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Sample records for international laser exposition

  1. The Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keechang

    1994-03-01

    This book reports the Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993. The first part introduces domestic pavilions such as government pavilion, resources utilization pavilion, electric energy pavilion, currency culture pavilion, residential environmental pavilion, imagination pavilion and nature and life pavilion. The second part has abstract of the international pavilions such as Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Sweden, French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Portugal, Republic of Austria, Holy See of the Roman Pontiff, Azerbaijan Republic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Republic of Bolivia, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and European Community.

  2. Abstracts of Go-Expo 2003 : Gas and oil exposition and Canadian international petroleum conference 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Go-Expo 2003 gas and oil exposition, held in conjunction with the Canadian international petroleum conference, showcased some of the newest technologies, products and services available to the petroleum industry. The more than 30 presentations featured case studies on new technologies pertaining to exploration, drilling and production, environmental strategies, information technology and e-commerce. The presenters represented academia, industry, as well as provincial and territorial governments. Some of the topics discussed included: coalbed methane drilling procedures, upgrading processes, in-line separation techniques, reducing emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, safety and pollution prevention in the industry, water abatement in gas wells, and integrated crisis management.

  3. From Savagery to Sovereignty: Identity, Politics, and International Expositions of Argentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ashley

    2017-03-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Argentine intellectual elites turned to world’s fairs as a place to contest myths of Latin American racial inferiority and produce counternarratives of Argentine whiteness and modernity. This essay examines Argentine anthropological displays at three expositions between 1878 and 1892 to elucidate the mechanisms and reception of these projects. Florentino Ameghino, Francisco Moreno, and others worked deliberately and in conjunction with political authorities to erase the indigenous tribes from the national identity, even while using their bodies and products to create prehistory and garner intellectual legitimacy. Comparison of the three fairs also demonstrates how the representation of Amer-Indians and their artifacts shifted in accordance with local political needs and evolving international theories of anthropogenesis. The resulting analysis argues for the importance of considering the former colonies of the Global South in understanding the development of pre-twentieth-century anthropology and world’s fairs, particularly when separating them from their imperial context.

  4. Culture as Curriculum: Education and the International Expositions (1876-1904). History of Schools and Schooling. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…

  5. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  6. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given here are extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 20-24, 1992. Topics discussed include the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic dust laser observations, global change, ozone measurements, Earth mesospheric measurements, wind measurements, imaging, ranging, water vapor measurements, and laser devices and technology

  7. Abstracts of 2. International conference on lasers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented at 2. international conference on lasers and their applications in Iran: laser principle and technology, laser applications in spectroscopy; nonlinear optics; industry; medicine; and laser related techniques

  8. Laser Spectroscopy : XII International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Allegrini, Maria; Sasso, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    This text includes all the recent advances in the field of laser spectroscopy. Major results span from the control of matter by electromagnetic fields (trapping and coding) to high precision measurements on simple atomic systems and to quantum optics with single atoms. It includes a report of the Bose-Einstein condensation achieved by laser-cooling of rubidium atoms. Achievements in the technology of tunable sources, in particular of miniaturized solid state devices, are also reported. Most recent advances in molecular spectroscopy are illustrated with emphasis on "cooled" spectra, clusters and high accuracy frequency references. Topics such as atomic interferometry and microcavity quantum optics are also covered.

  9. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 10th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 1-2 Nov 2002 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  10. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 9th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 2-3 Nov 2001 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  11. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 11th International Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on 7-8 Nov 2003 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  12. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  13. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  14. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference. One-hundred ninety-five papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were: (1) Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Dust Layer Observations; (2) Global Change/Ozone Measurements; (3) GLOBE/LAWS/LITE; (4) Mesospheric Measurements and Measurement Systems; (5) Middle Atmosphere; (6) Wind Measurements and Measurement Systems; (7) Imaging and Ranging; (8) Water Vapor Measurements; (9) Systems and Facilities; and (10) Laser Devices and Technology. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations relating to global change to the development of new lidar systems and technology

  15. Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge Platform and the New University Entrant. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... And for core students of Science and Technology, the problematic of grasping the idea of the “other science” has been a daunting task.

  16. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  17. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  18. Florence Nightingale in absentia: nursing and the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    In 1893, Chicago hosted the Columbian Exposition. This event showcased America's social, cultural, and scientific advances and its growing cultural parity with Western Europe. This was the first major exposition in which women played a prominent role. Integral to the fair was a series of Congresses that provided an international platform for discussion of social issues. The Congress on Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing, a section of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, particularly focused on health care issues. Nursing leaders from Europe and North America participated. Although Florence Nightingale provided a major paper that was read at the Congress, she was unable to attend the event. The intent of this article is to examine the issues and themes debated at the 1893 Congress and identify how the influence of Nightingale effected these discussions and the development of Western nursing for the next half-century.

  19. International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shengwu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of the laser about 40 years ago, the field of laser physics and quantum optics have evolved into a major discipline. The early studies included the optical coherence theory and the semiclassical and quantum mechanical theories of the laser. More recently many new and interesting effects have been predicted. These include the role of coherent atomic effects in lasing without inversion and electromagnetically induced transparency, atom optics, laser cooling and trapping, teleportation, the single-atom micromaser and its role in quantum measurement theory, to name a few. The International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics was held in Shanghai from August 25 to August 28, 1999, to discuss these and many other exciting developments in laser physics and quantum optics. The international character of the conference was manifested by the fact that scientists from over 13 countries participated and lectured at the conference. There were four keynote lectures delivered by Nobel laureate Wi...

  20. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  1. AMERICAN MANUFACTURING, AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND THE LABOR QUESTION AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE OF 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Zieren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867 was devoted to the theme, “The History of Labor,” and awarded special prizes to firms with paternalistic labor policies to promote harmony between workers and employers. The guiding spirit of the Exposition and its labor theme was the French social thinker, Frédéric Le Play. American technology was a second trend on view at the Exposition, and American firms, including the Pacific Mills of Lawrence,MA won gold medals and international recognition.

  2. The dialectic as scientific form of exposition

    OpenAIRE

    César Ruíz Sanjuán

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to point out the specific characters that present Marx’s conception of the dialectic as scientific form of exposition. In order to it we distinguish the conception of the dialectic that appears in his writings of youth from the one that appears in his mature work, and we show that in the latter the dialectic is not referred to the historical development, but to the theoretical exposition of the developed capitalist system. Then we deal with the issue of the succession ...

  3. 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Menoni, Carmen; Marconi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2014). This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress toward practical devices and their applications in numerous fields are reported. Areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation, and other x-ray generation schemes are covered.  The scope of ICXRL 2014 included, but was not limited to: Laser-pumped X-ray lasers Discharge excitation and other X-ray laser pumping methods Injection/seeding of X-ray amplifiers New lasing transitions and novel X-ray laser schemes High Harmonic sources-Free-electron laser generation in the XUV and X-ray range Novel schemes for coherent XUV and X-ray ge...

  4. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  5. PREFACE AND CONFERENCE INFORMATION: Eighth International Conference on Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Herman, Peter R.; Bäuerle, Dieter; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2007-04-01

    Laser ablation encompasses a wide range of delicate to extreme light interactions with matter that present considerably challenging problems for scientists to study and understand. At the same time, laser ablation also represents a basic process of significant commercial importance in laser material processing—defining a multi-billion dollar industry today. These topics were widely addressed at the 8th International Conference on Laser Ablation (COLA), held in Banff, Canada on 11-16 September 2005. The meeting took place amongst the majestic and natural beauty of the Canadian Rocky Mountains at The Banff Centre, where delegates enjoyed many inspiring presentations and discussions in a unique campus learning environment. The conference brought together world leading scientists, students and industry representatives to examine the basic science of laser ablation and improve our understanding of the many physical, chemical and/or biological processes driven by the laser. The multi-disciplinary research presented at the meeting underlies some of our most important trends at the forefront of science and technology today that are represented in the papers collected in this volume. Here you will find new processes that are producing novel types of nanostructures and nano-materials with unusual and promising properties. Laser processes are described for delicately manipulating living cells or modifying their internal structure with unprecedented degrees of control and precision. Learn about short-pulse lasers that are driving extreme physical processes on record-fast time scales and opening new directions from material processing applications. The conference papers further highlight forefront application areas in pulsed laser deposition, nanoscience, analytical methods, materials, and microprocessing applications. Laser ablation continues to grow and evolve, touching forefront areas in science and driving new technological trends in laser processing applications. Please

  6. Architecture of (impossibilities: Robert Smithson's expositive spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Romeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the North American artist Robert Smithson’s considerations on traditional expositive spaces: the museum and art gallery, as well as unusual and unexplored spaces by art up to that time. Looking through his texts we notice some enhanced perspectives and reset others, increasing limitation set on White Cube’s abstract and neutral quality and the substantiation on ideologies behind of these spaces manifestation.

  7. Internal optical losses in very thin cw heterojunction laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for cw room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 μm. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane. Proper design of the internal structure of the laser avoids large increases of the threshold current density as well as large decreases in the external differential quantum efficiency from interaction with the contact layer. The design curves presented can be used to predict the gain required at threshold for a broad range of structural parameters of interest in low-threshold laser design

  8. 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Nickles, P.V; X-Ray Lasers 2006

    2007-01-01

    The search for table-top and repetitive pump schemes during the last decade has been the driving force behind the spectacular advances demonstrated during the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, organized in 2006 in Berlin. Since 1986, international experts have gathered every two years at this established conference to discuss the progress in theory, experiment and application of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers. Traditionally, the conference sessions devoted to complementary and alternative sources of short wavelength radiation, such as high harmonics, XFEL or incoherent X-rays are organized so as to emphasize the role of X-ray laser research in relation to the other short wavelength sources. Grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) and seeding with high harmonics were the dominant topics of the conference. High repetition rate and portable X-ray lasers were reported to have been applied in metrology and photochemistry for the first time. The proceedings of this series of conferences constitute a comprehen...

  9. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  10. 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Julien; Ros, David; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise of invited and contributed papers presented at the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2012) which was held 11–15 June 2012 in Paris, in the famous Quartier Latin, inside the historical Center of Cordeliers. This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress towards practical devices and their applications are reported in these proceedings, including areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation. Recent achievements related to the increase of the repetition rate up to 100 Hz and shorter wavelength collisional plasma-based soft x-ray lasers down to about 7 nm are presented. Seeding the amplifying plasma with a femtosecond high-order harmonic of infrared laser was fore...

  11. 2nd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This collection of the selected papers presented to the Second International Conference on Photonics, Optics and laser technology PHOTOPTICS 2014 covers the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by conference Program Committee members who are highly qualified experts in the conference topic areas.

  12. 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a collection of selected papers presented to the third International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2015, covering the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by the conference program committee members which are highly qualified experts in conference topic areas.

  13. Proceedings of the 4. International Conference on Lasers and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 scientists from 19 countries participated in the 4. international conference on lasers and their applications, held at Leipzig, GDR, in October 1981. The conference focused on problems of gas lasers, high-power lasers for materials working, and laser spectroscopy, on optoelectronics considering communications systems, and on laser-controlled thermonuclear fusion with special regard to the laser plant 'Delphin 1'. 186 summaries are included

  14. Internal optical losses in very thin CW heterojunction laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for CW room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 micron. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane.

  15. An international interdisciplinary graduate school in laser and material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargin, Evelyne; Sarger, Laurent; Kaluza, Malte; Nolte, Stefan; Richardson, Martin; Richardson, Kathleen

    2009-06-01

    The main objective is to establish the first transatlantic Graduate School, proposing a truly international education, training and research platform in the field of Photonics and Material sciences. The wide scope of Photonics encompasses many application fields that will be mostly covered by various curricula involving Laser Optics and Material Sciences and Interactions. This cooperation will build a very efficient scientific international community able to address the 21 century challenges in Photonics and applications. Indeed, the highest level of education, namely Master and PhD , will address the so called "Skill shortage" that impact on our economy. The truly interdisciplinary theme of this graduate school is also a guarantee for the insertion of the graduate into the workforce.

  16. EDITORIAL: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Dear Readers, The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS'14, took place in the City of Sofia, Bulgaria. 361 participants from 35 countries attended the conference. It was hosted by the Institute of Electronics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. This year's Workshop was dedicated to paying tribute to two major events: • 50th anniversary of 1964 Nobel Prize in physics, • 145th anniversary of the establishment of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS'14 has been taken under the High Patronage of Rosen Plevneliev, President of the Republic of Bulgaria. The LPHYS'14 Steering Committee and the Advisory & Program Committee would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Professor Sanka Gateva (Co-Chair) and Professor Ekaterina Borisova (Head of the Local Organizing Committee) and to their team for the outstanding job performed in organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference. Their combined efforts lead to a successful result. In this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series you will find selected proceedings of the Workshop in Sofia. Please make a note that the 24th annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'15) will take place from August 21 to August 25, 2015 in the city of Shanghai, China hosted by Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With kind regards, Steering and Advisory & Program committees LPHYS'14

  17. PREFACE: 22nd International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steering, LPHYS'13; Advisory; Committees, Program

    2014-03-01

    Dear Readers, The 22nd annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS'13, took place in the City of Prague, the Czech Republic. The conference gathered 387 participants from 34 countries. It was hosted by the Institute of Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and the Czech Technical University in Prague. At this occasion, the LPHYS'13 Steering and the Advisory & Program Committees of the conference would like extend its sincere gratitude to Professor Miroslav Jelínek, Co-Chair and Head of the Local Organizing Committee and his team for the outstanding job performed on organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference that lead to its successful resulting conclusion. As a result of scientific seminars at the Workshop, we would like to present to you the following conference proceedings published in this volume of the IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Please be advised that the 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'14) will take place from 14-18 July, 2014 in Sofia, Bulgaria, hosted by Institute of Electronics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS'13 Steering and Advisory & Program Committees

  18. 25th Annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS’16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    EDITORIALDear Readers,The 25th annual International Laser Physics Workshop, LPHYS’16, took place in the city of Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. 319 participants from 32 countries attended the conference. It was hosted by the Yerevan Physics Institute, A Alikhanyan National Laboratory. This year the conference has been endorsed by the Optical Society (OSA), the year the society celebrates its 100th anniversary.The LPHYS’16 Steering Committee and the Advisory and Program Committee would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Dr. Koryun B Oganesyan (Chair of the Local Organizing Committee) and to his team for the outstanding job performed on organizing, arranging, managing and putting in order the conference. Their combined effort lead to a successful result.In this volume of the IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series you will find selected proceedings of the Workshop in Yerevan.Please make a note that the 26th annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS’17) will take place from July 17 to July 21, 2017 in the city of Kazan, Russia hosted by the Kazan E K Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute (KPhTI).With kind regards,Steering and Advisory and Program committeesLPHYS’16 (paper)

  19. Cutting technique for reactor internals by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, O.; Sugihara, M.; Matsuda, K.; Miya, K.

    1990-01-01

    At present in Japan the verification tests on the commercial nuclear power reactor decommissioning technology are being conducted as the project of The Ministry of International Trade and Industry by Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center. This paper summarizes the interim results of the verification test for the reactor core internals decommissioning technology, which is being conducted from 1986 as a theme of the above project. All core internals to be studied here are made of stainless steel, and the maximum wall thickness is about 500mm (the maximum one to be cut is about 300mm) for the PWR's, and about 100mm for the BWR's. Though the plasma cutting, arc saw cutting method, etc. have been studied u p to now as the cutting technology for decommissioning these core internals, the authors are carrying out the development and verification test of the cutting technology with the laser beam, which is expected to increase its power in future and can be applied to various materials

  20. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  1. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  2. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  3. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy - ICOLS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Häffner, Hartmut; Müller, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS) took place at Berkeley, California on 9-14 June 2013. Following the tradition of previous meetings in this series, the conference featured about thirty invited talks broadly covering this burgeoning field of science that refuses to show any sign of saturation after more than half a century of continuous boom. In addition to the invited talks, there were two informative poster sessions, where the more than 300 ICOLS participants had an opportunity to exchange the latest scientific news and ideas while enjoying the gorgeous view of the San Francisco Bay from the vista of the Claremont Hotel, the meeting's venue. The heights of the cultural program of the meeting were excursions to several of the Bay Area gems (including the Lick observatory), as well as the conference banquet where the participants were treated to addresses by an inventor of the laser Professor Charles H Townes, a nonlinear optics pioneer Professor Erwin L Hahn, and one of the previous ICOLS chairs Professor Y R Shen. While the field of Laser Spectroscopy and the series of the bi-annual ICOLS meetings are as 'healthy' as one could imagine, the same cannot be said about the concept of published conference proceedings. With new ways to publish scientific articles and preprints, submitting papers to conference proceedings seems to be rapidly losing popularity. For this meeting, the great interest in attendance and opportunities to present is sharply contrasted with a somewhat sluggish response to the call for submission of the proceedings papers. The present collection represents a dozen or so contributions from the 'hero' invited speakers, to whom we are deeply grateful for submitting their work. We hope that this selection will faithfully convey to the readers the excitement of modern laser spectroscopy. In addition to these papers, we draw the reader's attention to the audio recordings and selected viewgraphs from the invited talks, and

  4. Proceedings of the Go-Expo Gas and Oil Exposition and the 4. Annual Canadian International Petroleum Conference and the 54. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Global Challenges and Technology Integration. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A series of technical papers dealing with various aspects of petroleum geology and resource development were presented at this conference and trade show which was attended by local and international participants. The 27 sessions reflected the changes facing the petroleum industry in terms of fluctuating product prices, aging staff, maturing basins, frontier development, and environmental concerns. The conference is truly international with nearly one third of the 250 presentations coming from outside of Canada. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with issues such as: business development; conventional oil and gas recovery; conventional and unconventional heavy oil recovery; corrosion, pipelines and process engineering; drilling engineering; enhanced recovery; environmental management; production operations; regulatory and operations management; reservoir fluid characterization; reservoir simulation; risk management; well test analysis; and, well design and completions. A total of 124 papers have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Internal and external exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at the workplace - the German PAH study; Eine deutschlandweite Studie zur inneren und aeusseren Exposition gegenueber polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) am Arbeitsplatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Rossbach, B.; Mueller, J.; Angerer, J. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    During a period of nearly three years we investigated altogether 270 employees from seven different industrial branches concerning their external and internal exposure to PAH (ambient and biological monitoring). In 20% (range: 6 to 30%) of the air samples benzo[a]pyrene concentrations above the relevant technical exposure limit (German TRK value) were observed. The internal exposure was determined by means of the urinary metabolites of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene. We hereby found 1-hydroxypyrene median levels ({mu}g/g creatinine) of 1.51 (coal tar distillation - TD), 4.30 (coking plants - KK), 5.17 (installation of fire proof materials - FFV), 8.65 (graphite electrode plants - GE) and 11.27 (production of fire proof materials - FFH). The corresponding concentrations of the sum of five isomeric hydroxyphenanthrenes were 6.87 (GE), 7.05 (TD), 9.81 (FFH), 10.29 (KK) and 15.75 (FFV) {mu}g/g creatinine. This study showed that ambient monitoring apart does not assure an adequate protection from health hazards as a result of occupational PAH exposure. This is due to the fact, that PAHs are absorbed through the skin to a considerable extent. In order to objectify this non-inhalative PAH absorption we introduced the 'relative internal burden' (RIB). (orig.)

  6. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  7. International Comparison of Methane-Stabilized He-Ne Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevskii, N. B.; Oboukhov, A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Titov, A. N.; Chartier, J.-M.; Felder, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two portable methane-stabilized lasers designed at BIPM have been compared with a type a stationary Soviet device developed in VNIIFTRI1. This comparison is one of a series aimed at establishing the coherence of laser wavelength and frequency measurements throughout the world and took place in June 1979. The VNIIFTRI and BIPM lasers using different methods of stabilization, have different optical and mechanical designs and laser tubes. The results of previous measurements, made in VNIIFTRI, of the most important frequency shifts for Soviet lasers together with a method of reproducing their frequency which leads to a precision of 1.10-12 are also presented.

  8. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K [Div. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations (IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  9. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  10. Laser-driven nuclear-polarized hydrogen internal gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.; Crawford, C.; Clasie, B.; Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of a laser-driven polarized internal hydrogen gas target (LDT) in a configuration similar to that used in scattering experiments. This target used the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping to produce nuclear spin polarized hydrogen gas that was fed into a cylindrical storage (target) cell. We present in this paper the performance of the target, methods that were tried to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the target, and a Monte Carlo simulation of spin-exchange optical pumping. The dimensions of the apparatus were optimized using the simulation and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results from the simulation. The best experimental result achieved was at a hydrogen flow rate of 1.1x10 18 atoms/s, where the sample beam exiting the storage cell had 58.2% degree of dissociation and 50.5% polarization. Based on this measurement, the atomic fraction in the storage cell was 49.6% and the density averaged nuclear polarization was 25.0%. This represents the highest FOM for hydrogen from an LDT and is higher than the best FOM reported by atomic beam sources that used storage cells

  11. Development of cutting technique of reactor core internals by CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, G.; Beppu, S.; Matsumoto, O.; Sakamoto, N.; Onozawa, T.; Sugihara, M.; Miya, K.

    1995-01-01

    The CO laser is superior in the absorption characteristic to materials to the CO 2 laser due to its shorter wavelength. In consideration of this characteristic Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation is studying this applicability sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade Industry of Japan to cutting of reactor core internals of commercial nuclear power plant. In decommissioning of reactor core internals it is necessary to cut stainless steel plates of 305 mm thick. The authors cut stainless steel plates of up to 310mm thick in air and those of up to 150 mm thick underwater with a 20kW class laser. Further, models simulating key structural elements of PWR core internals were cut and secondary products to clarify the applicability of the CO laser cutting to reactor core internals were evaluated. (author)

  12. Improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe and study the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser and evaluate the effective rate. Methods: 60 patients of internal hemorrhoids were treated with Nd:YAG laser (10-15mw) irradiating on the mucosa of the lesions. Results: Among 60 patients, 57 patients were primarily cured with one treatment, 3 patients were primarily cured with two treatments. The effective rate was 95% with one treatment, and it reached to 100% with two treatments. Conclusions: the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser is effective and easy to operate.

  13. 179th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Gizzi, L A; Faccini, R

    2012-01-01

    Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: "Laser-Plasma Acceleration" , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The object...

  14. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating ... beam size measurements to extract the phase space of the electron and positron ... the laser-wire (LW), instead of a conventional solid wire.

  15. THE MOLDOVA VEGETATION EXPOSITION FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLACHE GHEORGHE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction phases of the Moldova Vegetation Exposition from the Botanical Garden of Chişinău are presented. Twelve forest micro-expositions, one steppe vegetation exposition, one grassland micro-exposition and an area of rare plants have been created during last 35 year on an area of 14 ha. The Moldova Vegetation Exposition includes 400 species of vascular plants.

  16. Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena: 13th International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.; Maille-Petersen, C.; Coppedge, H.; Montoya, E.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena held in Monterey, California in April, 1997. Topics covered in the conference included laser design, alternate concepts in volume ignition and advance fuels, beam/plasma interactions, nuclear-pumped lasers, alternate fast ignitors, heavy ion fusions, laser-ion beam interactions, extreme short-pulse interactions, high-energy-density plasma physics, and hydrodynamic instabilities. The conference was sponsored in part by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy. There were 80 papers presented and 23 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  17. 11th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ciaran L. S; X-Ray Lasers 2008

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a thorough account of the current status of achievements made in the area of soft X-ray laser source development and of the increasingly diverse applications being demonstrated using such radiation sources. There is significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, short duration radiation sources in the X-ray spectral region – driven by the multitude of potential applications in all branches of science. This book contains updates on several different approaches for comparative purposes but concentrates on developments in the area of laser-produced plasmas, whereby transient population inversion and gain between ion states is pumped by optical lasers interacting with pre-formed plasmas. The most significant development here is the demonstrated increasing feasibility to produce useful soft X-ray laser beams with high repetition rates in a typical, small, university-class laboratory – as opposed to the requirement of access to a national facility some 20 years ago. Experimental progres...

  18. Local drying underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beppu, Seiji; Takano, Genta; Matsumoto, Osa; Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo.

    1991-01-01

    Since the CO laser operates at shorter wavelength than the CO 2 laser, the former has superior ability to cut materials. Its applicability to the cutting of reactor core internals in a nuclear power plant has been studied. In order to use such a laser for cutting actual structures, it would be useful to develop underwater cutting technology for the purpose of minimizing radiation exposure during cutting. However, since the laser beam is absorbed by water, a path needs to be cleared along the laser's line of sight. The authors have developed a nozzle that forms a local dry zone and have demonstrated that CO laser cutting can be carried out under water as it is in air. (author)

  19. III International Conference on Laser and Plasma Researches and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A.P. Kuznetsov and S.V. Genisaretskaya III Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies took place on January 24th until January 27th, 2017 at the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" (NRNU MEPhI). The Conference was organized by the Institute for Laser and Plasma Technologies and was supported by the Competitiveness Program of NRNU MEPhI. The conference program consisted of nine sections: • Laser physics and its application • Plasma physics and its application • Laser, plasma and radiation technologies in industry • Physics of extreme light fields • Controlled thermonuclear fusion • Modern problems of theoretical physics • Challenges in physics of solid state, functional materials and nanosystems • Particle accelerators and radiation technologies • Modern trends of quantum metrology. The conference is based on scientific fields as follows: • Laser, plasma and radiation technologies in industry, energetic, medicine; • Photonics, quantum metrology, optical information processing; • New functional materials, metamaterials, “smart” alloys and quantum systems; • Ultrahigh optical fields, high-power lasers, Mega Science facilities; • High-temperature plasma physics, environmentally-friendly energetic based on controlled thermonuclear fusion; • Spectroscopic synchrotron, neutron, laser research methods, quantum mechanical calculation and computer modelling of condensed media and nanostructures. More than 250 specialists took part in the Conference. They represented leading Russian scientific research centers and universities (National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute", A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Institute of Physics and Tecnology and others) and leading scientific centers and universities from Germany, France, USA, Canada, Japan. We would like to thank heartily all of

  20. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  1. Benzene - exposure and risk evaluation; Benzol - Exposition und Risikoabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Hygiene-Institut und Umweltmedizin; Eikmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Goeen, T. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsmedizin

    2000-07-01

    Benzene is one of the most important environmental carcinogens. Because of its potential to induce leukemia, benzene is noted as carcinogeneous hazardous substance in legal guidelines for occupational use and environmental contact. Epidemiological studies resulted to unit-risk values between 2.8 x 10{sup -6} to 30 x 10{sup -6} for lifelong exposure to 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene. In Germany, the average unit-risk was estimated to be 9 x 10{sup -6}. The general population is mainly exposed to benzene due to the emissions of motor vehicles. The average annual air concentration of benzene at main roads and in industrial areas are 5 to 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Due to seasonal influences and special exposure situations distinctly higher peak concentrations are occurring. Regional differences, i.e. between rural and urban immission levels and between the concentration in air of the northern and southern part of Europe, are also recognizable. The life-style factor smoking increases the individual exposure distinctly, whereas contamination of the diet contribute little to the total uptake of benzene. The internal exposure of the general population varies due to living area, smoking habits and mobility. Individuals living in no-smoking buildings show benzene concentrations in blood of 15 to 170 ng/l, whereas the benzene level of persons with additional exposures (smoking, frequently use of motor vehicles, etc.) can reach approximately 1000 ng/l blood. Comparable conclusions result from data for the urinary levels of two sensitive metabolites of benzene: trans-, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. (orig.) [German] Benzol stellt aufgrund seines ubiquitaeren Auftretens und seiner Leukaemie verursachenden Wirkung eines der bedeutendsten Umweltkanzerogene dar. Es ist als krebserzeugender Gefahrstoff (Gefahrstoffverordnung: Gruppe II) und als eindeutig krebserzeugender Arbeitsstoff (Kategorie 1) ausgewiesen. Aus epidemiologischen Studien ergaben sich Unit

  2. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of 'Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions', are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop '97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  3. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  4. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  6. II International Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaev, V A; Dodulad, E I

    2016-01-01

    II Conference on Plasma and Laser Research and Technologies took place on January 25 th until January 27 th , 2016 at National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (NRNU MEPhI). It was organized by the Institute of Laser and Plasma Technologies and was supported by the Competitiveness Program of NRNU MEPhI. The Conference consisted of four sections: Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, Laser physics, Modern aspects of solid state matter physics and Charged particle accelerators. The Conference provided participants an opportunity to present their research results for the consideration of a wide audience from the sidelines of science. The main topics of the Conference were: • Controlled nuclear fusion with magnetic and inertial confinement; • Low-temperature plasma and its application in modern technology; • Laser physics and technologies for industry, environmental control and precise measurements; • Optical information control, holography, spintronics and photonics; • Modern aspects of solid state matter physics and nanophysics; • Charged particle accelerators. More than 200 specialists on plasma, laser and solid state physics took part in the II Conference. They represented leading Russian scientific research centres and universities (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, Institute of Crystallography, National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Canada, Belgium, and Sweden. All report presentations were broadcasted online on the NRNU MEPhI official site. The translation was watched by viewers from Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities, who could not attend the Conference. We would like to thank heartily all of the speakers, participants and organizing committee members for their contribution to the conference. (paper)

  7. Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    The 9th international symposium on LASER-AIDED PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS was held from 18th November to 21st September, 2007 at Takayama, Japan. This symposium was organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan. The topics of the symposium include laser diagnostics and diagnostics aided by lasers for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, environmental plasmas as well as for other plasma applications and processes related to plasmas. Hardware development related to laser-aided plasma diagnostics is another topic. Over 80 participants attended this international symposium. 1 Akazaki lecture, 10 general talks, 10 topical talks, 12 short oral talks and 45 posters were presented. This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the title symposium. The 41 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. 6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research

    CERN Document Server

    Błaszczak, Z; Marinova, K; LASER 2004

    2006-01-01

    6th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, 24-27 May, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 162, 1-4

  9. Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains

  10. International registry results for an interstitial laser BPH treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard L.; Muschter, Rolf; Adams, Curtis S.; Esch, Victor C.

    1996-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can significantly impair quality of life in older men. Most men over 60 experience some symptoms due to BPH and it is thought that essentially all men would eventually be affected by it if they lived long enough. At present, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), a surgical treatment for BPH, is one of the more common procedures performed in the developed world, particularly in the United States. A number of other treatments are also often used, including open prostatectomy, side-firing lasers, and drug therapy. With the population in the developed world rapidly aging, BPH is expected to affect an even larger group of men in the future. Current methods of therapy carry significant disadvantages. Open prostatectomy carries a fairly high risk of impotence and incontinence, as well as sometimes significant risk of death depending on the patient's age and medical conditions. TURP also carries similar risks, albeit reduced, including the risk of substantial blood loss and a small but meaningful risk of death. Side-firing lasers are thought to have a reduced risk of death compared to TURP due to significantly reduced bleeding; however, patients often experience an extended period of pain during voiding due to prolonged tissue sloughing. Drug treatment, although useful for some patients, does not strongly improve symptoms in the majority of patients. Even with the current range of treatments, many patients with symptomatic BPH elect to avoid any current treatment due to risks and side effects. As a possible solution to this problem, previous writers have suggested the possibility of treating BPH through interstitial thermotherapy. In this treatment, prostatic tissue is heated from within the prostate to the point of irreversible necrosis. Healing processes then reduce the volume of the affected tissue, even in the absence of sloughing. This study covers initial human use of such a device, using an 810 nm wavelength diode laser

  11. 32nd IMAC Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Catbas, Fikret; Atamturktur, H; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Schoenherr, Tyler; Foss, Gary; Niezrecki, Christopher; Allemang, Randall; Kerschen, Gaetan

    2014-01-01

    This critical collection examines a range of topics in modal analysis, from experimental techniques to acoustics to biodynamics,  as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: Experimental Techniques, Processing Modal Data, Rotating Machinery, Acoustics, Adaptive Structures, Biodynamics, Damping

  12. The third international workshop on the physics and modern applications of lasers 8-20 August, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The document contains 31 abstracts and 7 papers on lasers and optical fibers presented at the 3. international workshop on the physics and modern applications of lasers. The main topics covered include: basics in lasers, geometrical, physical and quantum optics; optical techniques for research, education and development in Africa; application of lasers in optical fibre communication, environmental studies, bio medicine, chemistry, agriculture, engineering and industry. A list of lecturers, participants and programme of activities are also given. (EAA)

  13. 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Adrian, R J; Heitor, M V; Maeda, M; Tropea, C; Whitelaw, J H

    2002-01-01

    This volume includes revised and extended versions of selected papers presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 10 to 13, 2000. The papers describe instrumentation developments for Velocity, Scalar and Multi-Phase Flows and results of measurements of Turbulent Flows, and Combustion and Engines. The papers demonstrate the continuing and healthy interest in the development of understanding of new methodologies and implementation in terms of new instrumentation. The prime objective of the Tenth Symposium was to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and communicate significant results to fluid mechanics. The application of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research was emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods were also considered where they facilita...

  14. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  15. Technology development for laser-cooled clocks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS experiment will use a laser-cooled cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space.

  16. Laser-driven polarized hydrogen and deuterium internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    After completing comprehensive tests of the performance of the source with both hydrogen and deuterium gas, we began tests of a realistic polarized deuterium internal target. These tests involve characterizing the atomic polarization and dissociation fraction of atoms in a storage cell as a function of flow and magnetic field, and making direct measurements of the average nuclear tensor polarization of deuterium atoms in the storage cell. Transfer of polarization from the atomic electron to the nucleus as a result of D-D spin-exchange collisions was observed in deuterium, verifying calculations suggesting that high vector polarization in both hydrogen and deuterium can be obtained in a gas in spin temperature equilibrium without inducing RF transitions between the magnetic substates. In order to improve the durability of the system, the source glassware was redesigned to simplify construction and installation and eliminate stress points that led to frequent breakage. Improvements made to the nuclear polarimeter, which used the low energy 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction to analyze the tensor polarization of the deuterium, included installing acceleration lenses constructed of wire mesh to improve pumping conductance, construction of a new holding field coil, and elimination of the Wien filter from the setup. These changes substantially simplified operation of the polarimeter and should have reduced depolarization in collisions with the wall. However, when a number of tests failed to show an improvement of the nuclear polarization, it was discovered that extended operation of the system with a section of teflon as a getter for potassium caused the dissociation fraction to decline with time under realistic operating conditions, suggesting that teflon may not be a suitable material to eliminate potassium from the target. We are replacing the teflon surfaces with drifilm-coated ones and plan to continue tests of the polarized internal target in this configuration

  17. Exposition concerning small windmills. List of relevant publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurvig, D.

    1992-09-01

    In connection with the publication of the report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'', it was decided that searching in databases should also be used in relation to the collection of relevant information, and that the results of these searches should be published in the form of a reading list. This is presented here. The subject areas covered are technology, research and development, marketing, developing countries and agricultural areas - all relevant to small windmills. Risoe Library, Roskilde, Denmark (Telephone no. (45) 42371212) will be helpful in acquiring any publication(s) referenced in the reading list. The report number J.No. 51171/92-0019 should also be quoted. (AB)

  18. Internal energy deposition with silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shai; Hua, Yimin; Boday, Dylan J.; Somogyi, Arpad; Wysocki, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2009-06-01

    The use of silicon nanoparticles for laser desorption/ionization (LDI) is a new appealing matrix-less approach for the selective and sensitive mass spectrometry of small molecules in MALDI instruments. Chemically modified silicon nanoparticles (30 nm) were previously found to require very low laser fluence in order to induce efficient LDI, which raised the question of internal energy deposition processes in that system. Here we report a comparative study of internal energy deposition from silicon nanoparticles to previously explored benzylpyridinium (BP) model compounds during LDI experiments. The internal energy deposition in silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) with different fluorinated linear chain modifiers (decyl, hexyl and propyl) was compared to LDI from untreated silicon nanoparticles and from the organic matrix, [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). The energy deposition to internal vibrational modes was evaluated by molecular ion survival curves and indicated that the ions produced by SPALDI have an internal energy threshold of 2.8-3.7 eV. This is slightly lower than the internal energy induced using the organic CHCA matrix, with similar molecular survival curves as previously reported for LDI off silicon nanowires. However, the internal energy associated with desorption/ionization from the silicon nanoparticles is significantly lower than that reported for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS). The measured survival yields in SPALDI gradually decrease with increasing laser fluence, contrary to reported results for silicon nanowires. The effect of modification of the silicon particle surface with semifluorinated linear chain silanes, including fluorinated decyl (C10), fluorinated hexyl (C6) and fluorinated propyl (C3) was explored too. The internal energy deposited increased with a decrease in the length of the modifier alkyl chain. Unmodified silicon particles exhibited the highest analyte internal energy

  19. VII International Symposium and Young Scientists School “Modern Problems of Laser Physics”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    General Information This volume of the Journal is devoted to the VII International Symposium and Young Scientists School “Modern Problems of Laser Physics” (MPLP-2016). I was held in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok, Russia, 22–28 August 2016. Akademgorodok is the well-known Siberian Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). It was founded in 1957. Since that time it is the place of many international scientific meetings, because it reflects the unique and fruitful symbiosis of many research institutions and Novosibirsk State University at one territory. Since the first MPLP meeting in 1995 the Symposium usually gathers scientists from many countries, carrying out their investigations at the forefront of laser physics, quantum metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy, physics of ultracold atoms, molecules and ions, atom optics, ultrafast phenomena and attoscience, quantum optics and information, nonlinear optics and applications of laser radiation from THz to UV radiation ranges in medicine, geophysics, chemistry and microbiology. Traditionally the Symposium is the place where scientists can discuss new trends in modern laser physics, generate new ideas as well as initiate further collaborations. (paper)

  20. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n e and the electron temperature T e profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO 2 laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n e and T e were, respectively, about 2 x 10 24 m -3 and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n e at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  1. Occupational radon expositions during cleaning processes of water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingmann, H.; Ehret, V.; Hegenbart, L.; Krieg, K.

    2002-01-01

    According to the new German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung'' (Radiation Protection Directive) the annual dose due to the exposition to radon has to be estimated for employees of water works. This includes employees of service companies. While the job of employees of water works usually covers a broad spectrum of different activities, employees of service companies may spend a considerable amount of time of their total working hours cleaning water reservoirs. This investigation is concerned with this type of employees. The radon exposition of one or more cleaning processes were determined by passive dosimeters. The mean radon concentration was calculated for the duration of the cleaning process. In some cases, members of the project team accompanied cleaning processes and performed stationary radon measurements on site. Sometimes, parallel to the passive dosimeters, electronic dosimeters were used to measure personal exposure. The results - and results from additional laboratory reference measurements - are compared. All results until January 2002 are considered. The project still goes on and will end in summer of 2002. Experiences made during this investigation are described in the end of this report. (orig.)

  2. Lasers '90: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 10-14, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Herbelin, J.

    1991-01-01

    The general topics considered are: x-ray lasers; FELs; solid state lasers; techniques and phenomena of ultrafast lasers; optical filters and free space laser communications; discharge lasers; tunable lasers; applications of lasers in medicine and surgery; lasers in materials processing; high power lasers; dynamics gratings, wave mixing, and holography; up-conversion lasers; lidar and laser radar; laser resonators; excimer lasers; laser propagation; nonlinear and quantum optics; blue-green technology; imaging; laser spectroscopy; chemical lasers; dye lasers; and lasers in chemistry

  3. Radiologist's exposition during the radioscopy of the digestive tract in esophagus-gastro-duodenum studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of personal dosimetry confirm that one of the most exposed groups to the ionizing radiations is those of Radiologists who work with radioscopy of the digestive tract. However, the particular conditions of the exposition complicate the interpretation of the reading for the values obtained on the dosimeter. In order to improve such interpretation, it has done simultaneous measurements with the routine dosimeter and with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) of lithium fluoride(LiF). It has selected eight places on the worker's body and located such dosimeters, so that the dose was integrated during thirty studies. It could verify that, if the dosimeter is located in agreement with the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection(ICRP), the reading overestimates in several times the dose in whole body(or effective dose). It has also considered that the amount of such procedures done by the radiologist is limited in this case, by the effective dose

  4. 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties”

    CERN Document Server

    Błaszczak, Z; Marinova, K; LASER 2006

    2007-01-01

    7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, May 29-June 01, 2006 Researchers and PhD students interested in recent results in the nuclear structure investigation by laser spectroscopy, the progress of the experimental technique and the future developments in the field will find this volume indispensable. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume ???

  5. One-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, it demonstrated one-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three fused silica substrates in the optical- and non-optical-contact regimes by focusing 1030-nm laser pulses at the middle of the second substrate. Focusing laser pulses within the second glass in optical-contact and non-optical-contact samples induces permanent internal structural modification, leading to the three glass substrates bonding together simultaneously. The bonding mechanism is based on the internal modification of glass, and this mechanism is different from that of ordinary glass welding at the interface. Welding-spot size is affected by not only the gap distance (ablation effect) and heat transmission, but also by gravity through examining the sizes of the welding spots on the four contact welding surfaces. The maximum bonding strength of the lower interface (56.2 MPa) in the optical-contact regime is more than double that (27.6 MPa) in the non-optical-contact regime.

  6. Study of Internal Channel Surface Roughnesses Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting in Aluminum and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Jukka; Calignano, Flaviana; Trevisan, Francesco; Lorusso, Massimo; Ambrosio, Elisa Paola; Manfredi, Diego; Fino, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has gained considerable impetus over the past decade. One of the driving factors for AM success is the ability to create unique designs with intrinsic characteristics as, e.g., internal channels used for hydraulic components, cooling channels, and heat exchangers. However, a couple of the main problems in internal channels manufactured by AM technologies are the high surface roughness obtained and the distortion of the channel shape. There is still much to understand in these design aspects. In this study, a cylindrical geometry for internal channels to be built with different angles with respect to the building plane in AlSi10Mg and Ti6Al4V alloys by selective laser melting was considered. The internal surfaces of the channels produced in both materials were analyzed by means of a surface roughness tester and by optical and electron microscopy to evaluate the effects of the material and design choices.

  7. [Urs Fischer: faux amis : documentation d'exposition

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tiré du site internet des Musées d'art et d'histoire (www.ville-geneve.ch/mah): "Urs Fischer - Faux Amis propose une sélection inédite d'œuvres de la collection Dakis Joannou, présentée pour la première fois au Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève. Conçue par le commissaire Massimiliano Gioni comme une synthèse inhabituelle entre une présentation monographique et une exposition de groupe, Faux Amis réunit un ensemble d'œuvres signées Urs Fischer (né en 1973), l'un des artistes suisses les plus...

  8. Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of laser resonance magnetic resonance allows one to study the high-resolution spectroscopy of transient paramagnetic species, viz, atoms, radicals, and molecular ions. This article is a brief exposition of the method, describing the principles, instrumentation and applicability of the IR and FIR-LMR and shows results of HF + . (Author) [pt

  9. International linking of research and development on the model of Laser Centre Hanover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowitzki, Klaus-Dieter; Boedecker, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Asia is becoming one of the most important regions in the world from the political, economic and scientific point of view. Germany believes that it is becoming increasingly necessary to cooperate with certain Asian countries especially for scientific and technological reasons. Above and beyond exchanges of scientists, the scientific and technological cooperation will be organized to cover projects with specific targets and to find solutions to important problems. International economic development is characterized by a mixture of competition and cooperation within the context of growing globalization. Germany, being one of the world's largest exporting nation, must therefore combine its active role in cooperation with these countries in the fields of education, research and innovation with economic cooperation. The Laser Centre Hanover pursues the goal of establishing and operating a Chinese German center for training and further education in laser technology and setting up a joint platform for long-term German Chinese cooperation in laser technology. An optimized training infrastructure combined with modern production processes support consequently long-term German businesses in China and secures their market-shares. LZH establishes Laser academies for skilled workers and technical decision makers in Shanghai and Changchun together with local universities and German partners. Due to the economic growth, Russia records since more than two years, the economic conditions are improving the cooperation between Germany and Russia step-by-step. The main goal of Russian science-politics is to stabilize an efficient scientific-technical potential with better chances in the global competition. The German-Russian scientific and technological cooperation plays an important role in this context. It has considerably increased in the last years in terms of width and depth and virtually includes all areas of science and technology at present. The region around Moscow is regarded

  10. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  11. Comparison of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy and holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy in bulbar urethral strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Mustafa Gurkan; Sam, Emre; Colakoglu, Yunus; Atar, Feyzi Arda; Sahin, Selcuk; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Tugcu, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To compare the results of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and Holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy (HIU) in primary bulbar urethral strictures. Material and methods A total of 63 patients diagnosed with primary bulbar urethral stricture between August 2014 and September 2015 were assigned to the OIU (n = 29) and HIU (n = 34) groups. The demographic variables, biochemistry panels, and preoperative and postoperative uroflowmetry results including the maximum flow rate (Qmax) and mean flow rate (Qmean) values, retrograde urethrography, and diagnostic flexible urethroscopy findings were recorded prospectively. Demographic features and preoperative values were not statistically different between groups (p >0.05). Mean surgical times were 18.4 ±2.3 min for OIU and 21.9 ±3.8 min for HIU groups, which was statistically significant (p 0.05). There was no recurrence in the first 3 months in either group. The urethral stricture recurrence rate up to month 12 was not statistically significant for the OIU group (n = 6, 20.7%) as compared to the HIU group (n = 11, 32.4%; p = 0.299). At follow-up, the SFR and IFR was 96% and 88% at 3-months, and 82% and 71% at 12-months, respectively (p method to OIU, and it has similar success rates in the treatment of short segment bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:29732217

  12. LASIK for myopia and astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: an international multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, Maria Clara; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Barraquer, Carmen; Carones, Francesco; Feuermannova, Alena; Neuhann, Tobias; Rozsival, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy, predictability, and safety of LASIK for the surgical correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Six international study sites enrolled 358 eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) from -0.50 to -7.38 diopters (D) (mean sphere: -3.13+/-1.58 D) with up to -5.00 D of astigmatism (mean: -0.69+/-0.67 D). All eyes underwent treatment with the nonwavefront-guided aspheric algorithm of the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. All eyes were targeted for emmetropia. Refractive outcomes and corneal higher order aberrations were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Visual quality was assessed using photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity. Six-month postoperative outcomes are reported. At 6 months postoperative, the MRSE for all eyes was -0.21+/-0.20 D, and 96% (343/358) of eyes had MRSE within +/-0.50 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 98% (351/358) of eyes, and no eyes lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. The total corneal higher order aberrations root-mean-square increased by 0.09 microm, spherical aberration increased by 0.08 microm, and coma increased by 0.04 microm postoperatively. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity did not change 6 months postoperatively. Treatment of myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser is safe, efficacious, predictable, and maintains visual quality.

  13. Marginal Accuracy and Internal Fit of 3-D Printing Laser-Sintered Co-Cr Alloy Copings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Joo Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser sintered technology has been introduced for clinical use and can be utilized more widely, accompanied by the digitalization of dentistry and the development of direct oral scanning devices. This study was performed with the aim of comparing the marginal accuracy and internal fit of Co-Cr alloy copings fabricated by casting, CAD/CAM (Computer-aided design/Computer-assisted manufacture milled, and 3-D laser sintered techniques. A total of 36 Co-Cr alloy crown-copings were fabricated from an implant abutment. The marginal and internal fit were evaluated by measuring the weight of the silicone material, the vertical marginal discrepancy using a microscope, and the internal gap in the sectioned specimens. The data were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance, a Scheffe’s test, and Pearson’s correlation at the significance level of p = 0.05, using statistics software. The silicone weight was significantly low in the casting group. The 3-D laser sintered group showed the highest vertical discrepancy, and marginal-, occlusal-, and average- internal gaps (p < 0.05. The CAD/CAM milled group revealed a significantly high axial internal gap. There are moderate correlations between the vertical marginal discrepancy and the internal gap variables (r = 0.654, except for the silicone weight. In this study, the 3-D laser sintered group achieved clinically acceptable marginal accuracy and internal fit.

  14. Internal and External Flow over Laser-Textured Superhydrophobic Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, K M Tanvir; Patience, Christian; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-12

    In this work, internal and external flows over superhydrophobic (SH) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. The SH surface was fabricated by a one-step femtosecond laser micromachining process. The drag reduction ability of the textured surface was studied experimentally both in microscale and macroscale internal flows. The slip length, which indicates drag reduction in fluid flow, was determined in microscale fluid flow with a cone-and-plate rheometer, whereas a pressure channel setup was used for macroscale flow experiments. The textured PTFE surface reduced drag in both experiments yielding comparable slip lengths. Moreover, the experimentally obtained slip lengths correspond well to the result obtained applying a semianalytical model, which considers the solid fraction of the textured surface. In addition to the internal flow studies, we fabricated SH PTFE spheres to test their drag reduction abilities in an external flow experiment, where the terminal velocities of the falling spheres were measured. These experiments were conducted at three different Reynolds numbers in both viscous and inertial flow regimes with pure glycerol, a 30% glycerol solution, and water. Surprisingly, the drag on the SH spheres was higher than the measured drag on the non-SH spheres. We hypothesize that the increase in form drag outweighs the decrease in friction drag on the SH sphere. Thus, the overall drag increased. These experiments demonstrate that a superhydrophobic surface that reduces drag in internal flow might not reduce drag in external flow.

  15. International, private-public, multi-mission, next-generation lunar laser retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law [1][2]. LLR has also provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon [3]. LLR physics analysis also allows for constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion [4]) and on new gravitational physics that may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like Non-Minimally Coupled gravity [5]). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation. In the 1970s LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the capabilities of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (in particular APOLLO in USA) improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, current CCR arrays dominate the error. With the US/Italy project LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century/Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests) UMD (Univ. of Maryland) and INFN (Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics) developed a new-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations, that will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred. The performance of this 'big CCR' is being characterized at the SCF_Lab test facility at INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy [6]. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retroreflector Investigations), a microreflector payload for the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by orbiters [7]. This will further extend the physics and lunar science reach of LLR. INRRI can also provide positioning services on the far side (it is proposed

  16. Marginal Accuracy and Internal Fit of 3-D Printing Laser-Sintered Co-Cr Alloy Copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Joo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young

    2017-01-23

    Laser sintered technology has been introduced for clinical use and can be utilized more widely, accompanied by the digitalization of dentistry and the development of direct oral scanning devices. This study was performed with the aim of comparing the marginal accuracy and internal fit of Co-Cr alloy copings fabricated by casting, CAD/CAM (Computer-aided design/Computer-assisted manufacture) milled, and 3-D laser sintered techniques. A total of 36 Co-Cr alloy crown-copings were fabricated from an implant abutment. The marginal and internal fit were evaluated by measuring the weight of the silicone material, the vertical marginal discrepancy using a microscope, and the internal gap in the sectioned specimens. The data were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), a Scheffe's test, and Pearson's correlation at the significance level of p = 0.05, using statistics software. The silicone weight was significantly low in the casting group. The 3-D laser sintered group showed the highest vertical discrepancy, and marginal-, occlusal-, and average- internal gaps ( p marginal discrepancy and the internal gap variables ( r = 0.654), except for the silicone weight. In this study, the 3-D laser sintered group achieved clinically acceptable marginal accuracy and internal fit.

  17. Abstracts of the 5. International Conference on Lasers and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    New results have been presented in the fields of laser physics and laser applications including the development of new laser light sources, new laser frequencies in the UV and VUV spectral regions using anti-Stokes Raman scattering, nonlinear optical effects for the formation of ultrashort optical pulses, laser spectroscopy, collisionless multiphoton excitation processes using molecular beams, selective generation of free radicals by laser, laser applications in medicine, plasma diagnostics analysing X-ray spectra for studying laser fusion problems, coherence properties in phase-sampling interferometric techniques, and fundamental problems in quantum physics and nonlinear processes

  18. 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition. Held in Arlington, VA on 29-31 March 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Consequences , Vulnerabilities, and Threats) Prioritize Implement Protective Programs Measure Effectiveness 9March 2006 Major NIPP Theme: Sector Partnership... effect of exposure • Full understanding of the levels of exposure that mark the onset of miosis • Refined human operational exposure standard for GB...Untitled Document 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition.html[7/7/2016 11:38:26 AM] 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition

  19. Centre of nuclear research experience in the control of personal exposition between 2002 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayardo, Karina; Blanco, Daniel; Garcia, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The control of the personal exposition in the public University is done by the Centre of Nuclear Research since 1999. A look at the last years permitted to note the increase in the Personal Dosimeter users. In this work we study the annual collective dose, the annual effective dose average and the different dose in each University area between 2002-2005. The annual effective dose limit for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear), are the suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The actual application of the Basics Principles of Radiological Protection demand exposition levels as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) considering economics and social factors. In this way we decrease the probability to induce illness in the expose personal and their descendants. The different dependences of the University where the service is given are: Faculty of Medicine (Radiology, Oncology, Clinical Oncology, Nuclear Medicine), Faculty of Chemistry (Radiochemistry), Faculty of Odontology (Radiology), Faculty of Veterinary (Radiology) and Faculty of Sciences (Centre of Nuclear Research). The number of users between 2002-2006 varied from 292 in year 2002 to 329 in the year 2006. We see a maximum of persons in the year 2004. The annual collective dose have been changing too, the lowest was 0.13 Sv.person in the year 2002 and the highest was 0.21 Sv.person in the year 2005. The annual collective dose permits the evaluation of the radiological impact of the radiation ionising manipulation in the University. In these 5 years the 96% of the annual effective dose average were under 4 mSv, and the 76% were smaller than the minimum detectable limit. This 76% were obtained in teach and researches areas. In the 4% higher than 4 mSv we can find areas where works with open radioactive sources like: Nuclear Medicine and Radiochemistry (Faulted de Pumice). In these places we detect annual effective doses of 15 mSv, these levels

  20. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  1. 8TH International Laser Physics Workshop Lphys󈨧 Budapest, July 2-6, 1999, Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-05

    Gerhard J. MUller (Germany) Rudolf Steiner (Germany) Symposium Status and Future Directions of High-Power Laser Installations Co-Chairs: See Leang...Sciences, Kazan. Russia I.A. Shcherbakov General Physics Institute. Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia R. Steiner Institute of Laser Technologies...14.50-15.15 R. Steiner , A. Pohl, A. Bentele, T. Meier (Ulm, Germany) Laser Doppler sensor for laser assisted injection 30 SEMINAR 5 --- LASER METHODS IN

  2. Laser-Ultrasonic Testing and its Applications to Nuclear Reactor Internals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, M.; Miura, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-02-01

    A new nondestructive testing technique for surface-breaking microcracks in nuclear reactor components based on laser-ultrasonics is developed. Surface acoustic wave generated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and detected by frequency-stabilized long pulse laser coupled with confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to detect and size the cracks. A frequency-domain signal processing is developed to realize accurate sizing capability. The laser-ultrasonic testing allows the detection of surface-breaking microcrack having a depth of less than 0.1 mm, and the measurement of their depth with an accuracy of 0.2 mm when the depth exceeds 0.5 mm including stress corrosion cracking. The laser-ultrasonic testing system combined with laser peening system, which is another laser-based maintenance technology to improve surface stress, for inner surface of small diameter tube is developed. The generation laser in the laser-ultrasonic testing system can be identical to the laser source of the laser peening. As an example operation of the system, the system firstly works as the laser-ultrasonic testing mode and tests the inner surface of the tube. If no cracks are detected, the system then changes its work mode to the laser peening and improves surface stress to prevent crack initiation. The first nuclear industrial application of the laser-ultrasonic testing system combined with the laser peening was completed in Japanese nuclear power plant in December 2004.

  3. 5th International Conference LACONA V (Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks)

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, Klaus; Asmus, John F; Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    2005-01-01

    Since 1995, when Costas Fotakis first brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation, the field has grown enormously in importance, and today restorers and laser scientists work together to develop new applications. This book presents the more than six dozen research papers prepared for LACONA V (Lasers in Art Conservation), held in Osnabrueck/Germany in September 2003. The fifth congress once again gathers restorers, art historians, museum staff, laser scientists and laser manufacturers. The topics include, among others: laser cleaning of artworks (case studies and side effects), removal of former conservation layers, fundamentals of laser-artwork interaction, online monitoring and process control, laser diagnostics, spectroscopy for monitoring and identification, networks and co-operation projects.

  4. Multi-point laser spark generation for internal combustion engines using a spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Elliott; Kuang, Zheng; Dearden, Geoff; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique demonstrating for the first time successful multi-point laser-induced spark generation, which is variable in three dimensions and derived from a single laser beam. Previous work on laser ignition of internal combustion engines found that simultaneously igniting in more than one location resulted in more stable and faster combustion – a key potential advantage over conventional spark ignition. However, previous approaches could only generate secondary foci at fixed locations. The work reported here is an experimental technique for multi-point laser ignition, in which several sparks with arbitrary spatial location in three dimensions are created by variable diffraction of a pulsed single laser beam source and transmission through an optical plug. The diffractive multi-beam arrays and patterns are generated using a spatial light modulator on which computer generated holograms are displayed. A gratings and lenses algorithm is used to accurately modulate the phase of the input laser beam and create multi-beam output. The underpinning theory, experimental arrangement and results obtained are presented and discussed. (paper)

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Based on the use of laser as a coherent and intense light source, the photo-acoustics originated from the discovery made by Alexander Graham Bell was extended to laser-ultrasonics (LU), and it has been applied to wide area of ultrasonics, optics, material characterization and nondestructive inspection. In 1996, a research group for LU was started in the Japanese Society for Nondestructive Inspection (JSNDI), and researches on LU and related topics such as noncontact measurements and elastic wave theories were discussed. Similar activities were pursued also in North America and in Europe. The international symposium on LU was started in Montreal, Canada in 2008 by Jean Pierre Monchalin in order to offer a forum for involved with basic researches and industrial applications of LU. In the second symposium in Bordeaux, France nearly 120 papers were presented. It is our honor to have organized the third symposium, LU2013 on 25-28 June in Yokohama, Japan. The articles published here provide a sample of achievements presented there. In LU2013, we focused on the laser generation and/or detection of acoustic waves, application to nondestructive testing, ultrafast-optoacoustics and innovative instruments. Research achievements in biomedical applications, advanced sensing including noncontact, micro/nanoscale or nonlinear measurements, as well as theory and simulation of ultrasound were also included, considering the interdisciplinary nature of this field. We enjoyed very excellent and informative 3 plenary talks, 11 invited talks, 81 oral and 41 poster presentations with 168 attendees. According to requests, we organized a post deadline poster session to give an opportunity to present recent achievements after the deadline. Contributions of the participants, the scientific and organizing committees are highly appreciated. The conference tour was a dinner cruise to the Tokyo bay, and we hope this experience will remain as a pleasant memory in attendees. As decided in the

  6. Development of a Laser-Guided Deep-Hole Internal-Grinding Tool (Series 1) : Grinding Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Akio; Onikura, Hiromichi; Sajima, Takao; Park, Hyunkoo

    2005-01-01

    The laser-guided deep-hole internal grinding tool is developed to bore accurate and straight deep-holes with high surface quality. The tool consists of a grinding head, the front and rear actuators mounted on an actuator holder and a laser diode set in the back end of the holder. The grinding head consists of a diamond or CBN wheel, an air motor, and the piezoelectric actuators for the compensation of tool diameter. The grinding wheel is located eccentrically at the grinding head. The grindin...

  7. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: info@arn.gov.br [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: nacosta@fuesmen.edu.ar [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  8. Evaluation of holmium laser versus cold knife in optical internal urethrotomy for the management of short segment urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Kaza, Ram Chandra Murthy; Singh, Bipin Kumar

    2014-10-01

    SACHSE COLD KNIFE IS CONVENTIONALLY USED FOR OPTICAL INTERNAL URETHROTOMY INTENDED TO MANAGE URETHRAL STRICTURES AND HO: YAG laser is an alternative to it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of urethral stricture treatment outcomes, efficacy, and complications using cold knife and Ho: YAG (Holmium laser) for optical internal urethrotomy. In this prospective study included, 90 male patients age >18 years, with diagnosis of urethral stricture admitted for internal optical urethrotomy during April 2010 to March 2012. The patients were randomized into two groups containing 45 patients each using computer generated random number. In group A (Holmium group), internal urethrotomy was done with Holmium laser and in group B (Cold knife group) Sachse cold knife was used. Patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery in Out Patient Department on 15, 30 and 180 post-operative days. At each follow up visit physical examination, and uroflowmetry was performed along with noting complaints, if any. The peak flow rates (PFR) were compared between the two groups on each follow up. At 180 days (6 month interval) the difference between mean of PFR for Holmium and Cold knife group was statistically highly significant (P knife urethrotomy.

  9. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  10. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & PAINTING OF AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Transformation of the U. S. Bicentennial on Science and Technology from an artist's concept to reality is well underway at KSC. At lower right are stages of the Saturn V rocket which will form part of the Exposition. Four of the 15 domes erected to house exhibits by 16 federal agencies and numerous industrial firms are visible in the foreground. At left center, workmen on a scaffold can be seen completing the blue field on the American flag being painted on the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Exposition will be open to the public from May 30 through September 7.

  11. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullett, J D [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dodd, R [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Williams, C J [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Triantos, G [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dearden, G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Shenton, A T [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Watkins, K G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Carroll, S D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Scarisbrick, A D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Keen, S [GSI Group, Cosford Lane, Swift Valley, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 1QN (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-07

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV{sub IMEP}) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var{sub PPP}). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  12. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullett, J D; Dodd, R; Williams, C J; Triantos, G; Dearden, G; Shenton, A T; Watkins, K G; Carroll, S D; Scarisbrick, A D; Keen, S

    2007-01-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV IMEP ) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var PPP ). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air

  13. International Conference on the Interaction of atoms, molecules and plasmas with intense ultrashort laser pulses. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    International Conference on the Interaction of atoms, molecules and plasmas with intense ultrashort laser pulses was held in Hungary in 2006. This conference which joined the ULTRA COST activity ('Laser-matter interactions with ultra-short pulses, high-frequency pulses and ultra-intense pulses. From attophysics to petawatt physics') and the XTRA ('Ultrashort XUV Pulses for Time-Resolved and Non-Linear Applications') Marie-Curie Research Training Network, intends to offer a possibility to the members of both of these activities to exchange ideas on recent theoretical and experimental results on the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter giving a broad view from theoretical models to practical and technical applications. Ultrashort laser pulses reaching extra high intensities open new windows to obtain information about molecular and atomic processes. These pulses are even able to penetrate into atomic scalelengths not only by generating particles of ultrahigh energy but also inside the spatial and temporal atomic scalelengths. New regimes of laser-matter interaction were opened in the last decade with an increasing number of laboratories and researchers in these fields. (S.I.)

  14. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 󈨜 Held in Lake Tahoe, Nevada on 4-9 December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Multiphoton Double Ionization of Ba T. F. Gallagher, R. R. Jones, Y. Ziiu, U. Eichmann +, and W. Sandner + Department of Physics University of Virginia... Eichmann , Y. Zhu and T. F. Gallagher J. Phys. B 20 4461 tions, not necessarily at the shortest wavelengths. This is contrary (1987). to much of our...and J. M. Watson; Abstract 13.18, 10th International Free-Electron Laser Conference, Jerusalem , Israel, August 29-September 2, 1988. 2. "High-Extraction

  15. LPHYS'14: 23rd International Laser Physics Workshop (Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-18 July 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevseyev, Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    The 23rd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS14) will be held from 14 July to 18 July 2014 in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Ramada Sofia Hotel hosted this year by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. LPHYS14 continues a series of workshops that took place in Dubna,1992; Dubna/Volga river tour, 1993; New York, 1994; Moscow/Volga river tour (jointly with NATO SILAP Workshop), 1995; Moscow, 1996; Prague, 1997; Berlin, 1998; Budapest, 1999; Bordeaux, 2000; Moscow, 2001; Bratislava, 2002; Hamburg, 2003; Trieste, 2004; Kyoto, 2005; Lausanne, 2006; Len, 2007; Trondheim, 2008; Barcelona, 2009; Foz do Iguau, 2010; Sarajevo, 2011; Calgary, 2012 and Prague, 2013. The total number of participants this year is expected to be about 400. In the past, annual participation was typically from over 30 countries. 2014 Chairpersons Sanka Gateva (Bulgaria), Pavel Pashinin (Russia) LPHYS14 will offer eight scientific section seminars and one general symposium: Seminar 1 Modern Trends in Laser Physics Seminar 2 Strong Field and Attosecond Physics Seminar 3 Biophotonics Seminar 4 Physics of Lasers Seminar 5 Nonlinear Optics and Spectroscopy Seminar 6 Physics of Cold Trapped Atoms Seminar 7 Quantum Information Science Seminar 8 Fiber Optics Symposium Extreme Light Technologies, Science and Applications Abstract of your presentation A one-page abstract should contain: title; list of all co-authors (the name of the speaker underlined); affiliations; correspondence addresses including phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses; and the text of the abstract. Abstracts should be sent to the following co-chairs of the scientific seminars and the symposium: Kirill A Prokhorov (Seminar 1) E-mail: cyrpro@gpi.ru Mikhail V Fedorov (Seminar 2) E-mail: fedorov@ran.gpi.ru Sergey A Gonchukov (Seminar 3) E-mail: gonchukov@mephi.ru Ivan A Shcherbakov (Seminar 4) E-mail: gbufetova@lsk.gpi.ru Vladimir A Makarov (Seminar 5) E-mail: makarov@msu.ilc.edu.ru Vyacheslav

  16. LPHYS'13: 22nd International Laser Physics Workshop (Prague, 15-19 July 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevseyev, Alexander V.

    2013-04-01

    The 22nd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'13) will be held from 15-19 July 2013 in the city of Prague, Czech Republic, at the Hotel Krystal and Czech Technical University hosted this year by the Institute of Physics ASCR and Czech Technical University in Prague. LPHYS'13 continues a series of workshops that took place in Dubna, 1992; Dubna/Volga river tour, 1993; New York, 1994; Moscow/Volga river tour (jointly with NATO SILAP Workshop), 1995; Moscow, 1996; Prague, 1997; Berlin, 1998; Budapest, 1999; Bordeaux, 2000; Moscow, 2001; Bratislava, 2002; Hamburg, 2003; Trieste, 2004; Kyoto, 2005; Lausanne, 2006; León, 2007; Trondheim, 2008; Barcelona, 2009; Foz do Iguaçu, 2010; Sarajevo, 2011; and Calgary, 2012. The total number of participants this year is expected to be about 400. In the past, annual participation was typically from over 30 countries. 2013 Chairmen: Miroslav Jelinek (Czech Republic) and Pavel P Pashinin (Russia) LPHYS'13 will offer eight scientific section seminars and one general symposium: Seminar 1 Modern Trends in Laser Physics Seminar 2 Strong Field & Attosecond Physics Seminar 3 Biophotonics Seminar 4 Physics of Lasers Seminar 5 Nonlinear Optics & Spectroscopy Seminar 6 Physics of Cold Trapped Atoms Seminar 7 Quantum Information Science Seminar 8 Fiber Optics Symposium Extreme Light Technologies, Science and Applications Abstract of your presentation A one-page abstract should contain: title; list of all co-authors (the name of the speaker underlined); affiliations; correspondence addresses including phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses; and the text of the abstract. Abstracts should be sent to the following co-chairs of the scientific seminars and the symposium: Kirill A Prokhorov (Seminar 1) E-mail: cyrpro@gpi.ru Mikhail V Fedorov (Seminar 2) E-mail: fedorov@ran.gpi.ru Sergey A Gonchukov (Seminar 3) E-mail: gonchukov@mephi.ru Ivan A Shcherbakov (Seminar 4) E-mail: gbufetova@lsk.gpi.ru Vladimir A Makarov (Seminar 5) E

  17. Clinical marginal and internal fit of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with a selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuoli; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwei; Zhang, Xiuyin

    2015-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology has been introduced to fabricate dental restorations. However, the fit of these restorations still needs further study. The purpose of this in vivo investigation was to compare the marginal and internal fit of SLM metal ceramic crowns with 2 lost-wax cast metal ceramic crowns and to evaluate the influence of tooth type on the marginal and internal fit of these crowns. A total of 330 metal ceramic crowns were evaluated. The metal copings were fabricated with SLM Co-Cr, cast Au-Pt, and cast Co-Cr alloy (n=110). The marginal and internal gaps of crowns were recorded by using a replica technique. The anterior and premolar replicas were sectioned 2 times, and molar replicas were sectioned 4 times. The marginal and internal gap width of each cross section was examined by stereomicroscope at ×30 magnification. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to identify the statistical difference among the groups. The marginal fit of the SLM Co-Cr group (75.6 ±32.6 μm) was not different from the cast Au-Pt group (76.8 ±32.1 μm) (P>.05) but was better than the cast Co-Cr group (91.0 ±36.3 μm) (P.05). The mean occlusal gap width of the SLM Co-Cr group (309.8 ±106.6 μm) was significantly higher than that of the cast Au-Pt group (254.6 ±109.6 μm) and the cast Co-Cr group (249.6 ±110.4 μm) (P.05). Also, no significant difference was found in the axial fit among the anterior group (138.3 ±52.5 μm), the premolar group (132.9 ±50.4 μm), and the molar group (134.4 ±52.5 μm) (P>.05). The anterior group (267.6 ±110.2 μm) did not differ from the premolar group (270.2 ±112.8 μm) and the molar group (268.6 ±110.5 μm) in occlusal fit (P>.05). The marginal fit of SLM Co-Cr metal ceramic crowns was similar to that of the cast Au-Pt metal ceramic crowns and was better than that of the cast Co-Cr metal ceramic crowns. The SLM Co-Cr metal ceramic crowns were not significantly different from the 2 cast metal ceramic crowns in axial

  18. Technology 2001: The Second National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the technical sessions of the Technology 2001 Conference and Exposition are presented. The technical sessions featured discussions of advanced manufacturing, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, computer graphics and simulation, communications, data and information management, electronics, electro-optics, environmental technology, life sciences, materials science, medical advances, robotics, software engineering, and test and measurement.

  19. The "Hefferline Notes": B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Terry J.

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the "Hefferline Notes" (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display…

  20. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, Dec. 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, are presented. Volume 2 features papers on artificial intelligence, CAD&E, computer hardware, computer software, information management, photonics, robotics, test and measurement, video and imaging, and virtual reality/simulation.

  1. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced.

  2. Biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation and hematology parameters in fitness for work. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokovic, J.; Milacic, S.; Rakic, B.; Pajic, J.; Petrovic, D.; Vuckovic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is frequently used in medicine, especially during diagnostic procedures. The workers who are exposed to radiation have obligation for periodic check up. Presented case shows changes in hematological parameters and biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation (chromosome aberrations, structural changes and micronucleus test). The aim of this case report is to indicate metodology of diagnostic procedures for chronicle radiation syndrome. (author) [sr

  3. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I

    2000-01-01

    A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards for...... inhibitor, were quantified by MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry.......A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards...

  4. Squeezing based on nondegenerate frequency doubling internal to a realistic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Buchhave, Preben

    2004-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the quantum fluctuations of the fundamental field in the output of a nondegenerate second-harmonic generation process occurring inside a laser cavity. Due to the nondegenerate character of the nonlinear medium, a field orthogonal to the laser field is for some operating...... conditions independent of the fluctuations produced by the laser medium. We show that this fact may lead to perfect squeezing for a certain polarization mode of the fundamental field. The experimental feasibility of the system is also discussed....

  5. Tablatures : Exposition photographique d'instruments virtuels GENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoz, Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Le concept de « composer le son », introduit et expérimenté musicalement par Jean-Claude Risset à partir des années 1960 par la synthèse de sons par ordinateur, prolonge, élargit, dépasse et transforme l'acte d'écriture pour des instruments mécano-acoustiques. Il ne résout cependant pas la question de l'instrumentalité, particulièrement mise à mal avec l'ordinateur. Les technologies de modélisation et de simulation numériques pour « écrire l'instrument pour le composer...

  6. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  7. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What's All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO 2 Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  8. Inactivation of Candida albicans by Corona Discharge: The Increase of Inhibition Zones Area After Far Subsequent Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava Fantova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold atmospheric pressure plasma generated by the negative corona discharge has inhibition effect on the microorganism growth. This effect is well-known and it can be demonstrated on the surface of cultivation agar plates by the formation of inhibition zones. We exposed the cultures of Candida albicans to the negative corona discharge plasma in a special arrangement in this study: The equal doses of plasma were applied subsequently twice or four times on the same culture on one Petri dish, while the distance between exposed points was variable. Only small differences were observed in decontaminated zone areas for twice exposed agar at the shortest distance between exposed points (1.5 cm. In case of the four times exposed agars, we observed significant differences in inhibition zone areas, dependent not only on the exposition site distances, but also on the exposition order. The largest inhibition zone size was observed for the first exposition decreasing to the fourth one. To check relevancy of these dependencies, we presume to conduct further set of experiments with lower yeast concentration. In conclusion, significant difference in partial inhibition zone sizes appeared only when four expositions on one Petri dish were carried out, whereas no significant difference was observed for two subsequent expositions. The explanation of this effect may be the subject of subsequent remote exposition(s, when minute amounts of scattered active particles act on the previously exposed areas; the influence of diffused ozone may also take place.

  9. International Powered Lift Conference and Exposition, Santa Clara, CA, Dec. 7-10, 1987, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on VTOL, STOVL and V/STOL fixed-wing aircraft powered lift discusses hot gas recirculation in V/STOL, flight testing of a single-engine powered lift aircraft, RAF experience with VTOL, near-term improvements of the AV-8B Harrier II, recent advancements in thrust augmentation, lift ejectors for STOVL combat aircraft, the correlation of entrainment and lift enhancement for a two-dimensional propulsive wing, the thrust efficiency of powered lift systems, and flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft. Also discussed are VSTOL design implications for tactical transports, the numerical investigation of a jet in ground effect with a cross flow, the NASA supersonic STOVL propulsion technology program, the aeroacoustics of advanced STOVL aircraft plumes, powered lift transport aircraft certification criteria status, the application of vectored thrust V/STOL experience in supersonic designs, wave drag and high speed performance of supersonic STOVL fighter configurations, and the impact of bypass ratio on thrust-to-weight for V/STOL.

  10. Risk inSight catalogue d'exposition sciences, arts et société

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    De type sciences/arts/société, l'exposition Risk inSight veut faire réfléchir sur les risques et met en évidence pourquoi et comment ceux-ci jouent un rôle grandissant dans nos sociétés contemporaines. L'espace d'exposition s'articule en 4 modules thématiques: identifier les risques, habiter les risques, débattre des risques, vivre avec les risques. Installations visuelles et sonores, photographies, modélisations vidéo, interfaces interactives et film documentaire sont mis en dialogue avec une série de contributions de tous horizons scientifiques, pour partager les questionnements des chercheurs avec un large public.

  11. Biological dosimetry in cases gives occupational high exposition to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A.

    1998-01-01

    From 1983 the cytogenetics dosimetry method it has been used as routine in the IRD laboratory in the period 1983 at 1997 but a high exposition occupational case the physical dosimeters happened in Brazil they were investigated through the cytogenetics dosimetry technique. This technique is employ when the dosimetry personal marks a high dose to 100 mSv (0,1 Gy) that is the cut-off minimum detected in the dosimetry cytogenetics

  12. Automation and Control of an Imaging Internal Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Scott, Jill Rennee

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the automation of an imaging internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). The I2LD-FTMS consists of a laser-scanning device [Scott and Tremblay, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2002, 73, 1108–1116] that has been integrated with a laboratory-built FTMS using a commercial data acquisition system (ThermoFinnigan FT/MS, Bremen, Germany). A new user interface has been developed in National Instrument's (Austin, Texas) graphical programming language LabVIEW to control the motors of the laser positioning system and the commercial FTMS data acquisition system. A feature of the FTMS software that allows the user to write macros in a scripting language is used creatively to our advantage in creating a mechanism to control the FTMS from outside its graphical user interface. The new user interface also allows the user to configure target locations. Automation of the data analysis along with data display using commercial graphing software is also described.

  13. Tenth international free electron laser conference, kibbutz Ramat Rachel, Jerusalem, Israel, August 29 - September 2, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains over a hundred abstracts of lectures covering a wide variety of subjects in the field of free electron lasers. Many features of lasing were observed over a range of problems, and experiments which resulted in finding ideal or near-ideal techniques for gaining better and more efficient optical power have been carried out

  14. Comparison of the thermodynamic and correlation criteria for internal standard selection in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Popov, Andrey M.; Seliverstova, Irina V.; Bozhenko, Sergey E.; Zorov, Nikita B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the reference line of an internal standard in LIBS is a usual way to eliminate or reduce the fluctuations of plasma parameters from pulse to pulse as well as from sample to sample. Thermodynamic criterion, i.e. closeness of excitation potentials of the analytical line and the reference one, is often used to select an appropriate reference line. In this work, we propose an alternative criterion based on searching the best correlated pairs of lines under the variations of laser energy. Two criteria were compared for high-alloy steels and soils of different origins. The discrepancy among the values of plasma temperature calculated from Fe I, Mn I and Cr I transitions was found under the conditions of slightly changed laser fluence on steel samples. On the other hand, the agreement between plasma temperatures, obtained for Fe I and Mn I transitions, was demonstrated in plasma on soil samples. Calibration results obtained for manganese in steels and lead in soils show that thermodynamic criterion can be an appropriate way for choosing an internal standard only under LTE conditions. Two lines of Mn I at 403.07 nm and 404.14 nm and Pb I at 405.78 nm were the analytical lines for the quantification of manganese in steels and lead in soils, respectively. The use of the correlative criterion seems to be suitable for internal standardization under LTE or non-LTE conditions. Probable limitations of the correlative criterion and its possibilities to identify weak lines are discussed in the article. - Highlights: • Novel criterion for internal standard selection, based on the correlation of analytical line and reference one • Comparison of correlation and thermodynamic criteria • Correlation analysis of the spectrum can be useful for atomic line identification. • Correlation approach can be used in LTE and non-LTE conditions

  15. Holmium laser vs. conventional (cold knife) direct visual internal urethrotomy for short-segment bulbar urethral stricture: Outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanwar, Ankur; Kumar, Manoj; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Prakash, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to analyze the outcome between holmium laser and cold knife direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) for short-segment bulbar urethral stricture. We conducted a prospective study comprised of 112 male patients seen from June 2013 to December 2014. Inclusion criterion was short-segment bulbar urethral stricture (≤1.5cm). Exclusion criteria were prior intervention/urethroplasty, pan-anterior urethral strictures, posterior stenosis, urinary tract infection, and those who lost to followup. Patients were divided into two groups; Group A (n=58) included cold knife DVIU and group B (n=54) included holmium laser endourethrotomy patients. Patient followup included uroflowmetry at postoperative Day 3, as well as at three months and six months. Baseline demographics were comparable in both groups. A total of 107 patients met the inclusion criteria and five patients were excluded due to inadequate followup. Mean stricture length was 1.31 ± 0.252 cm (p=0.53) and 1.34 ± 0.251 cm in Groups A and B, respectively. Mean operating time in Group A was 16.3 ± 1.78 min and in Group B was 20.96 ± 2.23 min (p=0.0001). Five patients in Group A had bleeding after the procedure that was managed conservatively by applying perineal compression. Three patients in Group B had fluid extravasation postoperatively. Qmax (ml/s) was found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups at all followups. Both holmium laser and cold knife urethrotomy are safe and equally effective in treating short-segment bulbar urethral strictures in terms of outcome and complication rate. However, holmium laser requires more expertise and is a costly alternative.

  16. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.; Reid, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a subcontractor to EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, conducted a laser beam welding study to attach internal stainless steel thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of laser welding a single 0.063 inch diameter stainless steel (304) sheathed thermocouple into a stainless steel (316) upper end cap for nuclear fuel rods. A laser beam was selected because of the extremely high energy input in unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A special weld fixture was designed and fabricated to hold the end cap and the thermocouple with angular and rotational adjustment under the laser beam. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was used to make the welds

  17. Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M C; Grine, A D; Fuller, C T; Nordquist, C D; Cich, M J; Reno, J L; Lee, Mark

    2011-11-21

    Feedback from a diode mixer integrated into a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to phase lock the difference frequencies (DFs) among the Fabry-Perot (F-P) longitudinal modes of a QCL. Approximately 40% of the DF power was phase locked, consistent with feedback loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and phase noise bandwidth ~0.5 MHz. While the locked DF signal has ≤ 1 Hz linewidth and negligible drift over ~30 min, mixing measurements between two QCLs and between a QCL and molecular gas laser show that the common mode frequency stability is no better than a free-running QCL. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser using local-dry-zone creating nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Osa (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center); Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1992-11-01

    With a view to practical application of the CO laser to underwater cutting of thick steel plates, a nozzle for creating a local dry zone on the workpiece has been developed and tested. The nozzle directed against the workpiece surface discharges a jet of air, which forms the local dry zone, bounded by a cone of high-speed water jet discharged from a concentric annular outlet. Preliminary tests were performed to optimize the nozzle shape and operating conditions. The resulting nozzle was used with a 5 kW CO laser for actual underwater cutting tests on stainless steel plates: Entirely satisfactory cutting performance was confirmed on various workpiece geometries and working positions. (author).

  19. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ''superlasers'', the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings

  20. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H. [eds.

    1996-08-09

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  1. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-01-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  2. International Conference: Fundamentals of Laser Assisted Micro- & Nanotechnologies (FLAMN-07). Workshop: Laser Cleaning and Artworks Conservation (LCAC). St. Petersburg, Russia, 25-28 June 2007. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-28

    DIKETONATE OF EUROPIUM (EUFOD3) CONFINED IN MICROPOROUS GLASS: UV LASER INDUCED LUMINESCENCE KINETICS AND QUANTUM YIELD...efficiency of controllable laser thermal cleavage of insulating materials,” J.Opt.Technol. 71, 117-120 (2004). WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27 Laser-induced static...PS2_23 B-diketonate of europium (EuFOD3) confined in microporous glass: UV laser induced luminescence kinetics and quantum yield Chutko E.A.1

  3. International Semiconductor Laser Conference. Held in Boston, Massachusetts on August 29 - September 1, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    gastronomically rewarding. Excellent restaurants serving seafood, "natural-foods’, and European and Asian dishes are everywhere. A baseball game at nearby...Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, USA .......... 6-7 A:4 9:00 am DFB Lasers with a Crescent-Shaped Active Layer on a Corrugated p-type Substrate Y Ogawa, H. Horikawa...Berkeley, CA, USA ; W.M. Clark Jr., E.H. Stevens and MW Utlaut, Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, CA, USA .. 12-13 A:7 9:45 am Nanosecond Wavelength

  4. Diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulse impact upon a target with an internal nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Gasilov, S. V.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Boldarev, A. S.; Gasilov, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 16 -10 18 W/cm 2 with CO 2 clusters and frozen nanosize water particles is carried out. The stage of cluster expansion and the formation of a plasma channel, which governs the parameters of the formed X-ray radiation source and accelerated ion flows, is studied. The measurements are based on recording spatially resolved X-ray spectra of H- and He-like oxygen ions. Utilization of Rydberg transitions for spectra diagnostics makes it possible to determine plasma parameters on a time scale of t ∼ 10 ps after the beginning of a femtosecond pulse. The role of the rear edge of the laser pulse in sustaining the plasma temperature at a level of ∼100 eV in the stage of a nonadiabatic cluster expansion is shown. The analysis of the profiles and relative intensities of spectral lines allows one to determine the temperature and density of plasma electrons and distinguish the populations of 'thermal' ions and ions that are accelerated up to energies of a few tens of kiloelectronvolts. It is shown that the use of solid clusters made of frozen nanoscale water droplets as targets leads to a substantial increase in the number of fast He-like ions. In this case, however, the efficiency of acceleration of H-like ions does not increase, because the time of their ionization in plasma exceeds the time of cluster expansion.

  5. International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with (sup. 127) I (sub 2) at [lambda] approximately equals 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). Part IV: Comparison of Western European lasers at [lambda] approximately equals 633 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darnedde, H.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Bertinetto, F.; Millerioux, Y.; Haitjema, H.; Wetzels, S.F.C.L.; Piree, H.; Prieto, E.; Perez, M.Mar; Vaucher, B.; Chartier, A.; Chartier, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the fourth set of results of a series of grouped laser comparisons from national laboratories undertaken by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) at the request of the Comite Consultatif pour la Definition du Metre (CCDM; now the Consultative Committee for Length,

  6. Residues of maneb in potatoes and lettuce and their persistence during cooking, washing and uv exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Zennouche, B.; Hylin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Lettuce plants were treated each with 0,186 mg of 14C maneb and 1,86 mg unlabelled maneb. The plants were analyzed 30 days later and subjected to washing. Washing eliminates 17,46% of total 14C maneb applied. No Etu was observed in water.Washing and baking cause a significant decrease of EBDC in potatoes samples and the UV exposition involves a decrease of the fungicide and a formation of Etu. On the other hand 54 % and 38% of lettuce and potatoe samples analyzed by CS2 method exceed the authorized norms

  7. 35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Maio, Dario; Castellini, Paolo; Mains, Michael; Blough, JR; Kerschen, Gaetan; Caicedo, Juan; Pakzad, Shamim; Barthorpe, Robert; Platz, Roland; Lopez, Israel; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; v.1 Nonlinear dynamics; v.2 Dynamics of civil structures; v.3 Model validation and uncertainty quantification; v.4 Dynamics of coupled structures; v.5 Sensors and instrumentation; v.6 Special topics in structural dynamics; v.7 Structural health monitoring & damage detection; v.8 Rotating machinery, hybrid test methods, vibro-acoustics & laser vibrometry; v.9 Shock & vibration, aircraft/aerospace, energy harvesting, acoustics & optics; v.10 Topics in modal analysis & testing

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2017, the first volume of ten from the Conference brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Nonlinear Dynamics, including papers on: Nonlinear System Identification Nonlinear Modeling & Simulation Nonlinear Reduced-order Modeling Nonlinearity in Practice Nonlinearity in Aerospace Systems Nonlinearity in Multi-Physics Systems Nonlinear Modes and Modal Interactions Experimental Nonlinear Dynamics.

  8. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to the main report. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The second appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' contains a description of the search for literature on the subject, a survey of relevant properties and a calculation of the ''shadow'' effect of small windmills, demands on electrical technology placed on small windmills, a survey of participating institutions and consultants, descriptions of the way the project was carried out (divided into phases) and maps of developing countries with details of wind conditions and possibilities of obtaining loans from the World Bank. (AB)

  9. Determination of the changes of the plasma catecholamine level by radioenzymatic method following noise-exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Cs.; Vincze, I.

    1982-01-01

    A new method was applied for the determination of plasma catecholamine levels: all the catecholamines were methylated in the presence of S-adenosyl-1-methyl 3 H-methyonine and the radioactivity of the components - separated with thin-layer chromatography - was measured by liquid scintillation. It is concluded that noise exposition for one hour per day significantly increases the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and dopamine whereas the adrenaline-level shows biphasic change: after a short increase it decreases. (L.E.)

  10. Laser program annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W. (eds.)

    1984-06-01

    In the 1983 Laser Program Annual Report we present the accomplishments and unclassified activities of the Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the year 1983. It should be noted that the report, of necessity, is a summary, and more detailed expositions of the research can be found in the many publications and reports authored by staff members in the Laser Program. The purpose of this report is to present our work in a brief form, but with sufficient depth to provide an overview of the analytical and experimental aspects of the LLNL Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. The format of this report is basically the same as that of previous years. Section 1 is an overview and highlights the important accomplishments and directions of the Program. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various major parts of the Program: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Fusion Experiments, Laser Research and Development, and Energy Applications.

  11. Laser program annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W.

    1984-06-01

    In the 1983 Laser Program Annual Report we present the accomplishments and unclassified activities of the Laser Program at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the year 1983. It should be noted that the report, of necessity, is a summary, and more detailed expositions of the research can be found in the many publications and reports authored by staff members in the Laser Program. The purpose of this report is to present our work in a brief form, but with sufficient depth to provide an overview of the analytical and experimental aspects of the LLNL Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. The format of this report is basically the same as that of previous years. Section 1 is an overview and highlights the important accomplishments and directions of the Program. Sections 2 through 7 provide the detailed information on the various major parts of the Program: Laser Systems and Operations, Target Design, Target Fabrication, Fusion Experiments, Laser Research and Development, and Energy Applications

  12. Reasons between effective doses for tomographic and mathematical models due to external exposition by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Yoriyaz, H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Loureiro, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of Monte Carlo codes and new and sophisticated tomographic human models, or based on voxel, motivated the ICRP to propose a revision of the traditional exposition models, which have been used to calculate doses on organs and tissues using mathematical phantoms MIRD-type 5. This article presents calculations made with tomographic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), recently developed and also, for comparison, with ADAM and Eve mathematician phantoms. All models were coupled to the EGS4 and MCNP4 codes for full body external irradiation by photons. It were simulated expositions AP, PA and rotational for energies varying between 10 keV and 10 MeV. The effective calculated doses were compared separately to evaluate: the replacement of the Monte Carlo code; the composition of the tissues and the replacement of tomographic phantoms by mathematical ones. Effective doses calculated results indicate that for external exposures by photons to introduce models based on voxels can cause a reduction of about 10% to the energies considered in this study

  13. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  14. Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author)

  15. All-optical microscope autofocus based on an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected IR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathe-Peters, M; Annibale, P; Lohse, M J

    2018-02-05

    Microscopic imaging at high spatial-temporal resolution over long time scales (minutes to hours) requires rapid and precise stabilization of the microscope focus. Conventional and commercial autofocus systems are largely based on piezoelectric stages or mechanical objective actuators. Objective to sample distance is either measured by image analysis approaches or by hardware modules measuring the intensity of reflected infrared light. We propose here a truly all-optical microscope autofocus taking advantage of an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected infrared probe beam. We implement a feedback-loop based on the lateral position of a totally internally reflected infrared laser on a quadrant photodetector, as an indicator of the relative defocus. We show here how to treat the combined contributions due to mechanical defocus and deformation of the tunable lens. As a result, the sample can be kept in focus without any mechanical movement, at rates up to hundreds of Hertz. The device requires only reflective optics and can be implemented at a fraction of the cost required for a comparable piezo-based actuator.

  16. Dependence of ΔE effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, J.M.; Bayon, A.; Salazar, F.

    2006-01-01

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in ΔE

  17. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  18. Demonstration of frequency control and CW diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip; Hess, Robert V.; Modlin, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental frequency narrowing studies of a Ti:sapphire ring laser with no intracavity optical elements are reported. Frequency narrowing has been achieved using a birefringent filter between a partially reflecting reverse wave suppressor mirror and the ring cavity output mirror. Results of CW diode laser injection seeding are reported.

  19. Electro-optics/Laser International '80 UK Proceedings of the Conference, Brighton, England, March 25-27, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerrard, H G [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented concerning recent developments in the fields of electro-optics, particularly as it relates to the use of lasers, and other laser applications. Specific topics include loss measurements in graded index compound glass optical fibers, coherent optical two-dimensional signal analysis for picture deblurring applications, applications of the high-resolution holography of large volumes, laser speckle vibrometry for measurements of microscopic motions at audio frequencies, laser hazard control under field conditions, laser coupling to a gaseous medium through resonance saturations, a time-of-flight laser anemometer for remote wind velocity measurement, an electron-beam-pumped excimer laser system, the evaluation of thermal imaging systems, and a flat-plate capacitor discharge N/sub 2/ laser.

  20. The Transcendental Character of Money: An Exposition of Marx's Argument in the Grundrisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frederick Humphrey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An exposition of Karl Marx’s argument in the Grundrisse for the logical development of money, this essay is divided into three parts. Since Marx is concerned to distinguish himself and his method from that of the seventeenth century political economists, I begin my paper with a brief reflection on “the scientifically correct method” or the “theoretical method” (Grundrisse 101 and 102. The second part of this paper considers how Marx justifies beginning his reflection with the concept of production in general. To understand the importance that Marx attributes to production, one must also appreciate the way in which distribution, exchange, and consumption belong to the sphere of production. In the remaining pages of this section of my paper, then, I attempt to reconstruct Marx’s argument for the way in which these concepts (distribution, exchange, and consumption are to be understood in relation to the sphere of production.

  1. Risks associated to exposition to X-rays for medical diagnosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, M. L.; Prieto, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The risks for the embryo-foetus in the developing stages, associated to pregnant patients being exposed to X-rays for diagnostic procedures, implies that the fulfillment of the principles of justification and optimisation and the recommendations established by the different organisations related to radiological protection are carried out. In order to do so, it is necessary for the professional people involved to have the maximum information available on the biological effects of ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus that is developing. In this article this matter is updated: the estimated doses values on the embryo-foetus in radiodiagnosis and the risks associated, as well as a series of recommendations that can be of use to establish procedure protocols, on which the measurements taken to reduce the risks of exposition to ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus in the developing stages are recorded. (Author) 11 refs

  2. Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galster, M.; Adamus, R.; Guhl, C.; Uder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. Materials and Methods: A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. Results: The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 μSv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25 LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. Conclusion: The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. (orig.)

  3. [Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, M; Guhl, C; Uder, M; Adamus, R

    2013-05-01

    Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 μSv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25°LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Application and development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield, II, James E.; Le, Loan; Lopez, Leon; Jolin, John L.; Clegg, Samuel M. [Chemical Diagnostic and Engineering and Physical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Advanced methodologies and improvements to current measurements techniques are needed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards. The primary tool employed by the IAEA to detect undeclared processes and activities at special nuclear material facilities and sites still is environmental sampling. This type of environmental sampling is both time consuming and costly since many samples must be collected, packaged, and shipped to an analytical laboratory for analysis that in some cases can take weeks to months to complete. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently investigating potential uses of LIBS for safeguards applications, including(1) a user-friendly man-portable LIBS system to characterize samples in real to near-real time (typical analysis time are on the order of minutes) across a wide range of elements in the periodic table from hydrogen up to heavy elements like plutonium and uranium, (2) a LIBS system that can be deployed in harsh environments such as hot cells and glove boxes providing relative compositional analysis of process streams for example, ratios like Cm Division-Slash Pu and Cm Division-Slash / U, (3) an inspector field deployable system that can be used to analyze microscopic and single particle samples containing plutonium and uranium, and (4) a high resolution LIBS system that can be used to determine the isotopic composition of samples containing for example uranium and plutonium. In this paper, we will describe our current development and performance testing results for LIBS instrumentation both in a fixed lab and measurements in field deployable configurations.

  5. On the problem of internal optical loss and current leakage in laser heterostructures based on AlGaInAs/InP solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, D. A.; Shashkin, I. S.; Bakhvalov, K. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Bechvay, E. A.; Strelets, V. A.; Shamakhov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers based on MOCVD-grown AlGaInAs/InP separate-confinement heterostructures are studied. It is shown that raising only the energy-gap width of AlGaInAs-waveguides without the introduction of additional barriers results in more pronounced current leakage into the cladding layers. It is found that the introduction of additional barrier layers at the waveguide–cladding-layer interface blocks current leakage into the cladding layers, but results in an increase in the internal optical loss with increasing pump current. It is experimentally demonstrated that the introduction of blocking layers makes it possible to obtain maximum values of the internal quantum efficiency of stimulated emission (92%) and continuouswave output optical power (3.2 W) in semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe wavelength range (1400–1600 nm).

  6. On the problem of internal optical loss and current leakage in laser heterostructures based on AlGaInAs/InP solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, D. A., E-mail: dmitriy90@list.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Bakhvalov, K. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Bechvay, E. A.; Strelets, V. A.; Shamakhov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Semiconductor lasers based on MOCVD-grown AlGaInAs/InP separate-confinement heterostructures are studied. It is shown that raising only the energy-gap width of AlGaInAs-waveguides without the introduction of additional barriers results in more pronounced current leakage into the cladding layers. It is found that the introduction of additional barrier layers at the waveguide–cladding-layer interface blocks current leakage into the cladding layers, but results in an increase in the internal optical loss with increasing pump current. It is experimentally demonstrated that the introduction of blocking layers makes it possible to obtain maximum values of the internal quantum efficiency of stimulated emission (92%) and continuouswave output optical power (3.2 W) in semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe wavelength range (1400–1600 nm).

  7. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  8. Clinical marginal and internal adaptation of CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and cast metal ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamac, Ece; Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    Metal ceramic crowns are widely used in clinical practice, but comparisons of the clinical adaptation of restorations made with different processing techniques are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical marginal and internal adaptation of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with 3 different techniques: computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling (CCM), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and traditional casting (TC). Twenty CCM, 20 DMLS, and 20 TC metal ceramic crowns were fabricated for 42 patients. Before luting the crowns, silicone replicas were obtained to measure marginal gap and internal adaptation that was evaluated at 3 regions: axial wall, axio-occlusal angle, and occlusal surface. Measurements were made with a reflected light binocular stereomicroscope at 20× magnification and analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni post hoc test (α=.05). The mean marginal gap values were 86.64 μm for CCM, 96.23 μm for DMLS, and 75.92 μm for TC. The means at the axial wall region were 117.5 μm for the CCM group, 139.02 μm for the DMLS group, and 121.38 μm for the TC group. One-way ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups for measurements at the marginal gap (P=.082) and the axial wall region (P=.114). The means at the axio-occlusal region were 142.1 μm for CCM, 188.12 μm for DMLS, and 140.63 μm for TC, and those at the occlusal surface region were 265.73 μm for CCM, 290.39 μm for DMLS, and 201.09 μm for TC. The mean values of group DMLS were significantly higher at the axio-occlusal region and the occlusal surface region than those of other groups (Pmetal ceramic crowns performed similarly in terms of clinical marginal and axial wall adaptation. The cement film thickness at the occlusal region and axio-occlusal region were higher for DMLS crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Physique appliquée à l’exposition externe dosimétrie et radioprotection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage fait la synthèse de nombreuses années d'expériences en dosimétrie et techniques de protection contre l’exposition externe, aussi bien dans le domaine industriel que médical. Il rappelle les concepts physiques de base puis propose un certain nombre d'outils d’évaluation des nuisances radiologiques, et les moyens de s'en prémunir, en détaillant notamment les techniques de calcul pour des blindages appropriés. Le premier chapitre traite de la définition des grandeurs radiométriques et dosimétriques fondamentales. Il permet d’aborder au chapitre 2 la question de l'interaction rayonnement-matière sous un angle dédié au dépôt de la dose dans les tissus biologiques. Le troisième chapitre définit quant à lui les grandeurs de protection et les grandeurs opérationnelles liées à la radioprotection. Dans les deux chapitres suivants, l’accent a été mis sur la définition des risques et contre-mesures associées (i.e. protections biologiques) inhérents aux sources de rayonnemen...

  10. "Focus on glaciers": an exposition of geo-photos to attract interest on a vanishing beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Bohm, Gualtiero; Saraò, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Public awareness of the effects of industrial activity on the environment and climate is growing, but the information needs to be disseminated to a larger number of people, of all ages, to be effective. Images can certainly be an optimal tool to communicate the important message of global warming effects and, thanks to the digital techniques, photography is gaining a new popularity. Anybody, owning just a phone or a tablet, has a camera to catch images that can be immediately spread worldwide via web sites, on-line newspapers, social media or blogs to convey messages and emotions. Fine art photography can surely help in attracting interest and in educating people. For this reason, we organize an exposition of artistic pictures; the beauty of the images attracts the eyes of the public, discovering an unknown reality and gives the opportunity to illustrate the dramatic retreat of the Alpine glaciers, and the majesty of the Antarctic landscape, put in danger by the climate changes. The glaciers are the main characters, with the infinite grey-blue shadows due to change in ice density, the spectacular staircases created by the seracs, and the contrast with the embedding rocks. A sub-set of the images will be presented in this context.

  11. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  12. Effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of sulfonated poly-(styrene acrylic acid) (PSAA-S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, G.W.; Becker, E.B.; Silva, L.; Naspolini, A.M.; Consenso, E.C.; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M.A., E-mail: glau_bn@hotmail.co [University of Extreme South of Santa Catarina Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Silveira, F.Z. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Polymers with special properties have been increasingly applied in the development of technological devices. For example, polymeric materials with special electric properties, such as sulfonated poly-(styrene-acrylic acid) - PSAA-S, are of great interest for showing different conductivities depending on the environment where they are applied. The special properties of PSAA are obtained only after sulfonation step in acidic media. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, through a statistical experimental factorial planning. The samples of PSAA-S were submitted to FT-IR and DRX tests. The results showed that the temperature and the time of exposition are significant factors in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, considering that the crystal lattices created during the polymerization are damaged by the action of time and temperature at which the polymer is exposed. (author)

  13. Effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of sulfonated poly-(styrene acrylic acid) (PSAA-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.W.; Becker, E.B.; Silva, L.; Naspolini, A.M.; Consenso, E.C.; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M.A.; Silveira, F.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with special properties have been increasingly applied in the development of technological devices. For example, polymeric materials with special electric properties, such as sulfonated poly-(styrene-acrylic acid) - PSAA-S, are of great interest for showing different conductivities depending on the environment where they are applied. The special properties of PSAA are obtained only after sulfonation step in acidic media. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, through a statistical experimental factorial planning. The samples of PSAA-S were submitted to FT-IR and DRX tests. The results showed that the temperature and the time of exposition are significant factors in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, considering that the crystal lattices created during the polymerization are damaged by the action of time and temperature at which the polymer is exposed. (author)

  14. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  15. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  16. L’exposition au risque de change et les déterminants de la couverture : le cas

    OpenAIRE

    Bellalah, Mondher; Mefteh, Salma

    2002-01-01

    Cet article examine si la valeur d’une entreprise exportatrice française est affectée par les fluctuations contemporaines et retardées du taux de change. En se basant sur un ´échantillon de 100 entreprises exportatrices françaises, l’´étude trouve que 22% des entreprises connaissent une exposition ´économique significative aux fluctuations de change du mois précédent et ce pour la période allant de janvier 1996 à d´décembre 1998. L’´étude examine aussi si l’exposition au risque de change est ...

  17. 7.5 W blue light generation at 452 nm by internal frequency doubling of a continuous-wave Nd-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Baptiste; Gilles, Hervé; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Laroche, Mathieu

    2018-04-16

    We present the first frequency-doubled neodymium-doped fiber laser generating multi-watt CW power near 450 nm. A bow-tie resonator incorporating a LBO nonlinear crystal is integrated within a Nd-doped fiber laser emitting near 900 nm. This scheme achieves an IR to blue conversion efficiency close to 55% without any active control of the internal resonant cavity. As a result, up to 7.5 W of linearly-polarized blue power is generated, with beam quality factors M x 2 ~1.0 and M y 2 ~1.5. A simple numerical model has been developed to optimize and analyse the IR to blue conversion efficiency in the resonant cavity. Performance limitations and prospects for further improvements are discussed.

  18. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  19. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  20. Repeated Exposition to Mercury (II Chloride Enhances Susceptibility to S. schenckii sensu stricto Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batista-Duharte

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that has re-emerged in several tropical and subtropical regions over the last decades. Growing findings suggest that the interplay of host, pathogen, and environment has a determinant effect on the diversity, local distribution, and virulence of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato, the etiologic agent. Among the environmental factors, we have studied the potential role of repeated exposures to mercury (Hg, a known immunotoxic xenobiotic that is widely used in gold mining regions where sporotrichosis outbreaks are frequently reported. In this study, male Swiss mice received subcutaneous injections of either 300 or 1200 µg/kg of mercury (II chloride (HgCl2 for 14 days, three times a week. A control group was injected with the vehicle Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS. Treatment with HgCl2 impaired several immunologic parameters that are involved in host response to Sporothrix infection, such as the production of TNFα, IL-1, and nitric oxide by macrophages, and Th1/Th2/Th17 populations and their respective cytokines. The consequences of these effects on the host resistance to S. schenckii infection were subsequently evaluated. Hg-exposed mice exhibited a higher fungal load in the fungal inoculation site associated to systemic dissemination to spleen and liver on 14 days post-infection and a higher production of specific IgG1 and mild reduction of IgG2a. These findings suggest that repeated exposition to Hg enhances susceptibility to S. schenckii infection in mice and can be a factor associated to sporotrichosis outbreaks in endemic and highly Hg-polluted areas.

  1. Study of an accidental exposition of three workers during a gammagraphy with 192Ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellintani, S.A.; Sahyun, A.; Graciotti, M.E.; Santos, O.R.; Alvares, R.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' This paper is concerned with an accident occurred in an industrial gammagraphy unit located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on 2nd of July, 1988. A work team, composed of three workers, was engaged on a routine operation with a 192 Ir source of 3,299 TBq, when the flexible cable of the holder broke, giving rise to an accidental exposure. The evaluation of the dose received by the three workers was carried out by three different methods: the film badge measurement, the biological dosimetry and the reconstitution of the accident taking into account the exposition time and the distance between the source and the workers. In the film badge evaluation the dose obtained was around 300 mSv, whereas for the biological dosimetry doses of 370 mSv, 290 mSv and 110 mSv was achieved. In the accident reconstitution the doses obtained where: 200 mSv (whole body), 131,000 mSv (left hand) for the first worker; 232 mSv (whole body), 25,000 mSv (left hand), 99,000 mSv (right hand), for the second one and finally 232 mSv (whole body) for the last one. It was concluded, by the evaluation for the doses, that the irradiation was not uniform, being the hand the more severely irradiated organ. From 18th of July, 1988, the victims were treated by the medical staff, together with the radiological protection group, both from the IPEN. In this paper the clinical and laboratorial exams carried out for the evaluation of the extension of the deleterious effects are described. By that time, the victims presented already radiodermatitis in their hands, and the clinical treatment pursued is also described. (author)

  2. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  3. Anisotropy of hardness and laser damage threshold of unidirectional organic NLO crystal in relation to the internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Growth rate of the unidirectional organic crystals were measured and the variation in the growth rate was explained based on the attachment energy model. · Anisotropic behaviors of hardness and laser damage threshold of the unidirectional materials were analyzed. · The obtained results were explained based on the crystal structure of the material. - Abstract: Unidirectional benzophenone crystals were grown along , and directions by uniaxially solution crystallization method at ambient temperature. The growth rate of the grown crystals was varied with orientation. The optical absorption coefficients of benzophenone were measured as a function of wavelength. The optical absorption study reveals that the benzophenone crystal has very low absorption in the wavelength range of interest. Moreover, the laser damage threshold and micro hardness for , and oriented unidirectional benzophenone crystals were measured using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm radiation and Vicker's micro hardness tester, respectively. The laser damage threshold is larger for the and oriented crystals compared to oriented crystal at 1064 nm wavelength. The result is consistent with the hardness variation observed for the three different crystallographic directions of benzophenone crystal. The relation between the laser damage profile and mechanical hardness anisotropy is discussed based on the crystal structure of benzophenone.

  4. 9th International Workshop on Application of Lasers and Storage Devices in Atomic Nuclei Research: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, Magdalena; LASER 2013

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning, the Workshop has been devoted to the application of lasers in atomic nuclear research. (Details can be found in the proceedings of the previous 6th to 8th workshops: Hyperfine Interactions: volumes 164 (2004), 171 (2006) and 196, (2009).) The subject of the previous VIII Workshop (LASER 2009) was broadened, combining two key technologies of modern research: lasers and ion storage techniques. This combination has opened the event to the new research opportunities for investigations in atomic and nuclear physics, for detection of quantum effects in particle ensembles as well as for precision spectroscopy especially for testing fundamental interactions and symmetries. Due to the increased interest in the previous edition, we decided to retain its title and topics for the 2013 edition stressing on atomic properties of superheavy elements and methods of their investigation.

  5. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SEG international exposition and sixty-fourth annual meeting -- 1994 Technical program: Expanded abstracts with authors' biographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting are arranged into the following sections: Borehole geophysics; Computing techniques; Development and production geophysics; Electromagnetics; Gravity and magnetics; Interpretation methods and case histories; Mining geophysics; Near-surface geophysics; Poster presentations; Seismic acquisition; Seismic inversion; Seismic lithology; Seismic modeling and migration; Seismic processing; and a workshop on Seismic data acquisition and processing in mountainous thrust areas. 266 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Evaluation of marginal/internal fit of chrome-cobalt crowns: Direct laser metal sintering versus computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsoy, S; Ulusoy, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the internal and marginal fit of chrome cobalt (Co-Cr) crowns were fabricated with laser sintering, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing, and conventional methods. Polyamide master and working models were designed and fabricated. The models were initially designed with a software application for three-dimensional (3D) CAD (Maya, Autodesk Inc.). All models were fabricated models were produced by a 3D printer (EOSINT P380 SLS, EOS). 128 1-unit Co-Cr fixed dental prostheses were fabricated with four different techniques: Conventional lost wax method, milled wax with lost-wax method (MWLW), direct laser metal sintering (DLMS), and milled Co-Cr (MCo-Cr). The cement film thickness of the marginal and internal gaps was measured by an observer using a stereomicroscope after taking digital photos in ×24. Best fit rates according to mean and standard deviations of all measurements was in DLMS both in premolar (65.84) and molar (58.38) models in μm. A significant difference was found DLMS and the rest of fabrication techniques (P 0.05). DMLS was best fitting fabrication techniques for single crown based on the results.The best fit was found in marginal; the larger gap was found in occlusal.All groups were within the clinically acceptable misfit range.

  8. International Methane Partnership Fighting Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Due to the growth of international attention on the problem of climate change combined with the attractiveness of methane mitigation technologies, the capture and use of methane in agriculture, coal mines, landfills, and the oil and gas sector has increasingly become popular over the past few years. Highlighting this, several countries hosted the international 'Methane to Market' Partnership Conference and Exposition in October 2007 in Beijing, China.

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 󈨛 Held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada on 7-11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Ed.), Schwei~en mit CO,-Hochleistungslasern ( VDI -Verlag, DUsseldorf, 1987), pp. 131 - 139, (in german) 2. G. Herziger in The Industrial Laser Annual...1024 X 1024 ), MARS array processor manufactured by Numerix Corporation, VisiVISION High Resolution Display workstations ( 2048 X 1536) based on...form and can be viewed on ultra high resolution display workstations (Figure 4). VisiNET HIGH SPEED BUS (IMAGE DATA) V’siTEK 2048 X 2048 X 8 bit

  10. Improving Students� Ability in Writing Hortatory Exposition Texts by Using Process-Genre Based Approach with YouTube Videos as the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fifin naili rizkiyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is aimed at finding out how Process-Genre Based Approach strategy with YouTube Videos as the media are employed to improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. This study uses collaborative classroom action research design following the procedures namely planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The procedures of carrying out the strategy are: (1 relating several issues/ cases to the students� background knowledge and introducing the generic structures and linguistic features of hortatory exposition text as the BKoF stage, (2 analyzing the generic structure and the language features used in the text and getting model on how to write a hortatory exposition text by using the YouTube Video as the MoT stage, (3 writing a hortatory exposition text collaboratively in a small group and in pairs through process writing as the JCoT stage, and (4 writing a hortatory exposition text individually as the ICoT stage. The result shows that the use of Process-Genre Based Approach and YouTube Videos can improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. The percentage of the students achieving the score above the minimum passing grade (70 had improved from only 15.8% (3 out of 19 students in the preliminary study to 100% (22 students in the Cycle 1. Besides, the score of each aspect; content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics also improved. � Key Words: writing ability, hortatory exposition text, process-genre based approach, youtube video

  11. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Terzer-Wassmuth, S; Douence, C; Araguas-Araguas, L; Aggarwal, P K; Coplen, T B

    2018-03-15

    Water stable isotope ratios (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test. Eight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies. For the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ 18 O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ 2 H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected. Analysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that laboratories include 1-2 'known

  12. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  13. Optical properties behavior of three optical filters and a mirror used in the internal optical head of a Raman laser spectrometer after exposed to proton radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guembe, V.; Alvarado, C. G.; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Gallego, P.; Belenguer, T.; Díaz, E.

    2017-11-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer is one of the ExoMars Pasteur Rover's payload instruments that is devoted to the analytical analysis of the geochemistry content and elemental composition of the observed minerals provided by the Rover through Raman spectroscopy technique. One subsystem of the RLS instrument is the Internal Optical Head unit (IOH), which is responsible for focusing the light coming from the laser onto the mineral under analysis and for collecting the Raman signal emitted by the excited mineral. The IOH is composed by 4 commercial elements for Raman spectroscopy application; 2 optical filters provided by Iridian Spectral Technologies Company and 1 optical filter and 1 mirror provided by Semrock Company. They have been exposed to proton radiation in order to analyze their optical behaviour due to this hostile space condition. The proton irradiation test was performed following the protocol of LINES lab (INTA). The optical properties have been studied through transmittance, reflectance and optical density measurements, the final results and its influence on optical performances are presented.

  14. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  15. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry; Avaliacao de requisitos de seguranca de um equipamento a laser de erbio para fins odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton

    2002-07-01

    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  16. Impurity heterogeneity in natural pyrite and its relation to internal electric fields mapped using remote laser beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, Jamie S., E-mail: csirojamie@gmail.com [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Large, Ross [Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Regions of band-bending in naturally occurring semiconducting sulfides are thought to drive electrochemical reactions with passing fluids. Metal bearing fluids within the right pH range interact with the electric fields at the surface resulting in precious metal ore genesis, even in under-saturated solutions. Metal reduction at the surface occurs via field assisted electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk to the ion in solution via surface states. Better understanding the role these regions and their texturing play on nucleating ore growth requires imaging of electric field distributions near the sulfide surface and correlation with underlying elemental heterogeneity. In this paper we discuss PIXE measurements made on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe and correlate elemental maps with laser beam induced current maps of the electric field distribution.

  17. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullattuthodi, Sujana; Cherian, Kandathil Phillip; Anandkumar, R; Nambiar, M Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study seeks to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. A master model of a prepared molar tooth was made using cobalt-chromium alloy. Silicone impression of the master model was made and thirty standardized working models were then produced; twenty working models for conventional lost-wax technique and ten working models for DMLS technique. A total of twenty metal copings were fabricated using two different production techniques: conventional lost-wax method and DMLS; ten samples in each group. The conventional and DMLS copings were cemented to the working models using glass ionomer cement. Marginal gap of the copings were measured at predetermined four points. The die with the cemented copings are standardized-sectioned with a heavy duty lathe. Then, each sectioned samples were analyzed for the internal gap between the die and the metal coping using a metallurgical microscope. Digital photographs were taken at ×50 magnification and analyzed using measurement software. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t -test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study reveal that no significant difference was present in the marginal gap of conventional and DMLS copings ( P > 0.05) by means of ANOVA. The mean values of internal gap of DMLS copings were significantly greater than that of conventional copings ( P < 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  18. Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions; Exposition der Augenlinse des Untersuchers und Effizienz der Strahlenschutzmittel bei fluoroskopischen Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galster, M.; Adamus, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord, Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Guhl, C. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Uder, M. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. Materials and Methods: A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. Results: The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 {mu}Sv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25 LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. Conclusion: The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. (orig.)

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of calcium ions dissolved in water using filter paper substrates: an ideal internal standard for precision improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daewoong; Gong, Yongdeuk; Nam, Sang-Ho; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Lee, Yonghoon

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach for selecting an internal standard to improve the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis for determining calcium (Ca) concentration in water. The dissolved Ca(2+) ions were pre-concentrated on filter paper by evaporating water. The filter paper was dried and analyzed using LIBS. By adding strontium chloride to sample solutions and using a Sr II line at 407.771 nm for the intensity normalization of Ca II lines at 393.366 or 396.847 nm, the analysis precision could be significantly improved. The Ca II and Sr II line intensities were mapped across the filter paper, and they showed a strong positive shot-to-shot correlation with the same spatial distribution on the filter paper surface. We applied this analysis approach for the measurement of Ca(2+) in tap, bottled, and ground water samples. The Ca(2+) concentrations determined using LIBS are in good agreement with those obtained from flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Finally, we suggest a homologous relation of the strongest emission lines of period 4 and 5 elements in groups IA and IIA based on their similar electronic structures. Our results indicate that the LIBS can be effectively applied for liquid analysis at the sub-parts per million level with high precision using a simple drying of liquid solutions on filter paper and the use of the correct internal standard elements with the similar valence electronic structure with respect to the analytes of interest.

  20. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  1. Ecocar Expo: Une exposition grand public dédiée à la voiture écologique

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Le 8 octobre 2011, 9h-16h à Meyrin, sur la place des Cinq-Continents, l’association suisse chargée de la promotion des véhicules écologiques e’mobile et la commune de Meyrin réuniront un aperçu des voitures à motorisation alternative efficiente et respectueuse du climat actuellement disponibles sur le marché. Cette manifestation grand-public proposera, démarche originale, des essais gratuits sur route.   Les conducteurs sont de plus en plus sensibles à l’impact de leur voiture sur l’environnement. Des questions sur la consommation, la pollution et les alternatives possibles sont fréquemment évoquées lors de l’achat d’une voiture neuve. Durant l'exposition Ecocar, des professionnels de e’mobile, association indépendante pour la promotion de véhicules rout...

  2. De la restauration à l’exposition : à la recherche de sens et de cohérence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland May

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s'intéresse à la distance existant entre une opération de restauration et sa présentation au grand public. Il s'appuie sur une étude de cas, la restauration d’une toile de Michel Serre, peintre actif en Provence aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Dans le temps imparti pour cette restauration se sont enchaînées études et interventions, mettant en œuvre de nombreux acteurs – restaurateurs, conservateurs, historiens d’art, photographes et scientifiques du patrimoine – dont les échanges étaient orientés vers la réalisation de l’intervention. Passer de ce "faire" au "faire connaître" de l’exposition nécessite des étapes de reconstruction / agrégation analytiques, qui ne sont pas sans rappeler les enquêtes policières : les indices au départ disjoints convergent pour construire des liens nouvellement mis en perspective dans l’exposition.This article focuses on the gap existing between the restoration of a painting and its presentation to the general public. The case study is a painting by Michel Serre, an artist working in Provence in the 17th-18th centuries. During the alloted time for restoration, studies and interventions of numerous actors –conservators, curators, art historians, photographers and conservation scientists – have been focusing on the achievement of the restoration. Translating this "doing" into a "making of" for the exhibition implies reconstruction / analytical aggregation steps, which echo mystery investigation : clues, at the beginning appart, converge towards building links and new standpoints presented in the exhibition.

  3. Confocal laser microscopic imaging of conspicuous facial pores in vivo: relation between the appearance and the internal structure of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Keiichi; Nishijima, Takafumi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2008-05-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one of the more serious esthetic defects of most concern to women. Previous microscopic observations of the skin surface around conspicuous pores have discovered large hollows and uneven skin tone. In this study, the observation area was extended from the skin surface to deeper skin to find the characteristic features of conspicuous pores in a wider spectrum. First, a magnified surface image of the cheek skin was obtained using a video microscope. Second, replicas were collected from the same area. Third, the horizontal cross-sectioned images of the epidermis and papillary dermis in different depths were non-invasively obtained using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. These images were compared with each other to find a correlation between features of the skin surface and those of deeper layers. In cross-sectioned images of conspicuous pores, a strongly undulated epidermal-dermal junction was commonly observed around a pore's opening. Areas with this feature correlated well to the areas with larger hollows and an uneven skin tone. Our results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the incidence of the characteristic feature at the epidermal-dermal junction and the visual appearance of a pore.

  4. Le ministre italien de la science inaugure une exposition industrielle au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    On 30 November 1993 His Excellency Professor Umberto Colombo, Italy's Minister for Universities and Research opened the sixth "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Minister was accompanied by His Excellency the Ambassador Giulio di Lorenzo Badia, Permanent Representative of Italy to the International Organizations in Geneva. CERN's Director-General, Prof. Carlo Rubbia welcomed the Minister and expressed his pleasure at the extremely wide range and high quality of the equipment on display at the exhibition.

  5. Petition Signed by Thomas A. Edison for Sunday Openings at the World's Columbian Exposition. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Linda

    In 1893, in just 184 days, 28 million people, about one-third of the U.S. population, visited the World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago (Illinois). This lesson focuses on petitioning the federal government, peaceably assembling, and exercising freedom of speech and religion, all of which are protected by the First Amendment to the U.S.…

  6. Laser Journal (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-10

    laser is described. The apparatus structure and some experimental results are reported. MATERIAL AND ELEMENT MAGNETO -OPTIC PROPERTIES OF Pr dYb),(1oAI...with a magneto -optical modulator. The measuring system is simple and sensitive, with reading accuracy of ±0.0050 and error 45%. STUDY ON EXPERIMENTAL...laser radiation therapy . He Fang de East Chiia Hospital APPLICATION OF N4d,:Y q LASER TO TREAT INTERNAL HEMERRHOID Zhuo Ruilin Zu Songlin (Shanghai

  7. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  8. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  9. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  10. The 3D laser scanner: a useful technique in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    This 3-dimensional laser scanner allows the visualization of all the structures and equipment visible in a nuclear unit even contaminated. This device can be introduced in any place where its dimensions 60 cm * 20 cm (laser + tripod) permit it. The rotation of the head gives a field of view of 360 degrees in the horizontal plane and of 300 degrees in the vertical plane. The exposition time of the staff is reduced to the intervention times required to position the laser scanner and to recover it which reduces the personnel radiation dose. (A.C.)

  11. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  12. Relationship of the Australian Stock Market with its Major Trading Partners: a Simple Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazharul H. Kazi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available markets of its major trading partners namely, UK, USA, Canada, Germany, France, andJapan using 1945 to 2002 annual data series. The analysis of this paper considers boththe foreign exchange risk element and the notion of share-return parity into its modifiedstructural model which is estimated by applying both OLS and GMM methods. TheUK, Canadian and French markets are found significant from OLS estimation; whileGMM estimation suggests four markets including the German are significant at 5%level. Accordingly, this paper concludes that Australian stock market is related to thatof its trading partners; and it is being influenced by 3 to 4 markets of which the UK isthe most significant. The outcomes of this paper seem beneficial to Australian investorsfor effective diversifications of their international portfolio risks.

  13. Influence of Inherent Surface and Internal Defects on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Alloy: Comparison between Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousová, Michaela; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Doubrava, Karel; Daniel, Matěj; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2018-03-31

    Additive manufacture (AM) appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive manufacture-selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)-in terms of the mechanical properties during both static and dynamic loading. All of the samples were untreated to focus on the influence of surface condition inherent to SLM and EBM. The EBM samples were studied in the as-built state, while SLM was followed by heat treatment. The resulting similarity of microstructures led to comparable mechanical properties in tension, but, due to differences in surface roughness and specific internal defects, the fatigue strength of the EBM samples reached only half the value of the SLM samples. Higher surface roughness that is inherent to EBM contributed to multiple initiations of fatigue cracks, while only one crack initiated on the SLM surface. Also, facets that were formed by an intergranular cleavage fracture were observed in the EBM samples.

  14. Influence of Inherent Surface and Internal Defects on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Alloy: Comparison between Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Fousová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacture (AM appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive manufacture—selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting (EBM—in terms of the mechanical properties during both static and dynamic loading. All of the samples were untreated to focus on the influence of surface condition inherent to SLM and EBM. The EBM samples were studied in the as-built state, while SLM was followed by heat treatment. The resulting similarity of microstructures led to comparable mechanical properties in tension, but, due to differences in surface roughness and specific internal defects, the fatigue strength of the EBM samples reached only half the value of the SLM samples. Higher surface roughness that is inherent to EBM contributed to multiple initiations of fatigue cracks, while only one crack initiated on the SLM surface. Also, facets that were formed by an intergranular cleavage fracture were observed in the EBM samples.

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of safety of laser and light emitting diodes (LED) for human body; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Laser, oyobi hakko diode (LED) ni taisuru jintai eno anzensei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    LD and LED are used in a wide range from telecommunication systems to residential/commercial equipment. Optical semiconductor devices existing in the domain between LD and LED are also being commercialized. In the field of this project, there are a lot of contradictions about the international standards. For the purpose of promoting the common understanding of standards and improving the consistency, the paper examined mainly safety, principles of motion and various applications of laser and LED, and developed international standards for the output measuring method. At the same time, the paper systematically studied the biological safety, determined regulatory values which were backed up as safety standards, and proposed/worked out a draft for new international standardization for safety of LED. Further, by the definition of laser in general, standards related to a lot of TCs among ISO and IEC standards were harmonized for the common understanding on the basis of a common idea. 40 refs., 163 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 30th Course of the International School of Quantum Electronics on Atoms, Solids and Plasmas in Super-Intense Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Joachain, Charles; Martellucci, Sergio; Chester, Arthur; Atoms, Solids and Plasmas in Super-intense Laser Fields "Ettore Majorana"

    2000-01-01

    The recent developement of high power lasers, delivering femtosecond pulses of 20 2 intensities up to 10 W/cm , has led to the discovery of new phenomena in laser interactions with matter. At these enormous laser intensities, atoms, and molecules are exposed to extreme conditions and new phenomena occur, such as the very rapid multi photon ionization of atomic systems, the emission by these systems of very high order harmonics of the exciting laser light, the Coulomb explosion of molecules, and the acceleration of electrons close to the velocity of light. These phenomena generate new behaviour of bulk matter in intense laser fields, with great potential for wide ranging applications which include the study of ultra-fast processes, the development of high-frequency lasers, and the investigation of the properties of plasmas and condensed matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. In particular, the concept of the "fast ignitor" approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been p...

  17. EXPOSITION OF PRIVACY IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS:AN ASSESSMENT ON THE BASIS OF FACEBOOK AND TWITTERUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilge KODAK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With developing new communication technologies, concept of socialization hasbeen changing in terms of content. Social media platforms have become one ofthe most important tools of peoples’ daily lives. This telescopic situation hasrevealed a security problem and vanished privacy inglobal context. Globally asFederal Trade Commission and International Center for Watching Violation ofRights are working on enhancing cyber security. When assessing the problemfrom the individual perspective, there is a clear contradiction between the need ofsecurity and privacy of users and exposing privacyon social media. (Wenger etal., 2009 In other words the facts of security andprivacy are ignored by peoplewho demand it. Exposing oneself makes individual strong as a social subject andenhancing the effort of transforming their identities to a popular Meta. The aim ofthis study is to display people who need respect toprivacy and security presentingtheir privacy life on purpose at social media platforms. This paper suggests thatpeople need to have their own security about privacy on social media first.(Ulaşanoğlu et al., 2010 2 focus group discussions, each comprising of sevenmale and female students between 18-25 years at Maltepe University who haveaccounts both at Facebook and Twitter will be conducted for this study. In thiscontext the study reaches the relational and causative results of sample group’ssharing their private areas on ground of privacy and security. As a result it gets aperspective for describe the conscious internet user.

  18. Topical ocular delivery to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization by dual internalizing RGD and TAT peptide-modified nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yongchao Chu,1,* Ning Chen,2,* Huajun Yu,2,* Hongjie Mu,1 Bin He,1 Hongchen Hua,1 Aiping Wang,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A nanoparticle (NP was developed to target choroidal neovascularization (CNV via topical ocular administration. The NPs were prepared through conjugation of internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid RGD (iRGD; Ac-CCRGDKGPDC and transactivated transcription (TAT (RKKRRQRRRC peptide to polymerized ethylene glycol and lactic-co-glycolic acid. The iRGD sequence can specifically bind with integrin αvβ3, while TAT facilitates penetration through the ocular barrier. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that up to 80% of iRGD and TAT were conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid. The resulting particle size was 67.0±1.7 nm, and the zeta potential of the particles was −6.63±0.43 mV. The corneal permeation of iRGD and TAT NPs increased by 5.50- and 4.56-fold compared to that of bare and iRGD-modified NPs, respectively. Cellular uptake showed that the red fluorescence intensity of iRGD and TAT NPs was highest among primary NPs and iRGD- or TAT-modified NPs. CNV was fully formed 14 days after photocoagulation in Brown Norway (BN rats as shown by optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography analyses. Choroidal flat mounts in BN rats showed that the red fluorescence intensity of NPs followed the order of iRGD and TAT NPs > TAT-modified NPs > iRGD-modified NPs

  19. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 󈨝 (12th), Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on December 3-8, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    divides them corresponds to the vertex of the porro prism . This pattern can be explained by realizing that the resonator is optically equivalent to one...1c). The porro prism folds the resonator back on itself and places the two beams adjacent and parallel to each other (Fig. ld). They are, however...Symposia on Aerospace Sensing Conference, 1989. PORRO OUTPUT PRISM LASER ROD COUPLER Fig. la. Mallet Laser Resonator . Fig. lb. Mallet Laser Near Field

  20. 7TH International Workshop on Laser Physics (LPHYS󈨦) Berlin, Germany July 6-10, 1998 Program and Book of Abstracts: Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Russia)"Laser refractometry of biological media" Tuesday, July 7 Chairs: S. Gonchukov (Russia) and D. Sliney (USA) A. Priezzhev (Moscow, Russia) 11.00...application to the evaluation of blood flow. Optics and Laser Technology, Vol.23, No.4, p.205, 1991. LASER REFRACTOMETRY OF BIOLOGICAL MEDIA S.A. Gonchukov...measuring (fast-action). Refractometry is a classical technique. The sensitivity of traditional measuring is usually 10-4-10-7. That’s no bad. But

  1. Visual internal urethrotomy for management of urethral strictures in boys: a comparison of short-term outcome of holmium laser versus cold knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulela, Waseem; ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Shoukry, Mahmoud; Shouman, Ahmed M; Shoukry, Ahmed I; Ghoneima, Waleed; El Ghoneimy, Mohamed; Morsi, Hany A; Mohsen, Mostafa Abdel; Badawy, Hesham

    2018-04-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of visual internal urethrotomy (VIU) using holmium laser (Ho:YAG) (group A) versus cold knife (group B) in children with urethral strictures. It may be the first comparative study on this issue in children. This study compared Ho:YAG group, which was evaluated prospectively from January 2014 till January 2016, versus cold knife group, which was a historical control performed from March 2008 till February 2010. Children ≤ 13 years old with urethral strictures ≤ 1.5 cm were included successively. Recurrent cases, congenital obstructions and cases with complete arrest of dye in voiding cystourethrography were excluded. Scar tissue was incised at twelve o'clock. Outcome was compared using Student's t, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. Each group included 21 patients. Mean age was 6.27 ± 3.23 (2-13) years old. Mean stricture length was 1.02 versus 1 cm in group A versus B, respectively (p = 0.862). Ten cases of penile/bulbous strictures and another 11 cases of membranous strictures were found in each group. There was no significant difference between both groups in preoperative data. Success rate for initial VIU was 66.7% in group A versus 38% in group B (p = 0.064). This was associated with significantly higher Q max in group A (mean 16.52 vs 12.09 ml/s; p = 0.03). Success rate after two trials of VIU was 76.2% for group A and 47.61% for group B (p = 0.057). No complications were reported in both groups. Laser VIU has a higher success rate than cold knife VIU for urethral strictures ≤ 1.5 cm in children with significantly higher Q max . Both are easy to perform, low invasive and safe.

  2. International Laser Radar Conference (16th) held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts on 20-24 July 1992. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-24

    The Oscillator Module is an efficient crossed- porro multi-mode resonator . The module passed a lOg sine sweep vibration test. A Faraday isolator...Nd:Yag laser. Unstable resonator optics are used to limit the divergence to ’ " mrad. The emitted energy is 200 mJ per pulse and the laser repetition...align the laser output to the center of the quad detector. The steering of the laser beam is accomplished via a two-axis gimballed turning prism

  3. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  4. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  5. Initial hospital management of irradiated and radio-contaminated victims in case of accidental exposure of populations; Prise en charge hospitaliere initiale de victimes irradiees et contaminees dans un contexte d'exposition accidentelle de populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehrenbach; Mantzarides, M.; Bonardel, G.; Gontier, E. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de [Hopital des Armees Percy, Service de Protection Radiologique, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-08-15

    The current risk of radiologic exposure of the population occurs in many circumstances. The industrial accident is remarkably illustrated by the Tchernobyl event. Another kind is still virtual but the international situation does not allow to turn this hypothesis down. It is terrorist utilization of radioactive material. In these situations, medical problems are specific and require particular knowledge about the two forms of exposure which are external irradiation and external and internal contamination. Pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation effects concerning biological tissues are similar in these situations but care actions are dedicated. These elements are mandatory for the elaboration of procedures for the reception of irradiated or contaminated victims, being wounded or not, in a first-aid department. These procedures must comprise two aspects: the recognition of the radiologic exposition and the therapeutic actions taking into account the severity of associated injuries. Diagnosis of a radioactive contamination is rather simple by external detection. Conversely, to estimate the reality of an external irradiation is much more difficult but necessary for dosimetric evaluation. This latter is of the highest importance for the prevision of delayed clinical manifestations. At the hospital level, despite the training effort for first aid departments staff, the nuclear medicine physician, specialist for radioactive contamination, can play a specific role for the preparation of the equipment, the procedures and during intervention after a radiologic event has happened. This emphasizes the obligation for him to update his knowledge about this subject. (author)

  6. Study on Laser Welding Process Monitoring Method

    OpenAIRE

    Knag , Heeshin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a study of quality monitoring technology for the laser welding was conducted. The laser welding and the industrial robotic systems were used with robot-based laser welding systems. The laser system used in this study was 1.6 kW fiber laser, while the robot system was Industrial robot (pay-load : 130 kg). The robot-based laser welding system was equipped with a laser scanner system for remote laser welding. The welding joints of steel plate and steel plat...

  7. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  8. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for high coherent lasers; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Ko coherent laser no shiken (hyoka hoho no hyojunka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the development of high-precision, stabilized lasers, laser interferometers and signal processors, and developmental researches on the testing/evaluation methods for spectral characteristics of high-performance lasers, among others, for proposing the international standards. The program for narrowing the spectral lines for semiconductor lasers experimentally confirms validity of the external resonator structure with the diffraction lattice. The program for the developmental research on spectral width meter designs the width meter based on the delayed self-heterodyne technique, because of necessity for measurement of the spectral line width at a resolution of several hundreds Hz or less. The program for the saturation spectroscopy of iodine molecule designs and fabricates the iodine cell, to lock the semiconductor laser wavelength on the specific absorption line of iodine. It is judged, based on the test results, to be rational to adopt the absorption line of the (6-3) transitional P33 superfine structure. The program for the developmental research on wavelength meter conducts the preliminary tests for atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity changes as the parameters which affect the measurement accuracy. (NEDO)

  9. EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE DURING A MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE TASK DUE TO THE TYPE AND ORDER OF EXPOSITION TO THE TRANSFERENCE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMILO HURTADO-PARRADO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of manipulating the type and order of presentation of transference tests. Twenty eightundergraduate students divided in 4 groups were exposed to a second order matching to sample procedure. Theconditions of exposition were: ascending difficulty/complexity order of the tests, descending order and two randomlyassigned orders. Results are discussed in terms of percentages of effectiveness; additionally, the latency is proposed asan alternative measure sensitive to the level of difficulty of this kind of tasks. Findings showed heterogeneity in thevelocity of acquisition of the conditional discriminations during the training phase, even though the conditions of thetask were equal for all the subjects. The exposition to the ascending and descending order seemed to affect negativelythe effective behavioral adjustment, whereas one of the randomly assigned sequences seemed to be the best condition.The order of exposition to transference tests, in interaction with a history of early acquisition in the training phase,served to understand the findings of this study and to discuss the necessity of a systematical evaluation of the factors implied in the transference tests. It is suggested to assess the validity of different kind of transference tests and theconvenience of some of them to be use in the investigation of the phenomena related to the effective and variablebehavior.

  10. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  11. Transurethral vaporesection of prostate: diode laser or thulium laser?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinji; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Dongjie; Chen, Xiong; Dai, Yuanqing; Gu, Jie; Chen, Mingquan; Hu, Sheng; Bai, Yao; Ning, Yu

    2018-05-01

    This study compared the safety and effectiveness of the diode laser and thulium laser during prostate transurethral vaporesection for treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients with BPH who underwent a diode laser or thulium laser technique for prostate transurethral vaporesection from June 2016 to June 2017 and who were followed up for 3 months. Baseline characteristics of the patients, perioperative data, postoperative outcomes, and complications were compared. We also assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximum flow rate (Q max ), average flow rate (AFR), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) at 1 and 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the functional improvement of each group. There were no significant differences between the diode laser and thulium laser groups related to age, prostate volume, operative time, postoperative hospital stays, hospitalization costs, or perioperative data. The catheterization time was 3.5 ± 0.8 days for the diode laser group and 4.7 ± 1.8 days for the thulium laser group (p diode laser and thulium laser contributes to safe, effective transurethral vaporesection in patients with symptomatic BPH. Diode laser, however, is better than thulium laser for prostate transurethral vaporesection because of its shorter catheterization time. The choice of surgical approach is more important than the choice of laser types during clinical decision making for transurethral laser prostatectomy.

  12. Laser Soap Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  13. Consumer exposure. Basic considerations for regulatory exposure estimations; Exposition des Verbrauchers. Grundlegende Ueberlegungen fuer die Expositionsabschaetzung im regulatorischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, G. [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    ) or LOAEL (low observed adverse effect level). A small hazard/exposure ratio can be attributed to a probability of high risk, whereas a large ratio indicates a small risk of health hazards. The following article discusses the main principles of exposure estimation. (orig.) [German] Die Bewertung von Verbraucherexpositionen umschliesst alle Quellen und Pfade, ueber die Personen im privaten und haeuslichen Umfeld mit Chemikalien in Kontakt kommen. Dabei sind Verbraucher nicht nur diejenigen, die selbst Verbraucherprodukte anwenden, sondern auch alle weiteren Personen, die sekundaer (indirekt) mit dem Produkt Kontakt haben, z.B. Familienangehoerige. Eine Verbraucherexposition kann gemessen oder geschaetzt werden. Beide Verfahren haben Vor- und Nachteile. Waehrend sich Messungen meistens auf individuelle Expositionssituationen beziehen, beschreiben Modelle eher eine verallgemeinerte Expositionssituation (Szenario). Messungen haben daher ihren Platz, wo Quellen von Schadstoffen aufgespuert werden muessen, Modelle eher dort, wo systematisierte Betrachtungen von Risiken durchgefuehrt werden. Zur Expositionsschaetzung gehoeren 3 Abschnitte, erstens die Charakterisierung der Expositionsquelle (z.B. eine Haushaltschemikalie) mit Beschreibung der Anwendungsmodalitaeten (Haeufigkeit, Dauer); zweitens die Beschreibung des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Konzentration des Stoffes im Kontaktmedium, vor allem in der Luft und auf der Haut. Die Exposition wird darueber hinaus durch das Verhalten der exponierten Person selbst bestimmt. Hier ist die Kontaktdauer, auch Zeitbudget genannt, von grosser Bedeutung. Besondere Verhaltensmuster koennen auch fuer bestimmte Populationen von Bedeutung sein. Man nimmt an, dass z.B. im Kindesalter die orale Aufnahme durch das sog. Mouthing (Hand-in-den-Mund-Stecken) eine besondere Rolle spielt. Die Risikocharakterisierung erfolgt durch einen Vergleich der Exposition, ausgedrueckt als Konzentration oder Dosis, mit dem NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level

  14. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS‘ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH KNOW-WANT-LEARN (KWL TECHNIQUE TO TEACH ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION ( Class Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Imelda Wachyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the impacts of the use of Know-Want-Learn technique in improving the reading comprehension to teach analytical exposition among eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Indramayu in the academic year of 2017/2018. The study was action research in two research cycles. In the study, the researcher collaborated with the English teachers and the students. The data of this study were qualitative in nature supported by quantitative data. Qualitative data were obtained from the results of classroom observation and collaborators‘ discussion. Quantitative data were obtained from pre-test and post test results. The instruments for collecting the data were observation guides, interview guides, and the pre-test and posttest. The data were in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, and the scores of the students‘ pre-test and posttest. The results of the two cycles show that the use of Know-WantLearn technique is effective to improve the students‘ reading comprehension. It is supported by the qualitative data which show that (1 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the teacher to scaffold the students‘ comprehension of the text by focusing on the steps before, during, and after reading; (2 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the students to preview the text, assess what they have learned after reading, and motivate their interest in reading; (3 The kind of activities given such as preeteaching vocabulary, using skimming and scanning, using fix-up strategies, and guessing meaning can help the students to read the text efficiently.

  15. 14. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 14. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Selected papers from the 14th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, PEMEX, and FIDE.

  16. 16. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 16. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Selected papers from the 16th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  17. 16. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 16. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Selected papers from the 16th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  18. 13. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 13. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Selected papers from the 13th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE and FIDE.

  19. 18. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 18. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicos. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Selected papers from the 18th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  20. 17. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 17. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Selected papers from the 17th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  1. 18. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 18. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicos. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Selected papers from the 18th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  2. 13. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 13. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Selected papers from the 13th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE and FIDE.

  3. 14. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 14. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Selected papers from the 14th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, PEMEX, and FIDE.

  4. 17. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 17. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Selected papers from the 17th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  5. Exposition by Emil Artin

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Emil Artin was one of the great mathematicians of the twentieth century. He had the rare distinction of having solved two of the famous problems posed by David Hilbert in 1900. He showed that every positive definite rational function of several variables was a sum of squares. He also discovered and proved the Artin reciprocity law, the culmination of over a century and a half of progress in algebraic number theory. Artin had a great influence on the development of mathematics in his time, both by means of his many contributions to research and by the high level and excellence of his teaching and expository writing. In this volume we gather together in one place a selection of his writings wherein the reader can learn some beautiful mathematics as seen through the eyes of a true master. The volume's Introduction provides a short biographical sketch of Emil Artin, followed by an introduction to the books and papers included in the volume. The reader will first find three of Artin's short books, titled The Gamma...

  6. Laser radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, D.; Muric, B.; Vasiljevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization. [sr

  7. L’exposition prolongée des consommateurs à un nouveau produit permet-elle d’accroître son adoption ?

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Josselin; Aurier, Philippe; D'hauteville, François

    2010-01-01

    Cette recherche évalue l’effet de la consommation à domicile d’un nouveau produit (le vin à teneur réduite en alcool) sur son acceptabilité à long terme par les consommateurs, et suppose que l’exposition au produit et l’information non-sensorielle influenceront leurs évaluations hédoniques. Deux groupes de consommateurs ont alors été exposés soit à un vin normal, soit à un vin à teneur réduite en alcool, en condition aveugle le premier mois puis avec l’indication de leurs teneurs en alcool le...

  8. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  9. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA’S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  10. Recent Experiments Leading to the Characterization of the Performance of Portable (He-Ne)/CH4 Lasers: Part I: Results of the 1985 International Comparison BIPM-VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, R.; Chartier, J.-M.; Domnin, Yu S.; Oboukhov, A. S.; Tatarenkov, V. M.

    1988-01-01

    We analyse the results of beat-frequency measurements made on four (He - Ne)/CH4 lasers. It is found that the lack of reproducibility of the frequency of such standards is linked to the existence of various parameters whose relative influences lead to unpredicted experimental results.

  11. Microteaching as a self-learning tool. Students' perceptions in the preparation and exposition of a microlesson in a tissue engineering course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Campos-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Microteaching is a didactic tool of recent application to undergraduate and postgraduate students as a way to promote self-learning. In this work we compared the perceptions of the students who provide instruction in tissue engineering using microteaching and the perceptions of the same students when they receive such instructions. Two similar questionnaires with items related to the preparation and exposition of a microlesson were used to investigate the perception of 56 students before and after the microteaching session. In our results, students significantly prefer to use specific objectives, textbooks and Internet information when they are preparing a microlesson as compared to the situation when they receive it. On the other hand, the use of a pre-programmed index during the exposition and the reduction of the use of PowerPoint software are significantly more preferred by the students after receiving the microlesson. No statistical differences were found for the rest of the options analyzed. These results show that the self-assessment generated in the microteaching session, which is linked to the feedback related to the self-learning process, makes microteaching a technique not only useful for self-learning but also an important tool to promote self-regulation across the curriculum.

  12. From event to impact: International Exhibition and urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The realization of a mega event mainly affects the city life. On the one hand, the exceptional event represents a factor which speeds up urban transformations, that could not be realized otherwise. This characteristic has been defined as “pulsar effect” to explicate the impulse given to normal course of urban living by the mega events. On the other hand, mega events ask for actions aimed at managing the intense displacements due to their organizations and attractive capacity. Among the different types of events, this study considers the Universal Expositions, as they have been defined by the Bureau International des Expositions (the non-governmental organization having the decision power about great exposition. Universal or International Expo’s realization affects specific urban areas, interested by important transformations, especially referred to realization of infrastructure (mobility or dedicated to the event. While the management of urban mobility requires to define specific actions aimed at traffic congestion minimization. Increasing transport demand (visitors and tourists + residents and city-users is one of mega event effects. This work deals with individuations of mega event effects on city organization by analysing some case studies of Expos cities. Particularly referred to transformations occurred in transport infrastructures this articles sketches out the contemporary Expos profile and theirs effects on city.

  13. Pars plana vitrectomy with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation versus vitrectomy without juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation for the treatment of optic disc pit maculopathy: the results of the KKESH International Collaborative Retina Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouammoh, Marwan A; Alsulaiman, Sulaiman M; Gupta, Vishali S; Mousa, Ahmed; Hirakata, Akito; Berrocal, Maria H; Chenworth, Megan; Chhablani, Jay; Oshima, Yusuke; AlZamil, Waseem M; Casella, Antonio Marcelo; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Banker, Alay S; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2016-04-01

    To compare the functional and anatomic outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with juxtapapillary laser photocoagulation (JLP) versus vitrectomy without JLP in optic disc pit maculopathy. This was a multicentre, retrospective study of 46 consecutive patients with optic disc pit maculopathy presenting at tertiary eye centres between 1992 and 2012. Indications for surgery included distorted or decreased vision. Surgical intervention included PPV, posterior vitreous detachment, with or without gas tamponade. Twenty-four patients received laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit (group A) and 22 patients had no laser (group B). Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography findings were the main outcome measures. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 12-98 months). BCVA in group A improved significantly from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.5 logMAR (20/60) postoperatively (p=0.017). In group B, BCVA improved from 0.7 logMAR (20/100) preoperatively to 0.4 logMAR (20/40) postoperatively (p=0.014). The difference in final BCVA between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.693). The mean central macular thickness (CMT) in group A improved significantly from 750 μm preoperatively to 309 μm at last follow-up (pfinal CMT between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.747). PPV with JLP for optic disc pit maculopathy had similar functional and anatomic outcomes compared with vitrectomy without JLP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  15. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  16. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  17. Powerful lasers for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.; Krokhin, O.; Sklizkov, G.; Fedotov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters are discussed of the radiation of powerful lasers (internal energy of the plasma determined by the volume, density and temperature of the plasma, duration of the heating pulse, focusing of the laser pulse energy in a small volume of matter, radiation contrast) for attaining an effective thermonuclear fusion at minimum microexplosion energy. A survey is given of the methods of shaping laser pulses with limit parameters, and the principle of the construction of powerful laser systems is described. The general diagram and parameters are given of the Delfin thermonuclear apparatus and a diagram is presented of the focusing system of high luminosity for spherical plasma heating using spherical mirrors. A diagram is presented of the vacuum chamber and of the complex diagnostic apparatus for determining the basic parameters of thermonuclear plasma in the Delfin apparatus. The prospects are indicated of the further development of thermonuclear laser apparatus with neodymium and CO 2 lasers. (B.S.)

  18. Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Laser Resurfacing Uses for Laser Resurfacing Learn more ...

  19. Exposition orale aux nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) : du franchissement de l’épithélium buccal et intestinal au devenir et aux effets dans l’organisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Face à l’utilisation exponentielle des nanomatériaux dans des produits de consommation courante, dont l’alimentation, les conséquences pour l’homme d’une exposition quotidienne aux faibles doses de nanoparticules posent des questions de santé publique. Parmi les différentes voies d’exposition, la voie orale reste la moins documentée, alors que des nanomatériaux sont couramment utilisés comme additifs alimentaires, ou incorporés `a des emballages au contact des aliments, de l’eau, pour b´en´ef...

  20. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  1. YCOB lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Martin; Hammons, Dennis; Eichenholz, Jason; Chai, Bruce; Ye, Qing; Jang, Won; Shah, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)

  2. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  3. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  4. The internal propagation of fusion flame with the strong shock of a laser driven plasma block for advanced nuclear fuel ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekynia, B.; Razavipour, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated skin layer may be used to ignite solid state fuels. Detailed analyses were clarified by solving the hydrodynamic equations for nonlinear force driven plasma block ignition. In this paper, the complementary mechanisms are included for the advanced fuel ignition: external factors such as lasers, compression, shock waves, and sparks. The other category is created within the plasma fusion as reheating of an alpha particle, the Bremsstrahlung absorption, expansion, conduction, and shock waves generated by explosions. With the new condition for the control of shock waves, the spherical deuterium-tritium fuel density should be increased to 75 times that of the solid state. The threshold ignition energy flux density for advanced fuel ignition may be obtained using temperature equations, including the ones for the density profile obtained through the continuity equation and the expansion velocity for the r ≠ 0 layers. These thresholds are significantly reduced in comparison with the ignition thresholds at x = 0 for solid advanced fuels. The quantum correction for the collision frequency is applied in the case of the delay in ion heating. Under the shock wave condition, the spherical proton-boron and proton-lithium fuel densities should be increased to densities 120 and 180 times that of the solid state. These plasma compressions are achieved through a longer duration laser pulse or X-ray. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  5. Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstmann, Elena; Gräwe, Dennis; Tamminga, Matthias; Fischer, Elke Kerstin

    2017-02-15

    The abundance, weight and composition of marine debris were determined at the northwest coast of the Isle of Rügen in 2015. A total number of 1115 macrolitter items were registered, resulting in an abundance of 304±88.96 items per 100m of beach length and therefore being greater than the abundances found for other beaches at the Baltic Sea. Macrolitter items were predominantly composed of plastic, on average 83%. The four beaches under investigation have different exposition as well as touristic levels. The differing influence of wind and water currents as well as recreational activities on the macrolitter at these beaches was detectable. The distribution of items within a beach segment was analyzed by implementing D-GPS and drone aerial photography. The results of this analysis suggested that the identity of the substrate as well as the presence of vegetation are both major influencing factors in the macrolitter distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. « Un chaos savamment ordonné… ». L’élaboration conceptuelle de l’Exposition internationale japonaise en 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Houdart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  « Pas besoin de roman, Orsenna, ni même de nouvelles, moi je ne suis écrivain que de quelques mots. “Un chaos savamment ordonné de plantes, d’animaux et d’êtres humains”.Dites-moi, Orsenna, franchement, c’est bien ça une exposition coloniale : ça et rien que ça ?Alors [Gruvel] proposait à chaque séanceson chaos. […]Le chef de service proposait une descriptiondu palais des Colonies :“Derrière son élégante et pure colonnade, la haute façade apparaîtra tout entière transformée en une immense fr...

  7. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C.

    2014-10-01

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  8. Maintenance technologies for reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masahiro [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Keihin Product Operations; Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Seiichiro [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corp., Tokyo(Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Toshiba places the highest priority on maintenance technologies for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals in operating nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the status of applied laser maintenance technologies, both preventive and repair. For laser peeing and laser desensitization treatment (LDT) technologies in particular, field applications are also described in detail. In the future, the area of field applications for preventive maintenance, repair, and inspection technologies will be further expanded. (author)

  9. Laser-assisted one-pot fabrication of calcium phosphate-based submicrospheres with internally crystallized magnetite nanoparticles through chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Maki; Oyane, Ayako; Sakamaki, Ikuko; Ishikawa, Yoshie; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Kawaguchi, Kenji

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we have further developed our simple (one-pot) and rapid (short irradiation time) laser fabrication process of submicrometer spheres composed of amorphous calcium iron phosphate. In our previous process, laser irradiation was applied to a calcium phosphate (CaP) reaction mixture supplemented with ferric ions (Fe(3+)) as a light-absorbing agent. Because the intention of the present study was to fabricate magnetite-encapsulated CaP-based submicrometer spheres, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) were used as a light-absorbing agent rather than ferric ions. The ferrous ions served as a light-absorbing agent and facilitated the fabrication of submicrometer and micrometer spheres of amorphous calcium iron phosphate. The sphere formation and growth were better promoted by the use of ferrous ions as compared with the use of ferric ions. The chemical composition of the spheres was controllable through adjustment of the experimental conditions. By the addition of sodium hydroxide to the CaP reaction mixture supplemented with ferrous ions, fabrication of CaP-based magnetic submicrometer spheres was successfully achieved. Numerous magnetite and wüstite nanoparticles were coprecipitated or segregated into the CaP-based spherical amorphous matrix via light-material interaction during the CaP precipitation process. The magnetic properties of the magnetite and wüstite formed in the CaP-based spheres were investigated by magnetization measurements. The present process and the resulting CaP-based spheres are expected to have great potential for biomedical applications.

  10. 15. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 15. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Selected papers from the 15th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, Universidad autonoma Metropolitana, and FIDE.

  11. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Ullattuthodi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  12. Laser acceleration... now with added fibre

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Laser acceleration technology is plagued by two main issues: efficiency and repetition rates. In other words, lasers consume too much power and cannot sustain accelerating particles long enough to produce collisions. ICAN, a new EU-funded project, is examining how fibre lasers may help physicists tackle these issues.   A diode-pumped fibre laser. (Image courtesy of Laser Zentrum Hannover.) The International Coherent Amplification Network (ICAN) is studying the potential of lasers for collision physics. CERN is a beneficiary of the project and will collaborate with 15 other institutes from around the world, including KEK in Japan, Fermilab in the USA, and DESY in Germany. “The network is looking into existing fibre laser technology, which we believe has fantastic potential for accelerators,” says Gerard Mourou, ICAN co-ordinator at the École Polytechnique in France. “The hope is to make laser acceleration competitive with traditional radio-fre...

  13. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  14. What makes for a successful laser application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    Industrial application of lasers are within several different niches. A few of these niches are so large that standard equipment are on the market. However, most applications are more or less custom designed.The industrial laser market is new, the market size is small, and therefore the systems...... suppliers do normally not pocess internal ressources for efficient application development, except for their key market segments.The industrial laser market is further characterized by the large divertisement in products: Is the optimum laser for a certain job a CO2- or a ND-YAG-laser? Ore perhaps a Copper...

  15. Laser applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnick, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A large fraction of the International Workshop on Hyperfine Interactions was devoted to various aspects of 'laser applications in nuclear physics'. This panel discussion took place before all of the relevant formal presentations on the subject were complete. Nevertheless, there had been sufficient discussions for the significance of this emerging area of hyperfine interaction research to be made clear. An attempt was made to identify critical and controversial aspects of the subject in order to critically evaluate past successes and indicate important future directions of research. Each of the panelists made a short statement on one phase of laser-nuclear physics research, which was followed by general discussions with the other panelists and the audience. In this report, a few areas which were not covered in the formal presentations are summarized: extensions of laser spectroscopy to shorter lifetimes; extension of laser techniques to nuclei far off stability; interpretation of laser spectroscopic data; sensitivity and spectral resolution; polarized beams and targets. (Auth.)

  16. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  17. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  18. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  19. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  20. Atom dynamics in laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Su; Mi, No Gin

    2004-12-01

    This book introduces coherent dynamics of internal state, spread of atoms wave speed, semiclassical atoms density matrix such as dynamics equation in both still and moving atoms, excitation of atoms in movement by light, dipole radiating power, quantum statistical mechanics by atoms in movement, semiclassical atoms in movement, atoms in movement in the uniform magnetic field including effects of uniform magnetic field, atom cooling using laser such as Doppler cooling, atom traps using laser and mirrors, radiant heat which particles receive, and near field interactions among atoms in laser light.

  1. Laser safety considerations for a mobile laser program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Mary

    1997-05-01

    An increased demand for advanced laser technology, especially in the area of cutaneous and cosmetic procedures has prompted physicians to use mobile laser services. Utilization of a mobile laser service allows physicians to provide the latest treatments for their patients while minimizing overhead costs. The high capital expense of laser systems is often beyond the financial means of individual clinicians, group practices, free-standing clinics and smaller community hospitals. Historically rapid technology turnover with laser technology places additional risk which is unacceptable to many institutions. In addition, health care reform is mandating consolidation of equipment within health care groups to keep costs at a minimum. In 1994, Abbott Northwestern Hospital organized an in-house mobile laser technology service which employs a group of experienced laser specialists to deliver and support laser treatments for hospital outreach and other regional physicians and health care facilities. Many of the hospital's internal safety standards and policies are applicable to the mobile environment. A significant challenge is client compliance because of the delicate balance of managing risk while avoiding being viewed as a regulator. The clinics and hospitals are assessed prior to service to assure minimum laser safety standards for both the patient and the staff. A major component in assessing new sites is to inform them of applicable regulatory standards and their obligations to assure optimum laser safety. In service training is provided and hospital and procedures are freely shared to assist the client in establishing a safe laser environment. Physician and nursing preceptor programs are also made available.

  2. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  3. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity.

  4. Partial Internal Control Recovery on 1-D Klein-Gordon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Pranoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this exposition, a technique to recover internal control on a distributed parameter system is reported. The system is described by 1-D Klein-Gordon partial differential equation with a time-varying parameter. We would like to recover the internal control applied to the system if we know some limited information about the output. We use a method called sentinel method to recover the internal control. It involves some construction of a linear functional, and we show that this construction relates closely to the exact controllability problem.

  5. Responses of antioxidant systems after exposition to rare earths and their role in chilling stress in common duckweed (Lemna minor L.): a defensive weapon or a boomerang?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, M P; Fasciano, C; d'Aquino, L; Morgana, M; Tommasi, F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive agriculture application of rare earth elements (REEs) in Far East countries might cause spreading of these metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, thus inducing a growing concern about their environmental impact. In this work the effects of a mix of different REE nitrate (RE) and of lanthanum nitrate (LA) on catalase and antioxidant systems involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were investigated in common duckweed Lemna minor L. The results indicated that L. minor shows an overall good tolerance to the presence of REEs in the media. Treatments at concentrations up to 5 mM RE and 5 mM LA did not cause either visible symptoms on plants or significant effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, chlorophyll content, and lipid peroxidation. Toxic effects were observed after 5 days of exposition to 10 mM RE and 10 mM LA. A remarkable increase in glutathione content as well as in enzymatic antioxidants was observed before the appearance of the stress symptoms in treated plants. Duckweed plants pretreated with RE and LA were also exposed to chilling stress to verify whether antioxidants variations induced by RE and LA improve plant resistance to the chilling stress. In pretreated plants, a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione redox state and in chlorophyll content and an increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS production levels were observed. The use of antioxidant levels as a stress marker for monitoring REE toxicity in aquatic ecosystems by means of common duckweed is discussed.

  6. Toxicological and industrial-medical aspects of exposure to dichloromethane and other aliphatic halocarbons; Toxikologische und arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte der Exposition gegenueber Dichlormethan und anderen aliphatischen Halogenkohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D. [ed.] [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie; Verkoyen, C. [ed.] [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Projekttraegerschaften fuer Arbeit, Umwelt und Gesundheit; Wolna, P. [ed.] [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie; Wuenscher, U. [ed.] [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1993-12-31

    The present volume is based on contributions to the workshop on ``Toxicological and industrial-medical aspects of exposure to dichloromethane and other aliphatic halocarbons`` which took place in Halle (Saale) on 25 November 1993. The purpose of the master project was to examine by animal experiment the effects of certain noxions factors on moderate CO hypoxia and the cardiovascular system as a whole following DCM intoxication, in particular the additional uptake of solvents and drings. Another part of the project consisted in specific examinations of gene toxicity. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband entstand aus Beitraegen eines am 25. November 1993 in Halle (Saale) stattgefundenen Workshops ``Toxikologische und arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte der Exposition gegenueber Dichlormethan und anderen aliphatischen Halogenkohlenwasserstoffen``. Das Ziel des Vorhabens bestand darin, tierexperimentell die Beeinflussung der moderaten CO-Hypoxie nach DCM-Aufnahme durch verschiedene Faktoren, insbesondere durch zusaetzliche Aufnahme von Loesungs- und Arzneimitteln zu untersuchen sowie Wirkungen auf das Herz-Kreislauf-System zu erfassen. Weiterhin erfolgten gezielte Untersuchungen zur Gentoxizitaet. (orig./MG)

  7. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  8. Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Nimmrichter, Johann; Schreiner, Manfred; LACONA VI Proceedings

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decades, the use of lasers in artworks conservation became an important tool for many conservators, scientists, architects and other experts, who are involved in the care of monuments and artefacts or laser technology. For the first time in 1995 Professor Costas Fotakis brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation. Since then the field of "Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks" has gained enormously in importance. Nowadays restorers and laser scientists work close together in order to develop new fields of applications during the last years. Furthermore a large number of national and international research projects have been carried out by conservator-restorers, architects and scientists. In the last 10 years a number of historical and artistic high quality monuments (e.g. St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna) have been cleaned or measured by laser and brought the laser in the spectra of tools which are useful in the sensible field of artworks. ...

  9. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  10. Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.

  11. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  12. Evidence for highly localized damage in internal tin and powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strands rolled before reaction obtained from coupled magneto-optical imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyanskii, A A; Lee, P J; Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C [Applied Superconductivity Center, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Barzi, E; Turrioni, D; Zlobin, A V [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for high-current, high-field magnets must be cabled before reaction while the conductor is still composed of ductile components. Even though still in the ductile, deformable state, significant damage can occur in this step, which expresses itself by inhomogeneous A15 formation, Sn leakage or even worse effects during later reaction. In this study, we simulate cabling damage by rolling recent high performance powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal tin (IT) strands in controlled increments, applying standard Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat treatments, and then examining the local changes using magneto-optical imaging (MOI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These combined characterizations allow any local damage to the filament architecture to be made clear. MOI directly reveals the local variation of superconductivity while CLSM is extremely sensitive in revealing Sn leakage beyond the diffusion barrier into the stabilizing Cu. These techniques reveal a markedly different response to deformation by the PIT and IT strands. The study demonstrates that these tools can provide a local, thorough, and detailed view of how strands degrade and thus complement more complex extracted strand studies.

  13. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  14. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  15. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  16. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  17. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  18. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  19. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  20. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  1. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  2. Laser Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Joseph P.; Markus, Jodi L.; Al-Dujaili, Zeena; Markus, Ramsey F.

    2007-01-01

    In a society desiring images of beauty and youthfulness, the world of cutaneous surgery offers the gifts of facial rejuvenation for those determined to combat the signs of aging. With the development of novel laser and plasma technology, pigmentary changes, scarring, and wrinkles can be conquered providing smoother, healthier, younger-looking skin. This review highlights five of the most popular resurfacing technologies in practice today including the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the erbium:yt...

  3. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  4. Feedback stabilization system for pulsed single longitudinal mode tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, Peter; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1991-10-01

    A feedback stabilization system for pulse single longitudinal mode tunable lasers having an excited laser medium contained within an adjustable length cavity and producing a laser beam through the use of an internal dispersive element, including detection of angular deviation in the output laser beam resulting from detuning between the cavity mode frequency and the passband of the internal dispersive element, and generating an error signal based thereon. The error signal can be integrated and amplified and then applied as a correcting signal to a piezoelectric transducer mounted on a mirror of the laser cavity for controlling the cavity length.

  5. Analysis of equivalent dose (H) starting from the exposition (X) received for patient families in myocardial perfusion study with 99mTc-Sestamibi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez H, I.; Vazquez E, R.; Jimenez A, L.

    2010-09-01

    The myocardial perfusion study with 99m Tc-Sestamibi has the major indication frequency for the coronary arterial illness diagnostic, due to its high sensibility and specificity. The patient families that are exposed to this study also receive the radiation of the injected radiopharmaceutical. The punctual source model (Psm) is generally used for the absorbed dose calculation of the radiation coming from patients under any procedure with radiopharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to compare the equivalent doses calculated theoretically (Dat) by means of Psm, regarding the measurements that routinely are made by means of a detector Geiger (Dam), as well as to quantify the maxim equivalent dose to which they are exposed the families of the subjected patients to this procedure. 30 voluntary patients were evaluated with clinical indication for myocardial perfusion study with 99m Tc-Sestamibi with acquisition protocol of 1 day: Rest-effort, with dose of 15-30 mCi (555-1110 mBq) respectively. Immediate to each injection of 99m Tc-Sestamibi was calculated the Dat, using the equation that the Psm describes, considering a distance of 1 meter; and the exposition speed was measured by means of a detector Geiger at a distance 1 meter to the heart height. The measurements comparison (Dat vs Dam) was realized by means of the test statistical t-student for independent samples, considering a significance level p≤0.05. For the data of the second injection, was realized a regression analysis to evaluate the lineal correlation among both measurements. Immediately after the injection of 15 mCi (555 mBq) of 99m Tc-Sestamibi, the values of the Dam (1.37±0.43 mrem, 13.7±4.3 μSv) they differ significantly of the Dat (1.04 mrem, p 99m Tc-Sestamibi was carried out in an average time of 2.57±0.02 hr, having the patients group a calculated initial activity of 11.14±0.76 mCi (412.2±28.12 mBq). Differences were not observed statistically significant between the Dam (2.76±0

  6. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  7. Excimer laser ablation of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, George H.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Weiblinger, Richard P.

    1995-03-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation is being extensively investigated clinically to reshape the optical surface of the eye and correct vision defects. Current knowledge of the laser/tissue interaction and the present state of the clinical evaluation are reviewed. In addition, the principal findings of internal Food and Drug Administration research are described in some detail, including a risk assessment of the laser-induced-fluorescence and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties of cornea during the intense UV irradiation. Finally, a survey is presented of the alternative laser technologies being explored for this ophthalmic application.

  8. Exposition and evaluation of scenarios for the planning of the national power sector; Planteamiento y evaluacion de escenarios para la planeacion del sector energetico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez R, Ranulfo; Flores L, Marco P; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M; Sanchez H, Laura E; Castrejon B, David; Porras L, Gladys L; Lopez A, Esmeralda; Lima R, Deytia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this article the Model of Optimization of Provision and Distribution of Electricity and Fuels is described, which is the analysis tool used by the responsible national organisms to cover the national demand of fuels and electricity for the accomplishment of studies that provide support elements in the exposition of policies covering the national demands, simultaneously diminishing the cost and reducing the environmental impact. This tool determines the combination of technologies and fuels that imply the smaller cost for the country at the time of covering the energy demands. This document extends on the analytical resources and planning that serve as a base to the Model and on its complements, such as risk estimations facing each investment alternative. All this with the purpose of providing more reliable information to the decision maker group in the matter of energy policies. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el Modelo de Optimizacion de Suministro y Distribucion de Electricidad y Combustibles, que es la herramienta de analisis empleada por los organismos nacionales responsables de cubrir la demanda nacional de combustibles y electricidad para la realizacion de estudios que proporcionen elementos de apoyo en el planteamiento de politicas que cubran las demandas nacionales, al mismo tiempo que minimicen el costo y reduzcan el impacto ambiental. Esta herramienta determina la combinacion de tecnologias y combustibles que impliquen el menor costo para el pais al momento de cubrir las demandas de energeticos. Este documento amplia sobre los recursos analiticos y planeaciones que sirven de base al modelo y sobre sus complementos, como estimaciones de riesgo frente a cada alternativa de inversion. Todo esto con el fin de suministrar informacion mas confiable al grupo que toma las decisiones en materia de politicas energeticas.

  9. Mathematical simulation of the thermal diffusion in dentine irradiated with Nd:YAG laser using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Lobo, Paulo D. d. C.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.; Watanabe-Sei, Ii; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Otsuka, Daniel K.

    2002-06-01

    Thermal damage in dental pulp during Nd:YAG laser irradiation have been studied by several researchers; but due to dentin inhomogeneous structure, laser interaction with dentin in the hypersensitivity treatment are not fully understood. In this work, heat distribution profile on human dentine samples irradiated with Nd:YAG laser was simulated at surface and subjacent layers. Calculations were carried out using the Crank-Nicolson's finite difference method. Sixteen dentin samples with 1,5 mm of thickness were evenly distributed into four groups and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser pulses, according to the following scheme: (I) 1 pulse of 900 mJ, (II) 2 pulses of 450 mJ, (III) 3 pulses of 300 mJ, (IV) 6 pulses of 150 mJ; corresponding to a total laser energy of 900 mJ. The pulse interval was 300ms, the pulse duration of 900 ms and irradiated surface area of 0,005 mm2. Laser induced morphological changes in dentin were observed for all the irradiated samples. The heat distribution throughout the dentin layer, from the external dentin surface to the pulpal chamber wall, was calculated for each case, in order to obtain further information about the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-oral hard tissue interaction. The simulation showed significant differences in the final temperature at the pulpal chamber, depending on the exposition time and the energy contained in the laser pulse.

  10. The GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic co-location in space through the precision orbit determination of GPS satellites via satellite laser ranging will contribute significantly towards improving the accuracy and stability of the international terrestrial reference frame. NASA recently formed the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project to develop and deliver retroreflectors for integration on the next generation of GPS satellites. These retroreflectors will be an important contributor to achieving a global accuracy of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm/year stability in the international terrestrial reference frame. We report here the current status of the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project.

  11. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  12. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  13. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? What does the future hold ... therapy is appropriate for them. What are the disadvantages of laser therapy? Laser therapy also has several ...

  14. Practical laser safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winburn, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book includes discussions of the following topics: characteristics of lasers; eye components; skin damage thresholds; classification of lasers by ANSI Z136.1; selecting laser-protective eyewear; hazards associated with lasers; and, an index

  15. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  16. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  17. Environmental exposure;Exposition environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    This study follows a study realised in the late 80's by the National cancer institute to analyse the rate of cancers near american nuclear power plants (Jablon S and al, Jama 1991). The rates of mortality for the leukemia of child remain near 1 but increased in the proximity of nuclear power plants still in operation, in a statistically significant way only for old ones; they decreased in the proximity of nuclear power plants that are no more in operation. However, we must be cautious with the interpretation of these results. the question arises of an influence of environmental radioisotopes but other factors can occur ( social situation, other atmospheric pollutants, proximity of medical centers). Otherwise, the incidence of the child leukemia has very much increased these last years without any clear explanation ( =28% in Usa between 1975 and 2004). On the other hand, the rate of mortality decreased because of more efficient treatments (-49% on the same period). These findings justify to continue studies on leukemia of child in the vicinity of nuclear power plants, studies of incidences got from registers susceptible to give the most interesting results. (N.C.)

  18. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: characterization by internal transcribed spacer, β-Tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, metabolic fingerprinting, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Emily W T; Chen, Jonathan H K; Lau, Eunice C L; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. β-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability.

  19. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, β-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. β-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  20. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  1. Laser-plasma interactions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neely, David; Bingham, Robert; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications covers the fundamental and applied aspects of high power laser-plasma physics. With an internationally renowned team of authors, the book broadens the knowledge of young researchers working in high power laser-plasma science by providing them with a thorough pedagogical grounding in the interaction of laser radiation with matter, laser-plasma accelerators, and inertial confinement fusion. The text is organised such that the theoretical foundations of the subject are discussed first, in Part I. In Part II, topics in the area of high energy density physics are covered. Parts III and IV deal with the applications to inertial confinement fusion and as a driver of particle and radiation sources, respectively. Finally, Part V describes the principle diagnostic, targetry, and computational approaches used in the field. This book is designed to give students a thorough foundation in the fundamental physics of laser-plasma interactions. It will also provide readers with knowl...

  2. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions; Proposta de procedimentos para evitar erros em radioterapia baseados em licoes aprendidas de exposicoes acidentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-07-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that

  3. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions; Proposta de procedimentos para evitar erros em radioterapia baseados em licoes aprendidas de exposicoes acidentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-07-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  4. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  5. Alkali-vapor laser-excimer pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Desheng; Li Wenyu; Wang Hongyan; Yang Zining; Xu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research internal and overseas, the principle of the excimer pumped alkali laser (XPAL) is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of the XPAL are analyzed. Taking into consideration the difficulties that the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) meets on its development, the ability to solve or avoid these difficulties of XPAL is also analyzed. By summing up the achievements of the XPAL, the possible further prospect is proposed. The XPAL is of possibility to improve the performance of the DPAL. (authors)

  6. Colgajo prefabricado occipital para cobertura de exposición ósea craneal Prefabricated occipital flap to cover craneal bone exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rivas León

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición del cráneo tras un tratamiento quirúrgico oncológico agresivo es un desafió reconstructivo para el cirujano plástico; los defectos pueden variar en dimensiones y complejidad, desde pequeños defectos, que pueden ser cubiertos con injertos dérmicos o colgajos locales, a defectos más extensos que requerirán de un colgajo libre para su cobertura. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 39 años de edad que presentó un defecto biparietal posterior a radioterapia y resección por carcinoma. El defecto fue cubierto con un colgajo prefabricado axial, tomado del área antebraquial e implantado bajo la piel cabelluda occipital, para posteriormente ser llevado al sitio del defecto. El colgajo axial occipital evolucionó satisfactoriamente y logramos cubrir el defecto en su totalidad, sin complicaciones. En conclusión, el colgajo prefabricado occipital aporta suficiente piel cabelluda con patrón vascular axial para cubrir hueso craneal expuesto, cuando no hay una mejor opción cosmética.Cranial bone exposition after an aggressive oncological treatment is a challenge for plastic surgeon; defects can range in size and complexity, from small defects which can be covered only with skin graft or local flaps, to extensive defects that will require a free flap cover. We report a case of a 39 years-old man, who presented soft tissue defect of biparietal area following to radiotherapy and carcinoma resection. This defect was covered by prefabricated axial flap, which was harvest of forearm area and implanted under occipital hair skin and subsequently transported to the defect. The axial occipital flap healed uneventfully with a good outcome; we managed to cover the scalp defect completely without complications. As a conclusion, prefabricated occipital flap provides enough hair skin, with axial vascularity pattern to cover cranial bone exposed, when there is not a better cosmetical option.

  7. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heattreated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphitoreducting Clostridia were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Results. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8% samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1% out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely

  8. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  9. Laser polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Polarimetry, or transmission ellipsometry, is an important experimental technique for the determination of polarization properties of bulk materials. In this technique, source radiation of known polarization is passed through bulk samples to determine, for example, natural or induced birefringence and dichroism. The laser is a particularly appropriate source for this technique because of its monochromaticity, collimation, and radiant intensity. Lasers of many different wavelengths in different spectral regions are now available. Laser polarimetry can be done in any of these wavelength regions where polarizing elements are available. In this paper, polarimetry is reviewed with respect to applications, sources used, and polarization state generator and analyzer configurations. Scattering ellipsometry is also discussed insofar as the forward scattering measurement is related to polarimetry. The authors then describe an infrared laser polarimeter which we have designed and constructed. This instrument can operate over large wavelength regions with only a change in source. Polarization elements of the polarimeter are in a dual rotating retarder configuration. Computer controlled rotary stages and computer monitored detectors automate the data collection. The Mueller formulation is used to process the polarization information. Issues and recent progress with this instrument are discussed

  10. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... is necessary to deposit one order higher input electric power into gas medium than ... cross-sectional view of the laser system is shown in figure 2A. The system mainly consists ... Considering the simplicity and reliability of the.

  11. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  12. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  13. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  14. Laser ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskij, Yu

    1979-02-01

    The characteristics a laser source of multiply-ionized ions are described with regard to the interaction of laser radiation and matter, ion energy spectrum, angular ion distribution. The amount of multiple-ionization ions is evaluated. Out of laser source applications a laser injector of multiple-ionization ions and nuclei, laser mass spectrometry, laser X-ray microradiography, and a laser neutron generators are described.

  15. Mechanical time-shutter for spectrograph with exposure times from 1.5 {mu}s to 3 ms; Un obturateur mecanique pour spectrographe dont le temps d'exposition varie de 1,5 microseconde a 3 millisecondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L; Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Association Euratom - CEA, Groupe de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A mechanical time-shutter for exposure-times ranging from l,5 {mu}s to 3 ms is described. The apparatus is designed for spectrographic observations of pulsed electrical discharges which show rapidly varying spectral emissivities. For the mechanical part of the shutter we used a specially formed fast rotating disk having a slit. Triggering of the discharge is achieved by the rotating disk - in connection with photocells. Both the instant at which - after the beginning of the electrical discharge - the exposure shall begin, and the duration of exposure which will then follow can be 'preselected' on a special electronic control device. All functions: rotation of the disk - ignition of the discharge - exposure - switch-off of the disk are controlled electronically. The principle and the main electronic control parts of this versatile instrument are described. (authors) [French] On decrit un obturateur spectrographique rapide ayant des temps d'exposition allant de 1,5 {mu}s a 3 ms. L'obturateur est concu pour faire des observations spectrographiques de decharges pulsees dont l'emission spectrale varie rapidement. En ce qui concerne la partie mecanique nous avons utilise un disque comprenant une fente, qui tourne devant la fente d'entree du spectrographe. L'amorcage de la decharge est assure par le disque lui-meme, a l'aide de cellules photoelectriques. L'instant a partir duquel l'observation doit commencer - apres avoir amorce la decharge -, ainsi que la duree d'exposition qui suit, peuvent etre preselectionnes sur un tiroir electronique. Toutes les fonctions: mise en rotation du disque - amorcage de la decharge - exposition - freinage du disque se suivent automatiquement. Le principe ainsi que les circuits electroniques de controle de cet appareil sont decrits. (auteur)

  16. Selective ablation of dental enamel and dentin using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarelli, R F Z; Costa, M M; Carvalho-Filho, E; Bagnato, V S; Nunes, F D

    2008-01-01

    The study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter, as well as transient response of atoms and molecules is very appropriated because of the laser energy concentration in a femtosecond optical pulses. The fundamental problem to be solved is to find tools and techniques which allow us to observe and manipulate on a femtosecond time scale the photonics events on and into the matter. Six third human extracted molars were exposed to a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire Q-switched and mode locked laser (Libra-S, Coherent, Palo Alto, CA, USA), emitting pulses with 70 fs width, radiation wavelength of 801 nm, at a constant pulse repetition rate of 1 KHz. The laser was operated at different power levels (70 to 400 mW) with constant exposition time of 10 seconds, at focused and defocused mode. Enamel and dentin surfaces were evaluated concerned ablation rate and morphological aspects under scanning electron microscopic. The results in this present experiment suggest that at the focused mode and under higher average power, enamel tissues present microcavities with higher depth and very precise edges, but, while dentin shows a larger melt-flushing, lower depth and melting and solidification aspect. In conclusion, it is possible to choose hard or soft ablation, under lower and higher average power, respectively, revealing different aspects of dental enamel and dentin, depending on the average power, fluence and distance from the focal point of the ultra-short pulse laser on the tooth surface

  17. Berthe Morisot, catalogue de l'exposition au Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille et à la Fondation Pierre Gianadda à Martigny, éd. Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 2002, 461 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Marie-Jo

    2004-01-01

    L'exposition Berthe Morisot organisée conjointement par le Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille et la fondation Pierre Gianadda, à Martigny, ainsi que son catalogue peuvent être regardés comme un véritable événement. D'abord, saluons la fondation suisse qui fait un travail de fond remarquable depuis de nombreuses années en exposant (avec catalogue) des artistes françaises comme Camille Claudel, Suzanne Valadon, Marie Laurencin, en collaboration avec des musées de province. Notons ensuite que...

  18. Ana Cardoso Matos, Irina Gouzévitch e Marta C. Lourenço, dir. - Expositions Universelles, Musées Techniques et Société Industrielle/World Exhibitions, Technical Museums and Industrial Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O livro toma como base as comunicações apresentadas ao workshop internacional "World Exhibitions & Museums of Science and Technology / Expositions Universelles & Musées de la Science et de la Technique" que decorreu no Museu de Ciência da Universidade Lisboa em outubro de 2008, cuja organização esteve a cargo das responsáveis por esta publicação (http://chcul.fc.ul.pt/act_ii/WorldExhibitions-Museums_programme_2008.pdf. Esse evento teve o apoio do Centro de História das Ciências da Universida...

  19. Dermatological laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J.; Helland, S.; Thune, P.; Volden, G.; Falk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO 2 laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs

  20. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  1. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  2. Project LASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA formally launched Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering and Research) in March 1990, a program designed to help teachers improve science and mathematics education and to provide 'hands on' experiences. It featured the first LASER Mobile Teacher Resource Center (MTRC), is designed to reach educators all over the nation. NASA hopes to operate several MTRCs with funds provided by private industry. The mobile unit is a 22-ton tractor-trailer stocked with NASA educational publications and outfitted with six work stations. Each work station, which can accommodate two teachers at a time, has a computer providing access to NASA Spacelink. Each also has video recorders and photocopy/photographic equipment for the teacher's use. MTRC is only one of the five major elements within LASER. The others are: a Space Technology Course, to promote integration of space science studies with traditional courses; the Volunteer Databank, in which NASA employees are encouraged to volunteer as tutors, instructors, etc; Mobile Discovery Laboratories that will carry simple laboratory equipment and computers to provide hands-on activities for students and demonstrations of classroom activities for teachers; and the Public Library Science Program which will present library based science and math programs.

  3. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michtchenko, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm - ''2 or 30 mWcm -2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm -2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  4. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  5. Benefits of low-power lasers on oral soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Carlos d. P.; Cecchini, Silvia C. M.; Cecchini, Renata C.

    1996-04-01

    The last five years have represented a great advance in relation to laser development. Countries like Japan, United States, French, England, Israel and others, have been working on the association of researches and clinical applications, in the field of laser. Low power lasers like He-Ne laser, emitting at 632,8 nm and Ga-As-Al laser, at 790 nm, have been detached acting not only as a coadjutant but some times as an specific treatment. Low power lasers provide non thermal effect at wavelengths believed to stimulate circulation and cellular activity. These lasers have been used to promote wound healing and reduce inflammation edema and pain. This work presents a five year clinical study with good results related to oral tissue healing. Oral cavity lesions, like herpes and aphthous ulcers were irradiated with Ga-Al- As laser. In both cases, an excellent result was obtained. The low power laser application decrease the painful sintomatology immediately and increase the reparation process of these lesions. An excellent result was obtained with application of low power laser in herpetic lesions associated with a secondary infection situated at the lip commissure covering the internal tissue of the mouth. The healing occurred after one week. An association of Ga-Al-As laser and Nd:YAG laser have been also proven to be good therapy for these kind of lesions. This association of low and high power laser has been done since 1992 and it seems to be a complement of the conventional therapies.

  6. 5th International Conference on Optics Within Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Papazoglou, Theodore; Kalpouzos, Costas

    2000-01-01

    Following to previous OWLS conferences devoted to widespread applications of optics in life sciences, this 5th OWLS Conference focuses on recent achievements in applying lasers and optics in biomedicine and the preservation of our cultural heritage. Particular attention is paid to laser diagnostics in medicine, interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue, aspects of the preservation of cultural heritage, and the development of new systems for these studies. The contributors to this volume cover international research activities in the following areas: Laser-tissue interactions and tissue optics - photon migration in tissue; Medical sensors - fiber optics; Clinical use of lasers (dermatology, ENT, cardiology, etc.); Laser-based techniques in art conservation (cleaning, diagnostics, analytical applications); Imaging techniques and lasers in archaeology; Laser technologies in contemporary art (holography, marking, etc.); and New laser and opto-electronic systems for biomedical and art-related studies.

  7. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  8. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  9. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  11. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  12. Bleaching Dengan Teknologi Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliwaty

    2008-01-01

    Penulisan tentang bleaching dengan laser dimaksudkan untuk menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan dari pembaca di bidang kedokteran gigi. Macam-macam laser yang dipergunakan dalam bleaching yaitu argon, CO2 serta dioda laser. Contoh merek produk laser yaitu Blulaze, Dentcure untuk argonlaser, Novapulse untuk C02 serta Opus 5 untuk dioda laser. Laser bleaching hasilnya dapat dicapai dalam satu kunjungan saja, cepat, efisien namun biayanya relatif mahal, dapat menimbulkan burn, sensitivitas se...

  13. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  14. Prospect of laser fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Inertial fusion ignition, burn and energy gain are expected to be achieved within the first decade of next century with new Megajoule laser facilities which are under construction in the USA and France. Fusion reactor design studies indicate that Inertial Fusion Energy(IFE) power plants are technically feasible and have attractive safety and environmental features. The recent progress on implosion physics and relevant technologies require us to consider a strategic approach toward IFE development. The design study for a laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. The progress of high power laser technology gives us feasible project toward a laser driven IFE Power Plant. The technical breakthrough in the field of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) has opened wide application of power laser to industrial technologies. Laser fusion energy development will be proceeded jointly with industrial photonics research and development. International collaborations are also promoted for efficient progress and activation of R and D on advanced technologies which are required for IFE and also useful for modern industries. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  15. Histopathological study of the effects of low-intensity laser irradiation ({lambda}=650 nm) on dental pulp tissue after cavity preparation; Estudo histopatologico dos efeitos da irradiacao laser em baixa intensidade ({lambda}=650nm) em tecido pulpar apos preparo cavitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertella, Claudio

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of low-intensity Arsenide Gallium Aluminium laser application post-cavity preparation class 1. Six patients with bilateral pre-molars and molars indicated to extraction for orthodontics aim were selected. Four samples of these teeth underwent cavity preparation with deep from medium to high and two samples underwent cavity preparation from high to pulp expositions. The samples were constituted of two teeth of the same patient and received different treatments. One of the teeth underwent laser exposition and the other one was maintained as control, before restorative procedure with polycarboxylate cement. A diode laser ({lambda}=650 nm), output power 30 mW and fluencies of 1,8 J/cm{sup 2} and 2,7 J/cm{sup 2} in pre-molars and molars, respectively, was used for irradiation with repetition rate of 18 Hz in interrupted continuous wave mode. After seven days, the teeth were extracted and processed histologically with HE to verify morphological changes in the pulpy tissue. The four samples, which cavity preparation and restorative material were not in contact with the pulp, did not show histological differences between irradiated and non-irradiated teeth. Both of them presented the same characteristics of normality. The two samples with exposed pulpy tissue showed different results. The irradiated teeth presented no or slight inflammatory signs when compared to the control samples, which showed abscess in the coronary pulp interior and intense inflammatory infiltrated. These results suggest that the laser irradiation can be used as a therapeutic modality in clinical trials, in the conditions employed in this study. (author)

  16. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  17. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  18. Laser-induced mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanyi, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the spectroscopic analysis of gas. The gas molecules are internally excited by irradiation with laser light having a wavelength which is absorbed by the sample. The gas is then ionized and passed through a mass spectrometer and the amount of the ionized species in the irradiated and ionized sample is compared with that in a similar ionized but not irradiated sample

  19. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Z.; Escobar, C.; Gadomski, S.; Garcia, C.; Gonzales, S.; Kodyš, Peter; Kubík, P.; Lacasta, C.; Marti, S.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moorhead, G. F.; Phillips, P. W.; Řezníček, P.; Slavík, Radan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 573, 1/2 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors - PSD /7./. Liverpool, 12.09.2005-16.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200670601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductor devices Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  20. Laser Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    inverted by the first, i.e., at the moment of time t = T, such that i = (2n+)lT, where 0 is the Rabi frequency (Oraevski et al., 1976). . classical... anisotropic molecule present. CW HeNe, Ar+ and Kr+ lasers are used, and the filter method is necessary because of time-scales lo8 - 10ll Hz. Some general...e.g., truncated harmonic oscillator, square well, spherically symmetric Morse or Lennard-Jones, anisotropic (angle-dependent) Morse or Lennard-Jones

  1. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  2. High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy , Eric; Feugnet , Gilles; Pocholle , Jean-Paul; Blondeau , R.; Poisson , M.A.; Duchemin , J.P.

    1998-01-01

    International audience; A high energy Er3+, Yb3+:glass laser end pumped by a laser diode array emitting at 980 nm coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator (NOC) is demonstrated. Energy up to 100 mJ and a 16% slope efficiency are achieved in a plano-plano laser cavity. The energy transfer coefficient from Yb3+ to Er3+ is estimated by a new method.

  3. Laser safety and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Lasers are finding increasing routine applications in many areas of science, medicine and industry. Though laser radiation is non-ionizing in nature, the usage of high power lasers requires specific safety procedures. This paper briefly outlines the properties of laser beams and various safety procedures necessary in their handling and usage. (author)

  4. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  5. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  6. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  7. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  8. Laser Microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Andra R; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Siegal, Gene P; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Tangrea, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a relatively rapid and precise method of isolating and removing specified cells from complex tissues for subsequent analysis of their RNA, DNA, protein or metabolite content, thereby allowing assessment of the role of different cell types in the normal physiological or disease processes being studied. In this unit, protocols for the preparation of mammalian frozen tissues, fixed tissues, and cytologic specimens for LM, including tissue freezing, tissue processing and paraffin embedding, histologic sectioning, cell processing, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and image-guided cell targeting are presented. Also provided are recipes for generating lysis buffers for the recovery of nucleic acids and proteins. The Commentary section addresses the types of specimens that can be utilized for LM and approaches to staining of specimens for cell visualization. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of tissue or cytologic specimens as this is critical to effective LM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Laser EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Schwenzel, R.E.; Campbell, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for obtaining EXAFS data of a material, comprising means for directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target in such manner as to produce X-rays at the target of a selected spectrum and intensity, suitable for obtaining the EXAFS spectrum of the material, means for directing X-rays from the target onto spectral dispersive means so located as to direct the spectrally resolved X-rays therefrom onto recording means, and means for positioning a sample of material in the optical path of the X-rays, the recording means providing a reference spectrum of X-rays not affected by the sample and absorption spectrum of X-rays modified by transmission through the sample

  10. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  11. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  12. Remote sensing of petroleum contaminated water by IR lasers. Distantsionnoe obnaruzhenie neftyanykh zagryaznenii vod IK lazerom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogorodskii, V V; Kropotkin, M A

    1975-01-01

    The most important aspect of the protection of the environment is the prevention and elimination of the consequences of the pollution of seas, oceans, and inner water reservoirs by oil and oil products. The present booklet in a concise form presents the quantitative data characterizing the degree of sea and oceanic pollution, enumerates main sources of oil pollution, and considers the influence of the latter on ecology of the World Ocean. The available ways of water purification from surface oil products are discussed and techniques of remote sensing of oil pollution considered. The content of the work is the exposition of the results of investigations of optical properties of oil products and their films on the water in the ir spectral region and the conclusion on the possibility of the application of active remote laser radar technique for the detection of oil pollution.

  13. Sub-1100 nm lasing from post-growth intermixed InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Alhashim, Hala H.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    Impurity free vacancy disordering induced highly intermixed InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers are reported with high internal quantum efficiency (>89%). The lasers are shown to retain the device characteristics after intermixing and emitting

  14. History and principle of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, Ch.H.; Schwob, C.; Julien, J.; Forget, S.; Robert-Philip, I.; Balcou, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    In the first article C.H. Townes, the inventor of the maser, describes the work and ideas that led to the invention of the laser. The second article explains how a laser operate and the third article reviews the main different types of laser: solid lasers, gas lasers, diode lasers and dye lasers

  15. Technological laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia, D.O.; Kollen, R.; Rods, U.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of the technological applications of lasers are stated in the popular form. Main requirements to a technological laser as well as problems arising in designing any system using lasers have been considered. Areas of the laser applications are described generally: laser treatment of materials, thermal treatment, welding, broach and drilling of holes, scribing, microtreatment and adjustment of resistors, material cutting, investigations into controlled thermonuclear fussion

  16. Characterization of internal dosimetry practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Heid, K.R.; Mann, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Current practices in internal dosimetry at DOE facilities were evaluated with respect to consistency among DOE Contractors. All aspects of an internal dosimetry program were addressed. Items considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, record systems and ease of information retrieval; ease of integrating internal dose and external dose; modeling systems employed, including ability to modify models depending on excretion data, and verification of computer codes utilized; bioassay procedures, including quality control; and ability to relate air concentration data to individual workers and bioassay data. Feasibility of uranium analysis in solution by laser fluorescence excitation at uranium concentrations of one part per billion was demonstrated

  17. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  18. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond UV laser and a VUV free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S. Y.; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Takao; Nishizawa, Kiyoshi; Horio, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    A time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser and a vacuum UV freeelectron laser is presented. Ultrafast internal conversion and intersystem crossing in pyrazine in a supersonic molecular beam were clearly observed in the time profiles of photoioinzation intensity and time-dependent photoelectron images.

  19. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  20. New power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Daido, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    As the new power lasers which are expected to exert large extending effect to the fields of advanced science and technology including precision engineering as well as laser nuclear fusion, LD-excited solid laser, X-ray laser and free electron laser are taken up and outlined. Recently, the solid laser using high power output, high efficiency semiconductor laser as the exciting beam source has been developed. This is called laser diode (LD)-excited solid laser, and the heightening of power output and efficiency and the extension of life are planned. Its present status and application to medical use, laser machining, laser soldering and so on are described. In 1960, the laser in visible region appeared, however in 1985, the result of observing induced emission beam by electron collision exciting method was reported in USA. In the wavelength range of 200 A, holography and contact X-ray microscope applications were verified. The various types of soft X-ray laser and the perspective hereafter are shown. The principle of free electron laser is explained. In the free electron laser, wavelength can be changed by varying electron beam energy, the period of wiggler magnetic field and the intensity of magnetic field. Further, high efficiency and large power output are possible. Its present status, application and the perspective hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Microstructure and sliding wear properties of HVOF sprayed, laser remelted and laser clad Stellite 6 coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houdková, Š.; Pala, Zdeněk; Smazalová, E.; Vostřák, M.; Česánek, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 129-141 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Stellite 6 * HVOF * Laser remelting * Laser clad * Wear * Phase transformation Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0257897216308817

  2. Exposition à l’arsenic et diabète de type 2 : résultats de l’Enquête canadienne sur les mesures de la santé de 2007 à 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Feseke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L’arsenic inorganique et ses métabolites sont considérés comme dangereux pour la santé humaine. Même si plusieurs études ont indiqué des associations entre une faible exposition à l’arsenic et le diabète sucré aux États-Unis et au Mexique, ces associations n’ont pas été étudiées chez les Canadiens. Nous avons analysé l’association entre l’exposition à l’arsenic, mesurée par la concentration d’arsenic total dans l’urine, et la prévalence du diabète de type 2 (DT2 chez 3 151 participants adultes du cycle 1 (2007 à 2009 de l’Enquête canadienne sur les mesures de la santé (ECMS. Méthodologie: La glycémie et l’hémoglobine glycosylée ont été mesurées chez les participants. L’arsenic total a été dosé par une analyse d’urine. De plus, les participants ont répondu à un questionnaire détaillé sur leurs habitudes de vie et leurs antécédents médicaux. Nous avons analysé l’association de la concentration urinaire d’arsenic avec le DT2 et le prédiabète à l’aide d’une régression logistique multivariée ajustée pour les facteurs de confusion potentiels.Résultats: La concentration urinaire d’arsenic total était positivement associée à la prévalence de DT2 et de prédiabète : les rapports de cotes ajustés étaient respectivement de 1,81 (IC à 95% : 1,12 à 2,95 et de 2,04 (IC à 95% : 1,03 à 4,05 lorsqu’on comparait les concentrations urinaires d’arsenic les plus élevées (quatrième quartile aux plus faibles (premier quartile. L’arsenic total urinaire était également associé au taux d’hémoglobine glycosylée chez les diabétiques non traités. Conclusion: Nous avons noté des associations significatives entre l’exposition à l’arsenic et la prévalence de DT2 et de prédiabète dans la population canadienne. L’inférence causale est limitée car il s’agit d’une étude transversale exempte d’évaluation de l’exposition à long terme.

  3. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  4. Convection flows driven by laser heating of a liquid layer

    OpenAIRE

    Rivière , David; Selva , Bertrand; Chraibi , Hamza; Delabre , Ulysse; Delville , Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; When a fluid is heated by the absorption of a continuous laser wave, the fluid density decreases in the heated area. This induces a pressure gradient that generates internal motion of the fluid. Due to mass conservation, convection eddies emerge in the sample. To investigate these laser-driven bulk flows at the microscopic scale, we built a setup to perform temperature measurements with a fluorescent-sensitive dye on the one hand, and measured the flow pattern at diffe...

  5. Pollution Atmosphérique et Santé: Corrélation ou Causalité? Le Cas de la Relation entre l'Exposition aux Particules et la Mortalité Cardio-pulmonaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, William; Ségala, Claire; Dor, Frédéric; Festy, Bernard; Lameloise, Philippe; Moullec, Yvon Le; Tertre, Alain Le; Médina, Sylvia; Quénel, Philippe; Wallaert, Benoît; Zmirou, Et Denis

    2001-02-01

    De nombreuses études épidémiologiques ont observé dans des contextes différents une faible relation à court terme entre les particules et la mortalité cardio-pulmonaire, même quand les normes de qualité de l'air n'étaient pas dépassées. La causalité de cette relation est un enjeu de santé publique en raison de l'importance de la population exposée. Notre objectif est de faire l'inventaire critique des arguments utilisés dans 15 revues de la littérature publiées. Nous expliquons l'importance de distinguer la validité de la causalité et analysons de façon systématique les différents critères de jugement dans le contexte des études écologiques temporelles. Notre conclusion est que la relation observée est valide et que la plupart des critères de causalité sont respectés. Diminuer le niveau d'exposition des populations aux particules est souhaitable. En Europe, en agissant à la source, notamment sur les émissions Diesel, on diminuera aussi d'autres polluants qui peuvent jouer un rôle sanitaire. Aux États-Unis, la situation est plus complexe car les particules sont surtout secondaires. Il est également indispensable de poursuivre les recherches pour mieux connaître les déterminants des expositions globales des individus et mieux comprendre le rôle toxique des différents facteurs physico-chimiques des particules.

  6. Effets de l'exposition à un insecticide carbamate, le carbofuran, sur les performances de jeunes stades de brochet (Esox lucius L., 1758 : résultats préliminaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMBLARD G.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Des lots de jeunes brochets au stade embryon libre, stabulés dans des béchers en verre, ont été exposés en conditions statiques à des solutions (0-250 µg.L-1 de carbofuran, un insecticide carbamate inhibiteur de l'activité de l'acétylcholinestérase (AchE. A partir de 10 µg.L-1, une inhibition significative de l'activité globale de l'AchE des embryons libres a été constatée. A partir de 50 µg.L-1, une diminution significative de la hauteur moyenne de fixation des embryons libres sur les parois des béchers a été observée. L'exposition au carbofuran n'a pas eu d'effet significatif sur le nombre de proies zooplanctoniques ingérées par les jeunes brochets parvenus au début de la phase larvaire ; une diminution de ce paramètre en fonction de concentrations croissantes de carbofuran a cependant été enregistrée. A 250 µg.L-1 , la résorption de la vésicule vitelline ne s'effectuant plus que très partiellement, les embryons libres exposés ne se sont pas transformés en larves. Cette étude montre que l'exposition à des concentrations sublétales de carbofuran est susceptible d'affecter le développement ontogénétique et les performances de jeunes stades de brochet. Un approfondissement de ces travaux est envisagé dans différentes directions.

  7. Fundamental characteristics of degradation-recoverable solid-state DFB polymer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Yang, Yu; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Oki, Yuji

    2012-02-13

    A novel solid-state dye laser with degradation recovery was proposed and demonstrated. Polydimethylsiloxane was used as a nanoporous solid matrix to enable the internal circulation of dye molecules in the solid state. An internal circulation model for the dye molecules was also proposed and verified numerically by assuming molecular mobility and using a proposed diffusion equation. The durability of the laser was increased 20.5-fold compared with that of a conventional polymethylmethacrylate laser. This novel laser solves the low-durability problem of dye-doped polymer lasers.

  8. Final Report: Cooling Molecules with Laser Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Certain diatomic molecules are disposed to laser cooling in the way successfully applied to certain atoms and that ushered in a revolution in ultracold atomic physics, an identification first made at Los Alamos and which took root during this program. Despite their manipulation into numerous achievements, atoms are nonetheless mundane denizens of the quantum world. Molecules, on the other hand, with their internal degrees of freedom and rich dynamical interplay, provide considerably more complexity. Two main goals of this program were to demonstrate the feasibility of laser-cooling molecules to the same temperatures as laser-cooled atoms and introduce a means for collecting laser-cooled molecules into dense ensembles, a foundational start of studies and applications of ultracold matter without equivalence in atomic systems.

  9. Lasers in oral surgery and implantology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The usefulness of laser for oral hard tissue procedure such as caries treatment, impacted teeth extraction, periodontal therapy, peri-implantitis management, sinus lifting is reported by several Authors [1]. Conventionally, mechanical rotary instruments and hand instruments are employed for bone surgery. Rotary instruments have better accessibility and cutting efficiency, but there is a risk of excessive heating of bone tissue and caution must be exercised to avoid the bur becoming entangled with surrounding soft tissues and the reflected flap. The main clinical advantages of the lasers are represented by minimal patient discomfort, good recovery with decreased or absent post-operative pain. In the last ten years are described in the international literature great advantages of Laser Surgery and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) performed with different wavelength in addition to traditional surgical techniques to improve bone and soft tissue healing and for pain and infection control.

  10. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  11. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements.

  12. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  13. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  14. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  15. Assimilation of carbon and transport of assimilates in coniferous trees under the influence of airborne pollutants. Photosynthesis rate and assimilate distribution in young fir trees (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) under controlled exposure to ozone. Final report; Assimilation von Kohlenstoff und der Assimilattransport in Coniferen unter dem Einfluss von Luftschadstoffen. Photosyntheseleistung und Assimilatverteilung in jungen Fichten (Picea abies [L.]Karst.) unter kontrollierter Ozon-Exposition. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbrink, J.; Schatten, T.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, effects of long-term, low-level ozone exposure on CO{sub 2}fixation and assimilate partitioning in 4-years spruces old were studied. 1. In October, ozone exposure resulted in a 40% decrease of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll content was not altered. Depression of net photosynthesis by ozone exposure fluctuates. At least partly, this depression of net photosynthesis might reflect an increase of respiration. After 6 weeks of ozone exposure, both stomatal conductivity and transpiration seemed to be lowered. However, internal [CO{sub 2}] and water use efficiency were not significantly altered. 2. Compared with the control, needles of ozone-exposed plants exhibited a shift of the {sup 14}C-ratio of {beta}-carotene/xanthophylls which effect faded away with the season (October). 3. In August and October, translocation of {sup 14}C-assimilates from the {sup 14}C-fed source leaves seems to be impeded by ozone exposure. 4. No O{sub 3}-related differences were found for the lipophilic as well as for the fractions of organic or amino acids. For the sink tissues (twig, stem, root), less label was found in non-starch residue in August (main growth season), in O{sub 3}-exposed plants. 5. Starch and sugar content of cortex, cambium, xylem, and of the root follow annual cycles. Under ozon exposure, levels of {sup 14}C-starch and {sup 14}C-sucrose are lowered whereas in the needles, build-up of {sup 14}C-starch was detected. 6. Obviously, long-term low-level ozone affects allocation of assimilates. Secondary effects on chloroplasts by the treatment cannot be excluded. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Unter Labor- bzw. Gewaechshausbedingungen wurde der Einfluss einer kontrollierten Ozonexposition auf die Photosyntheseleistung und die Assimilatverteilung in 4-jaehrigen Fichten untersucht. 1. Unter Ozon-Exposition wird die Netto-Photosyntheserate in den jungen Nadeln zum Herbst hin reduziert, waehrend der Chlorophyllgehalt unbeeinflusst bleibt. Die Photosyntheserate der jungen Nadeln

  16. Investigations of mechanism of laser radiation absorption at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 227-230 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (PLASMA)2011. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : collisional absorption * crater volume * electron density distribution * interferometry * iodine laser * resonance absorption * Laser radiation * inverse bremsstrahlung * laser interferometry * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol57_2012/v57n2p227f.pdf

  17. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  18. Lasers in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  19. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, R.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  20. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  1. Laser in urology. Laser i urologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisland, H.O. (Aker Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The neodymium YAG laser is particularly suited for endoscopic urologic surgery because the YAG laser light can be conducted in flexible fibers. Superficial bladder tumours can be treated under local anaesthesia in the outpatient department. The frequency of local recurrences is low, significantly lower than after electrosection or electrocoagulation. Selected cases of T2-muscle invasive bladder tumours can be cured with laser coagulation applied subsequently to transurethral resection. Combined treatment with electrosection and laser coagulation of localized prostatic cancer is a promising method which compares favourably with results obtained by other treatment modalities. Tumours in the upper urinary tract can be laser-treated through ureteroscopes or nephroscopes, but the treatment should be limited to low stage, low grade tumours. Laser is the treatment of choice for intraurethral condylomatas. Laser treatment of penil carcinoma gives excellent cosmetic and functional results and few local recurrences. Laser lithotripsy is a new technique for treatment of ureteric stones and photodynamic laser therapy is a promising tecnique for treatment of carcinoma in situ in the bladder empithelium. However, neither of these techniques are available for clinical use in Norway as yet. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  2. Laser materials processing with diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1996-01-01

    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  3. 1982 laser program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R.

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications

  4. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  5. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  6. Comparative study of etched enamel and dentin for the adhesion of composite resins with the Er:YAG 2,94 {mu}m laser and CO{sub 2} 9,6 {mu}m laser: morphological (SEM) and tensile bond strength analysis; Estudo comparativo do condicionamento do esmalte e dentina para a adesao de resinas compostas com os lasers Er:YAG 2,94 {mu}m e com o laser CO{sub 2} de 9,6 {mu}m: analise morfologica e de resistencia a tracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marraccini, Tarso Mugnai

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the tensile bond strength of a composite resin adhered to the enamel and dentin which have received superficial irradiation with an Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m) or with CO{sub 2} laser ( 9.6 {mu}m) and later on etched with the phosphoric acid at 35%. After the use of the adhesive system, resin cones were made on the etched surfaces by both lasers and tensile bond strength tests were performed. All samples were observed at the SEM - there was an increase of the degree of fusion and resolidification in the irradiated enamel and dentin samples with the CO{sub 2} laser (9.6 {mu}m), creating a vitrified layer with tiny craters. With the Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m) there were typical morphological explosive microablation with the exposition of the tubules in the dentin.The surface acquired by the association of the CO{sub 2} laser ( 9.6 {mu}m) plus acid etching no longer presented the aspect of fusion being this layer completely removed. There were statistical significant differences among ali three methods of etching in the treatment of the enamel and dentin surface. The tensile bond strength test showed that etching of these enamel and dentin surfaces with acid exclusively (control group) presented great values, surpassing the values of the etching acquired with the Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}) plus acid or the CO{sub 2} laser (9.6 {mu}m) plus acid. With the parameters used in this experiment the Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m) showed to be more effective than the CO{sub 2} laser (9.6 {mu}m) for the hard dental surfaces etching procedure. (author)

  7. Radiological control in a mine with a naturally occurring radioactive material - NORM: II assessment of external exposition in a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the year of 2009, a pilot plant for uranium extraction from a phosphate mine to be installed at Santa Quiteria city, Ceara state, Brazil was carried out at the Ore Treatment Unit (OTU). During the operation of the pilot plant, the monitoring of external exposure in the area used by the pilot plant was conducted. 157 measurements were taken saving the data of the exposure rate and converting them to external dose. The background (BG) of the area was measured before the beginning of the operation and was estimated as 0.340 μSv h{sup -1}; only two measurements, out of the 157, were below the BG. The dose rates varied from 0.304 μSv h{sup -1} to 0.814 μSv h{sup -1}, with an average equal to 0.544 μSv h{sup -1}. When the results were compared to the derived limit for member of the public, which is equal to μSv h{sup -1}, approximately 38 % of the results were below this limit. Approximately 50 % of the results were below 0.554 μSv h{sup -1} and approximately 95 % of the results were below 0.754 μSv h{sup -1}. By this criterion only, the area must be considered as a supervised area. In order to classify the area in definitive, the internal exposure must also be evaluated. In this installation significant internal doses are not to be expected, considering that most part of the process is conducted by a wet route, without dust or aerosol generation, that when inhaled should create internal doses. (author)

  8. Radiological control in a mine with a naturally occurring radioactive material - NORM: II assessment of external exposition in a pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O.

    2013-01-01

    In the year of 2009, a pilot plant for uranium extraction from a phosphate mine to be installed at Santa Quiteria city, Ceara state, Brazil was carried out at the Ore Treatment Unit (OTU). During the operation of the pilot plant, the monitoring of external exposure in the area used by the pilot plant was conducted. 157 measurements were taken saving the data of the exposure rate and converting them to external dose. The background (BG) of the area was measured before the beginning of the operation and was estimated as 0.340 μSv h -1 ; only two measurements, out of the 157, were below the BG. The dose rates varied from 0.304 μSv h -1 to 0.814 μSv h -1 , with an average equal to 0.544 μSv h -1 . When the results were compared to the derived limit for member of the public, which is equal to μSv h -1 , approximately 38 % of the results were below this limit. Approximately 50 % of the results were below 0.554 μSv h -1 and approximately 95 % of the results were below 0.754 μSv h -1 . By this criterion only, the area must be considered as a supervised area. In order to classify the area in definitive, the internal exposure must also be evaluated. In this installation significant internal doses are not to be expected, considering that most part of the process is conducted by a wet route, without dust or aerosol generation, that when inhaled should create internal doses. (author)

  9. Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....

  10. Pollution de l’air en ville et impact sur la santé de populations vulnérables : Exposition, indicateur, perception, pollution, ville

    OpenAIRE

    Maignant, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; La pollution de l’air est au coeur de la problématique urbaine car la ville concentre la plus grande partie de la population et cette tendance va s’accroitre dans les années à venir (en 2014, 79.3% de la population française vit dans les villes). Cette note couple une approche épidémiologique et une approche plus qualitative (sociologique) proposant des méthodes d’appropriation des outils de mesures par le public permettant ainsi une prise de conscience de chacun dans ...

  11. Cultural Years [SCRIPT 4 of 7]. "Music, the Arts and Society at the time of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900"\\ud [RADIO SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Jonathan D.

    1990-01-01

    Part of a seven-part radio series broadcast on Sundays at 10:30pm fortnightly from 1st April, 1990. Researched, written, presented and produced by Jonathan David Little for 3MBS-FM Fine Music Melbourne.\\ud \\ud CULTURAL YEARS - Series / Programme Description:\\ud \\ud “Cultural Years” was a seven-part radio series which discussed “Music, the Arts and Society around the time of seven of the great 19th- and 20th-century International Exhibitions” (see below). In examining the ideas which lay behin...

  12. Cultural Years [SCRIPT 5 of 7]. "Music, the Arts and Society to the eve of the First World War (Exposition Universelle et Industrielle, Ghent - 1913)"\\ud [RADIO SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Jonathan D.

    1990-01-01

    Part of a seven-part radio series broadcast on Sundays at 10:30pm fortnightly from 1st April, 1990. Researched, written, presented and produced by Jonathan David Little for 3MBS-FM Fine Music Melbourne.\\ud \\ud CULTURAL YEARS - Series / Programme Description:\\ud \\ud “Cultural Years” was a seven-part radio series which discussed “Music, the Arts and Society around the time of seven of the great 19th- and 20th-century International Exhibitions” (see below). In examining the ideas which lay behin...

  13. Cultural Years [SCRIPT 3 of 7]. "Music, the Arts and Society at the time of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889"\\ud [RADIO SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Jonathan D.

    1990-01-01

    Part of a seven-part radio series broadcast on Sundays at 10:30pm fortnightly from 1st April, 1990. Researched, written, presented and produced by Jonathan David Little for 3MBS-FM Fine Music Melbourne.\\ud \\ud CULTURAL YEARS - Series / Programme Description:\\ud \\ud “Cultural Years” was a seven-part radio series which discussed “Music, the Arts and Society around the time of seven of the great 19th- and 20th-century International Exhibitions” (see below). In examining the ideas which lay behin...

  14. Paradigm of radiation-laser medical equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.P.; Skobelkin, O.K.; Trofimolv, N.N.; Makarova, G.V.; Pan'shin, G.A.; Ryabov, V.I.; Stranadko, E.F.; Shevelevich, O.S.

    1997-01-01

    New concepts on possibility of controlling biochemical reactions in biological tissues through simultaneous two-beam (roentgen or elementary particles flux and laser radiation) impact on biotissue are formulated on the basis of the quanta chemistry and chemical kinetics. It is shown that radiation-laser impact on pathological center makes it possible to realize principally new approach to treatment of oncological diseases of the main internal organs. Filamentous laser with lamp feedup, laser quantron where of is applicable for simultaneous excitation of laser radiation in the channel and transport by adjacent capillar filaments of elementary charged particles, is developed. The laser quantron is especially efficient as a feedup source for semiconductor light guides. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  16. Laser for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  17. Radiological protection against lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballereau, P

    1974-04-01

    A brief description of the biological effects of laser beams is followed by a review of the factors involved in eye and skin damage (factors linked with the nature of lasers and those linked with the organ affected) and a discussion of the problems involved in the determination of threshold exposure levels. Preventive measures are recommended, according to the type of laser (high-energy pulse laser, continuous laser, gas laser). No legislation on the subject exists in France or in Europe. Types of lasers marketed, threshold exposure levels for eye and skin, variations of admissible exposure levels according to wavelength, etc. are presented in tabular form. Nomogram for determination of safe distance for direct vision of a laser is included.

  18. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  19. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  20. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  1. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  2. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  3. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  4. Histopathological study of the effects of low-intensity laser irradiation (λ=650 nm) on dental pulp tissue after cavity pre paration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertella, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of low-intensity Arsenide Gallium Aluminium laser application post-cavity preparation class 1. Six patients with bilateral pre-molars and molars indicated to extraction for orthodontics aim were selected. Four samples of these teeth underwent cavity preparation with deep from medium to high and two samples underwent cavity preparation from high to pulp expositions. The samples were constituted of two teeth of the same patient and received different treatments. One of the teeth underwent laser exposition and the other one was maintained as control, before restorative procedure with polycarboxylate cement. A diode laser (λ=650 nm), output power 30 mW and fluencies of 1,8 J/cm 2 and 2,7 J/cm 2 in pre-molars and molars, respectively, was used for irradiation with repetition rate of 18 Hz in interrupted continuous wave mode. After seven days, the teeth were extracted and processed histologically with HE to verify morphological changes in the pulpy tissue. The four samples, which cavity preparation and restorative material were not in contact with the pulp, did not show histological differences between irradiated and non-irradiated teeth. Both of them presented the same characteristics of normality. The two samples with exposed pulpy tissue showed different results. The irradiated teeth presented no or slight inflammatory signs when compared to the control samples, which showed abscess in the coronary pulp interior and intense inflammatory infiltrated. These results suggest that the laser irradiation can be used as a therapeutic modality in clinical trials, in the conditions employed in this study. (author)

  5. Effects of the copper vapour laser radiation in the root canal wall dentine: in vitro experiment using scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Maria Claudia Garcia da

    2001-01-01

    Ten human uniradicular teeth had their crown removed along the cement-enamel junction and right away a proper chemical-surgical preparation of the radicular canals was done; the roots were longitudinally sectioned in order to allow the irradiation of the surfaces of the root canals wall dentine. The hemi-roots were separated in two groups: group I (control), with four hemi-roots, not irradiated; and group II, with 16 hemi-roots, subdivided in four sub-groups submitted to the following exposition time: 0,02 s; 0,05 s; 0,1 s and 0,5 s. A copper vapour laser was used with a 510,6 nm wavelength, total average power of 11 W in green and yellow emissions; average power of 6,5 W in green emission; pulse repetition rate of 16.000 Hz and pulse duration of 30 ns. The pulse energy (green line) is 0,4 mJ and the peak power 13,5 W. The laser cavity is unstable type (R 1 =3.900 mm and R 2 -250 mm). The focusing have focal length lens f 1 =250 mm and f 2 =150 mm. The beam quality is of the M 2 =5. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the appearance of a cavity in the region of the laser beam incidence in the edges of this cavity, dentin was melt and resolidified presenting also cracks due to heat diffusion. Based on these results, we concluded that the size of the cavity formed in the dentin is directly proportional to the rate of exposure and, the more laser emission in the same area, more damage in the root canals wall dentin occurs. More studies need to be done with different exposition's time in order to obtain a safety protocol that does not cause injury in dental and support tissue. (author)

  6. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  7. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Venture seed pickup type international cooperative research project (Development of multi-beam semiconductor laser-aided preparation system for photogravure printing using water-based ink); 1999 nendo venture seeds hakkutsugata kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo seika hokokusho - venture seeds No.8. Suisei ink wo mochiita gurabia (oban) insatsuyo multi beam handotai laser seihan system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the prevention of environmental contamination due to oil-based ink used in the photogravure printing process, efforts were exerted to develop a technique of laser-aided photogravure printing using a water-based ink. It was learned that the laser optical system technology of CR Corporation of Canada was practical and high in quality, and a delay occurred in the development of an evaporation type resin for use under this project. Then the initially planned design was abandoned for a type using a new optical system manufactured by CR Corporation. In the development of plate making materials, it was found that resin evaporation was incomplete in a 1-layer structure design. A 2-layer structure design was then employed instead, and the evaporation goal was achieved. Now that the optical system was changed, the resin was also replaced with a thermosensitive type, which enhanced work efficiency. The CR Corporation-manufactured laser optical system was installed on a mount, the processor system was controlled and adjusted, and a printing test was conducted using a water-based ink of German make. It was found that the product of the new system was higher in quality than that printed by the conventional mechanical perforation type printer using an oil-based ink. (NEDO)

  8. Laser in operative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yasini; Gh. Rahbari; A. Matorian

    1994-01-01

    Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy) and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry), etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks...

  9. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  10. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  11. Application of Various Lasers to Laser Trimming Resistance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-feng

    2007-01-01

    Though the laser trimming resistance has been an old laser machining industry for over 30 years, the development of technology brings new alternative lasers which can be used for the traditional machining. The paper describes application of various lasers to laser trimming resistance system including early traditional krypton arc lamp pumped Nd:YAG to laser, modern popular diode pumped solid state laser and the present advanced harmonic diode pumped solid state laser. Using the new alternative lasers in the laser trimming resistance system can dramatically improve the yields and equipment performance.

  12. Laser technologies for laser accelerators. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary result of the work reported is the determination of laser system architectures that satsify the requirements of high luminosity, high energy (about 1 TeV), electron accelerators. It has been found that high laser efficiency is a very hard driver for these accelerators as the total average laser output optical power is likely to fall above 10 MW. The luminosity requires rep rates in the kHz range, and individual pulse lengths in the 1-10 psec range are required to satisfy acceleration gradient goals. CO 2 and KrF lasers were chosen for study because of their potential to simultaneously satisfy the given requirements. Accelerator luminosity is reviewed, and requirements on laser system average power and rep rate are determined as a function of electron beam bunch parameters. Laser technologies are reviewed, including CO 2 , excimers, solid state, and free electron lasers. The proposed accelerator mechanisms are summarized briefly. Work on optical transport geometries for near and far field accelerators are presented. Possible exploitation of the CO 2 and DrF laser technology to generate the required pulse lengths, rep rates, and projected efficiencies is illustrated and needed development work is suggested. Initial efforts at developing a 50 GeV benchmark conceptual design and a 100 MeV demonstration experiment conceptual design are presented

  13. Laser induced pyrolysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated

  14. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  15. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  16. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  17. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  18. LaserFest Celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    2011-08-25

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

  19. Lasers take physicists back to school

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This week saw the First International School on Laser Applications at Accelerators held in GANIL (France). Organised by the LA3NET project – of which CERN is a partner – the school was a singular opportunity for accelerator and laser physicists to meet and discuss the future of the merging areas.   As an EU-funded training network, LA3NET has brought together 27 partner institutes to train early stage researchers in the field of laser applications. Though the network kickedoff only a few months ago, it has already filled 15 of its 17 fellow positions, including three in CERN’s BE and EN Departments. The five-day International School on Laser Applications at Accelerators was the first big event organised by LA3NET, and united participants from both inside and outside the project. “This was the first time a school had linked laser and accelerator physics at such a fundamental level,” says Carsten P. Welsch, a former CERN fellow who now coordinates t...

  20. Laser irradiation of penile blood as treatment of sexual dysfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.; Khomyakov, Victor T.

    2001-05-01

    40-60% of the men of average age suffer from the violations of sexual functions. Impotence doesn't make direct threat to life; nevertheless this disease essentially reduces quality of life, and consequently deserves the most steadfast attention. There are many methods of treatment of erectile dysfunction. However they are connected with a reception of medicines, which is expensive and has a number of contraindications, or with invasive procedures, or with surgical intervention, that also not always is desirable. We have developed the original device permitting to cause passive erection by creation of a local decompression. The second stage is the effect by an infrared laser radiation (denseness of a potency 4.2 mWt/sm2, continuous radiation with length of a wave 0.89 microns, exposition 5 minutes) on erection glans penis. We observed 24 patients with the complaints on insufficient erection (18), premature ejaculation (6); 2 patients in addition presented the complaint on small sizes of the penis. Age of the patients was 24-46 years, on the average 34.3 years. All have received treatment from 15 sessions in day.

  1. Laser beam cutting method. Laser ko ni yoru kaitai koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsumizu, A. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In this special issue paper concerning the demolition of concrete structures, was introduced a demolition of concrete structures using laser, of which practical application is expected due to the remarkable progress of generating power and efficiency of laser radiator. The characteristics of laser beam which can give a temperature of one million centigrade at the irradiated spot, the laser radiator consisting of laser medium, laser resonator and pumping apparatus, and the laser kinds for working, such as CO{sub 2} laser, YAG laser and CO laser, were described. The basic constitution of laser cutting equipment consisting of large generating power radiator, beam transmitter, beam condenser, and nozzle for working was also illustrated. Furthermore, strong and weak points in the laser cutting for concrete and reinforcement were enumerated. Applications of laser to cutting of reinforced and unreinforced concrete constructions were shown, and the concept and safety measure for application of laser to practical demolition was discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Publicité alimentaire destinée aux enfants : examen de la portée de l’exposition, du pouvoir et des répercussions selon le contexte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Prowse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : La publicité alimentaire a des répercussions sur les connaissances et les comportements alimentaires des enfants ainsi que sur leur santé. La réglementation actuelle au Canada est axée sur la restriction des aspects promotionnels de la publicité alimentaire, mais elle accorde peu d’attention, voire aucune, à l’endroit où se fait l’expérience alimentaire des enfants. Il est essentiel de comprendre où s’inscrit la publicité alimentaire dans le quotidien des enfants pour pouvoir les protéger. Notre étude fait état de la littérature sur la publicité alimentaire destinée aux enfants au Canada en fonction du contexte. Méthodologie : L’auteure a consulté des bases de données pour trouver des travaux de recherche canadiens portant sur l’exposition des enfants et des jeunes (de 2 à 17 ans à la publicité alimentaire, sur le pouvoir et les répercussions que celle-ci peut avoir sur les enfants dans différents contextes et sur la façon dont la réglementation actuelle peut en atténuer l'effet sur les enfants. Ont été sélectionnées les études en anglais, examinées par des pairs et publiées entre 2000 et 2016. Résultats : Vingt-cinq études se sont intéressées à l’exposition des enfants à la publicité alimentaire et au pouvoir ou aux répercussions qu’elle peut avoir sur ceux-ci à la maison (par la télévision ou Internet (n = 12, dans les écoles publiques (n = 1, dans les épiceries (n = 8, dans les restaurants rapides (n = 2 et en général (n = 2. Les tendances de la recherche révèlent que les aliments malsains ciblent les enfants par différentes techniques promotionnelles, qui se chevauchent selon les contextes. Il existe plusieurs lacunes en matière de recherche dans ce domaine, ce qui donne un portrait incomplet et potentiellement sous-estimé de la publicité alimentaire destinée aux enfants au Canada. Les données probantes disponibles indiquent que les approches canadiennes

  3. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  4. Laser induced synthesis of nanoparticles in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, P.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru

    2006-04-30

    The review of results on nanoparticles formation is presented under laser ablation of Ag, Au, and Cu-containing solid targets in liquid environments (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, etc.). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-vis optical transmission spectrometry, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterize the nanoparticles. The morphology of nanoparticles is studied as the function of both laser fluence and nature of the liquid. The possibility to control the shape of nanoparticles by ablation of an Au target by an interference pattern of two laser beams is demonstrated. Formation of alloyed Au-Ag and Ag-Cu nanoparticles is reported under laser exposure of a mixture of individual nanoparticles. The effect of internal segregation of brass nanoparticles is discussed due to their small lateral dimensions. The factors are discussed that determine the distribution function of particles size under laser ablation. The influence of laser parameters as well as the nature on the liquid on the properties of nanoparticles is elucidated.

  5. A New Laser Preheat Protocol For Maglif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, M. R.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Geissel, M.; Jennings, C. A.; Peterson, K. J.; Glinsky, M. E.; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P. F.; Lewis, S. M.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; Schollmeier, M.; Schwarz, J.; Shores, J. E.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    Previous Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments at Sandia National Labs have preheated the fuel with the unsmoothed 2 ω Z-Beamlet Laser. A new low intensity laser configuration, using phase plate smoothing and a low-power pulse shape, improved laser propagation and reduced stimulated Brillouin scattering in offline laser experiments. This allows for more efficient use of laser energy and better spot reproducibility. The new laser protocol is estimated to couple at least 650 J to the fuel, sufficient to produce comparable neutron yields with the previous unsmoothed configuration. Mid-Z dopants were also fielded on the underside of the window. Observation of these dopants provided evidence of window material mixing into the fuel with both the unsmoothed and smoothed beam, consistent with MHD simulation predictions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by NTESS, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-NA0003525.

  6. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff; Hitz, C Breck; John Wiley & Sons

    2001-01-01

    Electrical Engineering Introduction to Laser Technology , Third Edition. Would you like to know how a laser works, and how it can be modified for your own specific tasks? This intuitive third edition-previously published as Understanding Laser Technology , First and Second Editions-introduces engineers, scientists, technicians, and novices alike to the world of modern lasers, without delving into the mathematical details of quantum electronics. It is the only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasers. A unique combinatio.

  7. Quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment

  8. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  9. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  10. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  11. Lasers in space.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available cube, laser beam reflectors, placed on the Moon half a century ago. These early achievements will soon be followed by a plethora of experiments involving lasers in low earth orbit (LEO) or at Lagrange points. And not much later, laser communications... will stretch out as far as Mars and beyond. One important low Earth orbit (LEO) application is the removal of space debris by Earth based or LEO relayed lasers as promoted by Phipps et al.3. Another is military communication. The prominent L1 laser space...

  12. Tunable laser applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2008-01-01

    Introduction F. J. Duarte Spectroscopic Applications of Tunable Optical Parametric Oscillators B. J. Orr, R. T. White, and Y. He Solid-State Dye Lasers Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre Tunable Lasers Based on Dye-Doped Polymer Gain Media Incorporating Homogeneous Distributions of Functional Nanoparticles F. J. Duarte and R. O. James Broadly Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers F. J. Duarte Tunable Fiber Lasers T. M. Shay and F. J. Duarte Fiber Laser Overview and Medical Applications

  13. Comparative study of etched enamel and dentin for the adhesion of composite resins with the Er:YAG 2,94 μm laser and CO2 9,6 μm laser: morphological (SEM) and tensile bond strength analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marraccini, Tarso Mugnai

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the tensile bond strength of a composite resin adhered to the enamel and dentin which have received superficial irradiation with an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) or with CO 2 laser ( 9.6 μm) and later on etched with the phosphoric acid at 35%. After the use of the adhesive system, resin cones were made on the etched surfaces by both lasers and tensile bond strength tests were performed. All samples were observed at the SEM - there was an increase of the degree of fusion and resolidification in the irradiated enamel and dentin samples with the CO 2 laser (9.6 μm), creating a vitrified layer with tiny craters. With the Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) there were typical morphological explosive microablation with the exposition of the tubules in the dentin.The surface acquired by the association of the CO 2 laser ( 9.6 μm) plus acid etching no longer presented the aspect of fusion being this layer completely removed. There were statistical significant differences among ali three methods of etching in the treatment of the enamel and dentin surface. The tensile bond strength test showed that etching of these enamel and dentin surfaces with acid exclusively (control group) presented great values, surpassing the values of the etching acquired with the Er:YAG laser (2.94 μ) plus acid or the CO 2 laser (9.6 μm) plus acid. With the parameters used in this experiment the Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) showed to be more effective than the CO 2 laser (9.6 μm) for the hard dental surfaces etching procedure. (author)

  14. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  15. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  16. Polar localization of PhoN2, a periplasmic virulence-associated factor of Shigella flexneri, is required for proper IcsA exposition at the old bacterial pole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Scribano

    Full Text Available Proper protein localization is critical for bacterial virulence. PhoN2 is a virulence-associated ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase involved in IcsA-mediated actin-based motility of S. flexneri. Herein, by analyzing a ΔphoN2 mutant of the S. flexneri strain M90T and by generating phoN2::HA fusions, we show that PhoN2, is a periplasmic protein that strictly localizes at the bacterial poles, with a strong preference for the old pole, the pole where IcsA is exposed, and that it is required for proper IcsA exposition. PhoN2-HA was found to be polarly localized both when phoN2::HA was ectopically expressed in a Escherichia coli K-12 strain and in a S. flexneri virulence plasmid-cured mutant, indicating a conserved mechanism of PhoN2 polar delivery across species and that neither IcsA nor the expression of other virulence-plasmid encoded genes are involved in this process. To assess whether PhoN2 and IcsA may interact, two-hybrid and cross-linking experiments were performed. While no evidence was found of a PhoN2-IcsA interaction, unexpectedly the outer membrane protein A (OmpA was shown to bind PhoN2-HA through its periplasmic-exposed C-terminal domain. Therefore, to identify PhoN2 domains involved in its periplasmic polar delivery as well as in the interaction with OmpA, a deletion and a set of specific amino acid substitutions were generated. Analysis of these mutants indicated that neither the (183PAPAP(187 motif of OmpA, nor the N-terminal polyproline (43PPPP(46 motif and the Y155 residue of PhoN2 are involved in this interaction while P45, P46 and Y155 residues were found to be critical for the correct folding and stability of the protein. The relative rapid degradation of these amino acid-substituted recombinant proteins was found to be due to unknown S. flexneri-specific protease(s. A model depicting how the PhoN2-OmpA interaction may contribute to proper polar IcsA exposition in S. flexneri is presented.

  17. Polar localization of PhoN2, a periplasmic virulence-associated factor of Shigella flexneri, is required for proper IcsA exposition at the old bacterial pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Daniela; Petrucca, Andrea; Pompili, Monica; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Bruni, Elena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Prosseda, Gianni; Nencioni, Lucia; Casalino, Mariassunta; Polticelli, Fabio; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Proper protein localization is critical for bacterial virulence. PhoN2 is a virulence-associated ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) involved in IcsA-mediated actin-based motility of S. flexneri. Herein, by analyzing a ΔphoN2 mutant of the S. flexneri strain M90T and by generating phoN2::HA fusions, we show that PhoN2, is a periplasmic protein that strictly localizes at the bacterial poles, with a strong preference for the old pole, the pole where IcsA is exposed, and that it is required for proper IcsA exposition. PhoN2-HA was found to be polarly localized both when phoN2::HA was ectopically expressed in a Escherichia coli K-12 strain and in a S. flexneri virulence plasmid-cured mutant, indicating a conserved mechanism of PhoN2 polar delivery across species and that neither IcsA nor the expression of other virulence-plasmid encoded genes are involved in this process. To assess whether PhoN2 and IcsA may interact, two-hybrid and cross-linking experiments were performed. While no evidence was found of a PhoN2-IcsA interaction, unexpectedly the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) was shown to bind PhoN2-HA through its periplasmic-exposed C-terminal domain. Therefore, to identify PhoN2 domains involved in its periplasmic polar delivery as well as in the interaction with OmpA, a deletion and a set of specific amino acid substitutions were generated. Analysis of these mutants indicated that neither the (183)PAPAP(187) motif of OmpA, nor the N-terminal polyproline (43)PPPP(46) motif and the Y155 residue of PhoN2 are involved in this interaction while P45, P46 and Y155 residues were found to be critical for the correct folding and stability of the protein. The relative rapid degradation of these amino acid-substituted recombinant proteins was found to be due to unknown S. flexneri-specific protease(s). A model depicting how the PhoN2-OmpA interaction may contribute to proper polar IcsA exposition in S. flexneri is presented.

  18. New solid laser: Ceramic laser. From ultra stable laser to ultra high output laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    An epoch-making solid laser is developed. It is ceramic laser, polycrystal, which is produced as same as glass and shows ultra high output. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser crystal and the CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technique realized new ultra high output lasers. Japan has developed various kinds of ceramic lasers, from 10 -2 to 67 x 10 3 w average output, since 1995. These ceramic lasers were studied by gravitational radiation astronomy. The scattering coefficient of ceramic laser is smaller than single crystals. The new fast ignition method is proposed by Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University, Japan. Ultra-intense short pulse laser can inject the required energy to the high-density imploded core plasma within the core disassembling time. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 crystal for laser, ceramic YAG of large caliber for 100 kW, transparent laser ceramic from nano-crystals, crystal grain and boundary layer between grains, the scattering coefficient of single crystal and ceramic, and the derived release cross section of Yb:YAG ceramic are described. (S.Y.)

  19. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  20. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  1. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  2. Robot-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeel, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    A robot-laser system is described for providing a laser beam at a desired location, the system comprising: a laser beam source; a robot including a plurality of movable parts including a hollow robot arm having a central axis along which the laser source directs the laser beam; at least one mirror for reflecting the laser beam from the source to the desired location, the mirror being mounted within the robot arm to move therewith and relative thereto to about a transverse axis that extends angularly to the central axis of the robot arm; and an automatic programmable control system for automatically moving the mirror about the transverse axis relative to and in synchronization with movement of the robot arm to thereby direct the laser beam to the desired location as the arm is moved

  3. Laser safety in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1997-05-01

    One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.

  4. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  5. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  6. Lasers: principles, applications and energetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subran, C.; Sagaut, J.; Lapointe, S.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the principles of a laser and the properties of the laser beam, the authors describe the following different types of lasers: solid state lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor lasers, dye lasers and gas lasers. Then, their applications are given. Very high energy lasers can reproduce the phenomenon of nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms. (O.M.)

  7. Lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  8. Exposure to uranium and cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies; Exposition a l'uranium et risque de cancer: une revue des etudes epidemiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2004-02-01

    Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)

  9. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  10. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  11. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  12. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  13. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  14. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  15. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  16. Designing of Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Al-Awad, F.; Alsous, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we describe the design of the Raman laser pumped by Frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ=532 nm) to generate new laser wavelengths by shifting the frequency of the Nd-YAG laser to Stokes region (λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm, λ 3 =1579.5 nm) and Antistokes region (λ ' 1 =435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm, λ ' 3=319.8 nm). Laser resonator has been designed to increase the laser gain. It consists of two mirrors, the back mirror transmits the pump laser beam (λ=532 nm) through the Raman tube and reflects all other generated Raman laser lines. Four special front mirrors were made to be used for the four laser lines λ 1 =683 nm, λ 2 =953.6 nm and λ ' 1 = 435 nm, λ ' 2 =369.9 nm. The output energy for the lines υ 1 s, υ 2 s, υ 1 as,υ 2 as was measured. The output energy of the Raman laser was characterized for different H 2 pressure inside the tube. (Author)

  17. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  18. Hemorrhagic stroke after naphazoline exposition: case report Acidente vascular encefálico hemorrágico após exposição à nafazolina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A.A. Zavala

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten percent of all strokes are due to spontaneous cerebral hemorrhages. They are associated to drugs (licit and illicit in 9.5% of all cases in young adults. This is a case report of a 44-year-old man, without previous morbidities, who presented a sudden onset headache and arterial hypertension 24 hours after use of naphazoline as nasal decongestant. Cranial tomography showed right thalamus hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed no aneurisms, vascular malformations or vasculitis. No other risk factors were found during investigation in this patient and the stroke was attributed to naphazoline exposition.Dez por cento de todos os eventos vasculares encefálicos são devido às hemorragias intracerebrais espontâneas, associados a drogas (lícitas e ilícitas em 9,5% de todos os casos em adultos jovens. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 44 anos de idade, sem doenças prévias, que apresentou cefaléia súbita e hipertensão arterial 24 horas após o uso de congestionante nasal contendo nafazolina. A tomografia de crânio evidenciou hemorragia talâmica. Durante a investigação não foram encontrados outros fatores de risco e a hemorragia foi atribuída à exposição à nafazolina.

  19. Proceedings of the 20 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 20. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociaciacion de Tenicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F, from the 15 to the 19 of November of 1999. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies, and energy and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 20 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 15 al 19 de noviembre de 1999. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, y energia y ambiente.

  20. Proceedings of the 21 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 21 Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional del a energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F., from the 14 to the 16 of March of 2001. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 21 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 14 al 16 de marzo de 2001. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables y ambiente.

  1. Les expositions universelles et internationales comme des méga-événements: une incarnation éphémère d'un fait social total?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Ballester

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Les métropoles mondiales diversifient leur politique urbaine en organisant des méga-événements permettant la création, promotion et valorisation de complexe de foire. Les Expositions découlent de cette logique au même titre que les Jeux olympiques de 2016 à Rio de Janeiro et les mondiaux de football de 2014 au Brésil. Quels sont les effets durables d'un événement éphémère? À partir de la notion de fait social total selon Marcel Mauss, associée à une enquête de terrain pour Saragosse 2008 Expo et d'une analyse du dossier de candidature de São Paulo 2020 Expo, ces méga-événements incarnent à la fois un message humaniste tronqué dans le fait de rassembler le monde entier à travers un tourisme de masse réducteur, mais aussi un moyen de communication et de diffusion d'une culture nationale et d'un savoir-faire technique à l'échelle mondiale. La puissance de l'événement et sa propagande amplifie les critiques de ces utopies contrariées.

  2. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  3. Laser program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Coleman, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Fusion program are to understand and develop the science and technology of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and to utilize ICF in short- and long-term military applications, and, in the long-term, as a candidate for central-station civilian power generation. In 1984, using the Novette laser system, the authors completed experiments showing the very favorable scaling of laser-plama interactions with short-wavelength laser light. Their Novette experiments have unequivocally shown that short laser wavelength, i.e., less than 1 μm, is required to provide the drive necessary for efficient compression, ignition, and burn of DT fusion fuel. In other experiments with Novette, the authors made the first unambiguous observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft x-ray regime. The authors also conducted military applications and weapons physics experiments, which they discuss in detail in the classified volume of our Laser Program Annual Report. In the second thrust, advanced laser studies, they develop and test the concepts, components, and materials for present and future laser systems. Over the years, this has meant providing the technology base and scientific advances necessary to construct and operate a succession of six evermore-powerful laser systems. The latest of these, Nova, a 100-TW/100-kJ-class laser system, was completed in 1984. The Nd:glass laser continues to be the most effective and versatile tool for ICF and weapons physics because of its scalability in energy, the ability to efficiently convert its 1=μm output to shorter wavelengths, its ability to provide flexible, controlled pulse shaping, and its capability to adapt to a variety of irradiation and focusing geometries. For these reasons, many of our advanced laser studies are in areas appropriate to solid state laser technologies

  4. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  5. Pattern Laser Annealing by a Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Yoshio; Hoh, Koichiro; Murakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tarui, Yasuo

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary experiments with contact-type pattern laser annealing were made for local polycrystallization of a-Si, local evaporation of a-Si and local formation of Ni-Si alloy. These experiments showed that the mask patterns can be replicated as annealed regions with a resolution of a few microns on substrates. To overcome shortcomings due to the contact type pattern annealing, a projection type reduction pattern laser annealing system is proposed for resistless low temperature pattern forming processes.

  6. Identification and Quantification of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones Involved in Bacterial Communication by Small-Scale Synthesis of Internal Standards and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, Jan; Treitz, Christian; Leippe, Matthias; Tholey, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) are small signal molecules involved in the quorum sensing of many gram-negative bacteria, and play an important role in biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Present analytical methods for identification and quantification of AHL require time-consuming sample preparation steps and are hampered by the lack of appropriate standards. By aiming at a fast and straightforward method for AHL analytics, we investigated the applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Suitable MALDI matrices, including crystalline and ionic liquid matrices, were tested and the fragmentation of different AHL in collision-induced dissociation MS/MS was studied, providing information about characteristic marker fragments ions. Employing small-scale synthesis protocols, we established a versatile and cost-efficient procedure for fast generation of isotope-labeled AHL standards, which can be used without extensive purification and yielded accurate standard curves. Quantitative analysis was possible in the low pico-molar range, with lower limits of quantification reaching from 1 to 5 pmol for different AHL. The developed methodology was successfully applied in a quantitative MALDI MS analysis of low-volume culture supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  8. Development and characterization of femtosecond laser driven soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettaibi, I.

    2005-06-01

    Coherent soft x-ray sources have an important potential for scientific, medical and industrial applications. The development of high intensity laser systems allowed the realization of new coherent and fast soft x-ray sources like high order harmonic generation and soft x-ray lasers. These sources are compact, cheaper than traditional sources such as synchrotrons, and are thus interesting. This thesis presents the study of a new soft x-ray laser pumped by a femto-second laser beam working at 10 Hz. The circularly polarized ultra intense laser is longitudinally focused in a cell filled with xenon or krypton, to obtain the amplification of two lasing lines at 41.8 nm and 32.8 nm in Pd-like xenon and Ni-like krypton respectively. We carry out an experimental and numerical study of the source to understand the importance of different parameters such as the laser intensity and polarization, the gas pressure and the cell length. We have also spatially and temporally characterized the soft x-ray laser beam. To compensate the refraction of the driving laser we have investigated guiding techniques consisting in creating a plasma channel by electric discharge or using the multiple reflections of the driving laser on the internal walls of the dielectric tubes of sapphire or glass. A spectacular improvement of the source performances has been observed in both cases. Finally, we present a preliminary study on a different x-ray scheme: the inner shell photo pumping of neutral atoms. We have developed an optical system, which should create the appropriate conditions for the realisation of short wavelength x-ray amplifier. (author)

  9. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  10. Plant equipment services with laser metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.H.; Kreitman, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new industrial metrology process is now being applied to support PWR Nuclear Plant Steam Generator Replacement Projects. The method uses laser tracking interferometry to perform as built surveys of existing and replacement plant equipment. This method provides precision data with a minimum of setup when compared to alternative methods available. In addition there is no post processing required to ascertain validity. The data is obtained quickly, processed in real time and displayed during the survey in the desired coordinate system. These capabilities make this method of industrial measure ideal for various data acquisition needs throughout the power industry, from internal/external equipment templating to area mapping. Laser tracking interferometry is an improvement on the present use of optical instruments and surveying technique. In order to describe the laser tracking interferometry measurement process, previous methods of templating and surveying are first reviewed

  11. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  12. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  13. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  14. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  15. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10 19 W/cm 2 . In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62 Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10 19 Wcm -2

  16. Lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hair, E.A.; Piltch, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is conducting research on uranium enrichment. All processes being studied employ uranium molecules and use lasers to provide isotopic selectivity and enrichment. There are four well-defined infrared frequencies and two ultraviolet frequency bands of interest. The infrared frequencies are outside the range of the available lasers and an extensive research and development activity is currently underway. Lasers are available in the uv bands, however, much development work remains. The specification for the commercial uranium enrichment plant lasers will depend upon the results of the current enrichment experiments, the laser capital cost, reliability, and maintenance cost. For the processes under investigation there are specific photon requirements but latitude in how these requirements can be met. The final laser selections for the pilot plant need not be made until the mid-1980's. Between now and that time as extensive as possible a research and development effort will be maintained

  17. Inertial fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.; Watteau, J.-P.

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief historical survey of research into the effects of interaction of laser with matter, the principles of fusion by inertial confinement are described and the main parameters and possible levels given. The development of power lasers is then discussed with details of performances of the main lasers used in various laboratories, and with an assessment of the respective merits of neodymium glass, carbon dioxide or iodine lasers. The phenomena of laser radiation and its interaction with matter is then described, with emphasis on the results of experiments concerned with target implosion with the object of compressing and heating the mixture of heavy hydrogen and tritium to be ignited. Finally, a review is made of future possibilities opened up by the use of large power lasers which have recently become operational or are being constructed, and the ground still to be covered before a reactor can be produced [fr

  18. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  19. Atomic iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program

  20. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.