WorldWideScience

Sample records for international law 19th

  1. 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the best papers presented at the 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, which was held in Granada, Spain in July 2015. It covers a range of project management and engineering contexts, including: civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, information and communication technologies, safety, labour risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Project management and engineering is taking on increasing importance as projects continue to grow in size, more stakeholders become involved, and environmental, organisational and technological issues become more complex. As such, this book offers a valuable resource for all professionals seeking the latest material on the changing face of project management.

  2. 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications, held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman in May 2013. The conference brought together experts and novices in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems. The volume features papers in difference equations and discrete time dynamical systems with applications to mathematical sciences and, in particular, mathematical biology, ecology, and epidemiology. It includes four invited papers and eight contributed papers. Topics covered include: competitive exclusion through discrete time models, Benford solutions of linear difference equations, chaos and wild chaos in Lorenz-type systems, advances in periodic difference equations, the periodic decomposition problem, dynamic selection systems and replicator equations, and asymptotic equivalence of difference equations in Banach Space. This book will appeal to researchers, scientists, and educators who work in th...

  3. 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Guralnick, David; Uhomoibhi, James

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, held 21-23 September 2016 at Clayton Hotel in Belfast, UK. We are currently witnessing a significant transformation in the development of education. The impact of globalisation on all areas of human life, the exponential acceleration of developments in both technology and the global markets, and the growing need for flexibility and agility are essential and challenging elements of this process that have to be addressed in general, but especially in the context of engineering education. To face these topical and very real challenges, higher education is called upon to find innovative responses. Since being founded in 1998, this conference has consistently been devoted to finding new approaches to learning, with a focus on collaborative learning. Today the ICL conferences have established themselves as a vital forum for the exchange of information on key trends and findings, and of practical lessons le...

  4. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  5. Position of woman according to 19th century Montenegrin marital law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of woman in 19th century Montenegrin marital law is examined in this paper. Provisions on entering into marriage, woman's marital infidelity, legal separation, dissolution of marriage and its legal effects as well as widow's property rights are scrutinized and critically analyzed. The author also indicates to rules of customary law regarding legal status of a married woman. Married woman had restricted legal capacity, as well as restricted property rights and no rights of succession. However, gender inequality common in patriarchal society such as Montenegrin in 19th century is particularly accentuated in case of marital infidelity. Only woman's adultery is punishable and regarded as a serious crime. Beside marital infidelity, lower position of woman is noticeable in all aspects of married life. Hence, legislative attempts to improve woman's legal status are emphasized in the article.

  6. 19th International School of Biophysics "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M; Bioelectrochemistry III : Charge Separation across Biomembranes

    1988-01-01

    This book contains aseries of review papers related to the lectures given at the Third Course on Bioelectrochemistry held at Erice in November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Biophysics. The topics covered by this course, "Charge Separation Across Biomembranes, " deal with the electrochemical aspects of some basic phenomena in biological systems, such as transport of ions, ATP synthesis, formation and maintenance of ionic and protonic gradients. In the first part of the course some preliminary lectures introduce the students to the most basic phenomena and technical aspects of membrane bioelectrochemistry. The remaining part of the course is devoted to the description of a selected group of membrane-enzyme systems, capable of promoting, or exploiting, the processes of separation of electrically charged entities (electrons or ions) across the membrane barrier. These systems are systematically discussed both from a structural and functional point of view. The effort of the many dis...

  7. Proceedings: 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Raquel Gonçalves; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    The 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium was hosted by the University of Campinas, College of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), and the Brazilian Association of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (ABENDI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on September 22–25, 2015. This Symposium was a forum for those involved in nondestructive...

  8. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  9. Aspects of the History of Twin Research: Statistical Congresses in the 19th Century and Hellin's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Johan

    2018-02-01

    In the 19th century, a series of international statistical congresses began that were important for population studies, including twin research. The introduction of common rules for the national demographic registers enabled scientists to contribute to the genesis of statistical research. The congress in St. Petersburg in 1872, in particular, focused on the movements of the population, and how they should be registered. Among the facts to be recorded were in multiple births, the sex and number of children born alive or still-born, whether legitimate or illegitimate, and the age of the mother at the date of the births. During the history of twin research, Hellin's law has played a central role because it is an approximately correct association between the rates of multiple maternities. It has been mathematically proven that Hellin's law does not hold as a general rule. Analyses show divergences from the law that are difficult to explain and/or eliminate. Varying improvements of this law have been proposed. The majority of all studies of Hellin's law are based on empirical rates of multiple maternities, ignoring random errors. Such studies can never confirm the law, but only identify errors with respect to Hellin's law that are too large to be characterized as random. It is of particular interest to note and explain why the rates of higher multiple maternities are sometimes too high or too low when Hellin's law is used as a benchmark. Studies have shown that there were investigators before Hellin who have contributed substantially to Hellin's law. In this article, we re-examine some old data sets and contributions in which Hellin's law has been evaluated and also analyze recent data.

  10. Two kinetic derivations of the law of perfect gases into Spanish physics books during the 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Martinez, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The political events occurred in the last years of the 18th century, the Independence war and the reign of Fernando VII, ruined the Spanish scientific panorama, physics included. During the 19th century, the national scientific production was restricted to textbooks and popularization works. Two kinetic derivations of the law of perfect gases corresponding to a textbook and a book about steam engines from the viewpoint of thermodynamics are presented and discussed. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Educational laws of music in primary schools in Spain in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Valle MOYA MARTÍNEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The revolutions in the Spain of the 19th century affected, as it could not be otherwise, to the educational world. 19th legislative and normative regulations show us that, although the musical education was a thoughtful and matter with legal references about its inclusion in primary or elementary school, failed to materialize, in practice, until a century later. Educational past offered to music an important role in its organization of subjects to impart but as we advance in history, it retracts the presence of musical education, until the nonexistence. This way, all the educational analyses were ignored, from Greek philosophy, they had been granted to music an important power in the formative process of the person. The analysis of the whole documentation and legal educational normative of the XIX century, referring to the elementary school, it does not support any discussion in this respect: Seldom, music was included in the official study plans and, even less, it became a reality, so its practice in the classroom was left to the discretion of the musical knowledge of the teachers and their willing to bring it closer to the scholars. Being faithful to the duality of the romantic spirit, this situation took place during the century that granted more value to the music.

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.

    2007-03-01

    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  13. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  14. 19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, 11.-13. 7. 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. The law of February 19th 2004, No. 40: procreation and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The Parliament of the Italian Republic, on 19 February 2004, has approved Law no. 40 on Medically Assisted Procreation. This law was adopted by the majority of the members of the Chamber, including both catholic as well as non-catholic members. The main opposition comes from the Church, which is against any form of artificial procreation. In spite of this, we must not forget that this law sets numerous limitations to Medically Assisted Procreation, which makes it unique in the matter. Examples are the prohibition to conceive a human being using in vitro fertilisation with sperm that is not from the parents, or the prohibitions of having parents of an advanced age or using the sperm once the donor is dead. Therefore, this article is based on the idea that every regulation on Assisted Procreation must be done from a rational perspective. The article analyses section by section the law emphasizing the importance that the legislator has. Stating that the legislator must take into account the constitutional personal rights (human dignity) and must likewise include punitive sanctions within the framework of the modern penal law.

  16. 19th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)

  17. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  18. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2013-01-01

    The 19. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 19-21 June, 2013 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  19. 19th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1978, when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2015 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. While the school has initially been providing a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Nineteenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort Sozopol, Bulgaria, on 21--25 September 2015. It was attended by 101 participants from 16 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine and UK. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event are published in this special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the

  20. Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolbert G.C. Smidt

    2006-10-01

    massivement au catholicisme. Les Blins du /Hal/hal se convertirent à l’Islam, afin de parer aux raids futurs des vassaux du Soudan Égyptien. Cet article vise a montrer que la stratégie principale des Blins a été de participer activement à la nouvelle présence des pouvoirs dominants, que ce soit sur le plan politique ou religieux, et que cette adaptation leur a permis de préserver leur système très sophistiqué d’autonomie interne, fondé sur une confédération non centralisée, un réseau reliant entre eux les différents chefs Blins.Borderlands, which are often experiencing challenges of different kind, can be regarded as a "laboratory" for new political or cultural projects or solutions. The country of the Blin ethnic group in northern-central Eritrea was such a land, especially between the 1840’s to 1880’s. Originally living in peaceful isolation, autonomously organizing their political live with a minimum of external intervention, this changed with the arrival of expanding Egypt in the adjacent Sudanese region of Taka in 1840. In the 1850’s, international brokers of religion – Catholic missionaries – and of academic exploration – Orientalists – appeared in the region, immediately followed by agents of imperialism – the British and French vice consuls of the port of Massawa. Simultanously reuniting Ethiopia sought to regain lost influence in the borderregions, including the Hamasen province, with the Blin of Bogos as their historic vassals. The Egyptian expansion resulted in the regular appearance of violent raids against the Blin, which gave a chance to the consuls and missionaries – with the few academics involved as their collaborators – to intervene, declare the Blin as protected by them and free the enslaved Blin men and women. Orientalists, the mission and consuls appeared to the Blin as agents of one idea: the inclusion of the Blin into the sphere of European influence. The Blin actively responded to the new challenges from all

  1. Concurrent Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Product Development in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment : Proceedings of the 19th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, Georg; Bil, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The CE Conference series is organized annually by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement (ISPE) and constitutes an important forum for international scientific exchange on concurrent and collaborative enterprise engineering. These international conferences attract a significant number of researchers, industrialists and students, as well as government representatives, who are interested in the recent advances in concurrent engineering research and applications. Concurrent Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Product Development in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment: Proceedings of the 19th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering contains papers accepted, peer reviewed and presented at the annual conference held  at the University of Applied Sciences in Trier, Germany, from 3rd-7th of September 2012. This covers a wide range of cutting-edge topics including: •Systems Engineering and Innovation •Design for Sustainability •Knowledge Engineering and Management •Managing pro...

  2. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  3. Fusion energy 2002. 19th conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Fusion energy 2002, held in Lyon, France, on 14-19 October 2002. The CD-Rom contains HTML files for navigation via WEB brouser, the papers in PDF and Acrobat Reader 5 for Windows, Mac-OS and UNIX

  4. 19th International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    mentioning about the newly feder- ated T-RMN. RMN stands for Royal Malaysian Navy, that’s where I come from; but actually in this regard, T-RMN stands for...customs offices, with the taxation departments, with organizations that do the ac- tual invoicing, and with the maritime authorities, which in the case...collaborations have also been proposed. Chief of the Royal Malaysian Navy Admiral Abdul Aziz, for example, has mooted the idea of the Maritime

  5. Highlights from ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011: the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems: (Chicago, Illinois - November 1 - 4, 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.; Ofek, Eyal; Tanin, Egemen

    2012-01-01

    ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011 was the 19th gathering of the premier event on spatial information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is also the fourth year that the conference was held under the auspices of ACM's most recent special interest group, SIGSPATIAL. Since its start in 1993, the con...

  6. Report on the 19th SPACE Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Rune Gulev

    2008-01-01

    The 19th international space (European Network for Business Studies and Languages) conference that recently took place in Spain provided valuable insight into several areas of interest. Most notably, methods on how to successfully enhance the internationalization of higher learning institutions were shared through mobility and joint degrees programs. Furthermore, the conference provided an academic forum for a highly professional and earnest discourse on pertinent topics of relevance for high...

  7. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  8. Wording in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  9. Wording in International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, the scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  10. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  11. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  12. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.

  14. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  15. International Satellite Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans

    2017-07-01

    International space law is generally considered to be a branch of public international law. In that sense, it constitutes a "subset of rules, rights and obligations of states within the latter specifically related to outer space and activities in or with respect to that realm." Dealing with an inherently international realm, much of it had been developed in the context of the United Nations, where the key treaties are even adhered to by all major space-faring countries. In addition, other sources—including not only customary international law but also such disputed concepts as "soft law" and political guidelines and recommendations—also contributed to the development of a general framework legal regime for all of mankind's endeavors in or with respect to outer space. Originally, this predominantly included scientific and military/security-related activities, but with the ongoing development of technology and a more practical orientation, it increasingly came to encompass many more civilian and, ultimately, even commercial activities, largely through downstream applications originating from or depending on space technology and space activities. Important here are the overarching, usually more theoretical aspects of international space law, which include how it was developed or continues to be developed, what special roles do "soft law" or the military aspects of space activities play in this regard, and how do national space laws (also) serve as a tool for interpretation of international space law. Also important is the special category of launches and other space operations in the sense of moving space objects safely into, through and—if applicable—back from outer space. Without such operations, space activities would be impossible, yet they bring with them special concerns; for instance, in terms of liability, the creation of space debris and even the legal status and possible commercialization of natural resources produced from celestial bodies. Finally

  16. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  17. Provisions on illegitimate children in 19th century Montenegrin legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of illegitimate children according to 19th century Montenegrin legislature is examined in this paper. Provisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Montenegrin 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper.

  18. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  19. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  20. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  1. Bowett's law of international institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sands, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bowett's Law of International Institutions is the leading introduction to this complex, important and growing area of international law, with increasing significance for developments at the national level. Covering all the major global, regional and judicial institutions and all international organisations that regulate aspects of development and providing an introductory overview of the law of international organisations, including international courts and tribunals as a whole. The book offers a basic framework, insights into some of the more essential issues, and indications of where to find more detail. Bowett's is essential reading for students of international law and international relations and will also be of considerable interest to lawyers practising in the area.

  2. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  3. The international law commission and international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramcharan, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    If the oceans are destroyed through pollution there will be nothing left to manage. Protection against pollution is thus a fundamental aspect of ocean management. What legal principles are available for the protection of the oceans. This paper brings together the relevant practice of the foremost international body responsible for the codification and development of international law: the International Law Commission. It describes the work of the Commission concerning: 1) pollution of the high seas; 2) pollution of international watercourses; and 3) international responsibility for environmental hazards. It concludes by expressing the hope that the Commission will further study, codify and develop international environmental law

  4. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    , i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  5. International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  6. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  7. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  8. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  9. The law of international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    White, Nigel D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).

  10. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  11. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  12. International Law, the Civilizing Mission and the Ambivalence of Development in Africa: Conceptual Underpinnings

    OpenAIRE

    Forji, Amin George

    2013-01-01

    International law, past and present has had to constantly wrestle with striking a balancing act between legality and imperialism. Following the Agrarian and Industrial revolutions, European1 economies increasingly witnessed profound boosts in productivity and net output beginning from the 17th century. By the start of the 19th century when explorations and discoveries were the currency of the day, European powers increasingly saw the acquisition of Africa as crucial to satisfy its economic im...

  13. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  14. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  15. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  16. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  17. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  18. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  19. The Concert of Europe and Great Power Governance Today: What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    13 These differences became alarmingly clear once liberal revolutions broke out across multiple European polities in 1820.61 The eastern powers ...dealings with that eastern power that they had so often worked with in concert. For in that treat- ment, the western powers ultimately “ broke the first...KYLE LASCURETTES The Concert of Europe and Great- Power Governance Today What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About

  20. FATF as international law institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Б. Кудас

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of creation, analysis of the legal bases of activity, forms of decision-making, control over their implementation, measures of impact on the national banking system «of the Task force on financial measures in the sphere of money laundering». In article also addressed the question of the modern status of international bodies in the system of subjects of international law.

  1. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  2. Research Handbook on International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia; Ong, David

    2010-01-01

    This wide-ranging and comprehensive Handbook examines recent developments in international environmental law (IEL) and the crossover effects of this expansion on other areas of international law, such as trade law and the law of the sea. The expert contributors offer analyses of foundational issues

  3. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  4. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  5. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  6. The Cambridge Companion to International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Gusman Siswandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK This book provides a thorough introduction to international law in a way that is rather unique compared to similar references. The subject matteris divided in a more concise way, while still giving rich perspective as it covers not only theories but also case studies and practices. This book consists of four parts, namely: the contexts of international law; international law and the state; techniques and arenas; and projects of international law.

  7. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a...

  8. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  9. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  10. Complicity in International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage...... in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form...... or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise....

  11. Fungal nomenclature evolving: changes adopted by the 19th International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen 2017, and procedures for the Fungal Nomenclature Session at the 11th International Mycological Congress in Puerto Rico 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; May, Tom W; Redhead, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes the key changes in the rules relating to the nomenclature of fungi made at the XIX International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. Most significant was the decision to transfer decision-making on matters related only to the naming of fungi from International Botanical to International Mycological Congresses (IMCs). The rules relating to fungi are to be grouped together in a separate section of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The way in which the Fungal Nomenclature Session will operate at the upcoming IMC in Puerto Rico in 2018 is summarized and the timetable for new proposals is presented. In addition, approval for names included on lists of protected names to be protected against unlisted as well as known competing names were passed, as were some simplifications relating to the naming of pleomorphic fungi. From 1 January 2019, it will also be necessary to deposit details of lecto-, neo-, and epitypifications in one of the recognized repositories of fungal names in order for them to be validly published and to establish their priority. Various aspects relating to typifications were referred to a new Special Committee, with a separate Special Subcommittee charged with addressing the issue of using DNA sequences as types for all groups covered by the ICN. It is anticipated that the Shenzhen Code will be published in the first half of 2018.

  12. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  13. Contemporary Theories and International Law-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many contemporary theories approach international law-making with a shift in emphasis from the sources of law towards the communicative practices in which a plethora of actors use, claim and speak international law. Whereas earlier approaches would look at the sources as the singular moment of

  14. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  15. TORT CHOICE OF LAW AND INTERNATIONAL FUNDAMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    The question then was which Province's law should govern. ... rigid rule on the international level could give rise to injustice, in certain ..... practice the lex loci, six practice a hybrid model, five practice the better law, three practice significant.

  16. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  17. NGOs : legitimate subjects of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The manuscript studies NGOs in international law. For that purpose, NGOs were appraised under each of the sources of international law, which, according to authoritative legal doctrine, were listed in article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice. The thesis also addresses the

  18. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  19. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  20. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  1. The Concept of Law and International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Hedley Bull, one of the founders of the School of International Society (English School) relies heavily on H.L.A. Hart in his understanding of law, including international law. The contribution seeks to explore 1) how Bull has creatively made use of Hart's Concept of Law, 2) on which points Hart'......'s theory has short comings, 3) on which additional points Bull's use of the concept of law has short comings, and 4) sketch of ideas how to improve the various short comings.......Hedley Bull, one of the founders of the School of International Society (English School) relies heavily on H.L.A. Hart in his understanding of law, including international law. The contribution seeks to explore 1) how Bull has creatively made use of Hart's Concept of Law, 2) on which points Hart...

  2. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  3. NIFS contributions to 19th IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    NIFS has presented 21 papers at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (Lyon, France, 14-19 October 2002). The contributed papers are collected in this report. The 21 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  5. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Essen, Jonte van

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the ...

  6. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  7. Topical problems of nuclear law viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Nuclear Law Association, on its 3rd Congress Nuclear Inter Jura from October 2-5, 1977 in Italy, dealt with a number of topical problems of nuclear law, in particular aspects concerning agreements in connection with the construction of nuclear facilities, the influence of nuclear energy on the environment and the public acceptance, third party liability, and nuclear insurance, radiation protection law and international judicial problems. (orig.) [de

  8. Contractual Networks In European Private International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Grušić, U.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines private international law issues raised by transnational contractual networks. The focus is on choice-of-law questions that arise in the context of 1) relations between network members who are contractually bound to one another, 2) relations between network members not connected directly by bonds of contract, and 3) relations between the network and the outsiders. The aim is to assess whether, and to what extent, European private international law is capable of dealing w...

  9. Do Scandinavians Care about International Law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Although Scandinavians are often celebrated as the vanguards of human rights and international law, we know little about whether courts and judges in these countries have embraced those international courts and conventions that they themselves helped establish after the Second World War. This art......Although Scandinavians are often celebrated as the vanguards of human rights and international law, we know little about whether courts and judges in these countries have embraced those international courts and conventions that they themselves helped establish after the Second World War...... international law and courts by citing their case law. Building on this author’s previous research, it is argued that Norway sticks out as much more engaged internationally due to a solid judicial review tradition at the national level. It is also argued that Scandinavian legal positivism, has influenced a much...

  10. From swill milk to certified milk: progress in cow's milk quality in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization jeopardized infant nutrition during the 19th century. Cow's milk was produced in the cities or transported long distances under suspect conditions. Milk was contaminated with bacteria or adulterated with water, flour, chalk and other substances. When distilleries proliferated in the metropoles, their waste slop was fed to cows which then produced thin and contaminated swill milk. Following a press campaign in the USA, the sale of swill milk was prohibited by law in 1861. Bacterial counts became available in 1881 and helped to improve the quality of milk. Debates on pasteurization remained controversial; legislation varied from country to country. Disposal of the wastewater of millions of inhabitants and the manure of thousands of cows was environmentally hazardous. It was not until 1860 and after several pandemics of Asiatic cholera that effective sewage systems were built in the metropoles. Milk depots were established in the USA by Koplik for sterilized and by Coit for certified milk. In France, Budin and Dufour created consultation services named goutte de lait, which distributed sterilized milk and educated mothers in infant care. Multiple efforts to improve milk quality culminated in the International gouttes de lait Congresses for the Study and Prevention of Infantile Mortality.

  11. International law, constitutional law, and public support for torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Chilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human rights movement has spent considerable energy developing and promoting the adoption of both international and domestic legal prohibitions against torture. Empirical scholarship testing the effectiveness of these prohibitions using observational data, however, has produced mixed results. In this paper, we explore one possible mechanism through which these prohibitions may be effective: dampening public support for torture. Specifically, we conducted a survey experiment to explore the impact of international and constitutional law on public support for torture. We found that a bare majority of respondents in our control group support the use of torture, and that presenting respondents with arguments that this practice violates international law or constitutional law did not produce a statistically significant decrease in support. These findings are consistent with prior research suggesting, even in democracies, that legal prohibitions on torture have been ineffective.

  12. Do Scandinavian Care about international law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Although Scandinavians are often celebrated as the vanguards of human rights and international law, we know little about whether courts and judges in these countries have embraced those international courts and conventions that they themselves helped establish after the Second World War....... This article presents original and comprehensive data on three Scandinavian courts' citation practice. It demonstrates that not only do Scandinavian Supreme Courts engage surprisingly little with international law, but also that there is great variation in the degree to which they have domesticated...... international law and courts by citing their case law. Building on this author's previous research, it is argued that Norway sticks out as much more engaged internationally due to a solid judicial review tradition at the national level. It is also argued that Scandinavian legal positivism has influenced a much...

  13. Statures of 19th century Chinese males in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.

  14. The immunity of states and their officials in international criminal law and international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alebeek, R.

    2008-01-01

    * Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has

  15. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  16. Legislation and judicial practice on illegitimate children in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of non-marital children according to 19th century Serbian legislature and judicial practice is examined in this paper. Provisions and court decisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative and judicial attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper. Beside legalization, adoption was also the way to better position of illegitimate children in great extent, as adopted child was granted the status of a child born in lawful marriage. That is a reason why judicial practice concerning adoption, widespread in 19th century Serbia, is scrutinized and critically analyzed in the article.

  17. JAERI contribution to the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report compiles the contributed papers and presentation materials from JAERI to the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference held at Lyon, France, from October 14th to 19th, 2002. The papers describe the recent progress in the experimental research in JT-60U and JFT-2M tokamaks, theoretical studies, fusion technology and R and D for ITER and fusion reactors. Total 32 papers consist of 1 overview talk, 14 oral and 17 poster presentations. Eight papers written by authors from other institutes and universities under collaboration with JAERI are also included. The 40 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Page THE PROBLEM WITH INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Persons who international humanitarian law applies have .... problems in applying the principle of distinction and seeks to find a standard for distinguishing what may appear ..... The advantage of employing drones in armed operatin is that no.

  19. International Law and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Irresponsible and 6 Craig H. Allen incompetent flag States; failing and failed States; transnational terrorist organiza- tions; criminal syndicates ...transnational criminal syndicates , and that the DIME approach is not always well suited to them. The United States already reaches well beyond the DIME...http://www. townhall.com/ columnists /frankj gaffneyjr I archive .shtml; Jeremy _Rabkin, Defeat the Law of the Sea Treaty, WASHINGTON TIMES, Nov. 13

  20. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...... the nations, a common core of legal values? If there is, this will facilitate legal unification. It will also make the international law-making easier if, in exceptional cases, a court is permitted to disregard a legal rule....

  1. 19th Century Roots to the American Vocational Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon F.

    Historical developments in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced the course of European and American education and the separate path of vocational education. The first of these developments was the emergence of schools as primary instruments for the transmission of knowledge and culture, as a result of the phenomenal growth of the American states…

  2. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonte van Essen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the study into this problem and possible solutions is of great significance. The 2011 developments in Northern Africa underline the need of contemporary research into this area. This essay aims to clarify the position of de facto regimes in international law and the influence on their status by actions of international actors. The author first argues that de facto regimes have rights and obligations under international law, which provide them with (some form of international legal personality. He then pleads for a reconsideration of the contemporary legal treatment of these regimes. The author argues against the current system of government recognition and proposes a system that better addresses the needs of both de facto regimes and the international community. 

  3. International Responsibility and the Systemic Character of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saganek Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The question whether international law is a system is one of the modern topics discussed by specialists of international law. The text of P. Saganek poses this question with respect to the rules on international responsibility. The two aims are to establish whether the rules on state responsibility are a system themselves and whether they may prima facie support the idea of international law as such a system. The two prima facie answers are positive. Every violation of international law gives rise to state responsibility if it can be attributed to a state and no circumstance precluding wrongfulness is in place. In this sense the rules on state responsibility form a sub-system supporting the thesis on the systemic nature of international law. On a closer analysis one can encounter several doubts as to both answers. Paradoxically those rules are too ideal, too systemic. The author – without denying the necessity of several if not the majority of the identified rules – refers to a tendency of presenting as law some non-binding documents prepared by expert groups. This is a part of a wider process of ‘paper-law’. In this sense expert groups engage in ‘creating the language’ in which the true subjects of international law are expected to speak.

  4. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  5. Law, justice and a potential security gap: the 'organization' requirement in international humanitarian law and international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Fortin, K.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ‘organizational’ or ‘organization’ criterion for both non-international armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL) and crimes against humanity under international criminal law (ICL) and considers how it affects the ability to address armed violence carried

  6. The faltering legitimacy of international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.A.T.

    2013-01-01

    International taxation has taken a central role in the ongoing political and economic crisis. There is a growing consensus in society that there is a need to change the current rules and norms of international taxation, since the changes in society are not properly reflected in the body of law

  7. The case of Kosovo and international law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2009 (2010), s. 51-65 ISSN 0554-498X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : public international law * independence of the Kosovo * International Court of Justice Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. International institutional law unity within diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the law of public international organizations. This fifth, revised edition of International Institutional Law covers the most recent developments in the field. Although public international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, ASEAN, the European Union and other organizations have broadly divergent objectives, powers, fields of activity and numbers of member states, they also share a wide variety of institutional problems. Rather than being a handbook for specific organizations, the book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of international organizations. It includes comparative chapters on the rules and practices concerning membership, institutional structure, decision-making, financing, legal order, supervision and sanctions, legal status and external relations. The books theoretical framework and extensive use of case-studies is designed to appeal to both academics ...

  9. The law of the international civil service institutional law and practice in international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Gerhard Ullrich provides an overall review of the employment law of international intergovernmental organisations. In the first part of the book, he explains the basics of employment law and provides statistical data. He comments extensively on the privileges and immunities of international officials. The core of the book is dedicated to the examination of the legal sources for international civil service law. Here, the international administrative tribunals' case law on the general principles of law occupies a particularly broad area. A second legal source are the structures and elements of the statutory employment in international organisations. The author finally comments on the system of legal protection for the staff of the international civil service.

  10. Peremptory Norms of International Law and Invocation of International Responsibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, nemá (2017), s. 4-22 ISSN 1805-0565. E-ISSN 1805-0999 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : peremptory norms * Jus cogens * general international law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law http://www.cyil.eu/

  11. Soft law in public international law : a pragmatic or a principled choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, Marcel M.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of soft law in international law, in particular in the field of sustainable development law. Soft law is often regarded as non-law. However this qualification increasingly does not match the realities of the development of international law in which many legally

  12. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  13. Tuberculosis in the Ottoman harem in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Y Izzetin; Hillerdal, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    At least four of the sultans who ruled during the 19th century suffered from tuberculosis (TB), and probably many of the women and children in the harem too. Life there was crowded with low standards of hygiene, resulting in high mortality, especially among children. Infectious diseases were the main killers and TB was one of the many factors behind the decline and fall of the empire.

  14. Family and marital affairs in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divac Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnology, as a science, continues to dedicate very much attention to the traditional culture of Serbian 19th century villages. In the past, material culture with all of the disappearing, relic artifacts no longer in use was in the focus of the science. A large amount of data was gathered, on the population origins, migrations, beliefs, rituals, social institutions such as cooperative associations and so on. In spite of these data, ethnology today has no detailed knowledge on life of Serbian 19th century villages especially there is a gap in our knowledge on family life in the first half of the 19th century. Family researches, such as ethnologists, sociologists and particularly those that deal with transformations, in their analyses use as a variable the so-called patriarchal-traditional model of the family. The model assumes: extended or cooperative family, stable and directed toward maintaining family ties and property; divorce is rare since the marriage itself is founded on duties toward family group and deference for a husband or father; the family is tied down to its land and family ties with male lineage are encouraged, and so on. In the first half of the 19th century however, Serbia was the battle-field of political turmoil, rebellion fights and huge social changes and general attitude of instability, migrations arguments, Turkish aggression, and frequent governmental changes, which brought about disturbance in patriarchal system, customs and regulations. Archival sources from the period reveal that courts were very busy dealing with cases of family and marital issues. It is evident that the regulations were put forward to enhance family solidity through marriage and family stability. Several available examples show "a dark side" of the Serbian family life of the period; today, it is not possible to establish the degree to which the family transformed itself from a patriarchal to a more liberated one.

  15. From Public International to International Public Law: Translating World Public Opinion into International Public Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Bogdandy, A.; Goldmann, M.; Venzke, I.

    This article argues that increasing demands in world public opinion for legitimate and effective international institutions require a paradigm shift in public international law. There is a part of public international law that should be better understood as international public law because it

  16. Law, Justice and a Potential Security Gap: The ‘Organization’ Requirement in International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin, K.M.A.; Bartels, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ‘organizational’ or ‘organization’ criterion for both noninternational armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL) and crimes against humanity under international criminal law (ICL) and considers how it affects the ability to address armed violence carried out

  17. In Defense of International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.; Bungenberg, M.; Herrmann, C.; Krajewski, M.; Terhechte, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The present article responds to the critical perspective Kate Miles offers on international investment law in her article “Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Conflict, Convergence, and Future Directions”, published in this Yearbook. While sharing several concerns Miles identifies, and supporting

  18. Maritime drug interdiction in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.J.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    The study focuses on the interdiction of trafficking in illicit drugs at sea as one part of the general problem of illicit drug trafficking. More specifically, the study focuses on the legal framework for the interdiction of illicit maritime drug trafficking under international law. Firstly, the

  19. Prevention Obligations in International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2013-01-01

    The paper seeks to examine the content and nature of prevention obligations in international environmental law. Despite their frequent reference to these obligations in practice and in the literature their exact content remains ill-defined. Similarly, the exact nature of these obligations has not

  20. Integrating International Business Law Concepts into a High School Business Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Cathleen J.; McDonald, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines international business content for a high school business law curriculum: history of international business law, World Trade Organization, international disputes, contracts and sales, financing/banking, currency, taxation, intellectual property, transportation, and multinational corporations. Considers whether to teach international…

  1. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  2. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c its relation with human ageing; and d the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  3. Evolution of Electromagnetics in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lindell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Steps leading to the present-day electromagnetic theory made in the 19th Century are briefly reviewed. The progress can be roughly divided in two branches which are called Continental and British Electromagnetics. The former was based on Newton's action-at-a-distance principle and French mathematics while the latter grew from Faraday's contact-action principle, the concept of field lines and physical analogies. Maxwell's field theory and its experimental verification marked the last stage in the process.

  4. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cast Iron in The 19th Century Building Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasek, Michał; Piwek, Aleksander

    2017-10-01

    Cast iron is a material, characteristics of which enable to receive extremely artistic elements. It maintains good strength properties at the same time. That combination of these seemingly contrary traits makes it a commodity that was widely used in the 19th century industry and architecture. These usages were not only as decorative elements, technical and structural ones. The production of new household utilities started, which made people’s lives more comfortable. Cast iron allowed for fast and cheap production while maintaining high aesthetic qualities. Useful elements, which often were ornamental parts of buildings were created. The aim of the article is to characterise elements of interior equipment of the 19th century building that are made of cast iron. As it appears from performed bibliography, archival and field studies, the ways of exploitation are very broad. Some were mounted into the building; the others were a mobile equipment. As it occurred they were most commonly used as functional items. Cast iron was used to produce the minor elements, which were only parts of the bigger wooden or stone items. Notwithstanding, there were also bigger ones casted as a whole, and frequently ones that were assembled from many elements. Nowadays, elements of an interior feature are one of the subjects of study during the restoration work of the buildings. They can provide important information about the building and the way people lived and are considered as the essential part of historical objects.

  6. Secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Vesna D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of chemistry in Serbia as a separate subject dates from 1874. The first secondary-school chemistry textbooks appeared in the second half of the 19th century. The aim of this paper is to gain insight, by analysing two secondary-school chemistry textbooks, written by Sima Lozanić (1895 and Mita Petrović (1892, into what amount of scientific knowledge from the sphere of chemistry was presented to secondary school students in Serbia in the second half of the 19th century, and what principles textbooks written at the time were based on. Within the framework of the research conducted, we defined the criteria for assessing the quality of secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the context of the time they were written in. The most important difference between the two textbooks under analysis that we found pertained to the way in which their contents were organized. Sima Lozanić’s textbook is characterized by a greater degree of systematicness when it comes to the manner of presenting its contents and consistency of approach throughout the book. In both textbooks one can perceive the authors’ attempts to link chemistry-related subjects to everyday life, and to point out the practical significance of various substances, as well as their toxicness.

  7. On Banks, Courts and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbrini, Federico

    In December 2013 the ECOFIN Council has given its green light to the adoption of the second pillar of the so-called Banking Union: a Single Resolution Mechanism to wind down failing banks in the Euro-zone, and thus break the cycle between banks and sovereigns in the EU. Besides a regulation......, to be adopted in co-decision procedure with the Parliament, the Council has however endorsed a plan to adopt an international agreement on the functioning of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). The paper critically analyses the choice to resort to international law to establish the SRF. As the paper maintains...

  8. Public international law and civil law liability for compensation for damages by virtue of international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author analyses the current provisions in international law and international private law for their suitability to establish liability for damages due to transfrontier pollution, also taking into account damage occurred through the operation of nuclear power plants. As a result the author suggests that the national goverments should jointly set up standards and catalogues of environmentally detrimental effects and impacts, and of the seriousness thereof, and to make these form part of international conventions and agreements which also should unambigiously state liability for compensation for damages. For activities involving special hazards, liability for risks should be introduced in such a body of international regulations. (CB) [de

  9. Report on the 19th SPACE Conference = 10. mednarodna konferenca SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Gulev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The 19th international space (European Network for Business Studies and Languages conference that recently took place in Spain provided valuable insight into several areas of interest. Most notably, methods on how to successfully enhance the internationalization of higher learning institutions were shared through mobility and joint degrees programs. Furthermore, the conference provided an academic forum for a highly professional and earnest discourse on pertinent topics of relevance for higher learning institutions, which this year pivoted around intercultural awareness and dialogue. In sum, the space network provides a wealth of academic and administrative advantages that the academic sphere could greatly benefit from.

  10. Extension activities of Kazan Imperial University in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravleva Evgenia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based primarily on archival documents, this article explores the development of additional education in Kazan province, Russia, in the 19th century. Its genesis is found in the varying order of Kazan Imperial University extension activities which take the form of foreign academic and scientific mobility; individual mentoring practice of recognised scholars; masters’ advancement at Pedagogical Institute; creation of the Pedagogical Society in the framework of University Extension Movement. The historiography shows that in the course of its development additional education in Kazan Imperial University largely relied on the international experience and enthusiasm of its teaching staff.

  11. International Criminal Law: Over-studied and Underachieving?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sliedregt, E

    2016-01-01

    In his recent review of Neil Boister's book, An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law, Robert Currie praises the author for shedding light on a field of law that has suffered from inattention. Transnational criminal law (TCL), the 'other' branch of what was traditionally called international criminal law, has been overshadowed by international criminal law 'proper' (ICL). The establishment of international criminal tribunals after the end of the Cold War, culminating in the establishment...

  12. Contractual and non-contractuall obligations in private international Law

    OpenAIRE

    Čejková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    67 8 Summary 8.1 Contractual and Non-contractual Obligations in Private International Law This thesis deals with the European international private law and discusses the current law-crash modification of contractual and non-contractual obligations. Characteristic of the European community is the absence of unification of the substantive law, which is compensated, by the unification of conflict standards. The unification of conflict standards, as an instrument of the international private law,...

  13. Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against ... Centre for International Sustainable Development Law.

  14. Archives: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 11 of 11 ... Archives: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home > Archives: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  18. The precautionary principle in international environmental law and international jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis international regulation of the precautionary principle as one of environmental principles. This principle envisages that when there are threats of serious and irreparable harm, as a consequence of certain economic activity, the lack of scientific evidence and full certainty cannot be used as a reason for postponing efficient measures for preventing environmental harm. From economic point of view, the application of precautionary principle is problematic, because it creates larger responsibility for those who create possible risks, comparing to the previous period. The precautionary principle can be found in numerous international treaties in this field, which regulate it in a very similar manner. There is no consensus in doctrine whether this principle has reached the level of international customary law, because it was interpreted differently and it was not accepted by large number of countries in their national legislations. It represents a developing concept which is consisted of changing positions on adequate roles of science, economy, politics and law in the field of environmental protection. This principle has been discussed in several cases before International Court of Justice and International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

  19. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  20. 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Barral, Patricia; Gómez, Dolores; Pena, Francisco; Rodríguez, Jerónimo; Salgado, Pilar; Vázquez-Méndez, Miguel; ECMI 2016; Progress in industrial mathematics

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses mathematics in a wide variety of applications, ranging from problems in electronics, energy and the environment, to mechanics and mechatronics. Using the classification system defined in the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020, several of the topics covered belong to the challenge climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials; and some to health, demographic change and wellbeing; while others belong to Europe in a changing world – inclusive, innovative and reflective societies. The 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2016, was held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain in June 2016. The proceedings of this conference include the plenary lectures, ECMI awards and special lectures, mini-symposia (including the description of each mini-symposium) and contributed talks. The ECMI conferences are organized by the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry with the aim of promoting interaction between academy and industry, leading...

  1. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating information. Book advertisements were evidence of the position of books in relation to other aspects of culture and society, of the approach to their promotion and, finally, of the importance of book promotion. In order to investigate how and how much book ads were present, and how Croatian books were promoted and reached the readership, the paper analyses daily and monthly publications, such as Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung from 1869, Die Drau from 1968 to 1877, and Branislav from 1878. Among the eleven different papers published in the second half of the 19th century in Osijek, these were selected for their content, as they were the first illustrated newspapers (Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung. The investigation focused on the influence of the newly emerged illustrated press and on the influence of the newspapers published in Croatian language (Branislav, as a possible tool for spreading and promotion of Croatian books. Another focus was on the influence of continued publication and on the growth of a steady readership (Die Drau. The papers were analysed with the aim to locate book advertisements which were then subjected to content analysis. Also provided is a brief overview of the book production and publication in Croatia and in Osijek at the time, and an overview of the emergence of newspapers in Osijek with a brief account of the titles selected for study in order to gain an insight into the context in which book ads appeared. It

  3. 10. anniversary International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In August 2010, the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) will hold its 10. anniversary session. It has already been a decade since the Nuclear Energy Agency, in co-operation with the University of Montpellier 1 in France, decided to establish a 'summer university' programme to teach international nuclear law. The major impetus for doing so largely resulted from the fact that university law faculties at that time did not offer specialized courses in nuclear law, a situation that has not changed significantly over the years despite the recent and growing interest of the international community in nuclear energy production. The founders of the ISNL, Mr. Patrick Reyners formerly of the Nuclear Energy Agency and Professor Pierre Bringuier from the University of Montpellier 1, embarked on this experiment as an attempt to fill this educational gap, at least at the international level, and they each obtained significant support for the project from their respective institutions. Nuclear law is one of the most highly technical and thus often difficult areas in the legal discipline. Yet, the highly regulated nature of nuclear activities, both at national and international levels, demands that legal practitioners develop both expertise in drafting and interpreting the large number and wide variety of associated legal instruments. At the start of the 21. century, comprehensive national and international legal frameworks covering virtually all aspects of nuclear activities existed in all developed countries without an equivalent educational programme to teach future generations. Although the success of the school in its early days was difficult to predict, we can now proudly state that the ISNL has been, and continues to be, a great achievement with a reputation for excellence that spans six continents. The ISNL team is a professional collaboration, not only between the NEA and the University of Montpellier 1, but between the organizers, lecturers and participants of each

  4. The South China Sea Dispute : Perspective of International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Xuechan

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the South China Sea dispute from the perspective of international law. First, it introduces some basic knowledge about international law in this field. In the second part, Spratly islands dispute is used as a concrete example to show how international law analyzes this kind of

  5. The South China Sea Dispute: Perspective of International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xuechan

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the South China Sea dispute from the perspective of international law. First, it introduces some basic knowledge about international law in this field. In the second part, Spratly islands dispute is used as a concrete example to show how international law analyzes this kind of dispute. Finally, it analyzes the arbitration case between the Philippines and China.

  6. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law. Where...

  7. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  8. The international school of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kus, S.

    2007-01-01

    The International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) was established in 2000 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the University of Montpellier 1. It benefits from the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The school offers a high-quality educational programme acknowledged for its intensive courses, professional lecturers, as well as its academic and practical balance. In the past seven years, the ISNL has been attended by approximately 400 participants from 78 countries around the world. The NEA awards scholarships to enable certain meritorious students from its member countries to benefit from the course. The IAEA also awards a number of fellowships to participants from its member countries. This helps ensure broad representation from different countries and bestows the ISNL with the different views, experience and legal backgrounds of its participants. The applicants are mostly but not necessarily lawyers. Such diversity is welcomed as the interdisciplinary composition of classes contributes to the dialogue and mutual learning between lawyers and scientists or economists for example. (author)

  9. International environmental law and world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, L.D.; Palmer, G.W.R. Sir; Weston, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    A litany of dismal happenings - global warming, ozone layer depletion, desertification, destruction of biodiversity, acid rain, and nuclear and water accidents - are but some of the subjects covered by this book, a problem-solving casebook authored by three educators. This new book makes the obvious but important point, that environmental issues are not limited by national boundaries. The book is divided into three parts. The first three chapters of part I discuss the basic principals of traditional international law without any reference to environmental issues. Part II, comprised of seven chapters, deals with hypothetical problems that affect various aspects of the environment vis-a-vis the norms, institutions, and procedures through which the international legal system operates. The book concludes with two chapters dealing with future environmental concerns. The book focuses on issue-spotting, problem-solving, and synthesis over the assimilation and comprehension of raw, disembodied knowledge. The book helps to manage our common future on this planet, for which we will need a new global regime based essentially on the extension into international life of the rule of law, together with reliable mechanisms for accountability and enforcement that provide the basis for the effective functioning of national societies

  10. Toward international law on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

  11. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  12. THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW. A RELATION BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANNETTE IRIGOIN BARRENE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During an armed conflict, a change in the application of the human right regulations and international humanitarian law can be observed in the practice of contemporary international law. It is possible to observe at UN and International Courts’ levels an interesting trend in the sense of considering the application of both systems simultaneously in cases of international crisis as well as in internal conflicts. This innovation in contemporary international law can be observed initially in the change experimented by the legislation of the Human Rights’ European Court and specially and clearer in the Human Rights’ Inter American Court, which in cases against Honduras, Colombia, Paraguay and other countries, states that the State, being warrantor of the efficient protection of civil population, must apply and honor not only the Human Rights’ American Convention, but also the articles 13th and 14th of the II protocol of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The convergence of both branches of the Law, and its application may help to achieve a better defense and efficiency of the fundamental rights of the human being.

  13. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  14. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading societies, known as the gabinetto di lettura, or the casino, appeared in Dalmatia in the middle of the 18th century modelled on their Western European, North Italian and Austrian counterparts. They became centres of social and cultural life in the region. However, their number was very small in comparison with other Central and Western European countries. In spite of that, their statutes can serve a historian as very fertile and useful historical sources. First of all, they can reveal the importance given to books and reading as well as changing attitude towards reading in the course of time. They can also indicate social structure of the reading circles as well as the interaction and communication among the members. In addition, they can reveal the participation of women in social and cultural life, internal functioning of the society, etc. Based on the statutes of several reading societies of the 19th century, this work suggests several important issues. First, it shows that in the first half of the 19th century the membership of these societies was still select and prestigious, acquired by position on the social scale. In other words, reading societies were still confined to very narrow social circles of the educated. Although in Western parts of Europe the reading public became more heterogeneous and open, in Dalmatia reading still preserved its exclusive features. Second, the work also suggests that what some historians of book and reading called the ”reading revolution” or ”revolution in reading” occurred in Dalmatia much later, and even then mostly in urban areas. Some changes in reading habits occurred in the region, albeit to a limited extent and with less influence on society as a whole. Third, the work also demonstrates that from the 1840s reading acquired a new dimension, becoming open to the more social strata and gradually losing its exclusive character. The reading societies, lending libraries and other cultural

  15. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  16. A pluralist approach to the Law of International Sales | Coetzee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the twentieth century the problem of diverse laws was primarily addressed by global uniform law such as the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). However, uniform law is rarely complete and has to be supplemented by national law, trade usage or party agreement.

  17. Tort choice of law and international fundamental norms: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two jurisdictions are also known for their constant reference to international law in the resolution of domestic disputes. Moreover, Canada embodies both the common law and the civil law traditions. The aim here is twofold. The first is to evaluate the suitability of their choice of law rules for addressing cases alleging ...

  18. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  19. Disconnecting Humanitarian Law from EU Subsidiary Protection: A Hypothesis of Defragmentation of International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolosi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has often revealed the tight interrelation between refugee law, humanitarian law and international criminal law. It has been argued that the latter bodies of law have, in fact, played a major role in the development of most key concept of

  20. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete

  1. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

  2. Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Gehrmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in infant mortality in Germany have previously only been documented in a fragmentary fashion for the 19th century as a whole, and only on a small scale for the period prior to 1871. For the first time, this paper lays a solid statistical foundation by reprocessing the figures assembled by the German states of that time. The reconstructed national statistical series (from 1826 onwards reveals a comparatively high infant mortality, with minor deviations until the turn of the 20th century. The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation is not denied, but an evaluation of the different regional patterns and trends leads to a new weighting. The living and working conditions in the countryside were thus highly determining. The relationship between fertility and infant mortality is assessed differently for the era of the sustained reduction in fertility than for the preceding period. All in all, the prevalent customs and attitudes are regarded as being vital to infants’ survival chances. We therefore need to look at attitudes among the educated public and the authorities. Efforts on the part of these groups to bring about change were particularly observed in the South West, where an awareness of the dramatic problem arose comparatively early. Further historic research at the regional level will be needed in order to achieve a final evaluation of these processes.

  3. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete. 32 refs.; 16 figs

  4. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  5. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  6. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  7. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  8. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  9. Reinforcing the (neo-)Hobbesian representations of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of the foundations of the international legal order has long fuelled controversies. The mainstream international legal scholarship, dominated by liberal and constitutionalist discourses, has advocated an understanding of international law that rests on global values. This article

  10. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal: an international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    The question of radioactive waste disposal is the most intractable technical and political problem facing nuclear industry. Environmentalists world-wide demand a nuclear waste policy that must be ecologically acceptable internationally. Radioactive wastes and oil pollution were the first two types of marine pollution to receive international attention and various marine pollution controls were established. Ocean disposal was co-ordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development in 1967. The first treaty was the 1958 Convention on the High Seas (High Seas Convention). In response to its call for national co-operation the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established its Brynielson panel. The IAEA first issued guidelines on sea dumping in 1961. The London Dumping Convention, written in 1972, is the only global agreement concerned solely with the disposal of wastes in the marine environment by dumping. None of the global agreements make specific reference to sea-bed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Negotiations began at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) for the codification of a comprehensive treaty concerned with the protection, conservation, sustainable use and development of the marine environment. Burial in deep geological formations is a method of HLW disposal which decreases the chances of accidental intrusion by mankind and has little likelihood of malicious intrusion. National waste management programmes of different countries differ but there is agreement on the acceptable technical solutions to issues of waste management. The final disposition of HLW - storage or disposal - has not been decisively determined, but there is growing consensus that geological land-based disposal is the most viable alternative. Expanded international technical co-operation could well reduce the time needed to develop effective waste disposal mechanisms

  12. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  13. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  14. Alice in Accounting Land: The Adventure of Two Economic Historians in Accounting Records of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Suarez Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to share our experience of working with São Paulo's municipal budgets published during the 19th century and discuss the difficulties of using this kind of source to analyze the municipal public finance from a historical perspective. The budget laws published draw the researcher's attention because they are abundant and relatively easy to work with, providing a huge documentary set that may be used as a means for studies in the fields of economic history, political history, and cultural history within the imperial period. These laws are printed, therefore, readable, and easily accessible through the digital web portal Acervo Histórico da Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de São Paulo Historical Collection of the São Paulo State Legislative Assembly]. They detail the origins and destinations of public resources, municipality by municipality, allowing the researcher to reconstruct the financial life of municipalities, identifying changes in time and space of the fortunes of the 19th-century São Paulo state communities. However, may we really trust these budgets? Conversations and collaborations between two researchers showed that these accessible, readable, and abundant sources are not as appropriate as they seem at first glance. This article reports our troubled and even contradictory journey into the world of municipal public accounting, in order to detail our findings and provide a warning on these sources. A comparative methodology between budget laws and handwritten balance sheets was used at time intervals of 1, 2, and 3 years, in search of correlations and adjustment patterns between budgeted and spent amounts of money. Our experience has shown that budget laws do not have much in common with the actual financial experience of municipalities within the imperial period, therefore, they are not the most appropriate sources to know the financial daily life in the 19th-century São Paulo state villages.

  15. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  16. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  17. International Law, Cultural Diversity, and The Environment: the Case of the General Forestry Law in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Maldonado, Daniel Eduardo; Universidad de los Andes

    2015-01-01

    International law has been repeatedly challenged for its exclusionary character and its imperial uses. These critiques describe many of its structures and dynamics in a precise manner. However, international law may be a useful instrument for protecting the legitimate interests of the States of the Global South in general, and of the distinct social and cultural groups that form them, in particular. Yet, in order to understand international law's potential for emancipation or social resistanc...

  18. Book Review: Jus Cogens – International Law and Social Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Handayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is based on the doctoral thesis completed by the author as an International Scholar of the Cambridge Overseas Trust at the University of Cambridge. The main idea of the books lies on the fact that jus cogens still become one of the most complex doctrines in contemporary international law. The legal foundation of jus cogens is still questionable, whether it lies on natural law, positive law or even to higher or divine origin. However, there is general agreement that jus cogens represent the fundamental value in international society or so-called higher norm in international law.

  19. Mechanisms and microevolutionary consequences of social homogamy in a 19th-century Italian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Matteo

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Choosing a spouse has always been an event subjected to strong social control. Consideration of socioprofessional elements is therefore necessary for an in-depth understanding of the microevolutionary consequences of marriage. Thus in this paper I explore the extent and causes of reproduction isolation between different socioprofessional groups of a 19th-century Italian community, Casalguidi. Various features of mate choice pattern were investigated by means of individual-level data. The results show that Casalguidi was a community with strong socioeconomic internal boundaries, in which social belonging mattered much more than geographic provenience. The bourgeoisie showed such a high degree of social homogamy that it was almost reproductively isolated. Much more openness and less isolation was found between the two categories of farm laborers and sharecroppers, and day laborers.

  20. International Law and the Society of Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law in the 1990s. Cases and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason Scott, Ed.; Scurti, Jason, Ed.; And Others

    This casebook on international law was developed by high school students around the globe and emphasizes the important role that students can play in furthering international law education. The text provides teachers and students with a summary review of 25 major cases heard by the International Court of Justice, along with additional materials.…

  1. International Criminal Law: Over-studied and Underachieving?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sliedregt, E.

    2016-01-01

    In his recent review of Neil Boister's book, An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law, Robert Currie praises the author for shedding light on a field of law that has suffered from inattention. Transnational criminal law (TCL), the 'other' branch of what was traditionally called international

  2. International criminal justice: a pillar for the international rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The international criminal justice has experienced a rapid change over the past years. This circumstance has underscored the need for interaction and complementation between international and domestic law. Some authors consider that the international criminal justice, and the activities of its tribunals, jeopardize the legality of international law. Our vision is that international criminal justice is a central pillar of the rule of law, at the national and the international levels. Far from undermining the legality of international law, international criminal justice paves the way towards a true international public order.

  3. Computer Network Attacks and Modern International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey L. Kozik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer network attacks (CNA is a no doubt actual theoretical and practical topic today. Espionage, public and private computer-systems disruptions committed by states have been a real life. States execute CNA's involving its agents or hiring private hacker groups. However, the application of lex lata remains unclear in practice and still undeveloped in doctrine. Nevertheless the international obligations, which states have accepted under the UN Charter and other treaties as well as customs - with any related exemptions and reservations - are still in force and create a legal framework, which one cannot ignore. Taking into account the intensity level or the consequences of a CNA the later could be considered as an unfriendly, but legal doing, or, as a use of force (prohibited under the article 2(4 of the UN Charter, or - in the case the proper threshold is taken - as an armed attack (which gives the victim-state the right to use force in self-defence under the customs and the article 51 of the UN Charter. Researches in the field of lex lata applicability to the CNAs could highlight gaps and week points of the nowadays legal regime. The subject is on agenda in western doctrine, and it is a pity - not in Russian one - the number of publication here is still unsatisfied. The article formulates issues related to CNAs and the modern international legal regime. The author explores the definition, legal volume of the term CNA, highlights main issues, which have to be analyzed from the point of the contemporary law.

  4. Constitutional Law and International Law at the Turn of the Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Prof Dr Jochen Abr. Frowein, Director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public. Law and ... To consider how Constitutional Law or International Law were understood in 1900 means to notice the immense .... In the relationship between the political organs of a state the role of the Constitutional Court should be seen ...

  5. THE MEASURES OF CONSTRAINT IN THE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For being addressee of the state international responsibility, the entities guilty of the trigger of an conflict or by of the commit of an fact through it’s bring touch to the international public order, must have the quality of the subject of international public law or to be participant to an report of law like this, knowing that the reports which it’s settle between the entities which actions in the international society are considered the international relationships. The relationships which are established between the subjects of international law are falling under the international public law. The constraints is an element of international law which does not constitute an violation, but an mean of achievement of the law. The base element of the constraint is legality, including from the point of view of foundation, method and the volume. The constraint is determine, first of all by the purpose and base principles of the international law. The countermeasure are limited through the temporary a groundless of the obligations by the injured states, face to the guilty state and are considered legal until it will be achieved their purpose. They must have applied in a sort way to permit re-establish of the application of obligations infringe. This rule has to do with Convention of Vienna from 1969 regarding the treaties law, according to “in the time of abeyance period, the parties must abstain from any deeds which will tend to impedes the resumption of applying the treaty”

  6. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  7. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century | Banwo | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. Adeyinko O Banwo. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 1, 1998: 129-146 ...

  8. The Arbitration Law of the Dubai International Finance Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Luttrell, S.R

    2008-01-01

    The latest and most ambitious Free Financial Zone in the United Emirates is theDubai International Finance Centre (DIFC). The DIFC was set up in 2004. It has its own courts andjudicial system. It also has its own arbitration law. The DIFC arbitration law is in a process ofreview. A Model Law instrument is expected late in 2008. It is intended to explain some of theprovisions of the current DIFC arbitration law and to assist those using it.

  9. The Nuclear Safety Convention - does it confirm existing German law, and update international law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Some selected examples are discussed that are intended to answer the question of whether the NSC in its essence represents a development in confirmation of existing German nuclear law, and whether, assuming its coming into effect, this Convention will mean a step forward in the development of international law. The author examines the value of this codification of international law as such, and some of the obligations and standards such as retrofitting measures or shutdown of reactors below safety standard, and continues with briefly discussing the relationship between the NSC and nuclear liability law, the planned provisions for radiological protection in Art. 15, and the obligations for transboundary notification of safety-relevant events. These stipulations are analysed in comparison to existing international law, and with a view to their implementation under German law. Some provisions of the NSC that are based on standards of international technical guidance are compared with German regulatory guides. (orig./HP) [de

  10. The development of international law through the unauthorised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The law, including international law, is subject to continuous change. It can be adapted to changing circumstances through formal amendments of or additions to existing norms and practices. It can also be changed through the conduct of international institutions that is not within their legally defined competencies, provided ...

  11. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence (NAUJILJ) is a scholarly, online/print, open access, peer-reviewed and fully refereed journal which focuses strictly on issues of international law and jurisprudence. The Journal is abstracted and indexed with African Journals ...

  12. States' criminal jurisdiction under International Law: fostering a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past few years, the extent to which international law allows States to exercise their jurisdiction in criminal matters has been a subject of diplomatic tensions between States. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light, on the question as to what extent a State, powerful or weak, has a right under international law ...

  13. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Raimondo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.

  14. The „Collateral Estoppel” Theory in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRIŢOI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article are represented by the fact that the interdependence of the two legal orders, internal and international, refers to the fact that, international law without internal law signifies federalization, which the contrary situation signifies the impossibility of establishing an international community. The rules of international law are applied to national court according to national constitutions and for domestic purposed. According to the theory of the act of state, even if it would seem that, at least internal acts of implementation of international rules are subjected to internal jurisdictions, the resolutions implemented often touch the problem of security and public order that escapes the judicial competencies. But, sometimes, the refuse of controlling the resolutions of the SC has been justified according to the UN Charta supremacy. In this case, national courts have been in the position of interpreting the CS resolutions. In conclusion it results that international law will efficiency the application of positive law being at least, an instrument of interpreting, and, on the other side, national law represents an exclusive means of transposing international regulation on a state plan.

  15. A Pluralist Approach to the Law of International Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Coetzee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade can support economic development and social upliftment. However, people are often discouraged from contracting internationally due to the existence of differences in legal systems which act as a non-tariff barrier to trade. This article focuses on the private law framework regulating international contracts of sale. During the twentieth century the problem of diverse laws was primarily addressed by global uniform law such as the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG. However, uniform law is rarely complete and has to be supplemented by national law, trade usage or party agreement. Because there are gaps in the CISG the Swiss government has made a proposal for a new global contract law. But is this a feasible solution to the fragmentary state of international trade law? In Europe, signs of resistance are setting in against further harmonisation. The Proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL was recently withdrawn, and now Britain has voted to leave the European Union. Rumour has it that more countries might follow. The current private law framework for international sales contracts consists of a hybrid system where international, national, state and non-state law function side by side. This article submits that universalism is not per se the most efficient approach to the regulation of international sales law and that economic forces require a more varied approach for business-to-business transactions. The biggest challenge, however, would be to manage global legal pluralism. It is concluded that contractual parties, the courts and arbitral tribunals can effectively manage pluralism on a case-by-case basis.

  16. FACTUAL INDETERMINACY IN INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bogenschneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal indeterminacy comes in a variety of forms identified here as: (i general legal indeterminacy; (ii factual indeterminacy; and (iii Mach/Feyerabend factual indeterminacy. The concept of general “legal indeterminacy” refers to problems in legal interpretation and has been extensively studied. “Factual indeterminacy” refers to the indeterminacy of facts as a matter of tax law when derived from separately indeterminate fields of law. “Mach/ Feyerabend factual indeterminacy” refers to fact words as derived from legal theory which provide the content for legal interpretation. The “facts” in tax law are not transcendent to law; in addition, the “fact” words of tax law cannot be simply imported from the field of economics. The incremental question of the origins of theory (as discussed by Karl Popper and Albert Einstein is also analyzed here. The theory of tax law originates with “sympathy with experience” or “intellectual love” (tr. Einfühlung of tax law by lawyers as reflected in the special heuristics and practices of the profession. Legal theory accordingly functions in similar fashion to scientific theory where a particular legal theory can be falsified (qua Popper or understood in pluralistic terms by incorporating auxiliary ideas.

  17. ASSUMING REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSNATIONAL TORTS: AN INTERSTATE AFFAIR? A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE CANADIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW TORT RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Banu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Tolofson v. Jensen, the Supreme Court of Canada determined that in most cases the law of the place where the tort occurred has exclusive authority to regulate all legal aspects related to it. In developing this choice of law rule, the Supreme Court relied on an analogy between Private International Law and Public International law. This allows Private International Law to claim a structural, neutral function in the distribution of legislative authority in the international realm and to ignore both private law and public law considerations. To best reveal the way in which the Supreme Court injected these limitations into Private International Law by reference to Public International Law, I show the striking similarity between the Supreme Court’s reasoning and several Private International Law writings at the end of the 19th century in Continental Europe. In the context of the extraterritorial tortious activity of multinational corporations, these limitations make Private International Law oblivious to arguments of Corporate Social Responsibility scholars showing that a multinational corporation may legitimately be regulated by the state of its headquarters, even for extraterritorial conduct. Overall, I argue that an overemphasis on legislative authority as a symbol of state sovereignty transforms Private International Law matters generally, and transnational torts in particular, in inter-state affairs, removed from the interests and pleas of the individuals and communities affected by them.   Dans l’arrêt Tolofson c. Jensen, la Cour suprême du Canada a décidé que, dans la plupart des cas, la loi du lieu où le délit a été commis régit exclusivement tous les aspects juridiques qui s’y rapportent. Pour établir cette règle du choix de la loi applicable, la Cour suprême s’est fondée sur une analogie entre le droit international privé et le droit international public. Cela permet au droit international privé de réclamer une

  18. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  19. The Norwegian system for wild reindeer management — major development since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Olav Bråta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century the hunting of wild reindeer was relatively unrestricted in Norway. This, combined with a more efficient hunting, caused a severe reduction in the number of wild reindeer at the turn of the century. The national authorities responded by stricter hunting control, and in 1930 hunting quotas related to the size of the wild reindeer areas were introduced. The Ministry of Agriculture decided the number of licences, and the number of wild reindeer increased. During the 1950s a major controversy between the Ministry and local people arose in the Snøhetta area. People there increased their power over the wild reindeer management by organising a "Wild Reindeer Board" (WRB. This inspired people in other districts to organise similar boards. These WRBs had no formal power according to the law, but became important managers of the herds. An official organisation for each wild reindeer area, the Wild Reindeer Committee (WRC, was introduced in 1988. Since the WRCs are official institutions, legal power is decentralised to them.

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  1. 2002 summit course at the international nuclear law school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, W.

    2003-01-01

    Report by a participant in the International Nuclear Law School. In 2001, this advanced training course was first offered by the OECD-NEA together with the University of Montpellier and other international partners. This effort is intended to provide an overview of nuclear law, a discipline normally playing a subordinate role in curricula. In this way, a contribution is to be made to the important preservation of the existing knowledge base and to increasing know-how in this field. In 2003, the International Nuclear Law School will be continued with a new curriculum addressed to all interested participants. (orig.) [de

  2. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  3. Relevance of the law of international organisations in resolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structures to resolve disputes between states. Uncertainty remains, however, on the availability of effective structures within the system to resolve disputes between international organisations. It is important to note that international organisations were, prior to 1945, not considered subjects of international law so as to be ...

  4. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  5. Law and Popular Culture : International Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.J.; Asimow, Michael; Papke, David Ray

    Commentators have noted the extraordinary impact of popular culture on legal practice, courtroom proceedings, police departments, and government as a whole, and it is no exaggeration to say that most people derive their basic understanding of law from cultural products. Movies, television programs,

  6. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ikenga K.E. Oraegbunam Editor-in-chief. Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Department of International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Alternate E-Mail: ikengaken@gmail.com. Phone: +2348034711211

  7. The Illusive Nature of ‘Russian International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Bogush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monograph written by Estonian international law scholar Lauri Mälksoo is impressively well-timed. The record of recent international legal developments involving Russia is striking: the annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in Ukraine, Russia’s ‘sanctions war’ with the United States and the European Union, nonrecognition and non-compliance with the international arbitral award in the Yukos case, and earlier, in 2013, Russia’s boycott of the proceedings at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. Most recently, already subsequent to the publication of Russian Approaches to International Law, in July 2015 the Russian Constitutional Court sent a message of open disregard to Strasbourg by declaring that the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights could not be implemented in Russia if they contradicted the Russian Constitution. In all these instances the Russian government relied on its own reading of international law, which appeared not only to be strikingly different from that of the vast majority of states, but often detrimental to the foundations of the discipline. One might wonder whether these events are just the excesses of authoritarian power-politics, or more fundamentally grounded. Specifically, is there any special Russian international school of legal thought (referred to below as ‘Russian international law’? And if there is, may it serve as a plausible alternative to Western-centric contemporary international law? Lauri Mälksoo’s book is the first genuine response to these questions.

  8. A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkridge, David; Verjans, Steven; Wilson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Hawkridge, D., Verjans, S., & Wilson, G. (Eds.) (2012). A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2012). September, 11-14, 2012, Manchester, UK.

  9. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  10. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  12. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic Development, Vis-À-Vis the Guiding Principles of Sustainable Development · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. USF Nnabue ...

  13. an appraisal of humanitarian intervention under international law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Humanitarian intervention is a controversial concept in international law. It is not .... See Corten, O. and Klein, P. 'Droit d' ingerence ou obligation de reaction? ... but should be preceded by a formal public declaration of the political objectives.

  14. [Recent books on international law] / Yoonie Kim, Paul R Williams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kim, Yoonie

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Lauri Mälksoo. Illegal Annexation and State Continuity : The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Study of the Tension between Normativity and Power in International Law. Leiden ; Boston, 2003

  15. Relevance of international humanitarian law to the deployment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Applicable law in investor-state arbitration: the interplay between national and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the law, national and/or international, that arbitral tribunals apply on the merits to settle disputes between foreign investors and host states. In light of the freedom that the disputing parties and the arbitrators have when designating the applicable law, and because of the

  17. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  18. `A novel, spicy delicacy': tamales, advertising, and late 19th-century imaginative geographies of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monrreal , Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores how the tamale entered the national market as a mass-produced foodstuff at the end of 19th century. Closely reading advertising images, the article examines how the Armour Packing Company placed their chicken tamale in relation to imaginative geographies of Mexico from this era. Through tracing the symbolic transformations of the tamale from its existence in the street life of the late 19th century US to the nation-wide advertising campaign initiated ...

  19. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2000-01-01

    Spain was a scientifically backward country in the early 19th-century. The causes were various political events, the War of Independence, and the reign of Fernando VII. The introduction of contemporary physics into textbooks was therefore a slow process. An analysis of the contents of 19th-century Spanish textbooks is here presented, centred on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases.

  20. Symbolism as a Constraint on International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    International criminal law is being pulled in different directions by various conflicting considerations – deterrence, retribution, justice for victims, reconciliation, and setting the historical record. This trend is detrimental for the survival of the system as it erodes the coherence and under......International criminal law is being pulled in different directions by various conflicting considerations – deterrence, retribution, justice for victims, reconciliation, and setting the historical record. This trend is detrimental for the survival of the system as it erodes the coherence...

  1. Rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    During the 1982 conference of the International Law Association (ILA) in Montreal the ILA discussed and adopted a draft of rules of international law applicable to transfrontier pollution. The draft presents criteria for the definition of transfrontier pollution and sets out rules for the prevention of such pollution and recommendations for a system of multilateral information, consultation, and co-operation in case of energy. (HP) [de

  2. Contractual Obligations under the Private International Law in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervis Çela

    2014-07-01

    This work as based on the ex-positio sinkronik system aims at giving a minimum contribution in the application of the international private law and clarifies the omission, collision and legal problematic aspects in practice. At the end of this work, there are our conclusions which serve as a deduction over the analysis and studies done to this part of the private international law.

  3. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  4. Principles of the institutional law of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Amerasinghe-Chittharanjan, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Dr Amerasinghe starts with a brief history of international organizations. In fourteen substantive chapters, he then deals with subjects such as interpretation, membership and representation, the doctrine of "ultra vires", responsibility, liability of members to third parties, internal law and employment relations, privileges and immunities, dispute settlement, and, finally, dissolution and succession. There is a full and detailed examination of the problems connected with each of these subjects. The primary object of the book is to discuss principles, but Dr Amerasinghe also studies the law and practice of different organizations, using a rigourous analysis of the material alongside his functional examination of the law.

  5. Rules on the conflict of laws in the matter of succession in Romanian private international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BERLINGHER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the entry into force of the new Civil Code (1 October 2011, the law applicable to inheritance made the distinction between the inheritance of movable property (to which the national law of the deceased applied and the inheritance of immovable property (to which lex rei sitae applied. At present, the Civil Code establishes, as a rule of principle, that inheritance is subject to the law of the state on whose territory the deceased had habitual residence at the time of death. Thus, in the new legal regulation, the Romanian legislator considered, on the one hand, the Hague Conventions in this matter, and on the other hand, European Union law. In this article I analyzed the law applicable to inheritance in Romanian private international law, namely the law applicable to wills. Likewise, I conducted a comparative study with the legislation of other states in this matter. As regards the domain of application of the law on inheritance in Romanian private international law, I presented the aspects governed by art. 2636 of the Civil Code.

  6. EU international family law: Legal basis, sources, case law of ECJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers analysis of two issues. The first is the overview of the legal basis of international family law and it's sources under the Treaty of Lisbon on the Functioning of the European Union, and the second the case law of the European Court of Justice. Since 1999, when the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force, four regulations were adopted in matters of international family law as secondary sources of EU law, and three of them came into force. National courts of Member Sates are bound to apply directly three regulations, but so far only the interpretation of Brussels II bis Regulation has reached the European Court of Justice. Some of the judgments of the Court could be of interest for Serbian private international law. The reason is in the fact that the Court gave rulings on issues and concepts which are not defined in Serbian law, so they could influence the development and definitions of the those in the course of drawing up the new Act of Private International Law in Serbia. The paper reviews the Sundelind Lopez, the Hadady, the Case A. and the Mercredi judgments.

  7. Toward Automated International Law Compliance Monitoring (TAILCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formula assigns a value of 0 to 100 to most of the text. The higher a text scores, the more readable it is. In Flesch’s (1979) analysis, comic ... books scored 92 on the scale; the New York Daily News (a tabloid) scored 60; the New York Times scored 39; and Harvard Law Review scored 32. The...Drools http://drools.jboss.org [12] Rudolf Flesch: How to Write Plain English: A Book for Consumers and Lawyers, Harper Collins, 1979. [13] Rinke

  8. The nullum crimen sine iure principle in contemporary International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Olásolo Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution and current content of the nullum crimen sine iure principle in international law. It analyses the development of the nullum crimen principle from its definition as a principle of justice at the end of Second World War, to its current definition as an individual right imposing a limitation upon States’ sovereignty. The article also explains that, nowadays, the nullum cri- men principle requires for the relevant conduct to be a crime at the time of its com- mission, according to any of the sources of criminal law in the relevant national or international legal system. No written law is necessarily required. As a result, accessibility and foreseability are the main elements of the nullum crimen principle in current international law.

  9. The reprocessing plant as a problem of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendling, L.

    1987-01-01

    The planned construction of the reprocessing plant creates problems with regard to transfrontier environmental protection, due to the potential hazards involved, and these problems institute obligations of the Federal Republic of Germany under contractual law and under customary international law. Particularly under customary international neighbour law the F.R.G. is obliged to prevent and abstain from transfrontier activities entailing environmental effects with considerable damaging potential in the neighbouring states, which also includes the duty of providing for protection against accidents. It is, however, a clear fact that the states decided the peaceful uses of atomic energy to be admissible, and accept the risk of possible catastrophic damage. The interpretation of existing international laws has to take this fact into account. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifflaender, G.; Kantner, G.

    1979-01-01

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  11. The 'war on terror"and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses international law and practice in relation to terrorism and counter-terrorism in the post 9/11 environment. It finds terrorism to be a term of acute and wide-ranging political significance yet one which is not defined under generally accepted treaty or customary international

  12. International criminal tribunals and human rights law: Adherence and contextualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their mandate to prosecute persons responsible for the most atrocious of human rights violations, International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs) are generally hailed as welcome enforcers of international human rights law: a new instrument in the toolkit of human rights protectors. However, ICTs

  13. Seeking Deliberation on the Unborn in International Law | de Freitas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International human rights instruments and jurisprudence radiate an understanding of international law as also serving to protect fundamental rights and the interests of the individual. The idea that human rights provide a credible framework for constructing common norms among nations and across cultures is both powerful ...

  14. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  15. The law applicable to environmental damage in European private international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of choice of law rules in the field of non-contractual liability for damage caused to environment in national legislations of European countries as well as in Private International Law of the European Union. Before the adoption of Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations (Rome II, special choice of law rules for environmental torts existed in a small number of European national legal orders. This is the fact that gives the rule contained in Article 7 of the Rome II Regulation a particular importance. From the Serbian Private International Law perspective, the significance of that provision is highlighted by the fact that the working draft of the new Serbian Private International Law Act has strictly followed the choice of law rule envisaged by the European legislator for environmental damage. For that reason, a significant part of the paper is dedicated to analysis of said rule, to its interpretation and potential problems which its application could create.

  16. Globalization And Its Influence On The Development Of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches questions of globalization impact on the international law. Author notes that today it is possible to talk about the new phase of globalization that is associated with the development of bilateral regional agreements, as well as changes in the configuration of the trade and political landscape. In the article author also reveals the essence of processes that determine development of international law in the century of globalization. Along with the formation of a new branch of law - integration law, which is a kind of legal mechanism to govern global public relations, development of modern public law is determined by the changing of nature of production and international specialization, as well as multinational corporations. In the conclusion author points out possibility of the own monetary system creation in the integration community, even in the format of multi-speed integration, what allows EU member states together confront to dollar and yuan, what contributes to the achievement of their national interests in the economic sphere, therefore, legal mechanism established the European Union takes into account both regional and economic aspects that are associated with the process of globalization. With new trends in the development of modern international law it is necessary to develop advanced models of legal regulation for processes caused by globalization.

  17. Substantive Transparency Requirements in International Investment Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Jens Hillebrand

    2017-01-01

    Few concepts in public governance evoke a more positive sentiment than transparency. Whether ultimately grounded in expediency or morality, transparency has emerged out of its municipal origins and been received at the international plane. This article examines the current state of evolution of the

  18. Does international nuclear trade law have a specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study on the specificity of international nuclear trade law covers public international and private international aspects. As regards the first, international organisations and agreements (bilateral and multilateral) are reviewed. In the context of the second, the international organisations with a scientific, legal or commercial vocation are briefly listed. Commercial contracts are then studied in greater detail from the viewpoint of contractual nuclear liability and that outside the contracts. In addition, special aspects are examined, relating to the flexibility of supply contracts, swap agreements in the nuclear field, and other more particular clauses such as the ''Consensus'' framework for export credits. The authors' conclusion is that while there is no specificity properly speaking in international nuclear trade law, it nevertheless has original features (NEA) [fr

  19. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW PRINCIPLES AS GUIDELINES TO FOSTEREMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Noemi TURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary human resource management practices often ignore very important values of international labour law; however there is a wide floor for improvements in this area. In this sense the main guidelines are arising from the legal acts of the International organizations. The social responsibility, professional ethics and management are categories which have the intense relation with the legal system. Some historically developed degree of social responsibility and professional ethics may be considered as an important resource of values which are the starting point for building the legal system and also international regulations. The international labour law principles are significant elements in employment relations. The paper represents how the principles of the international labour law can positively influence managerial strategies through the social dialogue. Social dialogue provides a communication platform between social partners and by that it is actually creating a socio-economic and social development. Furthermore social dialogue is a key instrument in planning social development, harmonizing different interests, prevent and resolve disputes between the management and labour. International law shows many ways how to strengthen the principle of ethics in the employment relations. The values, arising from the existing international legal documents may be the significant guideline for the development of “good practices of managers”.

  20. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  1. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  2. IAEA and the international nuclear law development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsh, O.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the different objectives of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) as far as nuclear energy use is concerned. It presents the status of the organization, its action int the non-proliferation treaty, and its work on the safeguard regulations. These measures have been taken during the Convention on nuclear safety in 1994. This convention concerns nuclear power plants as well as storage of radioactive wastes. (TEC)

  3. The development of the international and national radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports in detail about the development of the international radiation protection law, gives a general survey of domestic legislation in the FRG and abroad and presents the individual problems of the radiation protection laws in a comparative way, such as radiation protection principles/dose limit values, licensing and monitoring regulations disposal of radioactive wastes, application of ionising rays and radioactive substances to men as well as protection from non-ionising radiation. (UN) [de

  4. 76 FR 72023 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Thursday, December 8, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School...; federalism and international law; and the possibility of a new Restatement of Foreign Relations Law. Members...

  5. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  6. Immigrant Rights in Iran and Canada and International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Lotfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, migration, particularly in the post-Cold War became a global challenge. Today, there are 191 million migrants around the world that constitutes 3 percent of the world's total population. And it is a fact that has various social, economic, humanitarian, political and especially juridical dimensions and effects at the international level as an international issue. National Immigration Law is a part of the legal system governing the strangers in the host state whose provisions are determined by the domestic legal system of the recent state. Although the standards of international law are intended to govern migration, but in this case, however, the regulation of the source government is ineffective. Unless there are specific treaty arrangements while global recruits in the field of migration are specifically impossible and regional multilateral treaties can only be cited. This article tries to review and analyze the immigrant rights in Iran as a source country and Canada as a host country with their own different rights regarding the immigrants by a descriptive - analytical approach. Because of tangible vacuum in the literature of international law and the need to explore other sources of international law, according to the first paragraph of Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, on the one hand and the necessity of this article in Iran as a transit country for migration and particularly to Canada on the other hand, conducting this research is of great importance.

  7. TRANSBOUNDARY DAMAGE IN THE LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some activities that are useful for economic and social development of a State even if are not prohibited by national or international law can cause transboundary damages to other countries. This kind of transboundary damages have given rise to theories of State responsibility and a worldwide demand for increased environmental protection. "Under the principles of international law...no State has the right to use or permit the use of its territory in such a manner as to cause [environmental] injury ... in or to the territory of another or the properties of persons therein, when the case is of serious consequence and the injury is established by clear and convincing evidence." (Stockholm Principle 21 The paper analyses the impact of transboundary damage in the light of international environmental law and the increasing concern among States for environmental protection.

  8. Internal Affairs Sector: Towards a new Law on Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Nenad P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By establishing the Inspector General's Service within the Department of Public Safety in 2001, Serbia became one of the countries that have institutionalized internal control of the police. By the adoption of the Law on Police in 2005, the name of the Service was renamed in the Internal Affairs Sector. Ten years of work of the Internal Affairs Sector revealed the existence of certain problems because of a inadequate and not complete legal framework. That was, among other, the reason for initiating the adoption of the new Law on Police. This paper presents solutions of the Draft Law on Police, in part related to the work of the Sector. The Draft contains some new solutions that could improve the efficiency of the Sector, but some doubts and uncertainties still remain, that will also be explained in this paper.

  9. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  10. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  11. The Interplay Between International Law And Labour Law In South Africa: Piercing The Diplomatic Immunity Veil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezette Gericke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding international legal instruments aimed at protecting diplomats' right to immunity. In view of the competing rights of employees and diplomatic employers, the question in this regard is to what extent employees in a diplomatic employment relationship can rely on their right to "fair labour practices" in the broad sense and the overall protection afforded to employees whose rights are infringed. In view of the perception that diplomatic employers can hide behind a veil of diplomatic immunity and in the absence of judgments by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA and the Labour Court, answers and guidelines were sought from various international courts and legal instruments. However, it is pointed out that the application of labour law and international law to protect the interests of individuals against a state is an exceptionally sensitive and controversial issue. It is suggested that the international relationship between two states be used as a holistic framework, but it is cautioned that international law limits the diplomat employer's liability both in terms of the Bill of Rights and South African labour laws. The author shows that protection is afforded to diplomats/consular agents by international law. Moreover, the Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges Act (DIPA of 2001 is discussed. It is submitted that employees are not prevented from taking legal action against a diplomat/consular employer in South Africa in terms of the Labour Relations Act (LRA or the DIPA. The author suggests that diplomatic employees and employers should be made aware of their rights and obligations in this regard. In

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  13. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  14. The international law the sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasceno, E.

    1988-01-01

    The International Law, that throughout its treaties and conventions, seeks to regulate matters concerning mankind's interests, rarely attains its basic end, due to quick dynamics of the envolved facts, and the complexity of the questions dealt with. The conflict of interests so becomes of difficult solution. The sea disposal of radioactive wastes, ever sincre put into practice by those countries which make use in large scale of the nuclear energy, is the main subject of this paper, under the International Law focus. Such study gives emphasis to expository remarks, instead of theoretical doctrine, with the undeniable purpose to provoke the debate, under the light of the supremacy of Nature's interests. The London Dumping Convention (1972) and the U.N. Convention on the the Sea Law (1982) receive in this work an objective analysis in view of the theme's unavoidable length. (author) [pt

  15. Sexual violence in armed conflicts and modern international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eboe-Osuji, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence in various forms is a particular brand of evil that women have endured during armed conflicts, from time immemorial. It is a problem that has continued to task the conscience of humanity, especially in our times. There has been no shortage of basic laws at the international level

  16. The right to a fair appeal in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Drazan

    2017-01-01

    The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,

  17. Ecosystem Services and International Water Law: towards a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While key principles of international water law, for example, equitable and reasonable utilisation, are not in conflict with an ecosystem services approach; significant challenges remain in its implementation. However, as the methods and tools used to identify ecosystem services improve, it is likely that such an approach will ...

  18. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence - Vol 9, No 2 (2018). Journal Home > Archives ... Attraction of business and restriction in legal practice in Nigeria and United States: need for globalization via legal education · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Licences issued under environmental law in international private and procedural law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the following points in connection with claims for compensation and to protection against abridgement of legal rights involving foreign persons or legal entities: - The limits set by international law to national judicial authority, - the international competence of courts, i.e. under which conditions national courts can have jurisdiction in cases involving foreign persons or legal entities, - the applicable law, and finally the question of - under which conditions judgements of the judiciary state must be observed abroad and foreign judgements must be observed in the judiciary state, i.e. acknowledged and executed. In the case of impairments of the environment the particular problem arises of the effect of licences issued under public law. The paper discusses the former practice, the qualification, the ways of observing the legal rules governing licences and their effects, and the question as to the unconditional enforcement of national licences against foreign affected parties. (HSCH) [de

  20. Constitutional law and international law at the turn of the century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Frowein

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional law and international law operate in simultaneous conjunction and reciprocal tension. Both fields seem to have overcome the great challenges of destruction and neglect in the course of the 20th century.Both after World War I and World War II the world experienced new waves of constitution making. In both cases the current German constitutions (the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Grundgesetz of 1949 were influential.Characteristic of constitution-making in this century, is the final victory of liberal constitutions based on the rule of law, the Rechtsstaat, fundamental rights, meaningful control of public powers and the establishment of constitutional courts.Following the destruction of World War II, the notion of the Sozialstaat emerged strongly in Germany. In contrast to the Constitution of the United States of America, the principle of the responsibility of the state for social justice has emerged in almost all new constitutions, including Russia, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Italy and Portugal.Where courts are given the mandate to interpret bills of rights, fundamental rights have been developed into foundation stones of the legal system. The presence in a Bill of Rights of restrictive clauses, is important for its analysis. Generally restrictive clauses in new constitutions try to limit the possibilities of restriction.The importance of constitutional rules establishing and legitimizing the political organs, must not be overlooked. Of particular importance is the degree of control over the head of state, a positive attitude among political actors towards the constitution and the protection of the interests of minorities in a democratic system.In the field of Public International Law much of Kant's ideal of an international confederation of peace has been realized. Since 1990 the United Nation's Security Council has shown the potential of becoming a directorate for the community of nations.International law has also been

  1. Constitutional law and international law at the turn of the century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast to the Constitution of the United States of America, the principle of the ... The presence in a Bill of Rights of restrictive clauses, is important for its analysis. ... International law has also been instrumental in the worldwide recognition of ...

  2. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  3. Phonological and morphological means compensating for non-metricality in 19th-Century Czech Verse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecháč, Petr; Ibrahim, Robert; Brůhová, G.

    3 /6/, č. 1 (2013), s. 31-50 ISSN 2084-6045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : generative metrics * vowel length * Czech 19-th Century verse * automatic analysis of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  4. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  5. Historic lime-binders : An example of the 19th century Dutch military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Nijland, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  6. Historic lime-binders: An example of 19th Century Dutch Military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Copuroglu, O.; Heinemann, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  7. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  8. Report of the Task Force on the Incident of 19th September 2008 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Claudet, S; Cruikshank, P; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Fessia, P; Garion, C; Jimenez, JM; Kirby, G; Lebrun, Ph; Le Naour, S; Mess, K-H; Modena, M; Montabonnet, V; Nunes, R; Parma, V; Perin, A; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strubin, P; Tavian, L; Thiesen, H; Tock, J; Todesco, E; Veness, R; Verweij, A; Walckiers, L; Van Weelderen, R; Wolf, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Koratzinos, M; Limon, P; Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the AT department Task Force established to investigate the 19th September 2008 incident which occurred in sector 3-4 of the LHC. It includes a number of annexes where specific analyses are detailed.

  9. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  10. Family businesses and their anchorages in Central European society in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavačka, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 1-22 ISSN 1210-6860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19640S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Family Business * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  11. The tale of the landscape in the Czech lands in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 119-142 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : 19th century * landscape transformation * Czechia * industrial ization * urbanization * nature * railroad * environment Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Fiction as a Medium of Social Communication in 19th Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pstrocki-Sehovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will present the extent to which literature could be viewed as means of social communication – i.e. informing and influencing society – in 19thcentury France, by analysing the appearance of three authors at different points:  the beginning, the middle and the end of the century. The first is the case of Balzac at the beginning of the 19th Century who becomes the most successful novelist of the century in France and who, in his prolific expression and rich vocabulary, portrays society from various angles in a huge opus of almost 100 works, 93 of them making his Comédie humaine. The second is the case of Gustave Flaubert whose famous novel Madame Bovary, which depicts a female character in a realist but also in a psychologically conscious manner, around the mid-19th century reaches French courts together with Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire and is exposed as being socially judged for its alleged immorality. The last is the political affair of Dreyfus and its defender Emile Zola, the father of naturalism. This case confirms the establishment of more intense relations between writer and politics and builds a solid way for a more conscious and everyday political engagement in the literary world from the end of the 19th century onwards. These three are the most important cases which illustrate how fiction functioned in relation to society, state and readership in 19th century France.

  13. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  14. Summary of the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angioni, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, Volker

    2015-01-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force workshop, held in Culham, UK, during 8-11 September 2014. The workshop was organized under six topics: momentum transport, energetic particles, challenges in modelling transport i...

  15. Intercontinental nuclear transport from the private international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, U.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a survey on choice of law rules which apply outside the nuclear liability conventions in case of damage caused by international nuclear transports. We found a remarkable variety of solutions. Some of the solutions make it difficult or even impossible to predict in advance which substantive law in a hypothetical case would apply. These difficulties are increased by the fact that more often than not, a victim can choose where to sue and thereby also influence the final outcome of a case. As far as private international law rules apply - and as mentioned the non-ratification of the nuclear liability conventions by many nuclear states forces us to fall back on the choice of law rules in many cases - the applicable law and the hypothetical level of compensation therefore often remain uncertain when judged at the time of organisation of the nuclear transport. However, at this time the question of undertaking risks and of insurability must be decided. (author)

  16. The precautionary principle in international environmental law and international jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Tubić, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analysis international regulation of the precautionary principle as one of environmental principles. This principle envisages that when there are threats of serious and irreparable harm, as a consequence of certain economic activity, the lack of scientific evidence and full certainty cannot be used as a reason for postponing efficient measures for preventing environmental harm. From economic point of view, the application of precautionary principle is problematic, because it create...

  17. Dispute settlement in international space law : a multi-door courthouse for outer space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2007-01-01

    The rights, rules and regulations of international space law are futile without an effective enforcement mechanism that provides a sufficient and adequate remedy. International space law is particularly significant in the evolution of international dispute settlement because it involves a

  18. Reflections on the development of international nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of more than seven decades, treaty norms on the production and utilisation of nuclear energy have been developed, which together form a special section within international law. These norms are the consequence of the unique nature of the field, namely that on the one hand some aspects of the uses of nuclear energy should be covered by totally new and special norms (e.g. in the field of disarmament, seeking to eliminate or at least to control the spread of nuclear weapons, and nuclear weapons tests) and on the other hand that several traditional legal solutions were not suitable for the problems that emerged in connection with other uses of nuclear energy (like liability). In this article, three aspects of the development of that special section of international law will be explored, namely: the close connections between the regulation of peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy; the effects of nuclear catastrophes on the development of international nuclear legislation; and the interaction between soft law norms and binding norms in the area of nuclear law

  19. 27 CFR 479.191 - Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.191 Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws. All of the provisions of the internal revenue laws not... provisions of internal revenue laws. 479.191 Section 479.191 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU...

  20. 75 FR 32532 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Monday, June 21, 2010, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School... Criminal Court review conference and ad hoc international criminal tribunals; the law of war regarding...

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  2. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagicour, F.

    2002-03-01

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  3. French civil law aspects of international sales of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moquet, A.

    1992-01-01

    There is not in France, as in London and New York, and organised trade market for crude oil and oil products. French law does not apply to oil futures negotiated in foreign markets, although solicitation in France for transactions in a foreign market is legal only if that market is approved by the French Minister in charge of Economic Affairs. However, French oil producers do enter into OTC forward and commodity swap agreements. Although most of these agreements are standardised and expressly choose English law and the jurisdiction of the High Court of London for resolution of disputes, fundamental principles of French private international law may impose jurisdiction of a French Commercial Court (in case of bankruptcy of the French party for example) and/or rules of necessary application or public order. (author)

  4. The treatment of syphilis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century: the example of the Ferrarese pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Mares, Donatella; Contini, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

    2010-03-01

    The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.

  5. International Humanitarian Law: The legal framework for humanitarian forensic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    In armed conflicts, death is not an exceptional occurrence, but becomes the rule and occurs on a daily basis. Dead bodies are sometimes despoiled, mutilated, abandoned without any funeral rite and without a decent burial. Unidentified remains may be counted by hundreds or thousands. As a result, families look for years for missing relatives, ignorant of the fate of their loved ones. International Humanitarian Law, also called the laws of war or the law of armed conflict, is an international law branch, which has been developed to regulate and, as far as possible, to humanize armed conflicts. It contains a number of clear and concrete obligations incumbent to belligerent parties on the management of dead bodies, which provide the legal framework for humanitarian forensic action. The purpose of this article is to present, in a simple and concise manner, these rules with a view to extrapolate some key legal principles, such as the obligation to respect the dignity of the dead or the right to know the fate of relatives, which shall guide anyone dealing with human remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  8. Intervention in National and Private Cyber Space and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Wrange, Pål

    2013-01-01

    In international law discourse on cyber attacks, there has been much focus on the threshold for the use of force. Cyber attacks or intrusions which do not reach the threshold of the use of force have been held to be unproblematic. However, such intrusions -- including many measures amounting to cyber espionage or counter-terrorism -- will often constitute illegal interventions into the sovereignty of another state, or constitute violations of human rights.Unfortunately, states have not been v...

  9. Direct participation in hostilities under international humanitarian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cometa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This text gives a brief account of the norms and perceptions regarding IHL (international humanitarian law and Human Rights have been applied in Colombia, and on moving the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, FARC-EP, ELN National Liberation and the Army, in which requires the exclusion of civilians from direct attacks in the context of the conduct of hostilities by armed forces in war, these settings are accompanied Martells Clause and Article 3 common.

  10. Seeking Deliberation on the Unborn in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA de Freitas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available International human rights instruments and jurisprudence radiate an understanding of international law as also serving to protect fundamental rights and the interests of the individual. The idea that human rights provide a credible framework for constructing common norms among nations and across cultures is both powerful and attractive. If the protection of being human serves as the common denominator in human rights discussion, and if human rights are deeply inclusive, despite being culturally and historically diverse, then a failure to deliberate on the legal status and protection of the unborn may be seen as a failure to extend respect where it is due. Such deliberation is required, irrespective of the fact that jurisprudential debate on the unborn and on abortion is complex and controversial. The protection of human life, well-being, and dignity are essential aims of the United Nations Charter and the international system created to implement it. Although there have been collective efforts resulting in substantial development in international human rights law, the international community has not approached the legal status and protection of the unborn as a matter of urgency – this, while much has been accomplished regarding women, children, animals and cloning. This article therefore argues for the development of a deliberative framework so as to further the recognition (not necessarily in an absolute sense of the unborn in international law, bearing in mind that opposition to abortion does not of itself constitute an attack on a woman's right to respect for privacy in her life. The article also sets out what such deliberation on the legal status and protection of the unborn entails, against the background of a procedurally-rational approach.

  11. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  12. The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an eco- nomic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in coun...

  13. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  14. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  15. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  16. Stillness and Motion: Depicting the Urban Landscape of Palestine in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Galazka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering valuable insights into the complex encounter between 19th-century Western travelers and the urban landscape of Palestine. The first part shows that, despite their efforts to distance themselves from the religious overtones of their predecessors, visitors tended to shove aside what they considered as ‘inauthentic’ or the product of acculturation in favor of a more conventional portrayal drawing on biblical imagery. This idealized vision was bound to struggle with disappointment, and the second part of this paper looks at how the representations of the city moved in the course of the 19th century from a purely pictorial transposition to a more practical and informed understanding of otherness. Travel writers began to devote considerable portions of their narratives to various aspects of life in the oriental town, while still predominately focusing on what they viewed as exotic and remote in comparison to European, and to a larger extent, Western culture.

  17. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  18. The Kazakh Steppe at the Turn of the 18th-19th Centuries: Reforms and Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Dmitriy Valentinovich

    2015-12-01

    . Such approach couldn’t satisfy the Russian administration. Search of the most optimum model for Kazakh’s administration was continued in the 19th century.

  19. Style and elegance in Bessarabian photographs of the 2nd half of the 19th century

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Dohot

    2017-01-01

    The author presents the fashion trends of Western Europe, Romania and Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century through the prism of photography. The influence of European monarchic houses on the fashion of that time is considered, as well as the role of artistic and cultural emancipation, which has left its imprint on society through the visual arts. The article lists fashion designers who contributed to the development of fashion and whose work was reflected in the photographs.

  20. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS IN THE RUSSIAN IDEAS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labanov Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The given paper for the first time explores the ideas of architecture expressed by Russian thinkers of the first half of the 19th century: K.N. Batyushkov, N.M. Karamzin, Lyubomudry, A.S. Pushkin, A.S. Griboyedov, A.S. Khomyakov, I.V. Kireyevsky, representatives of the theory of official nationality, N.V. Kukolnik, P.Ya. Chaadayev, their evaluation of architectural styles of the ancient, Byzantine architecture, Gothic style, Romantic period.

  1. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a soci...

  2. Rising trends of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Baron, J H

    2010-10-01

    The risk of dying from gastric cancer appears to have increased among consecutive generations born during the 19th century. To follow the time trends of hospitalization for gastric cancer and test whether they confirm such increase. Inpatient records of the last two centuries from four hospitals in Scotland and three US hospitals were analysed. Proportional rates of hospitalization for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were calculated during consecutive 5-year periods. The data from all seven cities revealed strikingly similar patterns. No hospital admissions for gastric cancer or peptic ulcer were recorded prior to 1800. Hospital admissions for gastric cancer increased in an exponential fashion throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. In a majority of cities, the rise in hospitalization for gastric cancer preceded a similar rise in hospitalization for gastric ulcer. Hospitalization for these two latter diagnoses clearly preceded hospitalization for duodenal ulcer by 20-40 years. The occurrence of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer markedly increased during the 19th century. Improvements in hygiene may have resulted in the decline of infections by other gastrointestinal organisms that had previously kept concomitant infection by Helicobacter pylori suppressed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  4. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Living apart together: the relationship between public and private international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    There have been times when public and private international law were closely related. As a means to solve conflicts of sovereign jurisdiction, conflicts law used to be considered as an integral part of the law of nations. Even after Savigny shifted the focus of private international law from the

  6. 76 FR 30229 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Monday, June 6, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School... accountability mechanisms; the Arctic region and the Law of the Sea Convention; and national security in the...

  7. 78 FR 70392 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Law A meeting of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on... Law School (Frederick Lawrence Student Conference Center), 2000 H Street NW., Washington, DC. Acting... Director, Advisory Committee on International Law, United States Department of State. [FR Doc. 2013-28232...

  8. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  9. The Work of the International Law Commission in 2015, Business as usual?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    -, č. 6 (2015), s. 375-385 ISSN 1805-0565. E-ISSN 1805-0999 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : International Law Commision of the UK * public international law * report 2015 Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  10. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) international organisation: which laws apply to this international nuclear operator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatico-Vidal, L.

    2009-01-01

    ITER is being carried out by way of international collaboration between seven partners (the European atomic energy community -EURATOM-, China, India, Japan, Russia, south korea and the United states) which together represent more than half the world population. From a project organisation point of view, it is supported by both financial and in-kind contributions provided by each of the partner; each member makes its contribution through a special legal entity called a 'domestic agency' to an international organisation which was set up by the Agreement on the Establishment of an International Fusion Energy Organization for the joint Implementation of the ITER project signed in Paris on 21. november 2006 and which entered into force on 24. october 2007 after ratification by each of the partners. The international agreement is to remain in effect for a period of 35 years and may be renewed for a period of 10 years without any change to its content. It is supplemented by an agreement of the same date on the privileges and immunities of the organisation and of its staff. The function of the ITER organisation is to construct, commission, operate and permanently shutdown the ITER facility, to encourage their exploitation by laboratories, other institutions and personnel participating in the fusion energy research and development programmes of its members and to promote public understanding and acceptance of fusion energy. The unique institutional structure for this project will be described briefly in the introduction before analysing the law applicable to this international organisation, a French nuclear operator, unique in France today. (N.C.)

  11. Christian Joerges and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (eds., Constitutionalism: Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law (Hart Publishing: Studies in International Trade Law, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law is a second issue of a 2006 text of the same name. It brings together an impressive collection of international scholarship exploring international economic law in light of constitutional theory with many well-established experts in the field alongside some relatively junior and highly promising scholars.

  12. International law implications of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopal, Vladimir

    This paper first considers whether the present law of outer space, as it has been enshrined in five United Nations treaties and other legal documents concerning outer space, provides a satisfactory basis for SETI/CETI activities. In the author's opinion, these activities may serve "the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes," as recognized in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The use of the radio frequency spectrum for SETI/CETI purposes should be in conformity with the legal principles governing this valuable natural resource, as expressed in the International Telecommunication Convention and related documents, and with allocations of the relevant segments of the spectrum by the competent bodies of the International Telecommunication Union. In the second part the author examines the impact that the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals may have on the present body of space law. A possible role for the United Nations in this respect is also explored and a timely interest of the world body in discussing questions relating to this subject is recommended. Consideration of these questions could become a tool helping to concentrate the attention of the world community on problems of common concern and thus to strengthen international cooperation. However, the author believes that a law-making process that would aim at elaborating a special regulation of activities in this field would be premature at this stage. It should be initiated only when the boundary between possibilities and realities is crossed. Finally, the paper outlines some likely transformation in our space law thinking that would be the consequence of the detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals. Elaboration of the principles and norms to govern relations between the international community of our own planet and other intelligent communities in the universe would add a new dimension to the present body of outer space

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Indra Juarsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Corporation/MNC has a significant role to play in promoting sustainable development and alleviating global poverty. As a subject of International Economic Law, MNC has the rights to take profit from its business activities. In addition, it also has responsibility to protect sustainable environment through CSR program. This paper focuses on what more specific instrument sets CSR in international economic law, and how CSR can be implemented by the MNC. International (public law has been providing instruments to regulate MNC activities related to CSR, those are: OECD Guidelines, ILO Declaration and UN Global Compact. However, they are only “soft laws” that still require more specific instrument to be implemented. As a continuation of the general rules of public international CSR Instruments, the World Bank Group through the IFC and MIGA sets standard performances that must be met by every corporation that will get finance (IFC or guarantee (MIGA. Standard Performances are described further in the environmental, health and safety guidelines that are essential for every company to provide protection to stakeholders related to business activities including workers, communities, and environment. As the method of evaluation and enforcement, IFC and MIGA have institution namely Compliance Advisor Ombudsman serving to receive reports from the public, investigate and provide notification to the company activities that negatively affect the society. Ultimately CSR is not only seen as philanthropy (mandatory but also as guidelines and a code of conduct to be followed by the corporation in carrying out any business.   Key words: mandatory norm, obligatory norm, CSR

  14. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-02

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  15. The Law and Economics of International Cooperation Against Maritime Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hallwood; Thomas J. Miceli

    2011-01-01

    Article 100 of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea requires signatories to “cooperate” against maritime piracy, but “cooperate” is undefined. Enforcement is a public good – creating uncompensated benefits for others, so suffering from free-rider problems. Our analysis readily explains why more pirates captured are released than prosecuted; why the U.N. and International Maritime Organization are seeking to reduce enforcement costs; why some in the shipping industry want to apply the 198...

  16. Workplace bullying and harassment new developments in international law

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkos Cobb, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Workplace Bullying and Harassment: New Developments in International Law provides a comprehensive tour around the globe, summarizing relevant legislation and key developments in workplace bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, violence, and stress in over 50 countries in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas region, and the Middle East and Africa. Workplace bullying, harassment, and other psychological workplace hazards are becoming increasingly acknowledged and legislated against in the modern work world. The costs of bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress at work are huge and far-reaching. Frequently under-reported and misunderstood, workplace bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress wreak havoc on the vitality and prosperity of organizations and individuals alike.

  17. Technological Innovations and International Humanitarian Law: Challenges and Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pomès

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, armed conflicts have changed in nature (civil war, ‘terrorism’ and the means used are increasingly technological (robotisation, cyberwar. Faced with these developments, some would claim International Humanitarian Law (IHL is outdated. While these technological innovations present new challenges in the application of IHL, it still constitutes a relevant legal framework for armed conflicts and the conduct of hostilities. Indeed, the flexibility of IHL allows it to adapt to contemporary conflicts. Therefore, this shows that the statements about its obsolescence are primarily political in nature.

  18. Feministische Rechtswissenschaft am Beispiel des Völkerrechts Feminist Law Based on International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Harzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Insbesondere das zwischenstaatliche, durch Diplomatie und Außenpolitik geprägte Völkerrecht, war früher – und das liegt nicht sehr lange zurück – reine „Männersache”. Bereits mit dem Titel des Buches möchte Beate Rudolf auf insofern deutlich veränderte Verhältnisse hinweisen. Frauen sind nicht nur potentielle Opfer und damit Gegenstand völkerrechtlichen Schutzes, wenn es um politische Konflikte oder kriegerische Auseinandersetzungen geht. Frauen haben bedeutsame Rechtspositionen erlangt, die national, inter- und transnational Geltung haben und zumindest theoretisch Anerkennung gefunden haben. Frauen verändern Völkerrecht aktiv. Sie wirken mit als Beteiligte staatlicher Delegationen, als Mitglieder von Kontrollgremien und internationalen Organisationen, und Frauen sind wesentlich beteiligt in Nichtregierungsorganisationen. Der Band weist aber auch auf Gefährdungen der erreichten Positionen hin.Intergovernmental international law, marked by diplomacy and foreign policy, used to be—not all that long ago—purely a man’s business. As the title of her book professes, Beate Rudolf wishes to point to the obvious changes in this relationship. Women are not only possible victims and thus the object of international legal protection in political conflicts or areas of contention. Women also have achieved significant legal positions that have national, international, and transnational validity and therefore have, at least theoretically, received recognition. Women actively change international law. They participate in national delegations, they are members in advisory committees and international organizations, and they are significantly involved in non-governmental organizations. The volume, however, also points to the dangers inherent in these new positions.

  19. Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyung KIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera

  20. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  1. Nuclear law in Morocco: national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements. The desire to progress further with regard to research and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires a twofold effort: the various pieces of national legislation on nuclear law need to be reformulated to bring them into line with the most recent rules in this sphere; Morocco international undertakings need to be revised in light of its immediate interests, certainly, but also of foreseeable developments, particularly with regard to safety and third party liability. (author)

  2. Establishment and modification of the border along the segment of southern Bessarabia throughout the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoreana Muţac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 19th century the Russian Empire managed to seize the territory of the eastern part of Moldova, located between the rivers of Dniester, Prut, and Danube and the Black Sea, which has since been called Bessarabia. The inclusion of only this territory of the Romanian principalities in the Russian Empire was not the initial plan of the Russian authorities, but it was the last opportunity, in the run-up to the French offensive, at least with some result, to end the war of 1806-1812 with the Sublime Porte, a state that was considered much weaker than Russia. Although the unbending position of the Ottoman Porte in the negotiations between two parties to the armed conflict didn’t allow the Russian Empire to take possession of the two Romanian principalities, Moldova and Wallachia, which had been requested from the very beginning of the confrontation, the war ended with a cession of the Moldavian territory of the left side of the Prut in favor of the Russian Empire. At the same time, Russia for the first time in history gained access to the Danube, or more precisely to the lower reaches of this river, which had a great economic potential of international importance. Thus, the portion of this river, beginning from the point where Prut joins Danube and up to the confluence of the Chilia branch into the Black Sea, became a part of the Russian border along the Bessarabian segment. During the 19th century, this part of the border was subject to a number of changes. In 1829, after the end of the next Russian-Turkish war the border was established along the Sfantu Gheorghe stream (the southern branch. Thus, all the Danube branches were under the control of Russia, which created, both directly and indirectly, many obstacles to the free and safe navigation of foreign commercial vessels in the lower reaches of the river. This fact was the cause of concern and discontent of Western European states that took advantage of the right moment

  3. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  4. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  5. Style and elegance in Bessarabian photographs of the 2nd half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dohot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the fashion trends of Western Europe, Romania and Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century through the prism of photography. The influence of European monarchic houses on the fashion of that time is considered, as well as the role of artistic and cultural emancipation, which has left its imprint on society through the visual arts. The article lists fashion designers who contributed to the development of fashion and whose work was reflected in the photographs.

  6. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, N

    2013-12-01

    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. BACKGROUND OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY INITIATION AS CENTERS OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN UKRAINE (late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Popeleshko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  8. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob

    philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse......A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...

  9. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  10. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient

  11. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  13. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  14. The treatment of scrofula in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Altieri, Lorenzo; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    The therapeutic approaches used against scrofula in the 19th Century in Ferrara are discussed. In the manuscripts and treatises of the time treasured in the town's libraries, hygienic and dietetic rules and treatment of this illness were described. In particular, baths and mineral water spas (sulphurous, ferruginous and other mineral waters, such as a bromo-iodine-salt water) and the sea-bathing establishment were recommended. The remedies reported in Campana's Pharmacopoeia ferrarese and the efficacious treatments employed in St Anna Hospital are discussed. The Committee and its President, Marquis Giovanni Manfredini, decided to cure the scrofulous in bathing establishments.

  15. [Rabies in Tunisia during the 19th century: case increase or disease emergence?].

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Néfissa , Kmar; Moulin , Anne Marie; Dellagi , Koussay

    2007-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, a canine rabies epidemics started in Tunis and in several other cities of the Beylik. Archives' data trace the epidemics back to 1870 and at that time its rapid progression was ascribed to the increase of immigration from Europe. Whether the European "street rabies virus" was also imported with the settlers' pet dogs is controversial. The epidemics might rather be linked to other factors such as socio-cultural or ecological changes. The authors try to reconstru...

  16. Risk analysis update of the LHC cryogenic system following the 19th September 2008 incident

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Modlinski, Z; Polinski, J; Tavian, L; Wach, J

    2011-01-01

    On 19th September 2008, during powering tests of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider, an electrical fault occurred producing an electrical arc and resulting in mechanical and electrical damage, release of helium from the magnet cold mass to the insulation vacuum enclosure and consequently to the tunnel, via the spring-loaded relief discs on the vacuum enclosure. The pressurization of the vacuum space exceeded significantly the allowed design value. Mathematical modeling based on a thermodynamic approach has enabled the revision of the helium discharge system protecting the vacuum enclosure against the over-pressurization in case of a redefined maximum credible incident (MCI) occurrence.

  17. [The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the socio-political connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

  18. Internal and international commercial arbitration as a private form of law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kurochkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.918The subject. The issues of the arbitration’s place in the civil justice system as well as its place in a whole system of social governance in the scope of Russian arbitration reform.The purpose of the article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of internal and international commercial arbitration as a peculiar form of private law enforcement, as well as to present a doctrinal description of the arbitration’s role in law enforcement system and its managerial impact mechanism.Methodology. Research of general functions of law enforcement in social governance. Essential features of arbitration and basic foundations of civil litigation also have been compared.The results and the scope of its application. The results are both doctrinal and practical. Domestic and international commercial arbitration can be considered as a peculiar form of managerial impact, as a subsystem of civil justice subordinated to general patterns of the social governance. Arbitration is a special, private on its origin, form of managerial impact, whereas arbitration tribunal is an independent nongovernmental element of the social governance system. Despite the fact of its private origin arbitration is in full measure a law enforcement activity. Theoretical comparison of arbitration’s substance with civil litigation became a convincing proof of the existence of public elements in a private segment of civil justice system.Conclusions. Application of law by arbitration tribunals, both domestic and international, has the imperious character. Arbitration is a legal activity, private on its origin and to a great extent public by its essence. It embraces the expansion of general legal directions on individual social relationships by means of making arbitral awards which are law enforcement acts of individual character.

  19. 19th International Montessori Training Course, London Lecture 29 17 November 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Followers of Maria Montessori become accustomed to the oft-repeated stories that drive home a point, but here is a new treasure. This lecture tells of an experiment that Montessori began with 12- to 14-year-old children and then with 10-year-olds. When the poetry of Dante was introduced to these students, they became passionate and grew to love…

  20. Proceedings of the 19th international SAMPE technical conference. Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on materials science. Topics include: the microstructure of Al-Li-Mg-Cu-Zr alloys, ultrasonic crack detection in composites, bending behavior of kevlar/epoxy beams, solid solution single crystals, polyamide-imides, and the growth of mercuric iodide in Spacelab III

  1. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  2. Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

  3. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dabernat

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th-19(th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  4. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Professional veterinarians in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Suárez-Guzmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians had different names throughout the 19th century in Spain: veterinary surgeons, farriers, castrators, marshals, etc., and they were not professionally and socially recognized until the 20th century. In 1850 they were given sanitary and zootechnical responsibilities, although many of them continued practicing horse shodding. With the creation of veterinary schools, the foundations of modern veterinary medicine were established in Spain; this has a special importance for public health issues, especially regarding figures like deputy veterinary and meat inspector, as they tried to understand the impact of animal diseases on the population who consumed animal meat. Studies in the Historical Archives of Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain made it possible to analyze how veterinary professionals lived and worked there during the 19th century, how they settled in or left the city, how they treated epidemics in animals for human consumption, and how they suffered the economic difficulties of the period and the City. The destruction and loss of part of the Archives makes it difficult to obtain more data.

  6. Traffic - Special arrangements for the official ceremony on 19th October

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary will take place on 19th October 2004 in the presence of Member State delegations and observers. Many VIPs are to attend the ceremony, which will be held in the Globe of Science and Innovation and in the adjacent marquee. The arrival and departure of the official delegations and guests will cause some disruption to traffic on and around the Meyrin site: The Route de Meyrin will probably be closed to traffic by the police between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. and between 5.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. for the arrival and departure of VIPs. Access to the Saint-Genis-Pouilly roundabout will be difficult between 2.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., when the new entrance to the Meyrin site will be inaugurated. Use of the following car parks will be prohibited from 16th to 19th October inclusive (Open day and official ceremony; the appropriate road signs will be erected): the car parks located between the two lines on the drawing below (guests will register in a tent set up oppo...

  7. A flame of sacred love: Mission involvement of women in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kommers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century, women missionaries found acceptance in the public domain and opportunities for achievement that they were denied at home. Whilst they spearheaded movements for Christianising and modernising Asian (the focus of this article and African societies through the evangelisation, education and physical care of women, many questions were raised about their motives and the way they executed their work. We need to rediscover the sacrificial dedication women had that made the 19th century the greatest century of Christian expansion. These were remarkable women who left everything behind − many of them leaving a permanent impression upon the people in whose cities they eventually resided − and who stand as examples to the present generation. Having lost most of the things the world prizes, they gained one thing they esteemed so highly. For them, the relative value of things temporal might go, provided that they could forever settle the eternal values. They lived out the words of Paul: ‘I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus’ (Phlp 3:14.

  8. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  9. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  10. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  11. The Development of International Law Through the Unauthorised Conduct of International Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan D van der Vyver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The law, including international law, is subject to continuous change. It can be adapted to changing circumstances through formal amendments of or additions to existing norms and practices. It can also be changed through the conduct of international institutions that is not within their legally defined competencies, provided - it will be argued - that the unauthorised conduct (a is not expressly forbidden by existing rules of international law, and (b is accepted or condoned by a cross-section of the international community of states. The creation by the Security Council of the United Nations of ad hoc international criminal tribunals, for example, cannot even with a stretch of the imagination be justified on the basis of the powers of the Council stipulated in the UN Charter. However, their creation was applauded by the nations of the world as a feasible and practical way of responding to the atrocities of the early 1990's in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The creation of international criminal tribunals by the Security Council has thus come to be accepted as a new rule of international law. The same reasoning is applied to the newly acquired competence of NATO forces to intervene militarily on humanitarian grounds as exemplified by the NATO bombing campaign of 1999 in Serbia, while not one of the NATO countries was being attacked or under threat of an attack, and the competence of States to attack terrorist groups in a foreign country if the government of that country is either unwilling or unable to prevent the ongoing acts of terror violence.

  12. 77 FR 71028 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Friday December 14, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School (Frederick... current international legal topics, including corporate social responsibility, principles of self-defense...

  13. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  14. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  15. Fighting by the principles: principles as a source of international humanitarian law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.

    2013-01-01

    The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another

  16. Law in Translation: Challenges and Opportunities in Teaching International Students in Business Law and Legal Environment Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Laura R.; Bryant, Natalie P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the unique challenges faced by international students enrolled in business law or legal environment of business courses. It is also imperative to recognize the numerous opportunities that instructors can create in business law classrooms that will enhance the experience of all students given the…

  17. The impact of the ECHR on private international law: An analysis of Strasbourg and selected national case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiestra, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the interaction between the rights guaranteed in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and private international law has been analyzed by examining the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) in Strasbourg and selected national courts. In doing so the

  18. The concept of humanitarian intervention in the context of contemporary international law

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaitė, Gabija

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian intervention is a contraversial concept of international law doctrine because of its compatibility with the principles of state’s sovereignty and non - use of force in the contemporary international law. The Dissertation is intended for a systematic analysis of the concept of humanitarian intervention and its legality problem in order to provide coherent concept of humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. This is one of the first efforts in the international l...

  19. Changing International ‘Subjectivity’ and Rights and Obligations under International Law – Status of Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Pentikäinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, liberation of trade supported by institutions such as the WTO, the unprecedented internationalisation of companies' activities in the global market, the creation of even larger company entities (including multinational corporations and the ensuing growth of business power have radically restructured the equilibrium of companies' relations with state and society. In the contemporary world many companies are de facto stronger and more influential actors than states, and their activities have concrete effects on political, cultural and societal aspects in the countries where they operate or to which they have other business links. These developments have created new kinds of challenges, e.g. for the protection of human rights which may be undermined by business activities. In this situation corporations are increasingly expected to pay due regard to avoiding activities contributing to human rights violations. The doctrine of subjects of international law (international 'subjectivity' considers states as the primary subjects, in addition to which also some other actors have been granted the status as a subject, including even corporations. This article sheds light on the shifts that have taken place in the doctrine of international 'subjectivity' and the paradigm of rights and obligations under international law linked to this 'subjectivity'. Particular attention is paid to the position of corporations, and the exploration is conducted through the prism of the development of rights and obligations in the area of international human rights law.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  1. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  2. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.

  3. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  5. Between dandis and rastacueros. Approaches to Snobbery of the Latin American 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Goldgel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the precedents and the articulation of snobbery in 19th-century Latin America. Focusing on a number of key figures in the literature of the period, such as the catrín, the paquete, the siútico, the rastaquouère, and the dandy, it emphasizes the tension between snobs who are challenged (like the rastaquouère, who aims in vain to become part of the grand Parisian world and snobs who triumph (like the dandy, who relies on the increasing legitimacy of fashion and the aesthetic sphere in order to show that snobbery consists not only of the exhibition  of one's own symbolic capital in pursuance of social gains but also of the effort to transform the pose into something authentic and imitation into something original.

  6. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  7. Religion, State and Nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez Cortina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationships between religion, state and nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century. The comparison between the Mexican and Spanish experiences illustrates two approaches to the reaccommodation of the Catholic Church in societies that questioned the role of the church in a new political order but not the Catholic faith of their citizens. It also examines the role given to religion in the construction of national identity by both liberals and conservatives. Parallels can be observed among Spanish and Mexican conservatives in terms of identifying the nation with the colonial past, Catholic tradition and the monarchy. On the other hand, Spanish progressives and Mexican federalists both sided with an anticlericalism that nevertheless distanced itself from antireligious positions. Readings of the past and projects for the future in both Spain and Mexico established affinities and distances between the conservative and liberal wings of Spanish and Mexican liberalism.

  8. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  9. [Our medicinal preparations in the mid-19th century. Part I--Introduction and chemical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    The paper deals with the development of the first editions of the Austrian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoea Austriaca, since its origin in the year 1812. It demonstrates its gradual retardation in the period when nearly all medicinal substances had to be prepared only in pharmacies. The conception was changed as late as 1855 in the Fifth Edition, when it was allowed to buy many medicinal substances from producers or wholesalers. At the same time, requirements for organoleptic properties and chemical purity began to be introduced. The present communication also deals with the chemical drugs used in the mid-19th century and is based on a comparison of the pharmacopoeias of 1836 and 1855. It presents some typical examples, such as alkaloids and metal compounds.

  10. François Arago a 19th century French humanist and pioneer in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James

    2016-01-01

    François Arago, the first to show in 1810 that the surface of the Sun and stars is made of incandescent gas and not solid or liquid, was a prominent physicist of the 19th century. He used his considerable influence to help Fresnel, Ampere and others develop their ideas and make themselves known. This book covers his personal contributions to physics, astronomy, geodesy and oceanography, which are far from negligible, but insufficiently known. Arago was also an important and influential political man who, for example, abolished slavery in the French colonies. One of the last humanists, he had a very broad culture and range of interests. In parallel to his biography, this title also covers the spectacular progresses of science at the time of Arago, especially in France: the birth of physical optics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Francois Arago’s life is a fascinating epic tale that reads as a novel.

  11. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  12. [Biased objectivity--images of women in 19th century German neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, A; Riha, O; Steinberg, H

    2012-09-01

    At the beginning of the 19 (th) century German scholars wanted to differentiate men and women on the basis of anatomic brain or cerebrum particularities. With the help of scientific criteria such as the weight of the brain they aimed not only to prove pre-postulated intellectual differences, but also to find scientific justification for the inferiority of women in general and their inferior position and treatment in society. This paper presents insights into and excerpts from studies written by renowned scientists such as S. T. von Soemmerring, J. F. Ackermann, K. F. Burdach, F. Tiedemann, E. Huschke, H. Schaaffhausen, or P. J. Möbius. Covering the years from 1780 to 1900, these materials show how at the beginning the interest was primarily in comparative anatomic studies and results, but was soon mingled with sociological intentions. Hence this study gives insights into the history of modern gender studies of neurosciences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Nathan W.; McCants, Sarah A.; Custodio, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Getty, Stephen R.; Hoffman, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  14. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  15. George Beard and Lydia Pinkham: gender, class, and nerves in late 19th century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D L

    1989-01-01

    A historical comparison of the careers of George Beard, medical doctor, and Lydia Pinkham, feminist and patent medicine maker, demonstrates the complex social nature of the experience of nerves among late 19th century women. Special attention is paid to the roles played by changing gender and class ideologies in Pinkham's and Beard's theories of nerves during the period from the 1870s to World War I. A comparison of contemporary anthropological and historical studies of gender and nerves leads to the conclusion that nerves, as a female complaint, takes hold of the popular and medical imagination during periods of dramatic social change which threaten women's traditional family roles and challenge their sense of self-identity.

  16. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  17. Two Web-GIS Projects on Russian Historical Sources of the 15-19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Aleksei A.; Golubinskiy, Aleksei A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper describes an experience of online-publication of Russian archival materials by means of two web-GIS projects. The first project is devoted to publication of the collection of the earliest Russian cartographic drawings (mainly 2nd half of the 17th century), which cover a significant part of Russian territory, mainly the European part (http://rgada.info/geos2). Most of them have never been published and were not easily accessible for scholars and users due to poor physical condition. We tried to combine opportunities of geocoding of the picture with capacity to use an authentic image. The second project offers the results of localization of toponyms and land parcels from various documents (15-19th cc.) connected with one region of the Russian State called Bezhetsk Upland (http://rgada.info/bezheck/popup.html). These results were arranged in the set of layers which may be combined by the user.

  18. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  19. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  20. The same as it never was? Uncertainty and the changing contours of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    International law has changed significantly since the end of the Cold War. As long as the international was thought to be populated by sovereign states predominantly, international law was conceived of as a means for peaceful dispute settlement. That is: the reference to state sovereignty not only

  1. Facing Facts in International Criminal Law: A Casuistic Model of Judicial Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.

    2016-01-01

    International criminal courts (ICCs) have made a decisive contribution to the clarification of international criminal law. By interpreting generally formulated rules, the courts have elucidated the meaning of international crimes and modes of liability. However, in applying the law to individual

  2. Personality disorders and criminal law: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F

    2009-01-01

    At the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), a detention camp guard, charged with acts of murder and torture, advanced a plea of diminished responsibility. Defense psychiatrists testified that he had a personality disorder that influenced his ability to control his behavior, but a prosecution expert testified that the guard did not meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Thus, the unresolved question of how the law defines a mental disease or defect for purposes of mitigation or excuse was transposed to an international setting. It has been argued in a variety of jurisdictions and national legal systems that exculpatory mental disorders must be serious, and personality disorders should not qualify. In fact, it has been proposed that the volitional aspect of excuse defenses be eliminated, and definitions of mental disease or defect narrowed. Others have argued that such exclusions are too restrictive and arbitrary. This article examines the criminal defense at ICTY and traces its origin in national jurisdictions. Mental incapacity defenses based on personality disorders are more often used in The Netherlands, England, Germany and Belgium, but seldom in Canada and rarely in the United States and Sweden.

  3. Reviewing the National Courts in Creating Orderly International Law and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanis Leatemia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orderly international community and international law are determined by a national court. Essentially, the national court must be competent to maintain the balance between the national interest which based on the national sovereignty as well as the provisions of international law within the framework of peaceful coexistence. This article reviews the role of national courts in creating and developing the customary international law. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. This purpose could be achieved if national courts were able to maintain a balance between the national interest based on the sovereignty of State on the one hand and the provisions of international law on the other. The function of the national court was to maintain a balance between international law and national law.

  4. The Relationship Between Domestic Law and International Law : The Impacts on the Legal Daily Brazilian under the Perspective of Constitutionality Block Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Klein Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between domestic law and international law, carried out by court decisions, is a recurring theme of both international human rights law and constitutional law. This article aims to portray the interactions between domestic law and international law, with emphasis on Brazil, taking into account the internal rules and judicial practice. Therefore, we will use the dogmatic method, which involves analyzing the rules on the subject in the international and domestic front, with empirical perspective, with a view to analysis of cases in which the issue was raised, in particular the possible existence constitu- tionality block and its growth because human rights treaties ratified by Brazil.

  5. 77 FR 52784 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Choice of Court Agreements; international contract law; developments in major PIL organizations... International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law on Thursday...

  6. The Unity of Application of International Law at the Global Level and the Responsibility of Judges

    OpenAIRE

    DUPUY, Pierre-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between Courts and tribunals in the interpretation and application of international law. The goal here is of crucial importance: that of guaranteeing the unity of international law and avoid fragmentation. This relationship is considered at two levels. The first level is vertical: how do national courts perceive and react to international law? In an ideal approach, based on a federalist model, there would be an organic hierarchy insuring that nation...

  7. Monopolizing Global Justice: International Criminal Law as Challenge to Human Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nouwen, Sarah Maria; Werner, Wouter G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, international criminal law has been increasingly institutionalized and has become one of the dominant frames for defining issues of justice and conflict resolution. Indeed, international criminal law is often presented as the road towards global justice. But the rise of international criminal law and its equation with global justice come with a profound risk: alternative conceptions of justice can be marginalized. Based on field work in Uganda and Sudan, we present ...

  8. DO WE STILL NEED A CONVENTION IN THE FIELD OF HARMONISATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL LAW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korzhevskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper critically discusses the opinion of certain scholars that the use of multilateral treaties (conventions in the field of harmonisation of international commercial law has been in a state of steady decline. They believe that traditional treaty law has been gradually replaced in recent years by softer methods of making international law, such as the use of restatements and model laws. Some scholars even claim that treaty law is dead or dying. The work assesses whether this view has reasonable grounds, providing an overview of the most prominent hard law and soft law harmonising instruments and outlining issues relating to the success of conventions, their advantages, drawbacks and tensions arising in this area. The paper suggests that conventions remain necessary where the third party or public interest are at stake, however, further improvements are needed to make conventions more successful instruments in international commercial law.

  9. Conceptualising International Peace Mediation - Bring Back the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Noelle; Daly, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Mediation has been acknowledged and utilised for a number of decades as an effective method of alternative dispute resolution in a variety of areas of law, including family law, commercial law and medical law. A uniform, standardised framework exists within legal discourse which clearly identifies and categorises three main styles of mediation as facilitative, evaluative and transformative mediation. In the post-Cold War period, mediation has also emerged as an important resolution tool in ar...

  10. International legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental generally recognized principles of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meherremov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of international legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental, generally recognized principles of international law is analyzed in the article taking into consideration the different opinions in legal scientific researches and international practice. It is concluded that the protection of environment for the present and next generations - is a basic principle of international legal protection of environment. The meaning of this principleis that the countries will take all necessary measures for preservation and promotion of the quality of environment for the present and next generations, as well as rational management of natural resources. Adoption and national legal implementation of specific norms, in conformity with that basic principle, is a main factor in resolution of environmental problemsand ensuring environmental security

  11. Savings: alternative for the purchase of manumission in Brazil (2nd half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinberg, Keila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the relationship between slaves and their descendants and the monetary economy of Brazil in the second half of the 19th century. Focusing on the Caixa Econômica savings accounts of slaves, we argue that saving money was one of the strategies used to purchase manumission for themselves and their family, mainly after the Law of the Free Womb was enacted in 1871.Este artículo tiene por objeto discutir la relación entre los esclavos y sus descendientes y la economía monetaria en el Brasil en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Abordando principalmente las cartillas de ahorro de cautivos de la Caixa Econômica, se pretende argumentar que el ahorro fue una de las estrategias de compra de la manumisión para sí y sus familiares, principalmente a partir de la promulgación de la Ley del Vientre Libre en 1871. [pt] Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a relação entre os escravos e seus descendentes e a economia monetária no Brasil na segunda metade do século XIX. Abordando principalmente as cadernetas de poupança de cativos da Caixa Econômica, pretende-se argumentar que a poupança foi uma das estratégias de compra de alforria para si próprios e seus familiares, principalmente a partir da promulgação da Lei do Ventre Livre em 1871.

  12. International Environmental Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    propulsion was done with military applications in mind: Könz, 57 AJIL (1963), 109; Szasz , 2 JMLC (1971), No. 3, 553. 313 International Environmental Law and...International Environmental Law and Naval War Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently

  13. Universal Jurisdiction between Unity and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculli Maria Antonella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the outcome of research fellowship Marie Curie at the Universiteit Leiden -Campud Den Haag Grotius, Centre for International Legal Studies (prof. C. Stahn and prof. Larissa van den Herik, supervisors on the topic "The Fragmentation and the Diversification of International Criminal Law in a Global Society”.In my paper I will examine the question of whether Universal Jurisdiction (UJ leads to unity or fragmentation within International Criminal Law (ICL. Given that there is already quite a lot of literature on UJ, it is important to focus the research on the issue of fragmentation and/or unity rather than to deal with the issue of UJ more generally. I will focus on this topic in sections 1 and 2, explaining some cursory remarks to these issues in my analysis on fragmentation. In the introduction, I will briefly introduce UJ as a controversial form of jurisdiction, but still necessary given that territorial jurisdiction does not always function well in the case of international crime. I will demonstrate that many state parties to the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute have vested or reconfirmed UJ for the core crimes when implementing the ICC Statute. The leading question of my research is whether this practice has led or has the potential to lead to unity or rather to fragmentation within ICL. In the research I will approach this question from different perspectives.In section 1 I will examine how State parties have may actually enacted universal jurisdiction for the core crimes, with a view to determining whether there is indeed some unity on this front or whether the practice on this matter is actually rather diverse (or fragmented. Subsequently, I will analyse which conditions States have formulated for the exercise of UJ, and whether this practice is consistent (unity or again rather diverse (fragmentation. It might also be interesting to see whether States have different conditions for UJ over core crimes than

  14. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of...

  15. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  16. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  17. Architectures of intergenerational justice : Human dignity, international law, and duties to future generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws attention to the constitutive requirements of intergenerational justice and exposes the limitations of regulative arguments based on international human rights law. Intergenerational justice demands constraining the regulative freedom of the international community, and it is

  18. VALIDATION OF THE DERIVED LAW NORM IN THE EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Leția

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout realizing the study we analyzed the validity of the European law norm resulting from the derived sources of law with obligatory force (regulations, decisions and directives in connection with the European law norm, the national law norm and the general principles of law considering the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice and the supremacy of the European Union law also over national constitutions. Thus the European Union represents a new law order, having as subjects not only states member, but also the nationals of these states, who benefit of rights that can be appealed before national courts against public organisms or other private persons and obligations. Therefore, the European Court of Justice has successively imposed the direct applicability of community norms, continuing with the priority of these norms so that in the end the principle of the supremacy of the European law has been adopted. The European norm has to be respected and interpreted in a uniform manner in all states member, considering the fact that the supremacy of the European law over the national law is seen as a sine qua non of the integration, but also a fundamental principle of the Union. National courts guarantee the supremacy of the European norm and its unitary application – aspects analyzed in this study- through the procedure of preliminary decisions.

  19. Abu Ghraib: Prisoner Abuse in the Light of Islamic and International Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study analyses the prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib in the light of Islamic and International laws. Using documentary sources, the paper argues that Islamic law is far superior than the International law as enshrined in the Geneva Conventions and the United Nations Charter on the treatment of prisoners of war. It found the abuse of the prisoners at Abu Ghraib a routine operation carried out in obedience to orders issued by the higher authorities. The photographs portraying images of dehumanization in Abu Ghraib is unacceptable either in Islamic or international law.

  20. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to discuss preparations for the upcoming Special Commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law on the 1980...

  1. Task Force Report, Safety of Personnel in LHC underground areas following the accident of 19th September 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Delille, B; Inigo-Golfin, J; Lindell, G; Roy, G; Tavian, L; Thomas, E; Trant, R; Völlinger, C

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, the Task Force on Safety of Personnel in the LHC underground areas following the accident in sector 3-4 of 19th September 2008 (Safety Task Force) received from the CERN Director General the mandate to investigate the impact of the accident of 19th September 2008 on the safety of personnel working in the LHC underground areas. This mandate includes the elaboration of preventive and/or corrective measures, if deemed necessary. This report gives the conclusions and recommendations of the Safety Task Force which have been reviewed by an external advisory committee of safety experts.

  2. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  3. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  4. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-state ‘actors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  5. The International Law Commision at the End of Quinquennium: an Exceptional Session and Positive Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, nemá (2016), s. 437-450 ISSN 1805-0565. E-ISSN 1805-0999 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : international law * International Law Commission * United Nations body Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.cyil.eu/

  6. Monopolizing Global Justice: International Criminal Law as Challenge to Human Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, W.G.; Nouwen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, international criminal law has been increasingly institutionalized and has become one of the dominant frames for defining issues of justice and conflict resolution. Indeed, international criminal law is often presented as the road towards global justice. But the rise of

  7. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him.

  8. [About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil) in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anny Jackeline Torres; Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889). Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite the trend towards centralization observed at different governmental spheres during the structuring of the Imperial State, in particular, in the provision of vaccination services, there was a prevailing disharmony between the different agencies responsible for the implementation and management of such services. A further contributor to the difficulties in the service implementation was the resistance of the population to submit to the vaccination, a phenomenon that can be best understood through examination of the social construction of perceptions about diseases and the vaccination method used against the smallpox.

  9. (History – telling the nation: the narrative construction of Romanianism in the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Stelian Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in historical socio-anthropology, focusing on the political process of Romanian nation building and its corresponding anthropological program of creating the national self. Starting from the assumption that human being is a “storytelling animal” nested in a (history-telling community pillared upon “narrative traditions,” this paper examines the stock of stories told through history schoolbooks about the Romanian past as a means of narrative construction of Romanian national identity. Consequently, the paper looks at the nationalizing process launched by Romanian state authorities in the wake of the political union of 1859, arguing that the political building of Romanian nation implied the narrative articulation, followed by the recursive institutional reciting within the public educational system, of a “Romanian master story” as a means of breeding national Romanians out of Orthodox peasants. After detailing the pedagogy of the nation emerged in the second half of the 19th century as establishing the norms of (history-telling the national past, the study concludes by highlighting the main themes, or “schematic narrative templates,” into which the Romanian master story has been poured out.

  10. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  11. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  12. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  13. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish.

  14. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  15. Solar rotational cycle in lightning activity in Japan during the 18-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Mikami, Takehiko; Zaiki, Masumi; Hirano, Junpei; Yoshimura, Minoru; Aono, Yasuyuki; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2018-04-01

    Thunderstorm and cloud activities sometimes show a 27-day period, and this has long been studied to uncover a possible important link to solar rotation. Because the 27-day variations in the solar forcing parameters such as solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic rays become more prominent when the solar activity is high, it is expected that the signal of the 27-day period in meteorological phenomena may wax and wane according to the changes in the solar activity level. In this study, we examine in detail the intensity variations in the signal of the 27-day solar rotational period in thunder and lightning activity from the 18th to the 19th centuries based on 150-year-long records found in old diaries kept in Japan and discuss their relation with the solar activity levels. Such long records enable us to examine the signals of solar rotation at both high and low solar activity levels. We found that the signal of the solar rotational period in the thunder and lightning activity increases as the solar activity increases. In this study, we also discuss the possibility of the impact of the long-term climatological conditions on the signals of the 27-day period in thunder/lightning activities.

  16. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  17. Relevance of 19th century continuous tone photomechanical printing techniques to digitally generated imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Stephen; Thirkell, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Collotype and Woodburytype are late 19th early 20th century continuous tone methods of reproducing photography in print, which do not have an underlying dot structure. The aesthetic and tactile qualities produced by these methods at their best, have never been surpassed. Woodburytype is the only photomechanical print process using a printing matrix and ink, that is capable of rendering true continuous tone; it also has the characteristic of rendering a photographic image by mapping a three-dimensional surface topography. Collotype"s absence of an underlying dot structure enables an image to be printed in as many colours as desired without creating any form of interference structure. Research at the Centre for Fine Print Research, UWE Bristol aims to recreate these processes for artists and photographers and assess their potential to create a digitally generated image printed in full colour and continuous tone that will not fade or deteriorate. Through this research the Centre seeks to provide a context in which the development of current four-colour CMYK printing may be viewed as an expedient rather than a logical route for the development of colour printing within the framework of digitally generated hard copy paper output.

  18. Music Societies in the 19th Century Oporto : Private Spaces of Amateur and Professional Music Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Liberal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of private societies and clubs flourished in Oporto in the 19th Century, whose aim was to encourage in their members "benevolence relationships and good society" offering them "an honest and civilized leisure times". Clearly elitist, these nineteenth century recreational clubs had strict membership admission policies, which generally belonged to the higher echelons of society, more specifically the bourgeois, since the titled aristocracy was scarce in Oporto. It is worth mentioning here in parenthesis that Oporto was an essentially bourgeois, commercial city, unlike the capital, Lisbon, where the court "drags with it the whole official and unofficial world which conceitedly flutters around it". Each association organised musical concerts, balls and soirées musicales – weekly, twice a week or once a month – which also offered members other amusements, like conversation, reading, playing cards or dancing. Events of a musical character were normally performed by the club members, usually amateurs – referred to as dilettanti – who would be joined by prestigious Portuguese or foreign professionals. The purpose of this article is to describe the musical activity of the five main venues for private socialising in Oporto in the 1800s, and their contribution to the development of the musical taste of the city's society, taking into account both amateur and professional practice and particularly the repertoire performed.

  19. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  20. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  1. Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Stanko M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is selection and analysis of articles with chemistry content in selected Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century, which were aimed towards general public, in order to get insight into the level and quality of additional chemistry informing of readers. Two journals were selected, that contained entertaining, literature and scientific content ('Sedmica' and 'Vila', and two other, with entertainment and literature nature ('Danica' and 'Matica'. The analyzed journals primarily addressed the general public and played an important role in readers' information and education. Historical method was applied in this research. The above-mentioned journals were analyzed separately, with the short historical survey. Complete editions of these journals were analyzed, and the selection of articles was made according to the textual content or the title itself. The chemistry content presented in these journals is of the great variety. Among other things, interesting comments of the chemical schoolbooks are found, as well as lectures on science.

  2. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. DINAMIKA UPAYA MELAKUKAN SINERGI ANTARA HUKUM PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL DAN HUKUM LINGKUNGAN / INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW SINERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Wijaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam aktivitas perdagangan internasional, kehadiran hukum menjadi suatu hal yang penting untuk mengatur dan membuat berjalannya unsur-unsur dalam perdagangan internasional menjadi efektif, efisien, dan berkeadilan. Secara perlahan-lahan, sistem perdagangan internasional mulai memasukkan isu hukum lingkungan hidup. Masuknya isu hukum lingkungan ke dalam sistem perdagangan internasional sudah dimulai sejak adanya kesadaran perlunya lingkungan hidup dijaga kelestariannya agar dapat menunjang pembangunan secara keseluruhan. Saat ini, isu hukum lingkungan tersebut memang sudah menjadi syarat penting bagi setiap hubungan perdagangan yang akan atau sedang dilakukan oleh para subjek hukum dalam perdagangan internasional. Fokus pembahasan makalah ini tertuju kepada persoalan bagaimana masuknya dan bersinerginya isu hukum lingkungan ke dalam sistem perdagangan internasional. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam melakukan pembahasan ialah metode kajian normatif, dengan menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh melalui penelusuran kepustakaan. In international trade activity, the law exists and becomes one of the important components to ensure the trading activity runs effectively, efficiently, and fair. Gradually, international trade system has started to embed environmental law issue to become its part of the system, and this process has begun since people realized that environment should be protected in order to support the sustainable development process. Currently, environmental law issue becomes an important condition for most of the international trade relations which are being done or will be done by subjects of the international trade. This paper focuses on how environmental law is being synergized within international trade system. The library research method will be used to explore that topic.

  4. EU Overriding Mandatory Law and the Applicable Law on the Substance in International Commercial Arbitration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe position of mandatory law and public policy in arbitration has been extensively discussed for quite a number of years, however, there is little consensus on the role of arbitral tribunal in applying EU overriding mandatory law. At the same time, it is clear that (overriding)

  5. The Role Of Soft Law Acts In The Mechanism Of Functioning Of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shpakovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present article focuses on the norms of soft law in the framework of international organizations. Today majority of scientists become an interesting phenomenon decision of international organizations which are increasingly sound as a category of "soft law" and its influence on the development of international law in general. International organizations cease to be the "second" subject of international law, and if you have not won the first place, it is only a matter of time. In the article the role of soft law in the mechanism of international organizations functioning are shown, the legal nature and impact of these acts on the member states. In our opinion, norms of "soft law", as a rule, contained in resolutions of international organizations are non-binding and do not formally bind member states. Norms of "soft law" are often adheres by the states and moreover are implemented into the national legal systems by incorporating similar in content standards into the national legislation. This is due to the fact that norms of "soft law" has a weight of moral and political significance and, as a rule, are created by organizations that have a considerable authority. Jurists generally distinguish two kinds of acts of recommendatory force: model acts (laws and recommended acts which are not model, adopted in the framework of international organizations. In this connection the question of each mentioned method influence on the legislation of state. In our opinion, one of distinguishing features of the model recommendatory acts has is quite limited influence on the law of states and a narrow scope. At the same time, recommendatory acts of some specialized international organizations have a more complex effect on the development of national legislation, contain the highest level of standards, and as well develop international treaty provisions.

  6. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    national and state levels), and there is only weak international confederation provided in the United Nations and multilateral treaties used to restrain multinational corporations. Again, there is tension between unregulated economic development based on local control and strong centralized decision making, but the 21st century has inadequate international political institutions. National corporations did not fit into the institutional context of the 19th century. Multinational corporations do not fit the political institutions extant in the early 21st century. Hutton's insight about geologic time can be applied to politics. Time scale is important in understanding political as well as geologic processes. Policy trends begin with electoral surges and are sustained with subsequent incremental election results and consensus. Geoscientists of the 21st century may be able to look to their 19th century colleagues to recognize the level of political energy needed to convincingly explain the policy consequences of their data to elected officials. Geoscience influence in the policy process is critical to building a lasting political consensus for sustainable policy choices.

  7. Sickly slaves, soldiers and sailors. Contextualising the Cape's 18th–19th century Green Point burials through isotope investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbeki, Linda; Kootker, Lisette M.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Strontium isotope data of multiple dental enamel samples, and carbon and nitrogen isotope data of dentine and bone collagen samples from 27 individuals excavated from the mid-18th to mid-19th century Victoria & Albert Marina Residence paupers burial ground in the vicinity of Green Point, Cape Town,

  8. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  9. The Reception of Origen's Ideas about Universal Salvation in Danish Theology and Literature in the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the question of a possible reception of Origen's ideas about universal salvation in Danish theology and literature in the 19th century. The focus is on H.L. Martensen, B.S. Ingemann and H.C. Andersen who were positive towards the idea about universal salvation and P...

  10. Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  11. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  12. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  13. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the…

  14. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  15. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  16. International Environmental Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boelaert-Suominen, Sonja

    2000-01-01

    .... The notion that the rules of general international environmental law continue to apply during armed conflict is now well accepted, but the principles that are usually cited remain at a very high level of abstraction...

  17. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  18. Azañón's disease. A 19th century epidemic of neurolathyrism in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Roldán, S; Spencer, P S

    2016-12-01

    The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease. We analysed the original article published in 1873 by San Martin, as well as communications sent by El Siglo Médico readers reporting similar cases in many other Castilian provinces. San Martín's neurological findings in seven personally examined cases were astonishingly accurate; he concluded the subjects' neurological deficits resulted from injury to the lateral columns in the lower portion of the spinal cord. Description of the clinical findings provided both by San Martín, and by the readers of El Siglo Médico, leave no doubt as to the diagnosis of neurolathyrism. However, none suspected the patient's staple food was the determinant cause of the disease. San Martín proposed the eponym Azañón's disease for lack of a better name the same year (1873) in which Cantani in Italy introduced the term lathyrism. The epidemic of neurolathyrism that affected many Castilian towns represents one of the best-documented in Europe during the last third of the 19th century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  20. Spatial modelling of rural infant mortality and occupation in 19th-century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Atkinson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality in 19th century rural places has been largely neglected: to study it offers new insight into rural demography. Objective: This study examines infant mortality, and census occupations, between 1851 and 1911 across all the rural Registration Districts (RDs of England and Wales. Methods: The decadal 1850s−1900s RD-level demographic data in the GB Historical GIS (GBHGIS is analysed using latent trajectory analysis to identify clusters of RDs whose infant mortality rate (IMR trajectories are most similar: these are mapped in ArcGIS. The recently published Integrated Census Microdata (I-CeM resource is then used to study relationships between IMR and census-reported occupation. Geographically Weighted Regression is employed to explore spatial variation in the coefficient with which occupation affected IMR. Results: The study describes a previously unreported pattern of mortality variation, identifying seven groups of RDs with distinctive trajectories of infant mortality. A spatially varying link between IMR and female occupation rates in agriculture is noted. Conclusions: Spatial variation in rural social structures had demographic consequences. The decline in female agricultural occupation may have removed a source of harm to infant lives in the arable economy of the south and east, but simultaneously a source of benefit in the upland, pastoral north and west. Contribution: Findings about the costs and benefits of female agricultural employment can help explain the different trajectories of infant mortality in different regions, suggesting that female occupation and the details of what work women did could be a strong influence, positive or negative, on infant mortality.

  1. Translation from the Classical Languages in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system, the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the 1860s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna (Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc.. More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The first longer classical texts published in Slovene were individual books of the Homeric epics, Xenophon’s Memorabilia, Plato’s dialogues Apology and Crito, Virgil's Georgics, and Sophocles' Ajax (the complete Bible, of course, had been translated much earlier, but it holds a special place in the history of translation. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers . Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical-language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds (the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages, particularly Slavic ones. A noteworthy example of these unpublished translations is Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as prepared by the Franciscan Ladislav Hrovat. From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority.

  2. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  3. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SPAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Волосюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of trade relations between Russia and Spain during the reign of two Spanish kings: Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. The author’s attention is focused on the agency of diplomats, who made a big advance in the formation of trading relations between the two countries. The author concentrates on Ivan Muravyov-Apostol, the Russian ambassador to Spain (1802-1805, his Spanish partner Gaspar Maria de la Nava y Álvarez de Noroña (1802-1807, and on the consuls of Spain Antoni de Colombí (St. Petersburg and Francisco de Baguer y Ribas (Odessa. Based on their reports, which are located in both Rus-sian and Spanish archives, it is possible to trace the dependence of commercial relations from the political situation in the world, established in Europe in the era of Napoleonic wars. Their information also allows revealing the main stages of development in trading during these years and the future, observe the merchantry on the Baltic Sea and in the area of the Black Sea. Ana-lyzing these materials, conclusions about the cause of diminishing of the commercial activity between Russia and Spain during the reign of Ferdinand VII can be made. The attention of the author is also paid to the conditions, which were established for the trade of Spain´s main export product to Russia - wine, and trading of grain through the area of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, which received special progress in the beginning of the 19th century.

  4. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  5. Protection of the Children in Armed Conflicts (Approaches of International Law and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Mirmohammadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The inauspicious phenomenon of war violates and threatens all rights of the children including right to life, right to live in the family, right to health, right to progress and right to education. According to the recent reports of the international organizations, forced conscription and direct involvement of the children in the conflicts, killing and disabling them, attack on the schools and hospitals, kidnapping, child sexual exploitation, and depriving them of access to humanitarian reliefs are six cases of violence which are committed against the children in armed conflicts. The present article is an attempt to comparatively study the Islamic approach and international approach to protection of children in armed conflicts in the light of the recent reports. The Islamic law and the international law both have general and special provisions for the protection of children. Children’s interests are protected in the reduction of big and small weapons. پدیده نامیمون جنگ همه حقوق کودکان از جمله حق حیات، حق زندگی در کنار خانواده، حق بهداشت، حق پیشرفت و تحصیل کودکان را نقض و تهدید می‌کند. مطابق گزارش‌های جدید مجامع بین‌المللی، سربازگیری اجباری و مشارکت دادن مستقیم کودکان در درگیری‌ها، کشتن و نقص عضو ، هجوم به مدارس و بیمارستان‌ها، ربودن، تجاوز و خشونت جنسی و محروم کردن از دسترسی به کمک‌های انسان دوستانه، شش مورد از خشونت‌هایی است که در درگیری‌های مسلحانه علیه کودکان اعمال می‌شود. مقاله حاضر با ملاحظه گزارش‌های جدید و در یک مطالعه تطبیقی طی سه گفتار، رهیافت‌های بین‌المللی و اسلامی حمایت از

  6. The Role of International Law: Formulating International Legal Instruments and Creating International Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    Using as a basis the threat of climatic change resulting from global warming, this article considers the functions that might be assigned to an international regime. For each function individually and collectively, the instruments and institutions that would be required for the various processes are examined. (SLD)

  7. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    be followed by all Muslims. This prophet teachesthe Muslims five basic rules they must strictly obey: prayer five times a day, gifts to the poor, faith inAllah, fasting in the month of Ramadan and pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in a lifetime. The Koranexcludes the passage of laws by a legislative body, the divinity being the sole “authority” capable ofgoverning life in all its dimensions. However, on the other side, as it would have been expected due tothe old times when it was created, the Koran encouraged a series of injustices and limitations of thehuman rights, from a contemporary point of view; the Islamic law settled the inferiority of women inrelation to men. If in the 7th century the woman’s position in society was rather humble, the voice of theprophet Mohamed improved her condition, the woman becoming her husband’s “partner and closehelper”, and the development of the society led to the emancipation of the woman, especially due toexternal influences. After the beginning of the 19th century, the application area of the Sharia law wasreduced at first due to the western influence, but its proponents succeeded in reviving it, phenomenonknown as “the Islamic rebirth”. Thus, the penetration of modern education as well as the constitution ofnational States led to the acceptance of the introduction of the codes specific to the continental system.In some countries, the Islamic law was officially abolished – this is the case of Albany, Turkey and theformer USSR. International jurisdictions (Hague International Court, supranational (Strasbourg Courtof Human Rights, and even transnational ones (the one from Kosovo have already been created. In thelight of this international trend, legal systems interfere and tend towards external influence and evenglobalization. Given this context, we must mention the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights(the 19th of September 1981, and the European Union – Islamic Conference Organization bilateralforum

  8. A particular articulation of judicial activism of the CJEU in its approach towards international law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a theoretical and methodological framework that can be used in assessing the judicial activism of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in its jurisprudence dealing with public international law. The underlying questions are: What underpins the judicial...... activism of the EU judge in the jurisprudence concerning the relationship between European and public international law? How does the EU judge’s approach to international law shape the relationship between the two legal orders? The chapter proposes the hypothesis that judicial activism and a pluralistic...

  9. The Fusion of International and Domestic Law in a Globalised World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Aksamitowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: death penalty; capital cases; discrimination litigation; standard of proof; fair trial and equality protection; postconflict justice and transition; Islamic law; Shari’a; international humanitarian law; international human rights law; extremism, political violence, Islamism; freedom of expression; terrorism, extremism, counter-terrorism, counter-extremism; Article 19 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Abuse of rights; Directive 2004/38; Court of Justice of the European Union; Marshall Islands Cases; ICJ; Electronic waste; sustainable development; WTO, GATT, TBT Agreement

  10. Source index A: Federal law, without agreements under international law. As of December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Law Catalogue and relevant sources - BGBl. III - is the basis of the source index A, which from 1st January 1966 onwards publishes the sources of laws and statutes announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part I and part II, as well as in the Federal Gazette. The source index A covers the sources of all statutes and amendments since 1st January 1964. Official directives, however, are not always announced in the Federal Law Gazette, or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette, but rather in the official journals of the Federal Ministries, and in the announcement section of the Federal Gazette. This also applies to amendments or cancellations of directives first published in the Federal Law Gazette or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette. As the latter and the official journals on the ministries are not scanned for the source index A, there is no guarantee as to complete coverage of directives. Subject scope 75 covers acts and directives relating to mining, nuclear energy, electricity, gas and power supply. (orig.) [de

  11. The International Law Commission at the Mid-point of its Quinquennium (Survey of its Work in 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    -, č. 5 (2014), s. 453-462 ISSN 1805-0565. E-ISSN 1805-0999 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : International Law Commission * public international law * programme of the meeting Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  12. Necessity as a ground for precluding wrongfulness in international investment law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of necessity as a ground for precluding wrongfulness has received close attention over the last two decades both in case law and in scholarly writings. Arbitrations conducted against Argentina for breaches of bilateral investment treaty obligations committed while fighting against economic crisis revived the old controversies related to the concept of necessity in general public international law, but also brought up some new dilemmas. This paper analyses the use of necessity in international investment law in light of what the authors suggest to be the legal purpose of this concept, points to and discusses the divergences in case law with respect to some of the elements of the defence based on necessity and offers the solutions susceptible to lead to a more harmonious understanding of necessity in international investment law.

  13. Constitutionalization of international investment law: Indirect expropriation cases, fair and equitable treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Higa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of international investment law rules in the Economic Constitutional Law, especially those included in investment chapters of Peruvian’s Free Trade Treaties. In particular, it is expected to demonstrate the following (i International Investment Law is part of Peruvian Legal System; (ii provisions of these laws are mandatory and should be applied domestically; and (iii interpretation and implementation of this legal right should be executed consistently with domestic legal system and Peruvian international obligations. This agreed Interpretation between Investment Law and Economic Constitution will have a positive effect in rationalization of public entities actions avoiding abuses and maltreatment to investors, in order to improve investment climate as a key element forachieving country’s sustainable development.

  14. Multiculturalism and international law : discussing universal standards / Alexandra Xanthaki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Xanthaki, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Multikultuurilisuse tõlgendamisest rahvusvahelistes lepingutes (ICESCR - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; ICERD -International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ; CESCR - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)

  15. Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    interpretive consideration. See Vienna Convention, supra note 51, art. 31(3). 69 On economic sanctions, see Paul Szasz , The Law of Economic Sanctions...COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK AND THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW : THOUGHTS ON A NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK MICHAEL N...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a

  16. THE NATIONAL GUARD AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRAL AND LOCAL POWERS IN THE PROVINCE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL IN THE 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fertig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at focusing the importance of the National Guard of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the construction of the brazilian national State as an institution an articulator of the powers of the local to the center of power configured, in the mid 19th century, in Rio de Janeiro. For that, we discuss the main functions carried out by the militia in the Province, highlighting three spheres of activity: as police force in defense of internal order, such as military force in the wars in which the Empire of Brazil has been involved in the Region of Prata and, finally, as symbolic instrument at the service of the imperial State in nation-building.

  17. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the rights and responsibilities · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Bosede Bukola Oludairo, M.K. Imam-Tamim, 179-186 ...

  18. Sexual Harassment Law in Employment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes and compares the law applicable to sexual harassment at work in 23 industrialized countries. Shows how different legal approaches have been adopted to combat sexual harassment in the countries surveyed and how this diversity reflects differences of legal traditions and of attitudes toward the legal classification of sexual harassment.…

  19. The Law and Internal Armed Conflict: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    monuments and works of art science ; (e) plunder of public or private property. 384 The article states that these listed violations are not the only...law of armed conflict; (iv) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art , science or charitable purposes

  20. The role of International sustainable development law principles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development.

  1. Looking beyond the law on domestic violence | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    I can say I now have experience doing field research, doing qualitative research, setting up a major research project.” At IDRC, Song also helped organize major conferences on access to justice and on family law, areas she's “really interested in. I feel honoured that I was able to work on such important issues,” says Song.

  2. Proceedings of the 19th ASPA Congress, Cremona, June 7-10, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editor: Giacomo Pirlo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The 19th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the capital of one of the main European regions for animal production: Cremona. Despite its Gallic origin (Carra = rock, the name Cremona means big cream in modern Italian, in a clear allusion to milk. In this Congress, 153 oral presentations and 165 posters are presented, for a total of 318 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 87, Nutrition and feeding 57, Dairy production 40, Meat production 46, Animal welfare, Health and behaviour 37, Poultry and rabbit production 28 and Aquaculture 23. I would like to point out that 4 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics and Nutrition and feeding sessions (two in each, and that the Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura (Agricultural Research Council, the Agricultural Ministery research agency, which took charge of organizing the Congress, will award a prize for the best work here presented by young researchers. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Paolo Cescon, President of the Congress, for the contribution of all the CRA in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, dr. Riccardo Aleandri (President, dr. Fabio Abeni, dr. Fabiola Canavesi, dr. Giacinto Della Casa and dr. Marisanna Speroni, and of the Organizing Committee, dr. Giovanni Lo Piparo (President, dr. Stefania Barzaghi, dr. Maurizio Capelletti, dr. Giorgio Giraffa and dr. Luciano Migliorati. A special thanks to the secretary components, Maria Dissegna and Patrizia Re, assisted by Claudia Federici, Francesca Petrera, Miriam Odoardi, Maddalena Carli, Caterina Sanna, Stefania Marruso, Leonardo Boselli, Milena Rosi and Aldo Dal Prà. A special acknowlegment to Giacomo Pirlo, the real driving force organizing the Congress, a tireless and enthusiastic embroiderer of opportunities in scientific and

  3. Breaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rothe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans RotheBreaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th CenturyWithin a broad comparative framework, the Author analyzes some of the main patterns of the development of national self-consciousness and identity among the peoples of Eastern Europe between the 1830s and 1850s. He discusses the general assumption that the French Revolution played a major role in the awakening of national consciousness in the Slavic (and the Hungarian cultures, and that an important part of the longing for self-determination was connected with the idea that Slavs where understood as a united family of peoples or even as one nation. The Author then addresses three main topics. It is generally accepted that in some countries it was primarily poetic geniuses who brought about a dramatic breakthrough in national consciousness thanks to the fact that their works were written in their own language (examples include Mickiewicz, Puškin, Ševčenko, Prešeren and others. Nonetheless, the importance of learning, academic training, gathering historical knowledge and folk tradition as primary sources of national consciousness should not be underestimated. These elements, the Author maintains, are connected rather with traditional ideas and mentality (and with Herder’s way of thinking, than with ‘revolutionary’ innovation. Unlike the French model of development that followed the 1789 revolution and largely identified nation with revolution, Slav peoples were confronted with their belonging to multiethnic and plurilingual political structures: they were either dominant powers (such as Russia, which dominated many other peoples or were dominated by ‘others’. From several points of view, Herder’s idea of Slav unity was often more of a hindrance than a way out for the definition of national unity. This was true for the dominated peoples, but for Russians too, although, politically speaking, they were effectively the only real

  4. Rule of Law Dynamics in an Era of International and Transnational Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zürn, M.; Nollkaemper, A.; Peerenboom, R.

    2011-01-01

    The international and transnational nature of modern governance presents major challenges for the rule of law promotion agenda, at a time when the less than stellar results of traditional state-oriented rule of law promotion have led to increased doubts about the wisdom and feasibility of the

  5. Challenging the Westphalian Order: Incorporating Armed Groups in Law-Making Under International Humanitarian Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inigo Alvarez, L.

    2017-01-01

    In recent times, much of the focus has been placed on the incorporation of certain non-state actors, such as NGOs and transnational corporations, into different lawmaking processes, although the resulting rules are considered soft law. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility of

  6. 77 FR 12353 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Judgments, and (2) Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts The Office of the Assistant Legal..., which meets April 17-20. Choice of law in international commercial contracts: A working group composed...-binding principles relevant to the choice of law in international commercial contracts. The draft...

  7. 75 FR 504 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... on consumer rights as part of its program on private international law. Three proposals have been put... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6255] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of American States (OAS) Specialized Conference on Private International Law...

  8. Climate engineering field research : The favorable setting of international environmental law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.(Jesse)

    2014-01-01

    As forecasts for climate change and its impacts have become more dire, climate engineering proposals have come under increasing consideration and are presently moving toward field trials. This article examines the relevant international environmental law, distinguishing between climate engineering

  9. The Cross-fertilization between the Sustainable Development Goals and International Water Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.

    2016-01-01

    Are the main principles of international water law, as reflected in the Watercourses Convention, sufficiently equipped to motivate States to sustainably manage their freshwater resources? This article suggests that a more pronounced sustainable approach to these principles is desirable. The

  10. The Exercise of Responsible Command in the Enforcement of International Criminal Law: A New Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reardon, Warren A

    1997-01-01

    The following article argues that the current regime for the enforcement of international criminal law against alleged war criminals fails to live up to its promises, largely because system participants lack (or refuse to gain...

  11. The right to self-determination under international law: The current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  13. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  14. The Right to Freedom of Association in the Workplace: Australia's Compliance with International Human Rights Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Zoé

    2010-01-01

    The right to freedom of association in the workplace is a well established norm of international human rights law. However, it has traditionally received insubstantial attention within human rights scholarship. This article situates the right to freedom of association at work within human rights discourses. It looks at the status, scope and importance of the right as it has evolved in international human rights law. In so doing, a case is put that there are strong reasons for states to comply...

  15. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  16. The international law of statehood: craftsmanship for the elucidation and regulation of birth and death in the international society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; d' Argent, P.; Bonafé, B.; Combacau, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the law of statehood is best construed as a delicate elixir which allows international lawyers, not only to make state creation a legal phenomenon worthy of legal investigation, but also to claim control of the volatile phenomenon of births and deaths in the international

  17. The international law of statehood: craftsmanship for the elucidation and regulation of births and deaths in the international society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues the law of statehood is best construed as a delicate elixir which allows international lawyers, not only to make state creation a legal phenomenon worthy of legal investigation, but also to claim control of the volatile phenomenon of births and deaths in the international

  18. Persona Grata - Bernard Vanheusden, Contemporary Issues in International Law, an Interview with Associate Professor of Environmental Law, Hasselt University

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva, Yelena M.

    2016-01-01

    An Interview with an Associate Professor of Environmental Law, Law Faculty, Hasselt University, PhD in Law Bernard Vanheusden environmental law; climate change; European Environmental Law Forum; procedural environmental rights

  19. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  20. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  1. INDONESIA’S DEATH PENALTY EXECUTION FROM THE REALIST VIEW OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Azmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of 2015, Indonesia executed fourteen prisoners who had been convicted of smuggling drugs to and from Indonesia. Twelve of them were foreigners. This execution led to withdrawal of the ambassador of Brazil, Netherlands, and Australia, whose citizens are among those executed. Criticism came from around the world, and small number of Indonesians. Most critics cited human rights abuse; and death penalty is against international law. However, the lack of further explanation can make the statement misunderstood. The distinctive nature of international law is one factor that makes death penalty issue is still debatable. Another factor is the inconsistent world’s reaction on human rights issues, showing realistic behavior in international relations. Therefore it is important to understand the nature of international law from the realist perspective of international relations in explaining death penalty in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate Indonesia’s death penalty from the realist perspective of international law. Keywords: realism, international law, international relations, death penalty

  2. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A. YE.

    2002-01-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on U tilization of atomic energy ; Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on E nvironmental protection ; The new Federal Law O n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation . (author)

  3. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A. YE. [Department of project management TENEX, 26, Staromonetnyi Per., 109180 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on {sup U}tilization of atomic energy{sup ;} Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on {sup E}nvironmental protection{sup ;} The new Federal Law {sup O}n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation{sup .} (author)

  4. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  5. The puzzle of human emotions: some historical considerations from the 17th to the 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Caterina

    2008-07-01

    Emotions are both central to life experience itself and highly pertinent to various disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, social studies, philosophy, and the arts. The definition of emotion lies at the interface of nature and culture reflecting an understanding of the components that shape emotional states and experiences across time and cultures. This review describes how the concept of emotion developed in Western thought, from the Renaissance notion of the passions to the 19th century idea of 'emotion'.

  6. Adaptation of Proper Nouns in Czech-American Periodicals at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burdová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of adaptation of proper nouns in chosen periodicals of the end of the 19th century that were published in the USA by Czech immigrants. Based on the analysis of periodicals collected from the Library of the Naprstek Museum of Prague there originated a list of proper nouns that has been studied from various points of view, namely the phonetics and phonology, morphology including the word-class competition (Cedar Rapidský - Cedar Rapids), translatedan...

  7. Law(yers) congealing capitalism: on the (im)possibility of restraining business in conflict through international criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, G.

    2012-01-01

    The theme of ‘business in conflict’ has become a ‘hot topic’ and the subject of many academic and policy publications. The trend in this literature is to conclude that ‘corporations have (or should have) obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law’ and that ‘corporations must be held to account’ through law, for example for ‘complicity in international crimes’. With this thesis, I aim to present a counterpoint to this literature. Employing dialectics as...

  8. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  9. Malaria, Tarai Adivasi and the Landlord State in the 19th century Nepal: A Historical-Ethnographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interplay between malaria, the Tarai Adivasi and the extractive landlord state in the 19th century Nepal by focusing on Dhimal, one indigenous community from the easternmost lowlands. Throughout the 19th century, the Nepali state and its rulers treated the Tarai as a state geography of extraction for land, labor, revenue and political control. The malarial environment of the Tarai, which led to the shortage people (labor force, posed a major challenge to the 19th  century extractive landlord state and the landowning elites to materialize the colonizing project in the Tarai. The shortage of labor added pressure on the malaria resistant Tarai Adivasi to reclaim and cultivate land for the state. The paper highlights the need for ethnographically informed social history of malaria in studying the changing relations between the state and the ?div?si communities in the Tarai DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10438 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 87-112

  10. The Treaty of Tordesillas and the (reInvention of International Law in the Age of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Waisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate some of the main features of sixteenth century international law in order to challenge traditional international law foundations. By exploring concrete cases, and indicating situations in which state and non-state actors resorted to international norms in order to promote trade and celebrate peace treaties, it is inquired whether some pre-Westphalia international trade and warfare practices may be defined as the beginning of “modern” international law.

  11. Legal provisions concerning the handling and disposal of radioactive waste in international and national law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development and present state of legislation and regulation in the field of handling and disposal of radioactive waste is surveyed. On the basis of the comprehensive collection of all legal sources of atomic energy law, including the radiation protection law of the Institute of Public International Law of the Goettingen University (Germany, F.R.), the report will consider provisions of international organizations (IAEA, OECD-NEA, EURATOM-Basic Norms, ICRP), of international agreements (London, Barcelona, Paris, Helsinki Conventions; civil liability conventions) and of the national law of different countries (USA, UK, France, Germany, F.R. and D.R., Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain). The following subjects are considered: notion and definition of radioactive waste, license-system for handling, storage and disposal; exemptions; licensing of nuclear installations and waste disposal; obligation to deliver radioactive wastes; centralized interim and final storage installations; penalties. (H.K.)

  12. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical anaylsis of the mechanisms for settlement of investment disputes in international arbitration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S. Akinlolu Fagbemi, 46-55 ...

  13. What is behind the dualist and monist debate in international law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Senad F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussion on the relationship between internal and international law takes a very long time and is still ongoing. Over time, this discussion is shaped into two theoretical understanding and explanation of this relations, which manifested in the legal science through the dualist and monist debate. Despite the fact, that the basics of these two theories are known to us, it seems that the additional dealing with the arguments that have been offered in this debate are very important. Especially because we believe, that one of these two theories, and this is the one that represents the dualistic approach, does not have its foundation only in law. On the contrary, it seems that the arguments of dualist theory, offers only attempts to seemingly under the guise of legal arguments, justify the concept of understanding of international law, which actually means its negation. Especially, if the basics of dualism are placed in relation with the contemporary international law and the modern conception of state sovereignty. Therefore, we believe that further review of this issue can be useful. Because the extending the effects of the norms of international law, which is the process that follows the development of this branch of law, this debate becomes actualiyed over and over again.

  14. International Banking Standards, Private Law, and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Jan; Odermatt, Jed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter seeks to provide an insight into the dynamics that take place between the EU and international standard-setting bodies, by first examining some of the features of global financial regulation which make it a unique area of global governance, then by investigating the wide variety of n...... the crisis. These reforms have been highly influenced by non-binding commitments made in informal bodies at the international level....

  15. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application

  16. What Contribution can Colombia Offer Towards Peace and Respect for International Law in the Western Sahara?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ruiz Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR constitutes a contribution to respecting International Law and peace among peoples. We start from the idea that given that Public International Law is an “imperfect” law due to its lack of a centralized executive power, its enforcement depends in large measure on the responsibility of member states of the international community. Then, this study considers both the legal status of the Western Sahara –a conflict where the right to self-determination and independence is clearly defined– and the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the SADR and its legitimacy. Because of the inaction of the central bodies of the international community that do not want, or cannot, enforce this right, it is necessary to highlight the responsibility of the member states of the international community to fulfil this task. That is the particular case of Colombia and the American states, which have ratified the Montevideo Convention where this responsibility is clearly shown. The actions of every State to fulfil International Law are a contribution to its respect and to the pacific resolution of controversies, so that the recognition of the SADR is a contribution to law and peace.

  17. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed

  18. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  19. The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution argues that facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business

  20. The Crisis of International Human Rights Law in the Global Market Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that the facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities