adapted for this application. Furthermore, several design features of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy and water even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. The IRIS-D design utilizes low-quality steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine to boil seawater in a multi-effect distillation desalination plant. The desalination plant is based on the horizontal

  2. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  3. Lens decenter and tilt measurement by interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Wei; Wu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    For the recent years, the vigorous development of the electro-optic industry, particularly the digital camera and the cellular phone camera, has placed a larger and larger demand for the optical devices. Among the optical lens, the aspherical optical lens plays the key component because the aspherical lens may provide better imaging quality then the spherical lens does. For the manufacturing reason, the aspherical lens is prone to a decenter or tilt issue with respect to the optical axes of its two surfaces. To measure decenter and tile error specifically would help to obviate the deficient lens, but most of the present measuring method can't provide this function. This paper proposed a new method to specifically measure the decenter and tile of lens by observing the interferogram of each surface. And the corresponding measuring instrument, which contains interferometer and motion stages, was introduced as well.

  4. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Stephen; Korenev, Sergey; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Gallardo, Juan; Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, Brant

    2008-04-01

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. A plasma lens has additional advantage: larger axial current than horns, minimal neutrino contamination during antineutrino running, and negligible pion absorption or scattering. Results from particle simulations using a plasma lens will be presented.

  5. Two degree of freedom internal model control-PID design for LFC of power systems via logarithmic approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Chattterjee, Kalyan; Vishwakarma, C B

    2018-01-01

    Load frequency controller has been designed for reduced order model of single area and two-area reheat hydro-thermal power system through internal model control - proportional integral derivative (IMC-PID) control techniques. The controller design method is based on two degree of freedom (2DOF) internal model control which combines with model order reduction technique. Here, in spite of taking full order system model a reduced order model has been considered for 2DOF-IMC-PID design and the designed controller is directly applied to full order system model. The Logarithmic based model order reduction technique is proposed to reduce the single and two-area high order power systems for the application of controller design.The proposed IMC-PID design of reduced order model achieves good dynamic response and robustness against load disturbance with the original high order system. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  7. Design optimization of the International Linear Collider Final Focus System with a long L*

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, Fabien

    This Master's Thesis work has been done in the Aerospace Engineering master's programme framework and carried out at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was conducted under the 500 GeV e-e+ International Linear Collider (ILC) study and focused on the design and performance optimization of the Final Focus System (FFS). The purpose of the final focus system of the future linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) is to demagnify the beam to the required transverse size at the interaction point (IP). The FFS is designed for a flat-beam in a compact way based on a local chromaticity correction which corrects both horizontal and vertical chromaticities simultaneously. An alternative FFS configuration based on the traditional scheme with two dedicated chromatic correction sections for horizontal and vertical chromaticities and a long L * option has been developed. A longer free space between the last quadrupole and the IP allows to place the last quadrupole on a stable ground, with fewer engineering ...

  8. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  9. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Brau, James E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Foster, Brian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fuster, Juan [Univ. of Valencia (Spain); Harrison, Mike [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paterson, James McEwan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Peskin, Michael [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanitzki, Marcel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Walker, Nicholas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  10. GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODELING WITH GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing of an extended object is described by a mapping from source to image coordinates that is nonlinear and cannot generally be inverted analytically. Determining the structure of the source intensity distribution also requires a description of the blurring effect due to a point-spread function. This initial study uses an iterative gravitational lens modeling scheme based on the semilinear method to determine the linear parameters (source intensity profile) of a strongly lensed system. Our 'matrix-free' approach avoids construction of the lens and blurring operators while retaining the least-squares formulation of the problem. The parameters of an analytical lens model are found through nonlinear optimization by an advanced genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). These global optimization routines are designed to explore the parameter space thoroughly, mapping model degeneracies in detail. We develop a novel method that determines the L-curve for each solution automatically, which represents the trade-off between the image χ 2 and regularization effects, and allows an estimate of the optimally regularized solution for each lens parameter set. In the final step of the optimization procedure, the lens model with the lowest χ 2 is used while the global optimizer solves for the source intensity distribution directly. This allows us to accurately determine the number of degrees of freedom in the problem to facilitate comparison between lens models and enforce positivity on the source profile. In practice, we find that the GA conducts a more thorough search of the parameter space than the PSO.

  11. Differences in daily disposable circle lens performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer JM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeffery M Schafer, William T Reindel, Marjorie J Rah, Osbert Chan, Lening Zhang Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to compare the performance characteristics of two cosmetically tinted contact lenses in the circle lens category that differ in lens design, lens material, and pigment print pattern: etafilcon A (1-Day Acuvue Define; Johnson & Johnson Vision Care and hilafilcon B (Naturelle; Bausch & Lomb Incorporated. Methods: Two hundred Asian subjects (400 eyes were enrolled in this 1-month parallel, bilateral, randomized study at ten investigative sites. Study lenses were dispensed at a screening/dispensing visit, and follow-up visits occurred at 2 weeks and 1 month. Lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis. Fit characteristics were evaluated at each visit, and slit-lamp evaluations were completed at each follow-up visit. Results: Of the 200 patients enrolled, 172 (344 eyes completed the study. The proportion of eyes with fully centered lenses was statistically significantly higher for the hilafilcon B group at the 2-week and 1-month visits, P<0.05. Over all visits, 0.6% of hilafilcon B eyes demonstrated incomplete corneal coverage, whereas for the etafilcon A group, 8.5% of eyes demonstrated incomplete corneal coverage and/or edge lift. The proportion of eyes with adequate lens movement was statistically significantly higher for the hilafilcon B group, P<0.05. Over all visits, none of the hilafilcon B eyes was reported to have excessive movement, whereas for etafilcon A lenses, 10.2% of eyes were reported to have excessive movement. Conclusions: Etafilcon A lenses were significantly less likely to be fully centered and significantly more likely to have incomplete corneal coverage and/or edge lift compared with the hilafilcon B lenses. Keywords: cosmetic contact lens, circle contact lens

  12. Elimination of laparoscopic lens fogging using directional flow of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, John Teague; Redan, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Surgeons constantly struggle with the formation of condensation on the lens of a laparoscope, which prolongs procedures and reduces visibility of the abdominal cavity. The goal of this project was to build a device that would direct a flow of carbon dioxide (CO2) into an open chamber surrounding the lens of a laparoscope, acting to keep moisture away from the lens and eliminate condensation. The device isolates the lens of the laparoscope from the humid environment of the intraperitoneal cavity by creating a microenvironment of dry CO2. This was accomplished by building a communicating sleeve that created an open chamber around the distal 2 to 3 cm of the scope. Into this cavity, dry cool CO2 was pumped in from an insufflator so that the path of the gas would surround the lens of the scope and escape through a single outlet location through which the scope views the intraperitoneal cavity. This chamber is proposed to isolate the lens with a high percentage of dry CO2 and low humidity. The device was tested in 7 different adverse conditions that were meant to challenge the ability of the device to maintain the viewing field with no perceptible obstruction. In all of the conditions tested, 25 trials total, the device successfully prevented and/or eliminated laparoscopic lens fogging. The device designed for this project points to the potential of a simple and effective mechanical method for eliminating laparoscopic lens fogging.

  13. Addendum report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Eye lens dosimetry R and D, and radiation management and estimated eye-lens exposure for workers in Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Katoh, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Kawaura, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hayashida, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established under the Japan Health Physics Society in April, 2013 (completed, March, 2015). The Committee looked at new/revised documents and standards related to the eye lens published by international organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The Committee also examined recent and previous studies related to eye-lens radiation exposure and dosimetry in Japan. These findings were published in this journal as the Interim Report of the Committee. Since then, the Committee expanded its activity to give an overview the current progress of eye-lens dosimetry R and D at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, along with research related to radiation management and estimated eye-lens exposure of Japanese nuclear-power-plant workers (including those at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant) for publishing an addendum Committee report. These additional findings are reported here. (author)

  14. The Director's Lens: An Intelligent Assistant for Virtual Cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Lino , Christophe; Christie , Marc; Ranon , Roberto; Bares , William

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We present the Director's Lens, an intelligent interactive assistant for crafting virtual cinematography using a motion-tracked hand-held device that can be aimed like a real camera. The system employs an intelligent cinematography engine that can compute, at the request of the fi lmmaker, a set of suitable camera placements for starting a shot. These suggestions represent semantically and cinematically distinct choices for visualizing the current narrative. In computi...

  15. Metallic plates lens focalizing a high power microwave beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuffi, L.

    1987-08-01

    A metallic grating composed of thin parallel plates opportunely spaced, permits to correct the phase of an incident high power microwave beam. In this work we show how it is possible to obtain a beam focalisation (lens), a beam deflection (prisma), or a variation in the polarization (polarizer) using parallel metallic plates. The main design parameters are here presented, in order to obtain the wanted phase modification keeping low the diffraction, the reflected power, the ohmic losses and avoiding breakdowns. Following the given criteria, a metallic plate lens has been realized to focalize the 200 KW, 100 msec 60 GHz beam used in the ECRH experiment on the TFR tokamak. The experimental beam concentration followed satisfactory the design requirements. In fact, the maximum intensity increased about twice the value without lens. In correspondence of this distance a reduction of the beam size of about 50% have been measured for the -3 dB radius. The lens supported high power tests without breakdowns or increase of the reflected power

  16. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  17. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  18. Looking beyond the perfect lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, W H; Pendry, J B

    2010-01-01

    The holy grail of imaging is the ability to see through anything. From the conservation of energy, we can easily see that to see through a lossy material would require lenses with gain. The aim of this paper therefore is to propose a simple scheme by which we can construct a general perfect lens, with gain-one that can restore both the phases and amplitudes of near and far fields.

  19. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  20. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on