WorldWideScience

Sample records for international language fall

  1. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  2. Language and the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  3. 4th International Language Management Symposium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prošek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-240 ISSN 0037-7031. [international language management symposium] Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : language management theory * international language symposium * language management Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  4. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Advanced Search. Journal Home > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Peter

    Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

  8. Sign language: an international handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of

  9. Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, A. F.; Yazan, B.

    2013-01-01

    English has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, generating a fundamental discussion of EIL pedagogy for English language teaching practitioners around the world. Teaching English as an International Language captures this important moment in the history of English language teaching. Readers will find an accessible introduction to the past,…

  10. International English Language Testing: A Critical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uysal's article provides a research agenda for IELTS and lists numerous issues concerning the test's reliability and validity. She asks useful questions, but her analysis ignores the uncertainties inherent in all language test development and the wider social and political context of international high-stakes language testing. In this response, I…

  11. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LALIGENS is a peer-reviewed journal by International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR). It is published three times a year. Three topical issues are to be addressed by this journal – language, literature and gender with the following sub-headings among others: the relationship between language ...

  12. Democratizing English as an International Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneire, Marc

    The aim of this paper is threefold. The first section shows how the political uses of language engendered by both western-style liberalism on the one hand and various forms of nationalism on the other lead to the negation of democratic ideals. Because of the current international situation, political aspects of language are receiving more and more…

  13. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  14. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the ... INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN RESEARCHERS AND REVIEWERS. Sources of Support. Sale of hard copies and subscription. ISSN: 2227-5460. AJOL African ...

  15. Detecting inpatient falls by using natural language processing of electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyabe Shin-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incident reporting is the most common method for detecting adverse events in a hospital. However, under-reporting or non-reporting and delay in submission of reports are problems that prevent early detection of serious adverse events. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to promptly detect serious injuries after inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method and to determine which data source is the most suitable for this purpose. Methods We tried to detect adverse events from narrative text data of electronic medical records by using a natural language processing method. We made syntactic category decision rules to detect inpatient falls from text data in electronic medical records. We compared how often the true fall events were recorded in various sources of data including progress notes, discharge summaries, image order entries and incident reports. We applied the rules to these data sources and compared F-measures to detect falls between these data sources with reference to the results of a manual chart review. The lag time between event occurrence and data submission and the degree of injury were compared. Results We made 170 syntactic rules to detect inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method. Information on true fall events was most frequently recorded in progress notes (100%, incident reports (65.0% and image order entries (12.5%. However, F-measure to detect falls using the rules was poor when using progress notes (0.12 and discharge summaries (0.24 compared with that when using incident reports (1.00 and image order entries (0.91. Since the results suggested that incident reports and image order entries were possible data sources for prompt detection of serious falls, we focused on a comparison of falls found by incident reports and image order entries. Injury caused by falls found by image order entries was significantly more severe than falls detected by

  16. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  17. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves J.; Eichberg, Sabine; Marston, Hannah R.; Ejupi, Andreas; De Rosario Martínez, Helios; Kroll, Michael; Drobics, Mario; Annegarn, Janneke; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R.; Aal, Konstantin; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission's Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project 'iStoppFalls' an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person's risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasi...

  18. Fall

    OpenAIRE

    Odundo, Magdalene

    2008-01-01

    The monoprint Fall, created in the artist-in-residence studio at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New England, represents a transient yet vivid memory of the season spent walking and re-walking a trail I took to the studio on a daily basis. The work arose spontaneously from a direct and instinctive wish to replicate the ghost imprints left on the trail by the wet and dry weather of that autumn. It also represented a sensationally hopeful political transition of what seemed to be the growth of hope...

  19. Facebook: Facilitating Social Access and Language Acquisition for International Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…

  20. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  1. Engaging the Discourse of International Language Recognition through ISO 639-3 Signed Language Change Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic ideologies that are left unquestioned and unexplored, especially as reflected and produced in marginalized language communities, can contribute to inequality made real in decisions about languages and the people who use them. One of the primary bodies of knowledge guiding international language policy is the International Organization…

  2. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  3. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  4. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  5. Esperanto and International Language Problems: A Research Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey R.

    This bibliography is intended both for the researcher and for the occasional student of international language problems, particularly as these relate to the international language Esperanto. The book is divided into two main sections: Part One deals with problems arising from communication across national boundaries and the search for a solution…

  6. The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Although falls among the elderly carry high costs to individuals and society, the prevention of falls in later life has not received adequate attention from health care professionals. The prevalence of falls appears to involve roughly one-third of persons aged 65 and over, and the risk of falling and suffering serious injury increases substantially up to the eighth decade of life. The proportion of falls which result in fracture is low, but the absolute number of older people who suffer fractures is high and places heavy demands on health care systems. Even falls which result in no physical injury often have serious social and psychological consequences for the elderly, including loss of confidence and restrictions in mobility, and high proportions of older people report fears of falling. There is a need to provide accurate information about the causes and prevention of falls in later life. Falls are not part of the normal aging process. Rather, they are due to underlying physical illnesses, medications, and environmental hazards, often in interaction. This report provides an overview of the elderly population at risk of falling and suffering serious injury, some of the reasons older people fall, and the methods to prevent falls which have been developed in both community and institutional settings. In addition, it suggests some of the practical steps which can be taken by health and social care professionals and by older people and their families in order to prevent falls. Empirical knowledge about the causes of falls by the elderly and the most effective methods of prevention remains limited. Major barriers to research have been the lack of a clear definition of a fall and the fact that falls are not included in medical diagnostic indices. It is recommended that falls be recorded as a disease entity in Index Medicus and in the International Classification of Diseases Xth Revision. To facilitate future comparisons of research findings on falls, a definition of a

  7. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  8. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  9. The role of language in shaping international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Adsera, Alicia

    and climate shocks, migrant networks, language and aspects of “cultural distance”. In that regard, the more “foreign” or distant the new culture and the larger the language barriers, the higher the costs are for an individual to migrate to a particular destination. Fluency in destination country’s language...... destination countries from 130 source countries for the years 1985–2006 to study the role of language in shaping international migration. In addition to standard covariates from gravity models, we include a set of indices of language proximity to study their association to the observed flows: (1) a newly...... and destination country, to proxy for the “potential” ease to learn a new language and of adaptation; (3) measures of the diversity of the existing stock and flows of migrants (weighted by languages)....

  10. The Lady, the Linguists, and the International Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an extensive research program that was conducted under the auspices of the International Auxiliary Language Association, whose goal was to gather information on Esperanto, Ido, or Latino. Reviews ideological influences that instead led to creation of new hybrid language, Interlingua. (Author/VWL)

  11. Language as capital in international university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies......As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence...

  12. International language management and diversity climate in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related to internatio......Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related...... to internationalization is how to develop and support an environment that is tolerant of the diversity which exists in multicultural organizations. Based on questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic multicultural departments, we examined the relation between the management of a common language and a positive...... diversity climate. Results showed that consistency in English management communication had strong positive relationships with all of the four investigated diversity climate variables; openness to linguistic, visible, value, and informational diversity. English communication consistency had a positive...

  13. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  14. The Common Language Question Before International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Ivo

    1971-01-01

    Third report on a petition submitted to the United Nations by the Universal Esperanto Association (UEA) in 1950 to promote Esperanto as the universal language. The petition was forwarded for action to Unesco which in 1954 resolved to support any efforts in this direction undertaken within a member state. Available from Humanities Press, Inc.,…

  15. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rationalisation and Intertextuality: An Analysis of the Language of Men's Reactions to Gender Equality in Zulu Sofola's The Sweet Trap · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E N Ugwu, S N Kpolugbo, 87-96 ...

  16. The role of language in international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and spea...

  17. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  18. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Eichberg, Sabine; Marston, Hannah R; Ejupi, Andreas; Rosario, Helios de; Kroll, Michael; Drobics, Mario; Annegarn, Janneke; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R; Aal, Konstantin; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-08-20

    Falls are very common, especially in adults aged 65 years and older. Within the current international European Commission's Seventh Framework Program (FP7) project 'iStoppFalls' an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based system has been developed to regularly assess a person's risk of falling in their own home and to deliver an individual and tailored home-based exercise and education program for fall prevention. The primary aims of iStoppFalls are to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention program, and its effectiveness to improve balance, muscle strength and quality of life in older people. This international, multicenter study is designed as a single-blinded, two-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 160 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older will be recruited in Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 40), and Australia (n = 60) between November 2013 and May 2014. Participants in the intervention group will conduct a 16-week exercise program using the iStoppFalls system through their television set at home. Participants are encouraged to exercise for a total duration of 180 minutes per week. The training program consists of a variety of balance and strength exercises in the form of video games using exergame technology. Educational material about a healthy lifestyle will be provided to each participant. Final reassessments will be conducted after 16 weeks. The assessments include physical and cognitive tests as well as questionnaires assessing health, fear of falling, quality of life and psychosocial determinants. Falls will be followed up for six months by monthly falls calendars. We hypothesize that the regular use of this newly developed ICT-based system for fall prevention at home is feasible for older people. By using the iStoppFalls sensor-based exercise program, older people are expected to improve in balance and strength outcomes. In addition, the exercise training may have a positive impact on quality of

  19. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  20. Language proficiency and the international postgraduate student experience

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...

  1. ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): results from an international multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Eichberg, Sabine; Ejupi, Andreas; de Rosario, Helios; Kroll, Michael; Marston, Hannah R; Drobics, Mario; Annegarn, Janneke; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R; Aal, Konstantin; Vaziri, Daryoush; Woodbury, Ashley; Fink, Dennis; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious public health issue. Exercise programs can effectively reduce fall risk in older people. The iStoppFalls project developed an Information and Communication Technology-based system to deliver an unsupervised exercise program in older people's homes. The primary aims of the iStoppFalls randomized controlled trial were to assess the feasibility (exercise adherence, acceptability and safety) of the intervention program and its effectiveness on common fall risk factors. A total of 153 community-dwelling people aged 65+ years took part in this international, multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Intervention group participants conducted the exercise program for 16 weeks, with a recommended duration of 120 min/week for balance exergames and 60 min/week for strength exercises. All intervention and control participants received educational material including advice on a healthy lifestyle and fall prevention. Assessments included physical and cognitive tests, and questionnaires for health, fear of falling, number of falls, quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. The median total exercise duration was 11.7 h (IQR = 22.0) over the 16-week intervention period. There were no adverse events. Physiological fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment, PPA) reduced significantly more in the intervention group compared to the control group (F1,127 = 4.54, p = 0.035). There was a significant three-way interaction for fall risk assessed by the PPA between the high-adherence (>90 min/week; n = 18, 25.4 %), low-adherence (<90 min/week; n = 53, 74.6 %) and control group (F2,125 = 3.12, n = 75, p = 0.044). Post hoc analysis revealed a significantly larger effect in favour of the high-adherence group compared to the control group for fall risk (p = 0.031), postural sway (p = 0.046), stepping reaction time (p = 0.041), executive functioning (p = 0.044), and quality of life (p for

  2. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  4. Organizational Issues in International and Second Language Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    One of 10 studies commissioned to investigate research needs and to stimulate planning activities, this paper concerns the structures, processes, interrelationships, governance, finance, and workforces of institutions and organizations as they are engaged in international and second language education. After noting the field of instruction and…

  5. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  6. Preparing teachers to teach English as an international language

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This book explores ways to prepare teachers to teach English as an International Language, and provides theoretically-grounded models for EIL-informed teacher education. It includes two chapters that present a theoretical approach to EIL teacher education, followed by descriptions of field-tested teacher education programs, courses and activities.

  7. World Englishes, English as an International Language and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…

  8. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.

  9. FOREIGN LANGUAGE OFFERINGS AND ENROLLMENTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, FALL 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUTIMANN, HANS; TEAGUE, CAROLINE

    THIS REPORT ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE ENROLLMENTS, THE EIGHTH IN A SERIES PUBLISHED ANNUALLY, SHOWS THE LANGUAGE ENROLLMENT DISTRIBUTION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS (GRADES 7 TO 12) WHICH, IN 1965, WAS 85.8 PERCENT ENROLLED IN SPANISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, RUSSIAN, AND ITALIAN, 13.9 PERCENT ENROLLED IN LATIN, AND 0.3 PERCENT IN "OTHER" LANGUAGES. THREE BASIC…

  10. Professional Language Training of International Students in the Multicultural Environment of University for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Glebova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system

  11. Language policy and the disengagement of the international academic elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harbord

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the phenomena of academic multiliteracy (the habit of writing academically in more than one language and of L2 monoliteracy (that of only writing academically in a language that is not one’s own and their impact on policy. Based on interviews and surveys conducted with 33 multiliterate and 15 L2 monoliterate scholars connected to one university in Central Europe between 2010 and 2014, I show how incentives to publish in English constructed by educational policies often push ambitious young researchers whose first language is not English away from engaging in academic and societal debates in their first language community. They may thus disengage from the national community, with negative consequences for the interaction between global and local that is essential for good governance. To overcome the difficulty young scholars encounter in writing in their native languages, they should be taught writing both in their native language and in English. Furthermore, university and state policies should reward scholars for writing not only for the international community but also for local society.

  12. Phonology in English language teaching an international approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Martha C

    2014-01-01

    Phonology in English Language Teaching is an introductory text, specifically directed at the needs of language teachers internationally. Combining an overview of English phonology with structured practical guidance, this text shows how phonology can be applied in the classroom.An introductory chapter provides the philosophical framework, followed by separate chapters on the phonology of consonants, vowels and prosody. As well as presenting core material on English phonology, the book explores the relationship of orthography to the English sound system from a historical and a pre

  13. Validity and sensitivity to change of the falls efficacy scales international to assess fear of falling in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Klaus A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Schwenk, Michael; Yardley, Lucy; Beyer, Nina; Todd, Chris; Oster, Peter; Zijlstra, G A Rixt

    2011-01-01

    Measures of fear of falling have not yet been validated in patients with dementia, leaving a methodological gap that limits research in a population at high risk of falling and fall-related consequences. The objectives of this study are to determine: (1) the validity of the 7-item Short Falls Efficacy Scale International (Short FES-I) in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment, and (2) the sensitivity to change of the 10-item Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), the 16-item FES-I and the 7-item Short FES-I in geriatric patients with dementia. Cross-sectional data of community-dwelling older adults and geriatric rehabilitation patients (n = 284) collected during face-to-face interviews were used to determine construct and discriminant validity by testing for differences within variables related to fear of falling. Sensitivity to change was studied in an intervention study including patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 130) as determined by standard response means (SRMs). The Short FES-I showed excellent construct and discriminant validity in the total group and subsamples according to cognitive status. Sensitivity to change was adequate to good in the FES (range SRM: 0.18-0.77) and FES-I (range SRM: 0.21-0.74), with the Short FES-I showing the highest peak sensitivity to change (range SRM: 0.18-0.91). The Short FES-I is a valid measure to assess fear of falling in frail older adults with and without cognitive impairment, yet it may show floor effects in higher functioning older people. All scales, including the Short FES-I, were sensitive to detecting intervention-induced changes in concerns about falling in geriatric patients with dementia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Clinical assessment of fear of falling after stroke: validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Persian version of the Fall Efficacy Scale-International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Akram; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Mehrpour, Masoud; Mohammadi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling may be related to falling during stroke onset. The Fall Efficacy ScaleInternational (FES-I) with excellent psychometric properties, is an instrument developed to assess patients' concerns about fallings. The aim of this study was to determine validation of this scale in Iranian patients with stroke. The "forward-backward" procedure was applied to translate the FES-I from English to Persian. One hundred-twenty patients who had suffered stroke, aged 40 to 80 years (55% male) completed the Persian FES-I, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15), General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed up and Go (TUG) questionnaires. The interval time for the test-retest of the Persian scale was 7-14 days. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities of the Persian FES-I were excellent (ICC2,1=0.98, pPersian scale showed only one significant factor. The total Persian FES-I score had a significantly negative correlation (pPersian FES-I proved to be an effective and valuable measurement tool to assess stroke patients' fear of falling in practice and research setting.

  15. Now What? Think Fast: Using Healthcare Clinics as Universal Language to Maximize Learning for International Students in a Graduate Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Katila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International students in Masters programs come to the US optimistic and willing to learn. Upon arrival and entrance into programs, they often encounter unexpected environments. Culture shock and language barriers may seem like obvious hurdles, but work ethic and scope of visual knowledge also pose unique challenges for both students and design educators. Although all students share new challenges in graduate school, international students face tougher impediments in studio environments where they express themselves both visually and verbally. Additionally, much of design uses humor, idioms, and visual clues only understood in English. So how do educators help international students build on what they already know? How do educators break barriers between domestic and international students so they may teach one another through a shared language? In fall 2015, my Conceptual Development and Implementation class was struggling to exchange ideas in the classroom. We moved through that struggle by developing a shared language around each student's experiences with healthcare clinics in their country of origin. Students explained what makes healthcare clinics reputable; how people access information in India, China, small towns and larger urban areas; and where people look for trustworthy information. This paper discusses how one educator used student experience of healthcare clinics to find a universal language to maximize learning for international students in design education.

  16. The Relationship between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Scores and Academic Success of International Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuino, Cathy Lee T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are related to academic success defined by final cumulative grade point average (GPA). The data sample, from three Midwestern universities, was comprised of international graduate students who…

  17. Sociological Implications of English as an International Language in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization and globalization have created a global music education community which is not only linked by similar ideas, but also shares a common language. English functions as a global language and facilitates the international discourse in music education. While it is good to have a common language supporting international dialogue, it…

  18. Early phonology revealed by international adoptees' birth language retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoun; Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2017-07-11

    Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes. Here we show that phonological acquisition is also in progress before 6 mo of age. The evidence comes from retention of birth-language knowledge in international adoptees. In the largest ever such study, we recruited 29 adult Dutch speakers who had been adopted from Korea when young and had no conscious knowledge of Korean language at all. Half were adopted at age 3-5 mo (before native-specific discrimination develops) and half at 17 mo or older (after word learning has begun). In a short intensive training program, we observe that adoptees (compared with 29 matched controls) more rapidly learn tripartite Korean consonant distinctions without counterparts in their later-acquired Dutch, suggesting that the adoptees retained phonological knowledge about the Korean distinction. The advantage is equivalent for the younger-adopted and the older-adopted groups, and both groups not only acquire the tripartite distinction for the trained consonants but also generalize it to untrained consonants. Although infants younger than 6 mo can still discriminate unfamiliar phonetic distinctions, this finding indicates that native-language phonological knowledge is nonetheless being acquired at that age.

  19. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale – International in a sample of Portuguese elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Alves Marques-Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to translate and adapt Falls Efficacy Scale – International (FES-I. To analyze the psychometric properties of the FES-I Portugal version. Method: psychometric study. Sample consisting of 170 elderly people residing in the Autonomous Region of Madeira. A two- part form was used (sociodemographic characterization and FES-I Portugal. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed and the following psychometric properties were evaluated: validity (construct, predictive, and discriminant, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha, and inter-rater reliability. Results: the results allow us to verify a dimension of less demanding physical activities and another of more demanding physical activities. The inter-rater reliability study was 0.62, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.859, for a 95% confidence interval. The internal consistency of the Portuguese version was 0.962. Conclusion: the validity and reliability of the FES-I Portugal are consistent with the original version and proved to be appropriate instruments for evaluating the “impaired walking” and “risk of falls” nursing diagnoses in the older people.

  20. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008.......This research report constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing (CSLP 2008) which is part of the European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI 2008), Hamburg, Germany, August 2008....

  1. Validity and sensitivity to change of the falls efficacy scales international to assess fear of falling in older adults with and without cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauer, Klaus A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Schwenk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Measures of fear of falling have not yet been validated in patients with dementia, leaving a methodological gap that limits research in a population at high risk of falling and fall-related consequences....

  2. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  3. Signed languages and globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf people who form part of a Deaf community communicate using a shared sign language. When meeting people from another language community, they can fall back on a flexible and highly context-dependent form of communication called international sign, in which shared elements from their own sign

  4. A qualitative description of falls in a neuro-rehabilitation unit: the use of a standardised fall report including the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) to describe activities and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverino, Alessia; Moriarty, Amy; Rantell, Khadija; Waller, Denise; Ayres, Rachael; Playford, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a recognised problem for people with long-term neurological conditions but less is known about fall risk in young adults. This study describes fallers' and falls' characteristics in adults less than 60 years old, in a neuro-rehabilitation unit. This single-centre, longitudinal, observational study included 114 consecutive admissions to a UK neuro-rehabilitation unit over 20 months. The demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible patients included age, sex, diagnosis, hospital length of stay and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Falls were recorded prospectively in a fall report, using the activities and environmental domains of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). A total of 34 (30%) patients reported a fall, with 50% experiencing more than one fall. The majority of falls (60%) occurred during the first 2 weeks, during day-time (90%) and during mobile activities (70%). Overall, falls rate (95% confidence interval) was 1.33 (1.04 to 1.67) per 100 d of patient hospital stay. Factors associated with increased falls included becoming a walker during admission or being cognitively impaired. There were no serious fall-related injuries. The first 2 weeks of admission is a high risk time for fallers, in particular those who become walkers or are cognitively impaired. Prevention policies should be put in place based on fall characteristics. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF is a valuable instrument for describing subject and environmental factors during a fall-event. Falls are frequent events but do not usually cause serious injuries during inpatient rehabilitation. There is an increased fall risk for subjects with cognitive impairments or those relearning how to walk.

  5. Linguistic Diversity in the International Workplace: Language Ideologies and Processes of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…

  6. Language Equality in International Cooperation. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph; Mandel, Mark

    The policies of the United Nations with regard to the six official languages have left holes in the fabric of international cooperation. Maintaining language services in all six languages has proved to be an impossibility because of the scarcity of trained interpreters and translators between, for instance, Chinese and Arabic. English, French, and…

  7. Assessing the relative and absolute reliability of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International questionnaire in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and the questionnaire's convergent validity in elderly women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, A; Franzén, E; Ståhle, A

    2013-06-01

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and has low or no convergent validity with balance performance tests and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among elderly women with osteoporosis, which indicates that both measurements should be included as they are measuring different components. Fear of falling is increased in elderly individuals with osteoporosis and FES-I is a widely used questionnaire to assess fear of falling. There is limited evidence of the reliability and convergent validity in elderly with increased risk of falling and osteoporosis. Reliability and validity study of the FES-I. Community-dwelling elderly with increased fall risk, 59 subjects, were recruited to the reliability assessment, and 81 women with osteoporosis, in the validity assessment. For the reliability assessment, two postal surveys were used. For the validity assessment, we used baseline data from an on-going study in women with osteoporosis. The FES-I was correlated to a single-item question regarding fear of falling, self-reported history of falls, balance performance tests and health-related quality of life. The FES-I had very good relative reliability (intra-class correlation 0.88) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.94). The value for absolute reliability was a standard error of measure 2.9 (10.6 %), smallest real difference 7.9 (29 %). There was "little if any" to "low" correlation between the FES-I and the single-item question regarding fear of falling and self-reported history of falls, HRQL and balance performance tests. The FES-I seems to be a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly with increased fall risk but has low relation to/convergent validity with balance performance and HRQL among elderly women with osteoporosis.

  8. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  9. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Valentin; Calinici, Tudor; Tigan, Stefan; Fors, Uno G H

    2013-02-11

    Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  10. Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Valentin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs, especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010 of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011 of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results We found no significant differences between the students’ performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students’ performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students’ activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students’ ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  11. The Language Problem in Science and the Role of the International Language Esperanto. Esperanto Documents 38 A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendao, Ouyang; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    Two essays discuss the need for improved international transfer of scientific and technical information and propose the international language Esperanto for that purpose. "The Role of Esperanto" by Ouyang Wendao suggests that the burden of time and energy spent in translating scientific literature quickly and well and the difficulties of…

  12. The Internet, Language Learning, And International Dialogue: 
Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    OpenAIRE

    KARTAL, Erdogan; UZUN, Levent

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign language teaching websites (4 from each of seven languages including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). The participants ...

  13. Making a Difference: Language Teaching for Intercultural and International Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael; Wagner, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    Language teaching has long been associated with teaching in a country or countries where a target language is spoken, but this approach is inadequate. In the contemporary world, language teaching has a responsibility to prepare learners for interaction with people of other cultural backgrounds, teaching them skills and attitudes as well as…

  14. A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the…

  15. The International Language Esperanto 1887-1987: Towards the Second Century. Esperanto Documents 39A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    A discussion of Esperanto in the modern world outlines the rationale for the use of an international language, the role of Esperanto in promoting international communication, Esperanto-related organizations and services, and the characteristics of the language that make it useful and easy to teach. Also included are a fact sheet describing the…

  16. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N = 152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and…

  17. Pronunciation for English as an international language from research to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Ee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation plays a crucial role in learning English as an international language, yet often remains marginalised by educators due to a lack of required phonetic and phonological knowledge. Pronunciation for English as an International Language bridges the gap between phonetics, phonology and pronunciation and provides the reader with a research based guide on how best to teach the English language. The book follows an easy to follow format which ensures the reader will have a comprehensive grasp of each given topic by the end of the chapter. Key ideas explored include: Articulation of English speech sounds and basic transcription Connected speech processes Current issues in English language pronunciation teaching Multimedia in English language pronunciation practice Using speech analysis to investigate pronunciation features Using the latest research, Pronunciation for English as an International Language will facilitate effective teaching and learning for any individual involved in teaching English a...

  18. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  19. English as the Language of International Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Alison

    2007-01-01

    In teaching business communication, instructors usually can take for granted that English is the language of business communication in a globalised world. Even in a multicultural and multilinguistic country such as Malaysia, the assumption that English is the language to use is shared by those who manage programs, those who teach, and students.…

  20. English, a Tonal Language? | Pam | AFRREV IJAH: An International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tone is associated with lexical meaning, distinguishing one word from another. Diacritical marks are used for indicating tone to eliminate confusion.The general conclusion is English, is not a tonal language. English is an intonation language which expresses syntactic, discourse, grammatical and attitudinal functions.

  1. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    A sample population of ninety three students was derived in the second ... over 33% of them are English dominant and never came in contact with Igbo until they .... or Igbo language learning behaviours and how to motivate them effectively. ... eclectic method of language teaching as the practice of using features of several.

  2. Neoliberal Paradoxes of Language Learning: Xenophobia and International Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…

  3. International Business Culture: Merging Business with Foreign Language Cultural Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Kristen B.

    This report considers how the different departments of business administration and foreign languages can cooperate to create coursework that will benefit students in both areas of study. The ignorance many U.S. citizens have of the world is taken into consideration. Although foreign language majors have greater exposure to the world, this…

  4. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  5. Falling into language life: a montage of pre-faces in search of a text-ual body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ronald

    2016-11-01

    Clinical work, as all of consciousness, is steeped in and emerges out of language. Language is the medium of our knowing, and knowing the medium of our relating. Language has us; words dream us. For the mythical Navajo as for John of the New Testament, in the Beginning was the Word. Before any kind of distinction of thought, feeling, sensation or intuition comes language - language, not as 'just words', but as image. Words are images, and images as encompassing worlds present themselves as and through language. As a determinant of identity, language undermines all cues as to individual subjectivity, Yahweh's 'I am here' rendering time and place relative, and subjectivity co-constituted. This paper is a meditation on language for clinicians in the form that language presents itself, as a meandering flow of consciousness with associations and signposts leading onward. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...... of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyze the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar...

  7. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    OpenAIRE

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnos...

  8. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Undergraduate International Studies and... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and...

  9. International Undergraduate English Language Learners' Perception of Language and Academic Acquisition through Online Learning: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Olga Noemi

    2014-01-01

    Many institutional programs are changing to incorporate more online opportunities as a way to meet the needs of their students. Therefore, international English language learners are being encouraged to take online courses in order to complete their programs of study at United States colleges or universities (Tan, Lee, & Steven, 2010). In this…

  10. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Previous researches and prevalent issues have revealed that the world has indeed ... primacy, especially in the formation of political and educational system as a .... associations being made are the perceived benefits to which the language ...

  11. International Meeting on Languages, Applied Linguistics and Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages, applied linguistics and translation. The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t...

  12. A Framework for International Student Participation in Postsecondary U.S. English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary English language education is a growing field in the United States. While there has been considerable research on international student mobility in higher education, there is limited research on the population's participation in U.S. English language programs (ELPs). This study examined literature in related fields to create a…

  13. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  14. University Language Policies, Internationalism, Multilingualism, and Language Development in South Africa and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines legislation concerning language policy and language choice in the UK and South Africa. In particular an account of the pressures and imperatives to which such policy development must respond is provided. The paper suggests that the comparison between South Africa and the UK is relevant and compelling, not least because both…

  15. Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain from an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2017-01-01

    In Spain, more than 40% of the population lives in officially bilingual regions in which the minority language is used as a means of instruction at school and university. In addition, the increasing importance attached to learning English has led to the proliferation of multilingual school programs in which different languages are used to teach…

  16. Nation Building, English as an International Language, Medium of Instruction, and Language Debate: Malaysia and Possible Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Le Ha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss Malaysia's major language policies surrounding Bahasa Malaysia and English as medium of instruction (MOI since its independence. We show how issues involving a national language vis a vis English are shaped by different ethnic and social groups' competing views regarding these languages. We argue that the language debate in Malaysia is largely an emotive one that carries a historical baggage which no one is yet ready to discard and until such time, it will continue to represent a nation divided by nationalism, race-based politics and globalisation. However, we also interpret the Malaysian government's termination of English as the MOI in certain key school subjects starting in 2012 as not necessarily an arbitrary rejection of English but as a positive move, given the many problems associated with the over-reliance on English in education and language policies throughout Asia. We, thus, see the most recent act known as 'To Uphold Bahasa Malaysia & To Strengthen the English Language' (MBMMBI as a necessary, firm, strategic and timely response by the Malaysian government to globalisation, nation building, the increasing international role of English, and the pressure to produce knowledge and maintain national cultural identity in today's world.

  17. How things fall apart: understanding the nature of internalizing through its relationship with impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E

    2010-08-01

    The literature suggests that internalizing psychopathology relates to impairment incrementally and gradually. However, the form of this relationship has not been characterized. This form is critical to understanding internalizing psychopathology, as it is possible that internalizing may accelerate in effect at some level of severity, defining a natural boundary of abnormality. Here, a novel method-semiparametric structural equation modeling-was used to model the relationship between internalizing and impairment in a sample of 8,580 individuals from the 2000 British Office for National Statistics Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity, a large, population-representative study of psychopathology. This method allows one to model relationships between latent internalizing and impairment without assuming any particular form a priori and to compare models in which the relationship is constant and linear. Results suggest that the relationship between internalizing and impairment is in fact linear and constant across the entire range of internalizing variation and that it is impossible to nonarbitrarily define a specific level of internalizing beyond which consequences suddenly become catastrophic in nature. Results demonstrate the phenomenological continuity of internalizing psychopathology, highlight the importance of impairment as well as symptoms, and have clear implications for defining mental disorder. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Researching Language Teacher Cognition and Practice: International Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Roger, Ed.; Burns, Anne, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to discussing how to research language teacher cognition and practice. An introductory chapter by the editors and an overview of the research field by Simon Borg precede eight case studies written by new researchers, each of which focuses on one approach to collecting data. These approaches range from…

  19. The Role of Language in Shaping International Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and spea...

  20. Feasibility of using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for evaluation of fall-related risk factors in acute rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih W; Lin, Li F; Chou, Lin C; Wu, Mei J; Liao, Chun D; Liou, Tsan H

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported the use of an International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set that can provide a holistic framework for evaluating the risk factors of falls; however, data on the feasibility of applying this core set are lacking. To investigate the feasibility of applying the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set in the case of patients in an acute-rehabilitation setting. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design. Acute-rehabilitation ward. A total of 273 patients who experienced fall at acute-rehabilitation ward. The data on falls were collected from the hospital's Nursing Information System (NIS) and the fall-reporting system (Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS) between 2010 and 2013. The relationship of both systems to the fall-related ICF core set was analyzed to assess the feasibility of their clinical application. We evaluated the feasibility of using the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set by using the frequency and the percentage of the fall patients in of the listed categories. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set category b735 (muscle tone functions) exhibited a high feasibility (85.95%) for clinical application, and the category b730 (muscle power functions) covered 77.11% of the patients. The feasibility of application of the category d410 (change basic body position) was also high in the case of all fall patients (81.69%). In the acute-rehabilitation setting, the feasibility of application of the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set is high. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set can help multidisciplinary teams develop fall-prevention strategies in acute rehabilitation wards.

  1. Russian Identities and the Idea of International Society 20 Years after the Fall of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Makarychev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author analyzes different Russian international identities of the post-Soviet period. Stressing that the Russian identity discourse cannot be simply reduced to the Soviet one, the paper emphasizes the plurality of Russia’s identity discourses. At the same time the menu of Russian foreign policy identities to a large extent depends upon a variety of international structures in which Russia may imagine to engage with. The paper suggests that there are four possible types (models of the international society, which different Russian identities might be inscribed in. The author seeks to explain the range of Russian international identities by the variety of the patterns of international society which co-exist and offer alternative policy strategies for Moscow.

  2. Research on Reasons for Repeated Falling of Tiles in Internal Walls of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, LiBin; Chen, Shangwei; He, Xinzhou; Zhu, Guoliang

    2018-03-01

    In view of the quality problem of repeated falling of facing tiles in some construction, the essay had a comparative trial in laboratory on cement mortar which is often used to paste tiles, special tile mortar and dry-hang glue, and measured durability of tile adhesive mortar through freezing and thawing tests. The test results indicated that ordinary cement mortar cannot meet standards due to reasons like big shrinkage and low adhesive. In addition, the ten times of freezing and thawing tests indicated that ordinary cement mortar would directly shell and do not have an adhesive force, and moreover, adhesive force of special tile mortar would reduce. Thus, for tiles of large size which are used for walls, dry-hang techniques are recommended to be used.

  3. Internal and External Factors That Support Children's Minority First Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Tipton, Timothy

    2018-05-22

    Sequential bilingual children in the United States often speak 2 languages that have different social statuses (minority-majority) and separate contexts for learning (home-school). Thus, distinct factors may support the development of each language. This study examined which child internal and external factors were related to vocabulary skills in a minority language versus English. Participants included 69 children, aged 5-8 years, who lived in Southern California, spoke Vietnamese as the home language, and received school instruction in English. All participants had at least 1 foreign-born parent, and most mothers reported limited English proficiency. Parents completed a telephone survey, and children completed measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary in each language. Using correlations and stepwise regression, we examined predictors of vocabulary skills in each language that were internal to the child (age, gender, analytical reasoning, phonological memory) or that pertained to the surrounding environment (cumulative exposure, quantity and quality of input/output). Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes were related to multiple external factors, of which input and enrichment activities were the best predictors. In contrast, English vocabulary outcomes were related to internal factors, of which age and phonological memory were the best predictors. Parental use of Vietnamese contributed to children's Vietnamese vocabulary outcomes but was not related to children's English vocabulary outcomes. Vietnamese exposure does not hinder English development. Children from immigrant families are learning English with or without familial support. Rich and frequent exposure and opportunities for practice are essential for the continued development of a minority first language.

  4. International instruments and information exchange on incidents falling within the ITDB scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each individual state. However,states need to work together to enhance collective nuclear security. There are international legal instruments that provide a strategic framework and a common platform for such cooperation. Among such legally binding security related instruments are: Convention on the physical protection of Nuclear materials, Convention on the early notification of nuclear accident and the International convention for the Suppression of acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

  5. The consequences of English language testing for international health professionals and students: An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Michele; Thiessen, Jodi; Buchan, James; Daly, John

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the perceptions about the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and its impact on migration and practice of migrant health professionals in Australia. Thematic analysis of interviews with 14 health industry participants and 35 migrated health professionals in Australia. Language testing is a barrier to health professional registration for migrant health workers in Australia. While two English language tests are recognised by the registration authorities in Australia, it is the International English Language Testing System that is most commonly used. This paper reports that study participants had underlying negative perceptions of the International English Language Testing System which they report, affect their move to Australia. These negative perceptions are caused by: frustration due to changes to processes for migration and registration; challenges regarding the structure of IELTS including timing of when test results expire, scoring requirements, cost, and suitability; and the resulting feelings of inadequacy caused by the test itself. This study has shown that some respondents have experienced difficulties in relation to the International English Language Testing System as part of their migration process. It was found that there is very little research into the effectiveness of the IELTS as it is currently administered for overseas health care professionals. Several recommendations are provided including areas for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 26, Number 1, Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    contribution to international peace and stability. Current Members of the Hall of Fame General Lojas Fodor, Commander, Hungarian Defense Forces and Chief of...Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El

  7. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business...... model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...

  8. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  9. English, a Tonal Language? | Pam | AFRREV IJAH: An International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  11. Intercultural Communication and Teaching Russian to International Students at Language Summer Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Romanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article considers the content and methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language at language summer courses with due account to (as a form of study-abroad training the motives of intercultural communication. The specifics of teaching Russian to international students in the cultural field of Ukraine is revealed. The timeliness of the study is determined by constantly increasing academic mobility of students and the need for the development of modern educational technologies. The main purpose of the article is to present an integrated approach to Russian as a foreign language teaching at language summer courses, when cultural needs of the trainees and the motives of intercultural communication are considered. Materials and Methods: teaching methodology draws on specific methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language and models of intercultural competence development. Educational materials for practical teaching of the Russian language are presented; qualitative and quantitative methods to research intercultural communication motives (written questionnaires and interviews on key topics are used. Results: through working with the learners of language courses – students of Austrian universities – the data on the learners’ motivation factors, the most relevant topics for intercultural dialogue, some important aspects of Russian grammar, and also the data on the most popular knowledge about Ukraine are obtained and carefully analysed. The analysis of the obtained data, carried out by the authors of the study, allowed to optimise the content of the educational process and to incre ase its effectiveness. Discussion and Conclusions: teaching Russian to foreigners, showing a keen interest in the cultural values of Ukraine, suggests a parallel formation of intercultural competence based on understanding the local cultural realities. The presented approach to RFL teaching within the framework of the language summer courses

  12. Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Majid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States health care debate has focused on the nation's uniquely high rates of lack of insurance and poor health outcomes relative to other high-income countries. Large disparities in health outcomes are well-documented in the US, but the most recent assessment of county disparities in mortality is from 1999. It is critical to tracking progress of health reform legislation to have an up-to-date assessment of disparities in life expectancy across counties. US disparities can be seen more clearly in the context of how progress in each county compares to international trends. Methods We use newly released mortality data by age, sex, and county for the US from 2000 to 2007 to compute life tables separately for each sex, for all races combined, for whites, and for blacks. We propose, validate, and apply novel methods to estimate recent life tables for small areas to generate up-to-date estimates. Life expectancy rates and changes in life expectancy for counties are compared to the life expectancies across nations in 2000 and 2007. We calculate the number of calendar years behind each county is in 2000 and 2007 compared to an international life expectancy time series. Results Across US counties, life expectancy in 2007 ranged from 65.9 to 81.1 years for men and 73.5 to 86.0 years for women. When compared against a time series of life expectancy in the 10 nations with the lowest mortality, US counties range from being 15 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for men and 16 calendar years ahead to over 50 calendar years behind for women. County life expectancy for black men ranges from 59.4 to 77.2 years, with counties ranging from seven to over 50 calendar years behind the international frontier; for black women, the range is 69.6 to 82.6 years, with counties ranging from eight to over 50 calendar years behind. Between 2000 and 2007, 80% (men and 91% (women of American counties fell in standing against this

  13. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-05-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/1J9X50aePeU. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding falls and frailty: can falls and frailty be used in FRAX®? From Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Binkley, Neil; Boonen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    into the FRAX® model or, alternatively, to provide guidance to assist clinicians in clinical decision-making for patients with a falls history. It is clear that falls are a risk factor for fracture. Fracture probability may be underestimated by FRAX® in individuals with a history of frequent falls...... in addition to bone directed therapy. Clinicians should recognize that patients with frequent falls are at higher fracture risk than currently estimated by FRAX® and include this in decision-making. However, quantitative adjustment of the FRAX® estimated risk based on falls history is not currently possible......Risk factors for fracture can be purely skeletal, e.g., bone mass, microarchitecture or geometry, or a combination of bone and falls risk related factors such as age and functional status. The remit of this Task Force was to review the evidence and consider if falls should be incorporated...

  15. Internal and External Dynamics in Language: Evidence from Verb Regularity in a Historical Corpus of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskley, Christine F.; Pugliese, Martina; Castellano, Claudio; Colaiori, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Human languages are rule governed, but almost invariably these rules have exceptions in the form of irregularities. Since rules in language are efficient and productive, the persistence of irregularity is an anomaly. How does irregularity linger in the face of internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) pressures to conform to a rule? Here we address this problem by taking a detailed look at simple past tense verbs in the Corpus of Historical American English. The data show that the language is open, with many new verbs entering. At the same time, existing verbs might tend to regularize or irregularize as a consequence of internal dynamics, but overall, the amount of irregularity sustained by the language stays roughly constant over time. Despite continuous vocabulary growth, and presumably, an attendant increase in expressive power, there is no corresponding growth in irregularity. We analyze the set of irregulars, showing they may adhere to a set of minority rules, allowing for increased stability of irregularity over time. These findings contribute to the debate on how language systems become rule governed, and how and why they sustain exceptions to rules, providing insight into the interplay between the emergence and maintenance of rules and exceptions in language. PMID:25084006

  16. Coupling ontology driven semantic representation with multilingual natural language generation for tuning international terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, Anne-Marie; Baud, Robert H; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    The importance of clinical communication between providers, consumers and others, as well as the requisite for computer interoperability, strengthens the need for sharing common accepted terminologies. Under the directives of the World Health Organization (WHO), an approach is currently being conducted in Australia to adopt a standardized terminology for medical procedures that is intended to become an international reference. In order to achieve such a standard, a collaborative approach is adopted, in line with the successful experiment conducted for the development of the new French coding system CCAM. Different coding centres are involved in setting up a semantic representation of each term using a formal ontological structure expressed through a logic-based representation language. From this language-independent representation, multilingual natural language generation (NLG) is performed to produce noun phrases in various languages that are further compared for consistency with the original terms. Outcomes are presented for the assessment of the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) and its translation into Portuguese. The initial results clearly emphasize the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed method for handling both a different classification and an additional language. NLG tools, based on ontology driven semantic representation, facilitate the discovery of ambiguous and inconsistent terms, and, as such, should be promoted for establishing coherent international terminologies.

  17. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  18. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  19. An international language: The Translation and Interpretation Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikonomou, Haakon

    2017-01-01

    “I wonder if you could tell me the meaning of an obscure Finnish word I’ve got here? I think it’s perhaps something to do with fishing tackle”, goes one of the lines in a fantastic information movie called “The League at Work”, produced by the League itself in 1935. The movie, introducing...... the viewers to all the aspects of the Secretariat, gives the Translation and Interpretation Service a rather prominent place as the first in line. And no wonder: for it was one of the peculiar procurements of the Secretariat – indeed, one of the features that made it international in all its doings....

  20. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  1. Language (In)competency, Communication Strategies, and the Development of an International Academic Teacher Identity: Becoming an Audible Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllum, Kirstie

    2017-01-01

    Despite universities' enthusiasm for internationalization, international academic mobility requires considerable institutional and cultural adjustment in terms of teaching and supervision styles, research expectations, and departmental relationships. Although language competency underpins these practices, research on international academics has…

  2. Acculturation and Linguistic Factors on International Students' Self-Esteem and Language Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Iris Y.; Bui, Ngoc H.

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation and linguistic factors were examined as predictors of self-esteem and language confidence among 91 international college students. The majority of participants were Asian (64.8%), female (59.3%), and graduate students (76.9%). Assimilative (adopting host cultural values) and integrative (blending both host and home cultural values)…

  3. Managing Internal Marketing in a New Zealand Language School: Some Important Lessons for All Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Christopher Allen

    2008-01-01

    In New Zealand, private language schools, although controversial, are popular for international travellers who want to study and travel simultaneously. These alternative schools are run in a business-like fashion and their educational administrators have embraced the use of marketing as part of their everyday educational management practice. Even…

  4. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  5. Development of a Language for International Law: The Experience of Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the history of interest in developing Esperanto as a lingua franca for international law and diplomacy, beginning with Zamenhof's development of Esperanto and proceeding through the development of a lexicon for the language and through its application to legal issues. Prospects for the future of Esperanto are discussed. (DJD)

  6. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): Its Nature and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    The nature and development of the recently released International English Language Testing System (IELTS) instrument are described. The test is the result of a joint Australian-British project to develop a new test for use with foreign students planning to study in English-speaking countries. It is expected that the modular instrument will become…

  7. Shaping Tourist LL: Language Display and the Sociolinguistic Background of an International Multilingual Readership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyèl-Olmedo, Antonio; Juan-Garau, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic landscape studies increasingly focus on the variables that intertwine to generate the meaning of texts on display. International tourist resorts, largely multilingual, reveal how languages in signage combine and respond to the sociolinguistic profile of their readership. However, these settings have received scant attention in the…

  8. Implications from the Use of ICT by Language Teachers--Participants of International Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Telecollaboration in international school projects requires various competences from the participating teachers. A combination of intercultural, linguistic, technical and subject competences builds ground for successful team work with foreign partners. This article presents a survey on the use of ICT by language teachers, their attitudes to ICT…

  9. An Outsider View: The Perceptions of Visiting International Students on Teaching, Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavli, Bünyamin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how international visitor students studying temporarily at a public university in Turkey perceive teaching, language and culture. Qualitative explanatory single case study method was employed in the study. The data were obtained through face to face interview with 10 participants, and a focus group interview with 3…

  10. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  11. Producing the "International" Child: Negotiations of Language in an International Preschool in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic account of an "international preschool" in Japan, describing how ideologies of "English" and "internationalism" are produced and consumed among the parents, teachers and directors, in their common goal of socialising an "international" child. (Contains 6 notes.)

  12. Barriers of Culture, Networks, and Language in International Migration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing pace of globalization, recent decades faced a dramatically increase in international migrant flows as well. Compared to the flows of trade, capital and knowledge, we observe that contemporaneous complex institutional differences, historical backgrounds, and individuals' diverse socio-demographic characteristics make the migrant workers' choice of destination arguably much more uncontrollable. This study shows that migration is in a complex way intertwined with culture, networks and language, (i by reviewing related studies on the barriers of culture, networks and language in international labor mobility, and (ii by exploring missing gaps and prospective avenues for research. Nowadays, the migration pressure on Europe and the United states has created substantial challenges, leading to an urgent need to address the economic assimilation and social integration of migrants. Against this background, we emphasize that these non-economic factors have played an increasingly critical role in shaping international migration and its future socio-economic consequences for destination countries.

  13. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  14. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  15. The acculturation, language and learning experiences of international nursing students: Implications for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia; Shaw, Julie

    2017-09-01

    International or foreign students are those who enrol in universities outside their country of citizenship. They face many challenges acculturating to and learning in a new country and education system, particularly if they study in an additional language. This qualitative inquiry aimed to explore the learning and acculturating experiences of international nursing students to identify opportunities for teaching innovation to optimise the experiences and learning of international nursing students. Undergraduate and postgraduate international nursing students were recruited from one campus of an Australian university to take part in semi-structured interviews. A purposive and theoretically saturated sample of 17 students was obtained. Interviews were audio-recorded and field notes and interview data were thematically analysed. Expressing myself and Finding my place were the two major themes identified from the international student data. International nursing students identified that it took them longer to study in comparison with domestic students and that stress negatively influenced communication, particularly in the clinical setting. Additionally international nursing students identified the need to find supportive opportunities to speak English to develop proficiency. Clinical placement presented the opportunity to speak English and raised the risk of being identified as lacking language proficiency or being clinically unsafe. Initially, international nursing students felt isolated and it was some time before they found their feet. In this time, they experienced otherness and discrimination. International nursing students need a safe place to learn so they can adjust and thrive in the university learning community. Faculty and clinical educators must be culturally competent; they need to understand international nursing students' needs and be willing and able to advocate for and create an equitable environment that is appropriate for international nursing

  16. Fear of falling predicts incidence of functional disability two years later: A perspective from an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad; French, Simon; Alvarado, Beatriz; Pirkle, Catherine; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Guralnik, Jack

    2017-12-06

    To study the extent to which fear of falling (FOF) is associated with the onset of functional disability over a 2-year period in older adults using self-reported and performance-based measures. In 2012, 1,601 participants (aged 65-74) were recruited from four sites: Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Manizales, Colombia; and Natal, Brazil. They were re-assessed in 2014. We quantified FOF using the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I; range: 16-64). Functional disability measures were 1) self-reported incident mobility disability, defined as difficulty climbing a flight of stairs or walking 400 meters and 2) incident poor physical performance, defined as a score <9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. In the Poisson regression analysis, we included only those participants without functional disability at baseline to calculate incident risk ratios in 2014. 1,355 participants completed the 2014 assessment, of which 917 and 1,078 had no mobility disability and poor physical performance at baseline, respectively. In 2014, 131 (14.3%), and 166 (15.4%) participants reported incident mobility disability and poor physical performance, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic, and health covariates, a one-point increase in FES-I at baseline was associated with a 4% increase in the risk of reporting incident mobility disability (95% CI: 1.02-1.05) and a 3% increase in the risk of developing poor physical performance at follow up in the overall sample (95%CI: 1.01-1.05). FOF is associated with a higher risk of incident mobility disability and poor physical performance in a cohort of older adults. It is increasingly important to study FOF's effect on functional disability and to take necessary measures to prevent the transition to end-stage disability. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Santos, Sónia

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I (P) ) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A total of 100 Portuguese community-dwelling older people (74.27±8.7years old) have participated in the study. From these, 82 have participated in the reliability study. The FES-I (P) had excellent internal consistency (α=0,978) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0,999). A significant negative correlation was found between the FES-I (P) and the ABC (r s =-0.85; pPortuguese community-living older people. Future studies should explore the FES-I (P) responsiveness to change over time and analyse its psychometric properties in samples of both non-community-dwelling and community-dwelling older adults with different health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Young language learner (YLL research: An overview of some international and national approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being given to young language learners (YLL, following a global trend to introduce foreign languages at earlier stages of the curriculum. This article provides an overview of some recent international YLL research and follows this up by comparing it to current YLL research in Norway. A YLL research network has recently been established in Norway in order to share and promote research in the field. Eight Norwegian YLL research projects, involving both English and other foreign languages, are presented. The scope of this research in Norway is compared with international research being conducted in the field. Although the Norwegian YLL research is active in certain areas, such as starting age of second foreign languages, teachers’ practices and attitudes, the use of extensive reading, vocabulary and the analysis of written texts, there appear to be gaps in other areas. These include research into the effects of story-telling and drama in the classroom, processes in writing, pupils’ cognitive skills, the use of textbooks and the effect of the curriculum. The establishment of a YLL network is considered as an important step in both consolidating current YLL research in Norway and initiating new research projects.

  19. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-05-22

    There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa and "observed agreement". There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and "observed agreement" was above 88%. The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language.

  20. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trien T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory economics courses. These voluntary participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessments with exit interviews at the end of the project. Assessment results and interviews suggest that students perceive that discipline-specific language instruction such as our EAL tutorials assists in the development of increased content and language proficiency. They also believe that vocabulary development is one of the most critical activities to support these goals; reading skills are also important but require more time and commitment than students can afford to give. Despite the students’ interest in the project, their heavy class schedules prevented many from participating; our group was limited to ten students which precludes any assurance of statistical significance. In spite of the limitations, we believe that the project can still contribute valuable qualitative lessons to the literature of content-based language instruction in which the discipline of economics has not been well represented.

  1. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen’s kappa and “observed agreement”. Results There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and “observed agreement” was above 88%. Conclusion The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language. PMID:24886297

  2. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  3. Psychometric properties of the original and short versions of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Stina B; Nilsson, Maria H; Lexell, Jan

    2017-05-31

    Fear of falling is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with an increased risk for future falls, activity limitations and a reduced quality of life. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) assesses fear of falling conceptualized as concerns about falling. The original FES-I has good psychometric properties in people with PD, but whether this applies also for the short version of FES-I remains to be shown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the short FES-I and to compare these with the original FES-I in the same sample of people with PD. The investigated psychometric properties included known groups validity, data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting and reliability. A postal survey, which included the original, full-length FES-I, was distributed to 174 people with PD. Responders received a second survey after two weeks. From these data, short FES-I total scores were calculated by extracting the items that are included in the short version of the scale. Median age and PD duration of the 101 responders (43% women) were 73 and 5 years, respectively. The original as well as the short FES-I scores were able to discriminate (p falling, activity avoidance, falls, near falls, and with various self-rated PD severity, respectively. Both versions of FES-I had a high level of data completeness (0.7 to 0.9% missing item responses). Scaling assumptions were acceptable for the original as well as the short FES-I. While the short FES-I had 19% floor effect, the original version was better targeted. Both versions were reliable and obtained high values for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.9). Both the original and short FES-I revealed generally good psychometric properties in people with PD, although the original scale was better targeted. Due to the higher floor effect in the short FES-I, the present findings favors

  4. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  5. English as an international language of science and its effect on Nordic terminology: the view of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Anna Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with attitudes to English as an international language of science among Nordic scientists. It reports on a questionnaire completed by 200+ physicists, chemists and computer scientists at universities in five Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The purpose is two-fold: First, it investigates if claims made primarily by representatives of the national language councils about a lack of local language terminology are corroborated by scientists...

  6. Japanese Language as an Organizational Barrier for International Students to Access to University Services: A Case of Aoyama Gakuin University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) started a government-funded degree program (taught in English) to accept international students with limited or no Japanese language proficiency. However, the students faced obstacles in accessing all of the university resources provided. In this article, I investigated Japanese language as an organizational…

  7. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  8. Argumentative Features of International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Essays: A Rhetorical Analysis on Successful Exam Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Ririn Putra; Arsyad, Safnil; Dharmayana, I Wayan

    2018-01-01

    An argument in academic writing is an essential element; it is used to convince readers that the writer's opinion or claim can be acceptable. However, this may be problematic for university students or new writers especially when writing in a language other than their first language such as Indonesians who take an international English writing…

  9. Elite Bilingualism? Language Use among Multilingual Teenagers of Swedish Background in European Schools and International Schools in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenvald, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…

  10. METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.

  11. 3rd international software language engineering conference (SLE) : pre-proceedings, October 12-13, 2010, Eindhoven, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Malloy, B.; Staab, S.

    2010-01-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software Language Engineering (SLE 2010). The conference will be held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands during October 12-13, 2010 and will be co-located with The Ninth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering (GPCE'10), and The Workshop on Feature-Oriented Software Development (FOSD). An important goal of SLE is to integrate the different sub-communities of the software-language...

  12. Internal Consistency of Reliability Assessment of the Persian version of the ‘Home Falls and Accident Screening Tool’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Hassani Mehraban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falling is a common problem among the elderly. Falling indoors and outdoors is highly prevalent among the Iranian elderly. Therefore, identification of the contributing factors at home and their modification can reduce falls and subsequent injuries inthe elderly. The goal of this study was to identify the elderly at risk of fall, using the ‘Home Falls and Accident Screening Tool’ (HOME FAST, and to determine the reliability of this tool. Methods: Sixty old people were selected from five geographical regions of Tehran through the Local Town Councils. Participants were aged 60 to 65 years, and HOME FAST was used to assess inter rater and test- retest reliability. Results: Test-retest reliability in the study showed that agreement between the items of the Persian version of HOME FAST was over 0.8, which is a very good reliability. The agreement between the domains was 0.65-1.00, indicative of moderate to high reliability. Moreover, the Inter rater reliability of the items was over 0.8, which is also very good. The correlation of each item between the domains was 0.01-1.00, which shows poor to high reliability. Discussion: This study showed that the reliability of the Persian version of HOME FAST is high. This tool can therefore be used as an appropriate screening tool by professionals to take necessary preventive measures for the Iranian elderly population.

  13. [TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING BY CHEST RADIOGRAPHY AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS IN OSAKA CITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after

  14. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  15. Recursive macro generator for the TAS-86 language. First part: the macro generator language. Second part: system internal logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zraick, Samir

    1970-01-01

    A macro-generator is a translator which is able to interpret and translate a programme written in a macro-language. After a first part presenting the main notions and proposing a brief description of the TAS-86 language, the second part of this research thesis reports the development of the macro-generator language, and notably presents the additional functionalities provided by the macro generator. The development is illustrated by logical flowcharts and programming listings

  16. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  17. Promoting international mobility in The Degree of Speech and Language Therapy: a case of an educational good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Mendizábal de la Cruz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The constant modification of teaching and learning methods require the design of innovative strategies and the identification of educational good practices. The Degree of Speech and Language Therapy at theUniversityofValladolidhas developed various actions to promote international mobility of students and staff members, within the framework of interuniversity innovative educational projects. The objectives are: to make students aware of the role of the international dimension to increase the quality of their training; to expose innovative educational strategies to promote the international mobility; to foster internationalization of studies as a driver of research in this field; to establish Spanish as the language of reference in speech and language therapy. Descriptive methodology of performed actions was used. Results included: questionnaire sent to speech and language therapists in order to know their language skills and to enhance their importance, participation in courses, workshops and meetings, as well as in international mobility programs and exchange of experiences, teaching of subjects in English, publication of multilingual educational materials, contacts with American and European institutions and participation in international networks, blogging. It is concluded that the whole educative community should help to provide university programs of an international identity, and mobility should be provided of a social sense promoting equal opportunities for all groups.

  18. 3rd international software language engineering conference (SLE) : pre-proceedings, October 12-13, 2010, Eindhoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Malloy, B.; Staab, S.

    2010-01-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Software Language Engineering (SLE 2010). The conference will be held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands during October 12-13, 2010 and will be co-located with The Ninth International Conference on Generative Programming

  19. WHAT ENGLISH DO WE SPEAK IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS?: A CONCRETE LANGUAGE WITH ITS PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masina Depperu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de ‘expressão concreta’ utilizada por Bachtin e o seu Círculo põe em questão a abordagem linguística que propõe como único modelo a língua padrão para todos os uentes. Que tipo de Inglês é o que falamos, também os falantes de outras língua maternas, para tratar de assuntos específicos -- negócios, política, formação – em contextos internacionais?É evidente que este Inglês já não transmite mais a cultura Britânica, mas aquela dos utentes locais, com acentos e vocabulário diferentes de acordo com o contexto específico e as exigências dos falantes.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: expressão concreta, língua padrão, contextos internacionais.  AbstractThe concept of ‘concrete utterance’ maintained by Bakhtin and its Circle leads to rethink the linguistic approach that proposes a model, or a standard language to all its users. The widely spread phenomenon of English used for specific purposes by speakers of other languages, in the domains of laws, business, politics, education and academics, among the many, poses a debate about what English language we speak in a global context. And consequently, what language is acceptable according to the ‘ norm’.If we consider that in international contexts only few English native-speakers, if any, are involved in the use of English as a vehicular, or a common foreign language, it is immediately evident that a new medium is in use, distant from British culture connotations, and more often locally connoted in terms of different accents, even new lexis adequately chosen by the concrete users in a given, specific, unique context.KEYWORDS: concrete utterance, standard language, global context.

  20. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Falls Efficacy Scale International in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment: results of self-report and interview-based questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N

    2010-01-01

    Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of falling...

  1. Maternal communicative functions and mind-mindedness at 16 months as predictors of children's internal and non-internal language at 20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Colonnesi, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of Communicative functions and Mind-Mindedness on children's language development have been typically investigated in separate studies. The present longitudinal research was therefore designed to yield new insight into the simultaneous impact of these two dimensions of maternal responsiveness on the acquisition of expressive language skills in a sample of 25 mother-child dyads. The frequencies of five communicative functions (Tutorial, Didactic, Conversational, Control and Asynchronous) and two types of mind-related comments (attuned vs. non-attuned) were assessed from a 15-min play session at 16 months. Children's expressive language was examined at both 16 months (number of word types and tokens produced, and number of words attributed to the child in the Questionnaire for Communication and Early Language development) and 20 months (number of internal and non-internal words attributed to the child in the Italian version of the Mac Arthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory). The main finding was that mothers' use of attuned mind-related comments at 16 months predicted internal state language at 20 months, above and beyond the effects of CFs and children's linguistic ability at 16 months; in addition, mothers' Tutorial function at 16 months marginally predicted non-internal state language at 20 months, after controlling for MM and children's linguistic ability at 16 months. These results suggest that different expressions of maternal responsiveness influence distinct aspects of children's expressive language in the second year of life, although the effects of MM appear to be more robust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of Foreign Language Entrance and Degree Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree in United States Institutions of High Education, Fall 1974. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Richard I.

    This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…

  3. Survey of Foreign Language Course Registrations and Student Contact Hours in Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 1970 and Summer 1971. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Richard I.

    This study, the tenth in a series, presents college language registration and student contact hour data for all modern and classical language programs in the United States. The body of the report consists of 24 tables summarizing the data, and a directory of the 2,353 institutions that reported registrations in one or more foreign languages.…

  4. International students of speech and language therapy in the UK: do we meet their needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Evans, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Informal evidence suggests that many Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) students from outside of the UK and/or Republic of Ireland who come to the UK either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not practise as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. Concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of international SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. To discover and describe the experiences, views and expectations of current and past international students studying SLT in the UK and past international students' experiences, views and expectations of practising as SLTS, both inside and outside the UK. To consider the implications of the findings for (1) international students planning to work as SLTs; (2) UK SLT students planning to practise outside the UK; and (3) all those involved in SLT education: educational institutions; supervising SLTs; RCSLT. The study involved distributing 166 postal questionnaires (some directly to (ex)students and some to their Higher Education Institutes, or HEIs) and carrying out 23 interviews, with both current students and those qualifying since May 1994. Quantitative analysis was carried out using SPSS using descriptive statistics. Qualitative analysis used content and thematic analyses. Seventy-one questionnaires were received from current and past students, representing a minimum response rate of 43%. (It was not possible to verify exactly how many questionnaires were distributed by HEIs.) The results describe the diverse range of respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of working in their home countries and the UK, and their suggestions about strategies that might be adopted to support them further. The results revealed that students come from a wide diversity of countries

  5. Language and functionality of post-stroke adults: evaluation based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Tereza Maynard; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-03-09

    Cerebrovascular accident is an important Public Health problem because of the high rates of mortality and sequelae such as language disorders. The conceptual health changes have led to the incorporation of functional and social aspects in the assessments as proposed by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The purpose was to evaluate and classify language aspects, functionality and participation of post-stroke individuals based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and characterize the sociodemographic profile of participants. Data collection was carried out through the application of a clinical instrument to evaluate language, participation and functionality in fifty individuals based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The age of the participants varied between 32 and 88 years, and the majority were elderly men. Among body functions, the participants reported more difficulties in "memory functions". As for activity and participation, more difficulties were reported in "recreation and leisure". As for environmental factors, the component "healthcare professionals" was indicated as a facilitator by the majority of participants. The results show the impact of language difficulties in the lives of post-stroke adults and reinforce the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as an important complementary tool for assessing language, functionality and participation in a comprehensive and humane approach, towards the improvement of health assistance in ambulatory care.

  6. Hedges Used in Business Emails: A Corpus Study on the Language Strategy of International Business Communication Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Siwei; Wang, Xuefei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a corpus of 296 authentic business emails produced in computer-mediated business communication from 7 Chinese international trade enterprises, this paper addresses the language strategy applied in CMC (Computer-mediated Communication) by examining the use of hedges. With the emergence of internet, a wider range of hedges are applied…

  7. Letters to a Dictionary: Competing Views of Language in the Reception of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anne Pence

    2013-01-01

    The publication of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary" in September 1961 set off a national controversy about dictionaries and language that ultimately included issues related to linguistics and English education. The negative reviews published in the press about the "Third" have shaped beliefs about the nature of…

  8. Narratives of Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Gender Differences in Narrative Competence and Internal State Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; van der Beek, Bettina; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Since gender differences in the symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well understood, the current study examines the communicative skills of males and females with ASD. Narrative competence and internal state language (ISL) was investigated using narrations elicited by a wordless picture book. 11 girls and 11 boys with ASD and…

  9. Education in the World System: The Demand for Language and International Proficiencies in Economic Development and National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the role of second-language proficiency from international, national, and state perspectives, including consideration of the need for such proficiency in science, technology, and research for economic development. Trends indicate that a more internationalized curricula in higher education and a greater demand for second-language…

  10. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among China Chinese Students Undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampalagan, Meghavaani d/o; Sellupillai, Mogana d/o; Yap, Sze Sze

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation) among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia. The participants of this study consisted of 75…

  11. The Impact of Academic Self-Efficacy, Acculturation Difficulties, and Language Abilities on Procrastination Behavior in Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…

  12. Epidemiology of falls in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of population aging. The magnitude of the problem is described in terms of the classification of falls and measurement of outcomes, including fall incidence rates across settings, sociodemographic determinants, international trends, and costs of falls and fall-related injuries. Finally, public health approaches to minimize falls risk and consequent demand on health care resources are suggested.

  13. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Falls Efficacy Scale International in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment: results of self-report and interview-based questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauer, Kristiane; Yardley, L; Beyer, N

    2010-01-01

    Frail, old patients with and without cognitive impairment are at high risk of falls and associated medical and psychosocial issues. The lack of adequate, validated instruments has partly hindered research in this field. So far no questionnaire documenting fall-related self-efficacy/fear of fallin...

  14. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  15. English Language Apprehension and Relationship Building Bonding among International Students in the College of Arts and Sciences at University Utara Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Idris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the English language apprehension and interpersonal communication for 170 international postgraduate students, who study in the College of Art and Science, University of Utara Malaysia. The research objectives are: firstly, to determine to what extent international postgraduate students‘ attitudes influence English language pronunciation for interpersonal communication. Secondly, to examine the relationship between attitudes and English language apprehe...

  16. Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Krieger, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    To understand the communication strategies international medical graduates use in medical interactions to overcome language and cultural barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 international physicians completing their residency training in internal medicine in a large hospital in Midwestern Ohio. The interview explored (a) barriers participants encountered while communicating with their patients regarding language, affect, and culture, and (b) communication convergence strategies used to make the interaction meaningful. International physicians use multiple convergence strategies when interacting with their patients to account for the intercultural and intergroup differences, including repeating information, changing speaking styles, and using non-verbal communication. Understanding barriers to communication faced by international physicians and recognizing accommodation strategies they employ in the interaction could help in training of future international doctors who come to the U.S. to practice medicine. Early intervention could reduce the time international physicians spend navigating through the system and trying to learn by experimenting with different strategies which will allow these physicians to devote more time to patient care. We recommend developing a training manual that is instructive of the socio-cultural practices of the region where international physician will start practicing medicine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R.; Sene, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β - emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  18. Early childhood language memory in the speech perception of international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Janet S; Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Jun, Sun-Ah

    2010-11-01

    It is as yet unclear whether the benefits of early linguistic experiences can be maintained without at least some minimal continued exposure to the language. This study compared 12 adults adopted from Korea to the US as young children (all but one prior to age one year) to 13 participants who had no prior exposure to Korean to examine whether relearning can aid in accessing early childhood language memory. All 25 participants were recruited and tested during the second week of first-semester college Korean language classes. They completed a language background questionnaire and interview, a childhood slang task and a Korean phoneme identification task. Results revealed an advantage for adoptee participants in identifying some Korean phonemes, suggesting that some components of early childhood language memory can remain intact despite many years of disuse, and that relearning a language can help in accessing such a memory.

  19. Psychological and linguistic features of the Russian language acquisition by international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a full-scale interview with Russian language teachers that teach Russian as a foreign language at the preparatory departments at multinational universities. The research findings identified the basic psychological and linguistic features that are typical for the Russian language acquisition by the students from different regions of the world (Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, Arab countries.

  20. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  1. Language Planning at the International Level. Report of the Annual Conference of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (3rd, New York, New York, December 14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey, Ed.; Johnson-Weiner, Karen, Ed.

    The proceedings of the conference include the opening address (Francoise Cestac) and these papers: "False Friendship in International Language Planning" (Joseph L. Malone); "Guidelines for Terminology Standardization at the United Nations" (Marie-Josee Jastrab); "Language Policy at the Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et…

  2. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  3. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  4. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  5. How a Visual Language of Abstract Shapes Facilitates Cultural and International Border Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Arthur Thomas, III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a visual language comprised of abstract shapes that has been shown to be effective in communicating prior knowledge between and within members of a small team or group. The visual language includes a set of geometric shapes and rules that guide the construction of the abstract diagrams that are the external representation of…

  6. International Student Carbon Footprint Challenge--Social Media as a Content and Language Integrated Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauville, Géraldine; Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Säljö, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) is now clearly specified in educational standards in many parts of the world, and at the same time the view of language learning is moving towards a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) strategy, to make English lessons more relevant and attractive for students (Eurydice, 2006). In this respect,…

  7. Culture in teaching English as an international language in CLT curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑晨

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explored the role of culture in EIL teaching on the basis of CLT contexts by reviewing plentiful previous studies. Generally speaking, this thesis emphasized the relationship between language and culture, the necessity and importance of culture teaching in language teaching, what kind of culture should be included in cultural content for culture teaching and challenges of culture teaching in EIL teaching as well. In a word, Culture is correlated with language. Culture teaching plays a significant role in EIL teaching. In culture teaching, not only the target culture, but also various cultures related to EIL learners' daily life should be included.

  8. Adaptação transcultural e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas da Falls Efficacy Scale - International em idosos Brasileiros (FES-I-BRASIL Cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale - International Among Elderly Brazilians (FES-I-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia F. O. Camargos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Adaptar culturalmente a Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I e avaliar suas propriedades psicométricas em uma amostra de idosos brasileiros da comunidade. MÉTODOS: Conforme recomendações da Rede Européia de prevenção às quedas, o instrumento foi traduzido para o português do Brasil e adaptado culturalmente para a população brasileira (FES-I-Brasil. A FES-I-Brasil foi aplicada em 163 idosos (73,44±5,51 anos, e foram coletados dados demográficos e relacionados à história de quedas. Dentre esses idosos, 58 foram distribuídos aleatoriamente para avaliação da confiabilidade. A confiabilidade foi analisada pelo Índice de Correlação Intraclasse (ICC e a consistência interna pelo α de Cronbach. A estrutura interna da FES-I-Brasil foi avaliada pela análise fatorial exploratória. O modelo de regressão logística foi utilizado para identificar quais tarefas da escala eram mais relevantes para discriminar quedas. Para análise de sensibilidade e especificidade da FES-I-Brasil, empregou-se a curva Receiving Operator Characteristic (ROC. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna da FES-I-Brasil foi α=0,93, e a confiabilidade foi ICC=0,84 e 0,91 (intra e interexaminadores, respectivamente. A análise fatorial sugeriu dois fatores que verificavam preocupação em cair durante atividades de socialização e de vida diária (básicas e instrumentais e tarefas relacionadas ao controle postural. Uma pontuação >23 pontos na FES-I-Brasil sugeriu associação com histórico de queda esporádica, ao passo que uma pontuação >31 pontos ensejou uma associação com queda recorrente. CONCLUSÕES: A FES-I-Brasil apresentou-se semântica, linguística e psicometricamente adequada para avaliar o medo de cair na população de idosos brasileiros da comunidade.OBJECTIVES: To culturally adapt the Falls Efficacy Scale - International (FES-I and assess its psychometric properties in a sample of community-dwelling elderly Brazilians. METHODS

  9. Families' perception of children / adolescents with language impairment through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroschi, Daniele Theodoro; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-05-22

    To investigate the perception of family members regarding linguistic conditions and social participation of children and adolescents with speech and language impairments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Quali-quantitative approach research, in which a survey of medical records of 24 children/adolescents undergoing speech-language therapy and interviews with their family members was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the participants' profiles was performed, followed by a categorization of responses using the ICF-CY. All family members mentioned various aspects of speech/language categorized by the ICF-CY. Initially, they approached it as an organic issue, categorized under the component of Body Functions and Structures. Most reported different repercussions of the speech-language impairments on the domains, such as dealing with stress and speaking, qualified from mild to severe. Participants reported Environmental Factors categorized as facilitators in the immediate family's attitudes and as barriers in the social attitudes. These findings, according to the use of the ICF-CY, demonstrate that the children/adolescents' speech-language impairments, from the families' perception, are primarily understood in the body dimension. However, guided by a broader approach to health, the findings in the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors demonstrate a broader understanding of the participants of the speech-language impairments. The results corroborate the importance of using the ICF-CY as a health care analysis tool, by incorporating functionality and participation aspects and providing subsidies for the construction of unique therapeutic projects in a broader approach to the health of the group studied.

  10. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  11. The Teaching of English as an International Language in Japan: An Answer to the Dilemma of Indigenous Values and Global Needs in the Expanding Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ambivalent nature of Japanese attitudes toward English vis-a-vis the Japanese language, followed by a discussion of Japanese efforts in incorporating the concept of English as an International Language (EIL) into their educational system and teaching practice as a solution to this dilemma. While the Japanese have an…

  12. Teaching and Learning English in Tanzania: Blessing or Curse? A Practical Review of Phan Le Ha's Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtallo, Godson Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper is inspired by the work of Phan Le Ha (2008) in her book titled Teaching English as an International Language: Identity, Resistance, and Negotiation in which she presented the way English language is taught in Vietnam and the emergence of conflicting classes of western-trained Vietnamese teachers of English versus non western trained…

  13. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  14. Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

    1988-01-01

    Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

  15. Fear of falling and its association with life-space mobility of older adults: a cross-sectional analysis using data from five international sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad; Alvarado, Beatriz; Guerra, Ricardo; Curcio, Carmen; Freeman, Ellen E; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini

    2017-05-01

    fear of falling (FOF) is a major health concern among community-dwelling older adults that could restrict mobility. to examine the association of FOF with life-space mobility (i.e. the spatial area a person moves through in daily life) of community-dwelling older adults from five diverse sites. in total, 1,841 older adults (65-74 years) were recruited from Kingston, Canada; Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Tirana, Albania; Manizales, Colombia and Natal, Brazil. FOF was assessed using the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I total score), and the life space was quantified using the Life-Space Assessment (LSA), a scale that runs from 0 (minimum life space) to 120 (maximum life space). the overall average LSA total score was 68.7 (SD: 21.2). Multiple-linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship of FOF with life-space mobility, even after adjusting for functional, clinical and sociodemographic confounders (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.26 to -0.04). The FOF × site interaction term was significant with a stronger linear relationship found in the Canadian sites and Tirana compared with the South American sites. After adjusting for all confounders, the association between FOF with LSA remained significant at Kingston (B = -0.32, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.01), Saint-Hyacinthe (B = -0.81, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.32) and Tirana (B = -0.57, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.24). FOF is an important psychological factor that is associated with reduction in life space of older adults in different social and cultural contexts, and the strength of this association is site specific. Addressing FOF among older adults would help improve their mobility in local communities, which in turn would improve social participation and health-related quality of life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  17. Disassociating Maturation and Language Development: Evidence from Internationally Adopted and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geren, Joy Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Typically language development in children closely coincides with development in many other areas. This makes it difficult to determine whether observed correlations are coincidental or causal in nature. The three studies presented here explore these relationships by looking at two populations of learners who are delayed in exposure to English,…

  18. The Importance of English Language Competency in the Academic Success of International Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael; Maxey, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the information content of two commonly used admission tests, namely the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The analysis extends prior research by investigating the incremental information content of individual components from one admission test conditional on the…

  19. 77 FR 28582 - Applications for New Awards; Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., Yoruba, and Zulu. Note: The Secretary developed this list of languages in accordance with section 601(c... tribes. Note: The regulations in 34 CFR part 86 apply to IHEs only. II. Award Information Type of Award... applicant or grantee is not financially stable; has a history of unsatisfactory performance; has a financial...

  20. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on Performance in the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Listening Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Han, Nguyen; van Rensburg, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Many companies and organizations have been using the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) for business and commercial communication purpose in Vietnam and around the world. The present study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on performance in the Test of English for International Communication…

  1. Proceedings 10th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures (FOCLASA 2011, Aachen, Germany, September 10, 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Ravara, A.

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of FOCLASA 2011, the 10th International Workshop on the Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures. FOCLASA 2011 was held in Aachen, Germany on September 10th, 2011 as a satellite event of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency

  2. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  3. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  4. ISO 9000: New Form of Protectionism or Common Language in International Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Clougherty, Joseph A.; Grajek, Michał

    2009-01-01

    International standards have the potential to both promote and hinder international trade. Yet empirical scholarship on the standards-trade relationship has been held up due to some methodological challenges: measurement problems, varied effects, and endogeneity concerns. We are able to surmount these challenges while considering the impact of one particular standard on the country-pair trade flows between 91 nations over the 1995-2005 period. To deal with these challenges, we measure the deg...

  5. Longitudinal Comparison of the Speech and Language Performance of United States-Born and Internationally Adopted Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Baker, Shauna; Kaiser, Ann; Frey, Jennifer R

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States. Design Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age. Participants This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months. Main Outcome Measures Children's speech-language skills were analyzed using standardized tests, parent surveys, language samples, and single-word phonological assessments to determine differences between the groups. Results The mean scores for the children in the internationally adopted group were lower than the group born in the United States at all three time points for expressive language and speech sound production measures. Examination of matched pairs demonstrated observable differences for two of the four pairs. No differences were observed in cognitive performance and receptive language measures. Conclusions The results suggest a cumulative effect of later palate repair and/or a variety of health and environmental factors associated with their early circumstances that persist to age 3 years. Early intervention to address the trajectory of speech and language is warranted. Given the findings from this small pilot study, a larger study of the long-term speech and language development of children who are internationally adopted and have cleft palate with or without cleft lip is recommended.

  6. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Local chatter or international buzz? Language differences on posts about Zika research on Twitter and Facebook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Barata

    Full Text Available When the Zika virus outbreak became a global health emergency in early 2016, the scientific community responded with an increased output of Zika-related research. This upsurge in research naturally made its way into academic journals along with editorials, news, and reports. However, it is not yet known how or whether these scholarly communications were distributed to the populations most affected by Zika.To understand how scientific outputs about Zika reached global and local audiences, we collected Tweets and Facebook posts that linked to Zika-related research in the first six months of 2016. Using a language detection algorithm, we found that up to 90% of Twitter and 76% of Facebook posts are in English. However, when none of the authors of the scholarly article are from English-speaking countries, posts on both social media are less likely to be in English. The effect is most pronounced on Facebook, where the likelihood of posting in English is between 11 and 16% lower when none of the authors are from English-speaking countries, as compared to when some or all are. Similarly, posts about papers written with a Brazilian author are 13% more likely to be in Portuguese on Facebook than when made on Twitter.Our main conclusion is that scholarly communication on Twitter and Facebook of Zika-related research is dominated by English, despite Brazil being the epicenter of the Zika epidemic. This result suggests that scholarly findings about the Zika virus are unlikely to be distributed directly to relevant populations through these popular online mediums. Nevertheless, there are differences between platforms. Compared to Twitter, scholarly communication on Facebook is more likely to be in the language of an author's country. The Zika outbreak provides a useful case-study for understanding how scientific outputs are communicated to relevant populations. Our results suggest that Facebook is a more effective channel than Twitter, if communication is

  8. Local chatter or international buzz? Language differences on posts about Zika research on Twitter and Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Shores, Kenneth; Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2018-01-01

    When the Zika virus outbreak became a global health emergency in early 2016, the scientific community responded with an increased output of Zika-related research. This upsurge in research naturally made its way into academic journals along with editorials, news, and reports. However, it is not yet known how or whether these scholarly communications were distributed to the populations most affected by Zika. To understand how scientific outputs about Zika reached global and local audiences, we collected Tweets and Facebook posts that linked to Zika-related research in the first six months of 2016. Using a language detection algorithm, we found that up to 90% of Twitter and 76% of Facebook posts are in English. However, when none of the authors of the scholarly article are from English-speaking countries, posts on both social media are less likely to be in English. The effect is most pronounced on Facebook, where the likelihood of posting in English is between 11 and 16% lower when none of the authors are from English-speaking countries, as compared to when some or all are. Similarly, posts about papers written with a Brazilian author are 13% more likely to be in Portuguese on Facebook than when made on Twitter. Our main conclusion is that scholarly communication on Twitter and Facebook of Zika-related research is dominated by English, despite Brazil being the epicenter of the Zika epidemic. This result suggests that scholarly findings about the Zika virus are unlikely to be distributed directly to relevant populations through these popular online mediums. Nevertheless, there are differences between platforms. Compared to Twitter, scholarly communication on Facebook is more likely to be in the language of an author's country. The Zika outbreak provides a useful case-study for understanding how scientific outputs are communicated to relevant populations. Our results suggest that Facebook is a more effective channel than Twitter, if communication is desired to be in the

  9. Foreign Branding: Examining the Relationship between Language and International Brand Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Olavarrieta Soto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-American markets, the choice of foreign brand names is very popular in a variety of product classes. We investigate this phenomenon extending LeClerc et al. (1989, 1994 original work on foreign branding effects in the context of a developing Latin American country, such as Chile. In this paper, we have used two foreign languages, French and English and a different home-country language– Spanish–, thus extending the original US-based study. In general, results are consistent with those of studies conducted by LeClerc et al. However, in the case of Chile, foreign branding, in particular English branding, generates better results across all product categories (hedonic, hybrid, and functional.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Constraints and Language Processing, CSLP 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and the Programming, Logic and Intelligent Systems Research Group & the Department of Communication, Business and Information Technologies, Roskilde University, Denmark. Finally we dedicate this volume to Peter Rossen Skadhauge, who sadly and unexpectedly passed away last year. He has been a member of the program...... our invited speaker, Annelies Braffort, who will talk on the modelling of spatio-temporal constraints in sign language processing. We will also express a special thanks to Barbara Hemforth who accepted to send us a late paper which emphasizes the importance of the psycholinguistic dimension...... in this research. This volume contains papers accepted for the workshop based on an open call, and each paper has been reviewed by three or four members of the program committee. As editors, we would also like to thank the other members of the organization committee, Philippe Blache and Veronica Dahl, whose...

  11. "So They're Actually Real?" Integrating E-Tandem Learning into the Study of Language for International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sudhershan, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Tandem learning involves learners with complementary target and native languages communicating for the purpose of learning each other's languages and cultures. Studies indicate that it can function as a powerful complement to formal language learning classes with regard to the development of both language proficiency and cultural intelligence.…

  12. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  13. Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for Message Content and Message Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila

    A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing advertisements: rational, emotional, and…

  14. Shifting Attitudes toward Teaching Culture within the Framework of English as an International Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guerra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the cultural dimensions of EIL, which are analysed based on the following domains: (a subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about specific cultures (native and non-native; and (b subjects’ attitudes toward teaching about culture in general. In essence, a view of culture based on native cultures can emerge from three different approaches: it may promote British culture only, it may focus on both the UK and the US, or it may incorporate other English native cultures. Likewise, a more international viewpoint can also be offered from three perspectives: it may refer to ESL contexts only, it may present both ESL and EFL communities – including the local culture – or it may introduce international aspects not specific to any culture. However, the analysis of data in this study indicates that the subjects’ attitudes toward teaching culture do not usually correspond to just one of these perspectives; rather, teachers display a manifold set of beliefs which may at times be closer or more distant to an international approach to teaching culture.

  15. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  16. Falls and Fear of Falling After Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ 2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P falling than did nonstroke control participants (P falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group

  17. Predicting Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Fall History Is as Accurate as More Complex Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H. Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many people with MS fall, but the best method for identifying those at increased fall risk is not known. Objective. To compare how accurately fall history, questionnaires, and physical tests predict future falls and injurious falls in people with MS. Methods. 52 people with MS were asked if they had fallen in the past 2 months and the past year. Subjects were also assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 questionnaires, the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk, and computerized dynamic posturography and recorded their falls daily for the following 6 months with calendars. The ability of baseline assessments to predict future falls was compared using receiver operator curves and logistic regression. Results. All tests individually provided similar fall prediction (area under the curve (AUC 0.60–0.75. A fall in the past year was the best predictor of falls (AUC 0.75, sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.56 or injurious falls (AUC 0.69, sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.41 in the following 6 months. Conclusion. Simply asking people with MS if they have fallen in the past year predicts future falls and injurious falls as well as more complex, expensive, or time-consuming approaches.

  18. Avoidance and Overuse of Indonesian Language among Balinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageyasa, Wayan

    2017-01-01

    The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will…

  19. Manifestations of Globalization and Linguistic Imperialism in English Language Teaching and Materials Preparation: Ideology in the International ELT Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Kazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the imposition of values and ideological patterns of particular societies affecting learners' identity as a result of globalization and linguistic imperialism in the internationally distributed textbooks which are developed to meet the English language needs of international learners and are broadly used in Islamic countries like Iran. It was important to work out whether violation of standards and ideological patterns of certain societies could be detected. For that reason, critical discourse analysis (CDA with its theory and procedures, as developed by Fairclough (1989, used in conversations, illustrations and reading passages in Interchange, Four Corners, Top Notch and American English File series and three meaning dimensions– the textbooks content, the social relations of the characters in the textbooks, and their subject positions– were classified and analyzed statistically. Overall, the findings of this study represented that these ELT books are by some means unfair and inclined to signify a specific discourse type, that is, the Western culture discourse, ideological patterns, and consumer societies, which can impose the Western view and have different effects on students' identity in Islamic countries.

  20. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  1. Effects of International Student Counselors' Broaching Statements about Cultural and Language Differences on Participants' Perceptions of the Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gahee; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Richardson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduates (N = 135) evaluated 1 of 4 simulated 1st counseling sessions. Two international counselors (Canadian and Korean) alternated between making or not making broaching statements about their language and cultural differences. Significant main effects for counselor nationality and interaction effects between counselor nationality and…

  2. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  3. “Stories from No-Man’s Land?” Situated language learning through the use of role models in the context of international Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the value of role models in the language acquisition process of international students following an English as Medium of Instruction (EMI) programme in the Netherlands. Narrative interpretations of qualitative data provide insights into the identity work involved in the use of

  4. Exploring Perception and Use of Everyday Language and Medical Terminology among International Medical Graduates in a Medical ESP Course in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    Language and communication skills are among the greatest challenges that non-native-English speaking international medical graduates (IMGs) face in English medical consultations. Especially when patients use unfamiliar everyday expressions or attach different meanings to medical terminology, the communicative burden on doctor-patient communication…

  5. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  6. Differential Item Functioning in While-Listening Performance Tests: The Case of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Listening Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a version of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) listening test for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, nationality, age, and degree of previous exposure to the test. Overall, the listening construct was found to be underrepresented, which is probably an important cause…

  7. The Role of English Language and International Media as Agents of Cultural Globalisation and Their Impact on Identity Formation in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanen, Mohammed M.; Al-Kandari, Ali A.; Al-Sharoufi, Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of English language usage and international media on the strength of either national or global identity. The regression analysis of 354 responses reveals that individuals who studied at universities that use English as a medium of instruction show significant differences in the extent to which they embrace a…

  8. Film and Language Learning in Victorian Schools: A Study of the 2009 Next Gen Program of the "Melbourne International Film Festival"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Hana

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the role of film in language education based on a study of the 2009 "Melbourne International Film Festival" (MIFF). It is structured around a literature review and results from surveys of students and teachers who participated in the young people's section of the program, Next Gen. The article argues that film…

  9. Diagnostic validity Polish language version of the questionnaire MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowska, Sylwia; Sylwia, Adamowska; Adamowski, Tomasz; Tomasz, Adamowski; Frydecka, Dorota; Dorota, Frydecka; Kiejna, Andrzej; Andrzej, Kiejna

    2014-10-01

    Since over forty years structuralized interviews for clinical and epidemiological research in child and adolescent psychiatry are being developed that should increase validity and reliability of diagnoses according to classification systems (DSM and ICD). The aim of the study is to assess the validity of the Polish version of MINI-KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) in comparison to clinical diagnosis made by a specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. There were 140 patients included in the study (93 boys, 66.4%, mean age 11.8±3.0 and 47 girls 33.5%, mean age 14.0±2.9). All the patients were diagnosed by the specialist in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry according to ICD-10 criteria and by the independent interviewer with the Polish version of MINI-KID (version 2.0, 2001). There was higher agreement between clinical diagnoses and diagnoses based on MINI-KID interview with respect to eating disorders and externalizing disorders (κ 0.43-0.56) and lower in internalizing disorders (κ 0.13-0.45). In the clinical interview, there was smaller number of diagnostic categories (maximum 3 diagnoses per one patient) in comparison to MINI-KID (maximum 10 diagnoses per one patient), and the smaller percentage of patients with one diagnosis (65,7%) in comparison to MINI-KID interview (72%). Our study has shown satisfactory validity parameters of MINI-KID questionnaire, promoting its use for clinical and epidemiological settings. The Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview for Children and Adolescent (MINI-KID) is the first structuralized diagnostic interview for assessing mental status in children and adolescents, which has been translated into Polish language. Our validation study demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties of the questionnaire, enabling its use in clinical practice and in research projects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glossing, transliterating and translating interactional data on languages other than English for international publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Hirataka, Fumiya; Sadeghi, Sima

    In the area of pragmatics the numbers of studies on non-English data has been increasing. For the career of most researchers, it is highly desirable to publish internationally, and thus in English. When researchers transcribe and gloss non-English data for publications in English, they often need...... to make practical decisions that have an impact on the analysis and presentation of results. This paper argues methodologically that non-English data should be treated more faithfully. The paper starts by examining how researchers in different fields of pragmatics have handled this issue and what problems...... result from the current ‘mainstream’ way. Most authors make their decisions on a case-by-case basis, considering the publisher’s requirements, possibly taking space requirements into account, and most importantly, balancing the trade-off between precision in the data display and the readability...

  11. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyetoke, Fatima O; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Aliyu, Salamatu U; Rufai, Adamu A

    2011-11-22

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting activities. The Hausa IPAQ-SF can be used for

  12. [Development of a French-language online health policy course: an international collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean; Coppieters, Yves; Pradier, Christian; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Brahimi, Cora; Farley, Céline

    2017-01-01

    To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach. Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved. The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations. The course has been integrated into the graduate programmes of the participating universities and allows students to follow, at a distance, an innovative training programme.

  13. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Assessment and Intervention of School-Aged Children With Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Washington, Karla N

    2017-07-26

    The aim of this tutorial is to support speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in assessment and treatment practices with children with language impairment. This tutorial reviews the framework of the ICF, describes the implications of the ICF for SLPs, distinguishes between students' capacity to perform a skill in a structured context and the actual performance of that skill in naturalistic contexts, and provides a case study of an elementary school child to demonstrate how the principles of the ICF can guide assessment and intervention. The Scope of Practice and Preferred Practice documents for the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association identify the ICF as the framework for practice in speech-language pathology. This tutorial will facilitate clinicians' ability to identify personal and environmental factors that influence students' skill capacity and skill performance, assess students' capacity and performance, and develop impairment-based and socially based language goals linked to Common Core State Standards that build students' language capacity and their communicative performance in naturalistic contexts.

  14. Preventing falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E

    1994-11-01

    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  15. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conference Review - Languages & The Media, 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Language Transfer in Audiovisual Media, October 25-27, 2006, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Christoffersen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The participants of the conference, which had as its theme “Free Access – Priceless Rights?”, were professionals involved in subtitling, voice-over or translation, language industry specialists, distributors of audiovisual media products, producers of media programmes, broadcasters, researchers and representatives of viewer organisations.

  17. Conference Review - Languages & The Media, 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Language Transfer in Audiovisual Media, October 25-27, 2006, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Christoffersen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The participants of the conference, which had as its theme “Free Access – Priceless Rights?”, were professionals involved in subtitling, voice-over or translation, language industry specialists, distributors of audiovisual media products, producers of media programmes, broadcasters, researchers and representatives of viewer organisations.

  18. Things Come Together with "Things Fall Apart."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhr, Kathleen M.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using C. Achebe's English language novel, "Things Fall Apart," in a unit on tragedy. Provides plot summary and topics for discussion of cultural values and socialization. Notes that besides illustrating character traits, themes and plot structure of the tragic genre, the novel provides an opportunity for learning Nigerian…

  19. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  20. Políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa: ações na américa latina Language policies for international promotion of portuguese language: actions in latin america

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Costa Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo traçar um panorama de ações na área de políticas linguísticas relacionadas à promoção e ao ensino do português como língua adicional no Brasil e fora do país, bem como refletir sobre alguns de seus impactos. Primeiramente, são apresentados o conceito de política linguística (COOPER, 1989 e as noções de valor e de mercado linguístico a partir da Nova Economia (OLIVEIRA, 2010. A seguir, apresenta-se um panorama de ações políticas de promoção internacional da língua portuguesa, focalizando naquelas desenvolvidas nos âmbitos do Mercosul e da América Latina. Conclui-se fazendo uma reflexão sobre possíveis implicações dessas ações no ensino e aprendizagem de português como língua adicional, bem como na difusão internacional da língua portuguesa.This paper aims at drawing an overview of actions in the field of language policies related to Portuguese promotion and teaching, as an additional language, in Brazil and abroad, as well as reflecting about some of the impacts of that. First of all, the concept of language planning (COOPER, 1989 will be presented, as well as the notion of value and linguistic market based on the New Economy (OLIVEIRA, 2010. Next, an overview of politic actions for promoting Portuguese Language internationally will be presented, specially the ones developed in Mercosul and Latin America contexts. In the end, possible implications of these actions for the teaching and learning and international promotion of Portuguese as an additional language are discussed.

  1. Falls in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    Falls are common incidents, which can have major con-sequences. For example, falls and the interrelated category of accidents being struck by or against objects account for more than 40% of injuries and 30% of injury costs in the USA (Corso et al., 2006). Especially among older adults, falls occur

  2. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  3. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  4. International Students of Speech and Language Therapy in the UK: Choices about Where to Study and Whether to Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbart, J.; Marshall, J.; Evans, I. R.

    2005-01-01

    The qualification leading to professional practice in speech and language therapy (SLT, also known as speech and language pathology) is not evenly available across the world. Geographic mobility and the availability of information are greater than at any other time in our history. Thus, initial SLT qualification courses in many countries are…

  5. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlegel, Christian; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    2013-01-01

    . Robotic systems blend hardware and software in a holistic way that intrinsically raises many crosscutting concerns (concurrency, uncertainty, time constraints, ...), for which reason, traditional general-purpose languages often lead to a poor fit between the language features and the implementation...

  6. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    blend hardware and software in a holistic way that intrinsically raises many crosscutting concerns (concurrency, uncertainty, time constraints, ...), for which reason, traditional general-purpose languages often lead to a poor fit between the language features and the implementation requirements. DSLs...

  7. Predictive value of stabilometry and fear of falling on falls in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Lomas-Vega, R; Álvarez, P; Aránega, A; Martínez-López, E; Mendoza, N

    2013-10-01

    Falls are one of the leading causes of fractures and impaired quality of life in the elderly, and they are related to balance deficit and to fear of falls. The purpose of our study is to evaluate predictors of falls in the 50-65-year-old postmenopausal population. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 96 postmenopausal women. Fear of falling and postural stability were assessed by using the FES-I (Falls Efficacy Scale-International) and a force platform, respectively. Fall frequency was determined in the 12-month follow-up study period. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictive factors of falls. Fear of falls, the FES-I scale and four stabilometric parameters, specifically under eyes-closed condition, were significantly higher in the group of fallers. The root mean square amplitude in the medial-lateral direction with eyes closed (RMSXec) (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-15.5, p = 0.004) and FES-I (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.5, p = 0.026) were the best independent predictive factors of the risk of falling. RMSXec > 0.133 was the best predictive factor for falls in our group of 50-65-year-old postmenopausal women studied, and a FES-I score > 20 could predict falls in this population.

  8. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  9. What are the Main Physical Functioning Factors Associated With Falls Among Older People With Different Perceived Fall Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mirian N; Bilton, Tereza L; Dias, Rosangela C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica R

    2017-07-01

    Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders. Perceived fall risk was investigated using Falls Efficacy Scale International. We considered fallers those who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Physical functioning measures used were grip strength, usual gait speed, sit-to-stand test, five step test, timed up and go test, one-legged stance test, anterior and lateral functional reach test. At least one fall was reported by 103 (30%) participants with low perceived fall risk and by 196 (46%) participants with high perceived fall risk. The odds of falling were lower among those with greater grip strength and with a greater stance time in one-legged test, and the odds of falling among elders with high perceived fall risk were higher among those who took more time in performing the five step test. We believe that our results highlight the need of not neglecting the risk of falls among active older adults with low perceived fall risk, particularly in those elders that show reduced stability in a small base of support and a lower leg strength. In addition, we suggest that elders with high perceived fall risk should be assessed using anticipatory postural adjustment tests. Particularly, our results may help physiotherapists to identify eligible elders with different perceptions of fall risk for tailored interventions aimed at reducing falls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  11. Preventing falls in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-27

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 a day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). But research shows that when nurses, doctors and therapists work together, falls can be reduced by 20-30%.

  12. Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros

    2012-01-01

    Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.

  13. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative....... CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the overall reduction in fractures can be explained by reduction in falls related comorbidity....

  14. An update on falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  15. An update on falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  16. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids do, it's no surprise that falls are common. Although many result in mild bumps, cuts, and bruises, some can cause serious injuries that need immediate medical attention. What to Do ...

  17. The Association Between Body Adiposity Measures, Postural Balance, Fear of Falling, and Fall Risk in Older Community-Dwelling Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci; Gadelha, André Bonadias; de David, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Tiedemann, Anne; Lima, Ricardo M

    2017-12-07

    Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured. Postural balance was assessed using a force platform, while fear of falling and risk of falls were, respectively, evaluated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment. All adiposity measures were correlated to at least 1 postural stability parameter and to fear of falling (ρ= 0.163, P risk of falls (ρ= 0.325; P falling (28.04 vs 24.59; P = .002) and had a higher proportion of individuals with increased fall risk (72% vs 35%; P risk of falls in older women, which might be mediated by reduced postural balance and increased fear of falling. Among these indices, WC, an easy and low-cost assessment, demonstrated the strongest association with falls-related outcomes.

  18. Using WhatsApp to Create a Space of Language and Content for Students of International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Conor

    2017-01-01

    For language learners of this generation, the smart phone represents a key cultural artefact that complements the learning process. Instant messaging applications such as WhatsApp are widely used in personal, professional and, increasingly, academic circles to maintain constant contact among friends, colleagues, or classmates. This study seeks to…

  19. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostanjsek Nenad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

  20. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  1. Language Management x 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...... from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three...... into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...

  2. Internal State Language in the Storybook Narratives of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating Relations to Theory of Mind Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan R; Serlin, Gayle; George, Ann

    2014-05-01

    The current study examines narratives elicited using a wordless picture book, focusing on language used to describe the characters' thoughts and emotions (i.e., internal state language, ISL). The sample includes 21 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 typically developing controls, matched on children's gender, IQ, as well as receptive and expressive vocabulary. This research had three major findings. First, despite equivalent performance on standardized language assessments, the volume of children's narratives (i.e., the number of utterances and words, the range of unique verbs and adjectives) was lower in children with ASD than in typically developing controls. Second, after controlling for narrative volume, the narratives of children with ASD were less likely to reference the characters' emotions than was the case for typically developing controls. Finally, our results revealed a specific association between children's use of emotion terms and their performance on a battery of experimental tasks evaluating children's Theory of Mind abilities. Implications for our understanding of narrative deficits in ASD as well as interventions that use narrative as a context for improving social comprehension are discussed.

  3. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  4. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  5. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  6. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  7. Assessment of muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly people with diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective : To assess muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with diabetic neuropathy (DNP. Methods : 50 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (NPD participated in this study. Risk of falling was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Fear of falling was assessed by means of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I. Muscle mass was assessed by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA and Janssen's equation. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with a history of falls in the six months before study enrollment (G1 and the other without history of falls (G2. Results : There were statistically significant differences between G1 and G2 regarding lean body mass (p < 0.05, risk of falls as measured by the BBS (p < 0.01, and fear of falling as measured by the FES-I (p < 0.01. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the BBS and BIA (r = 0.45 and p < 0.01, showing that the greater the lean body mass, the lower the risk of falling. Conclusions : We found an association between lean mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with DNP and a history of falls from own height.

  8. LANGUAGE REORIENTATION AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinwe Ugochukwu

    building and leadership challenge; language reorientation; conclusion and ... Igbo land, for example, many students enrol to study foreign languages, but the reverse is the ... Following the lead of Franz Boas, such a view is no longer relevant. ... Consequently, on International Mother Language Day, all languages share.

  9. Academic Self-Efficacy, Social Relationships, and English Language Proficiency as Predictors of International Students' College Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaba, Abir

    2016-01-01

    International students represent a significant proportion of the college student population in the United States (Institute of International Education, 2015). They contribute to campus research, diversity, and the economy. In order to maintain these academic, cultural, and economic profits, universities should investigate the factors related to…

  10. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  11. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  12. Rise and fall of the German nuclear industry; Aufstieg und Fall der deutschen Atomwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radkau, Joachim [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Neuere Geschichte; Hahn, Lothar

    2013-02-01

    The book on the rise and fall of the German nuclear industry includes five chapters: (1) From the atomic project of the second world war to the ''peaceful atom''. (2) The ''peaceful atom'' as vision: the phase of speculations. (3) Achieved facts: the unplanned triumph of the light water reactor. (4) The internally suppressed risk excites the public. (5) From the creeping to the open fall.

  13. Proceedings of the International Workshop on High-Level Language Computer Architecture, May 26-28, 1980, Fort Lauderdale, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    primitive, speed languages, all of which contribute negatively to increases approaching that of a ’truly’ high-level the economics of data processing...for the direct dlude vector tunctiona. it was indicated that the processor, it was shoam that 2816 speed gain over maximum MPU per formance is 22 "eA...strictly ’ local. economical way of changing access lists, since it 147 .. . ..".’ ’. .".". . I, rv -’ M WJ, 11 1 P is done at zero cost in conjunction

  14. The neurobiology of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Plotnik, Meir; Bove, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new definitions have been formulated. Among them, the definition of "idiopathic faller" (i.e. no overt cause for falling in a given subject) represented a milestone in building the "science of falling". This review deals with the new determinants of the neurobiology of falling: (1) the role of motor impairment and particularly of those "mild parkinsonian signs" frequently detectable in elderly subjects, (2) the role of executive and attentive resources when coping with obstacles, (3) the role of vascular lesions in "highest level gait disorder" (a condition tightly connected with senile gait, cautious gait and frailty), (4) the role of the failure of automaticity or inter-limbs coordination/symmetry during walking and such approach would definitely help the development of screening instrument for subjects at risk (still lacking in present days). This translational approach will lead to the development of specific therapeutic interventions.

  15. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  16. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  17. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  18. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  19. Fall Prevention Hits Stumbling Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of efforts to screen older people for fall risk-and to intervene before falls occur-have been scattershot at best. Ongoing studies of fall prevention called STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders) might change that. The studies look at whether clinicians can implement a fall-prevention program across rural, urban, and suburban treatment settings.

  20. Association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p450   The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women. Two hundred and twenty-six volunteers (68.05 ± 6.22 years, 68.06 ± 11.79 kg, 1.56 ± 0.06 m were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese, according to the body mass index. Risk of falls and fear of falling were evaluated using QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment and Falls Efficiency Scale – International (FES-I, respectively. Comparisons between groups were conducted using Chi-square and ANOVA One-way tests. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. Obesity was associated with greater probability of falls (p< 0.001, which may be partly explained by decreased muscle strength (p< 0.001 and reaction time (p< 0.001. In addition, significant differences between groups was observed in FES-I score (p< 0.01, with obese women showing more pronounced fear of falling (30.10 ± 8.4 than normal weigh (25. 33 ± 7.11, p< 0.01 and overweight subjects (26.97 ± 7.05, p< 0.05. These findings corroborate previous evidence pointing obesity as a major risk factor for falls. Therefore, health professionals dealing with fall prevention should consider the effects of overweight.

  1. Fear of falling as seen in the Multidisciplinary falls consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxatte, C; Nguyen, T; Chourabi, F; Salleron, J; Pardessus, V; Delabrière, I; Thévenon, A; Puisieux, F

    2011-06-01

    Fear of falling may be as debilitating as the fall itself, leading to a restriction in activities and even a loss of autonomy. The main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of the fear of falling among elderly fallers. The secondary objectives were to determine the factors associated with the fear of falling and evaluate the impact of this fear on the activity "getting out of the house". Prospective study conducted between 1995 and 2006 in which fallers and patients at high risk for falling were seen at baseline by the multidisciplinary falls consultation team (including a geriatrician, a neurologist and a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician) and then, again 6 month later, by the same geriatrician. The fear of falling was evaluated with a yes/no question: "are you afraid of falling?". Out of 635 patients with a mean age of 80.6 years, 502 patients (78%) expressed a fear of falling. Patients with fear of falling were not older than those who did not report this fear, but the former were mostly women (Pfear of falling were not going out alone as much as the fearless group (31% vs 53%, Pfearful group admitted to avoiding going out because they were afraid of falling. The strong prevalence of the fear of falling observed in this population and its consequences in terms of restricted activities justifies systematically screening for it in fallers or patients at risk for falling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Women's perspectives on falls and fall prevention during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Dorothy; Naninni, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injury in women. During pregnancy, even a minor fall can result in adverse consequences. Evidence to inform effective and developmentally appropriate pregnancy fall prevention programs is lacking. Early research on pregnancy fall prevention suggests that exercise may reduce falls. However, acceptability and effectiveness of pregnancy fall prevention programs are untested. To better understand postpartum women's perspective and preferences on fall prevention strategies during pregnancy to formulate an intervention. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 31 postpartum women using descriptive qualitative methodology. Discussion of falls during pregnancy and fall prevention strategies was guided by a focus group protocol and enhanced by 1- to 3-minute videos on proposed interventions. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 10 software. Emerging themes were environmental circumstances and physical changes of pregnancy leading to a fall, prevention strategies, barriers, safety concerns, and marketing a fall prevention program. Wet surfaces and inappropriate footwear commonly contributed to falls. Women preferred direct provider counseling and programs including yoga and Pilates. Fall prevention strategies tailored to pregnant women are needed. Perspectives of postpartum women support fall prevention through provider counseling and individual or supervised exercise programs.

  3. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  4. Input Processing at First Exposure to a Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in learners' cognitive capacities to process a second language (L2) at first exposure to the target language. Evidence suggests that L2 learners are capable of processing novel words by exploiting phonological information from their first language (L1). Hearing adult learners of a sign language, however, cannot fall back…

  5. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The team that carried out the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa (with specific reference to Uganda) was non-committal on stating the number of languages there are in Uganda. In the end, they mentioned 63 languages/dialects which fall into 5 groups based on broad lexical and grammatical ...

  6. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  7. Leaning “well beyond the plumb” of His Native Language: Heaney’s Tone and the International Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Norwood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades of his life Seamus Heaney enjoyed phenomenal worldwide success, outselling, or so it was widely held, all other poets writing in English combined, a fact attesting to the existence of an international component in his work. A close study of the entire body of his poetry, as well as a study of the concurrent poetic interests he himself professed and which other critics have identified, reveals a subtle and gradual shift toward what may be referred to as the “international style”. The reader encounters such a style, prominently manifest, in the work of some of Heaney’s poetic influences, especially Eastern European poets like Czeslaw Milosz and Zbigniew Herbert. This article argues, however, that Heaney’s stylistic shift was too slight to account for the enormity of his international success and asserts instead that his far-ranging appeal is a matter of tone: Heaney’s attitude toward his material, but more so, deep characteristics of his personality – what Ted Hughes refers to as “the ultimate suffering and decision” in him –occupy space below the surface of his work and imbue it with a quality to which readers around the world are drawn.

  8. Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate of in-hospital fallers at home and to explore the risk factors for falls during the immediate post-hospitalization period. Methods We identified patients who sustained a fall on one of 16 medical/surgical nursing units during an inpatient admission to an urban community teaching hospital. After discharge, falls were ascertained using weekly telephone surveillance for 4 weeks post-discharge. Patients were followed until death, loss to follow up or end of study (four weeks. Time spent rehospitalized or institutionalized was censored in rate calculations. Results Of 95 hospitalized patients who fell during recruitment, 65 (68% met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. These subjects contributed 1498 person-days to the study (mean duration of follow-up = 23 days. Seventy-five percent were African-American and 43% were women. Sixteen patients (25% had multiple falls during hospitalization and 23 patients (35% suffered a fall-related injury during hospitalization. Nineteen patients (29% experienced 38 falls at their homes, yielding a fall rate of 25.4/1,000 person-days (95% CI: 17.3-33.4. Twenty-three patients (35% were readmitted and 3(5% died. One patient experienced a hip fracture. In exploratory univariate analysis, persons who were likely to fall at home were those who sustained multiple falls in the hospital (p = 0.008. Conclusion Patients who fall during hospitalization, especially on more than one occasion, are at high risk for falling at home following hospital discharge. Interventions to reduce falls would be appropriate to test in this high-risk population.

  9. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  10. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Kumar, Arun; Carpenter, Hannah; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Skelton, Dawn A; Cook, Juliette R; Stevens, Zoe; Belcher, Carolyn M; Haworth, Deborah; Gawler, Sheena J; Gage, Heather; Masud, Tahir; Bowling, Ann; Pearl, Mirilee; Morris, Richard W; Iliffe, Steve; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We

  11. L'interdisciplinarite en sciences sociales pour l'etude du contact des langues (Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences of the Study of the Relationships of Languages). Proceedings of a Colloquium of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism and the Institute for Interethnic and Intercultural Studies and Research (2nd, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 1-5, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prujiner, Alain, Ed.

    Papers given at an international conference applying the social sciences to the study of the relationships of languages include the following: "Reseaux sociaux et comportements langagiers en milieu de contact des langues" ("Social Networks and Language Behaviors in a Language Contact Setting") by M. Blanc and J. Hamers, with…

  12. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a physical therapist, who can evaluate your fall risk. If your healthcare provider concludes that you are ... to check for things that can impact your fall risk, such as electrolyte balance and the possibility of ...

  13. Falling and fall risk in adult patients with severe haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Hanna; Schmolders, Jan; Koob, Sebastian; Bornemann, Rahel; Goldmann, Georg; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pennekamp, Peter; Strauss, Andreas C

    2017-05-10

    The objective of this study was to define fall rates and to identify possible fall risk factors in adult patients with severe haemophilia. 147 patients with severe haemophilia A and B were evaluated using a standardized test battery consisting of demographic, medical and clinical variables and fall evaluation. 41 (27.9 %) patients reported a fall in the past 12 months, 22 (53.7 %) of them more than once. Young age, subjective gait insecurity and a higher number of artificial joints seem to be risk factors for falling. Falls seem to be a common phenomenon in patients with severe haemophilia. Fall risk screening and fall prevention should be implemented into daily practice.

  14. Development and evaluation of an automated fall risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Jin, Yinji; Piao, Jinshi; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-04-01

    Fall risk assessment is the first step toward prevention, and a risk assessment tool with high validity should be used. This study aimed to develop and validate an automated fall risk assessment system (Auto-FallRAS) to assess fall risks based on electronic medical records (EMRs) without additional data collected or entered by nurses. This study was conducted in a 1335-bed university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The Auto-FallRAS was developed using 4211 fall-related clinical data extracted from EMRs. Participants included fall patients and non-fall patients (868 and 3472 for the development study; 752 and 3008 for the validation study; and 58 and 232 for validation after clinical application, respectively). The system was evaluated for predictive validity and concurrent validity. The final 10 predictors were included in the logistic regression model for the risk-scoring algorithm. The results of the Auto-FallRAS were shown as high/moderate/low risk on the EMR screen. The predictive validity analyzed after clinical application of the Auto-FallRAS was as follows: sensitivity = 0.95, NPV = 0.97 and Youden index = 0.44. The validity of the Morse Fall Scale assessed by nurses was as follows: sensitivity = 0.68, NPV = 0.88 and Youden index = 0.28. This study found that the Auto-FallRAS results were better than were the nurses' predictions. The advantage of the Auto-FallRAS is that it automatically analyzes information and shows patients' fall risk assessment results without requiring additional time from nurses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  15. Racial and Ethnic Difference in Falls Among Older Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Han, Benjamin H; Kranick, Julie A; Wyatt, Laura C; Blaum, Caroline S; Yi, Stella S; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-04-01

    Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations. A secondary analysis examines differences in fall risk by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity among Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. African Americans and Hispanics did not differ significantly from non-Hispanic whites. Analysis adjusting for race/ethnicity and English language proficiency found that limited English proficient Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. No differences were found when examining by racial/ethnic and English proficient/limited English proficient groups. Further research is needed to explore factors associated with fall risks across racial/ethnic groups. Culturally relevant and targeted interventions are needed to prevent falls and subsequent injuries in the increasingly diverse aging population in the USA.

  16. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  17. On Combining Language Models: Oracle Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacioglu, Kadri; Ward, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we address the of combining several language models (LMs). We find that simple interpolation methods, like log-linear and linear interpolation, improve the performance but fall short of the performance of an oracle...

  18. Gender | Page 179 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... et font connaître des solutions pratiques pour la culture des légumineuses à ... Language French ... Language French ... Language French ... Language French ... A project supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research ...

  19. Lack of language skills and knowledge of local culture in international medical graduates: Implications for the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) form a coherent part of the National Health Service (NHS). Nearly 25% of the doctors working in the NHS are IMGs who obtained their primary medical degree from outside the EU. Moving to a different country that holds a different set of values and belief systems can be very challenging for IMGs, which in turn could have a significant effect on the service provided to NHS patients. This article will address the issue of effective communication skills within the IMG population and will explore the underlying issues behind this problem.

  20. Falling into Salvation in Cioran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Acquisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While, at first glance, there seems to be very little room in the thought of E.M. Cioran for the notion of salvation, a closer look reveals that Cioran returns constantly to the vocabulary and the concept of redemption. This article teases out Cioran’s complex use of the topos of salvation throughout his works, with special emphasis on his middle period. I begin by tracing Cioran’s notion of humanity’s fall into time and language, from which he claims there can be no salvation in the traditional Christian sense. Nonetheless, he retains the concept, claiming at various points that there is a kind of salvation to be found in suicide, music, silence, and skepticism. Ultimately, however, each of these provides only false salvation, since the only permanent solution to the problem of existence for Cioran would be either to cease to exist or to lose our human nature in exchange for a plant-like life. Since this is impossible, we are left with our human means of seeking deliverance. While Cioran generally condemns human attempts at creation or procreation, he takes a different approach to the act of writing. In his reflections on writing we see that salvation for Cioran is always temporary, provisional, and threatened by our next bout of lucidity, but at the same time, eternally renewable with each new act of writing.

  1. The clinical practice guideline for falls and fall risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Falling is a significant cause of injury and death in frail older adults. Residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities fall for a variety of reasons and are more likely to endure injuries after a fall than those in the community The American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) Clinical Practice Guideline is written to give LTC staff an understanding of risk factors for falls and provide guidance for a systematic approach to patient assessment and selection of appropriate interventions. It is...

  2. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  3. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  4. Predicting falls using two instruments (the Hendrich Fall Risk Model and the Morse Fall Scale) in an acute care setting in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nada; Helou, Nancy; Madi, Chantal

    2014-06-01

    To assess the predictive value of two instruments (the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Heindrich II Fall Risk Model (HFRM)] in a Middle Eastern country (Lebanon) and to evaluate the factors that are related to falls. A prospective observational cross-sectional design was used. Falls and fall-related injuries in the acute care settings contribute a substantial health and economic burden on patients and organisations. Preventing falls is a priority for most healthcare organisations. While the risk of falling cannot be eliminated, it can be significantly reduced through accurate assessment of patients' risk of falling. Data from 1815 inpatients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) in Lebanon were evaluated using two instruments to predict falls: the MFS and the HFRM. The incidence of falls was 2·7% in one year. The results indicate that while the instruments were significantly correlated, the HFRM was more sensitive in predicting falls than the MFS. The internal consistency of both scales was moderate, but inter-rater reliability was high. Patients using antiepileptic drugs and assistance devises had higher odds of falling. Although both instruments were easy to use in a Middle Eastern country, the HFRM rather than the MFS is recommended for inpatients in an acute care setting as it had higher sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that while the HFRM had adequate sensitivity, it is not seamless, and as such, nurses should not rely entirely on it. Rather, nurses should use their expert clinical judgement, their ethical obligations and cultural considerations to implement a safer environment of care for the patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fall prevention in older persons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weak muscles, poor vision, psychotropic medications ... with increased risk of falls.[3]. Building on the .... [8] First eye cataract surgery has ... of users of bifocals in which half the subjects .... falls of providing single lens distance vision glasses.

  6. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  7. Language Planning, English Language Education and Development Aid in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased status of English as the language of international communication and business has meant that development aid has increasingly been used to finance language planning initiatives aimed at improving and/or expanding English language education. The intended outcome of this aid is often to provide expanded economic returns and…

  8. Reliability and Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire in Over Active Bladder to Persian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari Motlagh, Reza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Joodi Tutunsaz, Javad

    2015-05-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome is a common syndrome in the world in both men and women. Correct diagnosis and accurate measurement of symptoms severity and also quality of life of patients is necessary to ensure proper treatment and to facilitate sound relationships among patients, researchers and doctors. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire in Over Active Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) questionnaire is a concise and strong tool to evaluate the symptoms of OAB and their effects on patients' quality of life and treatment results. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a simple and strong tool that could be used in clinics and research. First, the original British English questionnaire was translated into Persian by two bilingual and originally Persian-speaking translators. Then the Persian version was back translated to English and a native English speaker studied and compared the questionnaire with the original version. At the end, the translated and corrected Persian version was finalized by a research team. Content validity of the items and ensuring that the questions could convey the main concept to readers was assessed through Modified Content Validity Index (MCVI). Reliability was calculated by Cronbach's α coefficient. Internal Consistency of the questionnaire with the calculation of Kendall correlation coefficient were evaluated by performing test-retest in 50 participants. The modified content validity index was > 0.78 for all of the questions. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated 0.76 for all of the participants. Kendall correlation coefficient was calculated for test-re-test assessment 0.66. Both of which indicates the reliability of this questionnaire. Persian version of ICIQ-OAB questionnaire is a simple and strong tool for research, treatment and screening purposes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Bibliometry of the Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation: document types, languages, countries, institutions, citations and article lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2016-09-01

    The Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, founded in 1953, publishes feature articles about tropical nature and is considered one of the leading journals in Latin America. This article analyzes document type, language, countries, institutions, citations and for the first time article lifespan, from 1976 through 2014. We analyzed 3 978 documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded. Articles comprised 88 % of the total production and had 3.7 citations on average, lower than reviews. Spanish and English articles were nearly equal in numbers and citation for English articles was only slightly higher. Costa Rica, Mexico, and the USA are the countries with more articles, and the leading institutions were Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico and Universidad de Oriente (Venezuela). The citation lifespan of articles is long, around 37 years. It is not surprising that Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela lead in productivity and cooperation, because they are mostly covered by tropical ecosystems and share a common culture and a tradition of scientific cooperation. The same applies to the leading institutions, which are among the largest Spanish language universities in the neotropical region. American output can be explained by the regional presence of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Organization for Tropical Studies. Tropical research does not have the rapid change typical of medical research, and for this reason, the impact factor misses most of citations for the Revista, which are made after the two-year window used by the Web of Science. This issue is especially damaging for the Revista because most journals that deal with tropical biology are never checked when citations are counted for by the Science Citation Index.

  10. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Seven: Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    This section contains conference papers on testing and evaluation in second language teaching. They include: "English Language Entrance Examinations in Japan: Problems and Solutions" (James Dean Brown); "Reliability and a Learner Style Questionnaire" (Dale T. Griffee); "Does It Work?" Evaluating Language Learning Tasks" (Rod Ellis); "Communicative…

  11. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowed reflexes. Drinking alcoholic beverages also increases the risk of falling. Alcohol slows reflexes and response time; causes dizziness, sleepiness, or lightheadedness; alters balance; and encourages risky behaviors that can lead to falls. The Force and Direction of a Fall The ...

  12. Childhood Falls With Occipital Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Norrell; van Rijn, Rick R.; Starling, Suzanne P.

    2017-01-01

    Falls are commonly reported in children who present with both accidental and inflicted brain injuries. Short falls rarely result in serious or life-threatening injuries. Our purpose is to describe a series of cases of short falls with occipital impact leading to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). We present

  13. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  14. The Decline and Fall of Esperanto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1887, Polish physician Ludovic Zamenhof introduced Esperanto, a simple, easy-to-learn planned language. His goal was to erase communication barriers between ethnic groups by providing them with a politically neutral, culturally free standard language. His ideas received both praise and condemnation from the leaders of his time. Interest in Esperanto peaked in the 1970s but has since faded somewhat. Despite the logical concept and intellectual appeal of a standard language, Esperanto has not evolved into a dominant worldwide language. Instead, English, with all its idiosyncrasies, is closest to an international lingua franca. Like Zamenhof, standards committees in medical informatics have recognized communication chaos and have tried to establish working models, with mixed results. In some cases, previously shunned proprietary systems have become the standard. A proposed standard, no matter how simple, logical, and well designed, may have difficulty displacing an imperfect but functional “real life” system. PMID:10579602

  15. Mitigating fall risk: A community fall reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M

    One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London's Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions.

  17. Grunt language versus accent: the perceived communication barriers between international medical graduates and patients in Central Wheatbelt catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jessica; Macdonald, William; Bulsara, Caroline; Lim, David

    2012-01-01

    Due to the chronic shortages of GPs in Australian rural and remote regions, considerable numbers of international medical graduates (IMG) have been recruited. IMG experience many difficulties when relocating to Australia with one of the most significant being effective GP-patient communication. Given that this is essential for effective consultation it can have a substantial impact on health care. A purposive sample of seven practising GPs (five IMG, two Australian-trained doctors (ATD)) was interviewed using a semistructured face-to-face interviewing technique. GPs from Nigeria, Egypt, United Kingdom, India, Singapore and Australia participated. Interviews were transcribed and then coded. The authors used qualitative thematic analysis of interview transcripts to identify common themes. IMG-patient communication barriers were considered significant in the Wheatbelt region as identified by both IMG and ATD. ATD indicated they were aware of IMG-patient communication issues resulting in subsequent consults with patients to explain results and diagnoses. Significantly, a lack of communication between ATD and IMG also emerged, creating a further barrier to effective communication. Analysis of the data generated several important findings that rural GP networks should consider when integrating new IMG into the community. Addressing the challenges related to cross-cultural differences should be a priority, in order to enable effective communication. More open communication between ATD and IMG about GP-patient communication barriers and education programs around GP-patient communication would help both GP and patient satisfaction.

  18. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R.; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. Results: In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London’s Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Conclusion: Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions. PMID:20159772

  19. 1990 Fall Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1990 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 3-7, continued the steady growth trend for the western meeting set over the last decade. About 5200 members registered for the meeting and 3836 papers were given. The scientific kickoff to the meeting was provided by a Union session on initial results of the current Magellan mission to Venus. The mission was also the focus of a public lecture and short film on highlights of the mission and an extensive Union poster session.

  20. Falls and cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main causes of falls. Whatever their cause is, falls may lead to severe maladjustment in everyday life. In nearly 1 out of 10 cases, they are accompanied by severe injuries, including fractures (most commonly those of the proximal femur and humerus, hands, pelvic bones, and vertebrae, subdural hematoma, and severe soft tissue and head injuries. This process is emphasized to be multifactorial. Particular emphasis is laid on the involvement of the cerebellum and its associations, which may be accompanied by falls. This is clinically manifested mainly by gait disorders. Walking is a result of an interaction of three related functions (locomotion, maintenance of balance and adaptive reactions. In addition to synergies related to locomotion and balance maintenance, standing at rest and walking are influenced bythe following factors: postural and environmental information (proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual, the capacity to interpret and integrate this information, the ability of the musculoskeletal system to make movements, and the capability to optimally modulate these movements in view of the specific situation and the ability to choose and adapt synergy in terms of external factors and the capacities and purposes of an individual. The clinical signs of damage to the cerebellum and its associations are considered in detail. These structures are emphasized to be involved not only in movements, but also in cognitive functions. The major symptoms that permit cerebellar dysfunction to be diagnosed are given. Symptoms in cerebellar injuries are generally most pronounced when suddenly changing the direction of movements or attempting to start walking immediately after a dramatic rise. The magnitude of ataxia also increases in a patient who tries to decrease the step size. Falling tendencies or bending to one side (in other symptoms characteristic of cerebellar diseases suggest injury of the corresponding

  1. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  2. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  3. Falls self-efficacy and falls incidence in community-dwelling older people: the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Christine C; Jones, Fergal W; Kneebone, Ian I

    2017-11-08

    A cognitive behavioral model predicts that coping responses mediate the relationship between falls related psychological concerns and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. If empirical support could be found for this pathway then interventions could be developed to reduce falls risk by targeting coping strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to begin the process of testing whether coping responses mediate the association between falls self-efficacy (a principal element of falls related psychological concerns) and falls incidence, in community-dwelling older people. In a cross-sectional design, 160 community-dwelling older people (31 male, 129 female; mean age 83.47 years) completed the Falls Efficacy Scale-International, the Revised-Ways of Coping Questionnaire, the Turning to Religion subscale of the COPE, and a falls questionnaire. Data were analyzed via mediation analysis using a bootstrapping approach. Lower falls self-efficacy was associated with higher falls incidence, and more self-controlling coping was found to be a partial mediator of this association, with a confidence interval for the indirect effect of (0.003, 0.021) and an effect size of κ 2 = 0.035. The association was not mediated by the other measured coping responses; namely, turning to religion, distancing, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, escape-avoidance, planful problem-solving, and positive reappraisal. Self-controlling coping may mediate the association between falls self-efficacy and falling. If longitudinal studies confirm this finding then coping could be targeted in interventions to reduce falls.

  4. Language Ideologies in a Danish Company with English as a Corporate Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    with Danish. While previous studies of English as an international language have tended to focus on the consequences for the local language, this article also includes a discussion of the role of English in relation to other international languages. English is constructed as the international language......With the spread of English as a global language, concerns have been voiced over the impact of English on local languages. This article presents results from an ethnographic study of language ideologies in a Danish workplace with a particular focus on ideologies of English in relation to the local...... language and to other foreign languages. In this international company, conflicting ideologies construct the local language Danish on the one hand as the natural language in Denmark, but as unimportant compared to English on the other hand. English is constructed as prestigious and powerful in contrast...

  5. New horizons in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2018-04-25

    Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability. New approaches for exercise for fall prevention including dual-task training, cognitive-motor training with exergames and reactive step training are discussed. Additional fall prevention strategies considered include the prevention of falls in older people with dementia and Parkinson's disease, drugs for fall prevention and safe flooring for preventing fall-related injuries. The review discusses how these new initiatives and technologies have potential for effective fall prevention and improved quality of life. It concludes by emphasising the need for a continued focus on translation of evidence into practice including robust effectiveness evaluations of so that resources can be appropriately targeted into the future.

  6. [Can falls be prevented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  7. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on fall incidence and physical function in community-dwelling older adults with risk of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Chang, Ku-Chou; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Hung, Jen-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Sang-I

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on fall incidence and physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Three medical centers and adjacent community health centers. Community-dwelling older adults (N=616) who have fallen in the previous year or are at risk of falling. After baseline assessment, eligible subjects were randomly allocated into the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG), stratified by the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) fall risk level. The IG received a 3-month multifactorial intervention program including 8 weeks of exercise training, health education, home hazards evaluation/modification, along with medication review and ophthalmology/other specialty consults. The CG received health education brochures, referrals, and recommendations without direct exercise intervention. Primary outcome was fall incidence within 1 year. Secondary outcomes were PPA battery (overall fall risk index, vision, muscular strength, reaction time, balance, and proprioception), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, EuroQol-5D, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International at 3 months after randomization. Participants were 76±7 years old and included low risk 25.6%, moderate risk 25.6%, and marked risk 48.7%. The cumulative 1-year fall incidence was 25.2% in the IG and 27.6% in the CG (hazard ratio=.90; 95% confidence interval, .66-1.23). The IG improved more favorably than the CG on overall PPA fall risk index, reaction time, postural sway with eyes open, TUG test, and GDS, especially for those with marked fall risk. The multifactorial fall prevention program with exercise intervention improved functional performance at 3 months for community-dwelling older adults with risk of falls, but did not reduce falls at 1-year follow-up. Fall incidence might have been decreased simultaneously in both

  8. Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R

    2010-08-18

    To gain an understanding of elderly people's fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls. Prospective cohort study. Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia. 500 men and women aged 70-90 years. Baseline assessment of medical, physiological, and neuropsychological measures, with physiological fall risk estimated with the physiological profile assessment, and perceived fall risk estimated with the falls efficacy scale international. Participants were followed up monthly for falls over one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that perceived and physiological fall risk were both independent predictors of future falls. Classification tree analysis was used to split the sample into four groups (vigorous, anxious, stoic, and aware) based on the disparity between physiological and perceived risk of falling. Perceived fall risk was congruent with physiological fall risk in the vigorous (144 (29%)) and aware (202 (40%)) groups. The anxious group (54 (11%)) had a low physiological risk but high perceived fall risk, which was related to depressive symptoms (P=0.029), neurotic personality traits (P=0.026), and decreased executive functioning (P=0.010). The stoic group (100 (20%)) had a high physiological risk but low perceived fall risk, which was protective for falling and mediated through a positive outlook on life (P=0.001) and maintained physical activity and community participation (P=0.048). Many elderly people underestimated or overestimated their risk of falling. Such disparities between perceived and physiological fall risk were primarily associated with psychological measures and strongly influenced the probability of falling. Measures of both physiological and perceived fall risk should be included in fall risk assessments to allow tailoring of interventions for preventing falls in

  9. Language management : in multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Sigrid Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to explain the concept of strategic language management and why this field of study deserves increased attention in international business. It is argued that Language Management deserves increased attention from business managers since language management may contribute to their firms' competitive advantage. A survey among Norwegian companies in Belgium was undertaken to assess the current situation of language issues. The survey results show that while employ...

  10. Predicting first fall in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: Insights from a fall-naïve cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sue; Galna, Brook; Yarnall, Alison J; Coleman, Shirley; Burn, David; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common and associated with reduced independence and mortality in Parkinson's disease. Previous research has been conducted on falls-prevalent or advanced disease cohorts. This study identifies risk factors for first fall for 36 months in a newly diagnosed, falls-naïve cohort. A total of 121 consecutive Parkinson's disease patients were recruited. Falls data were collected prospectively during 36 months from diagnosis via monthly falls diaries and telephone follow-up for 117 participants. Assessment comprised a comprehensive battery of clinical, gait, and cognitive measures. Significant predictors were identified from decision-tree analysis and survival analysis with time to first fall during 36 months as the dependent variable. At baseline, 26 (22%) participants reported retrospective falls. At 36 months, the remaining cohort (n = 91) comprised 47 fallers (52%) and 30 (33%) nonfallers and 14 (15%) participants with incomplete diaries. Fallers presented with a significantly higher disease severity, poorer ability to stand on one leg, slower gait speed, increased stance time variability, and higher swing time asymmetry. Median time to first fall was 847 days. Gait speed, stance time, and Hoehn & Yahr III stage emerged as significant predictors of first fall, hazard ratio 3.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58 to 7.48), 3.31(95% CI 1.40 to 7.80), and 2.80 (95% CI 1.38 to 5.65), respectively. The hazard ratio for risk factors combined was 7.82 (CI 2.80 to 21.84). Interventions that target gait deficit and postural control in early Parkinson's disease may limit the potential for first fall. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (e.g. syntax, phonology, semantics) and applied (e.g. sociolinguistic topics, ... Articles in languages other than English are accompanied by an extended English ... language ecologies post #RhodesMustFall at the University of the Free State ...

  12. Issues in Geriatric Care: Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipesh; Ackermann, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    One in three older adults falls each year. There are approximately 2.5 million falls among older adults treated in emergency departments. Falls account for 87% of all fractures in this age group. The biggest risk factor for falling is a history of falls. Other risk factors include frailty, sedative and anticholinergic drugs, polypharmacy, and a variety of medical conditions. Current recommendations are that all patients age 65 years and older should be asked about falls each year. Patients also can be screened for fall risk with a variety of approaches including questionnaires and the Timed Up & Go test. For patients who have fallen or are at risk, care should focus on correcting reversible home environmental factors that predispose to falls, minimizing the use of drugs with sedating properties, addressing vision conditions, recommending physical exercise (including balance, strength, and gait training), and managing postural hypotension as well as foot conditions and footwear. In addition, vitamin D and calcium supplementation should be considered. For patients needing anticoagulation for medical reasons, an assessment must balance fall risk (and thus bleeding from a fall) versus the risk of discontinuing anticoagulation (eg, sustaining an embolic stroke from atrial fibrillation). Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  13. Gender perspective on fear of falling using the classification of functioning as the model

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Petra; Ahlgren, Christina; Nordin, Ellinor; Lundquist, Anders; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate associations between fear of falling (FOF) and recurrent falls among women and men, and gender differences in FOF with respect to International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: Community-dwelling people (n?=?230, 75?93 years, 72% women) were included and followed 1 year regarding falls. Data collection included self-reported demographics, questionnaires, and physical performance-based tests. FOF was assessed with the question ?Are you afraid of falling??. ...

  14. Fear of falling and associated factors in community elderly with cataracts

    OpenAIRE

    Cascalho, Lorena de Andrade; Paz, Leonardo Petrus da Silva; Romão, Juliana de Faria Fracon e; Menezes, Ruth Losada de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate prevalence of the fear of falling of elderly with cataracts living in the community and the associated factors with high concern with falling occurrences. Methods: A cross-sectional, analytical and observational study. It was composed by 86 elderly diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. To quantify the fear of falling among elderly, the scale Falls Efficacy Scale-International-Brasil (FES-I-BRASIL) was used. Other variables were obtained through application o...

  15. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...

  16. Academic Librarians Should Be Sensitive to Language and Cultural Barriers When Providing Reference Service to International Students. A review of: Curry, Ann and Deborah Copeman. “Reference Service to International Students: A Field Stimulation Research Study.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.5 (Sep. 2005: 409‐20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the quality of reference service provided to non‐native, English‐speaking international students in academic libraries.Design – Field stimulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Eleven college and university libraries in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 2003.Subjects – Library staff offering reference service at one of the participating libraries.Methods – The study utilized field stimulation, whereby an individual, or “proxy,” posed as a library user and initiated a reference encounter with library staff at each institution. In each case the proxy asked the same question to the library staff member. After the interaction was completed the proxy recorded all observed behaviours. Data were collected using a checklist of actions; a narrative record written by the proxy; and several evaluative questions. Each library was visited by the same proxy on two separate occasions for a total of 22 visits, of which 20 instances resulted in usable data. The narrative recordings of the reference encounters were analyzed using an open coding process.Main results – In 75% of the cases, the proxy was “‘satisfied” or “very satisfied” with help received from the library staff member and was “likely to” or “definitely would return to the staff member” in the future. The reference encounters lasted between a few minutes to half an hour in length, with most lasting between 5 and 15 minutes. Encounters that were brief (less than 5 minutes resulted in an evaluation of “dissatisfied” or “very dissatisfied” and “not likely to” or “definitely would not return.” Encounters where the library staff member extended an invitation to the proxy to return in the future were all rated with “high satisfaction” and “willingness to return.” The following reference service actions were observed in at least half of the encounters:• Asked questions for clarification (20

  17. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  18. Catching a Falling Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  19. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  20. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  1. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  2. Prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    and older will fall. Of those individuals who fall, 12% to 42% will have a fall-related injury. Several meta-analyses and cohort studies have identified falls and fall-related injuries as a strong predictor of admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. It has been shown that the risk of LTC home admission is over 5 times higher in seniors who experienced 2 or more falls without injury, and over 10 times higher in seniors who experienced a fall causing serious injury. Falls result from the interaction of a variety of risk factors that can be both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic factors are those that pertain to the physical, demographic, and health status of the individual, while extrinsic factors relate to the physical and socio-economic environment. Intrinsic risk factors can be further grouped into psychosocial/demographic risks, medical risks, risks associated with activity level and dependence, and medication risks. Commonly described extrinsic risks are tripping hazards, balance and slip hazards, and vision hazards. NOTE: It is recognized that the terms "senior" and "elderly" carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS: Since many risk factors for falls are modifiable, what interventions (devices, systems, programs) exist that reduce the risk of falls and/or fall-related injuries for community-dwelling seniors? English language;published between January 2000 and September 2007;population of community-dwelling seniors (majority aged 65+); andrandomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental trials, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses. special populations (e.g., stroke or osteoporosis; however, studies restricted only to women were included);studies only reporting surrogate outcomes; orstudies whose outcome cannot be extracted for meta-analysis. number of fallers, andnumber of falls resulting in injury

  3. Preventing Falls in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen

    2017-08-15

    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  4. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  5. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  6. A method of language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik; Hengeveld, Kees

    1993-01-01

    In recent years more attention is paid to the quality of language samples in typological work. Without an adequate sampling strategy, samples may suffer from various kinds of bias. In this article we propose a sampling method in which the genetic criterion is taken as the most important: samples...... created with this method will reflect optimally the diversity of the languages of the world. On the basis of the internal structure of each genetic language tree a measure is computed that reflects the linguistic diversity in the language families represented by these trees. This measure is used...... to determine how many languages from each phylum should be selected, given any required sample size....

  7. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  8. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  9. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Abbas, Alaa K; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital or died in the Emergency Department due to falls were prospectively studied over a four year period. We studied 92 patients. Fifty six of them (60.9%) were females. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 72.2 (9.6) years. Seventy three (89%) of all incidents occurred at home. Eighty three patients (90.2%) fell on the same level. The median (range) ISS was 4 (1-16) and the median GCS (range) was 15 (12-15). The lower limb was the most common injured body region (63%). There were no statistical significant differences between males and females regarding age, ISS, and hospital stay (p = 0.85, p = 0.57, and p = 0.35 respectively). The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk factors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries.

  10. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  11. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  12. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  13. Taiwan's Chinese Language Development and the Creation of Language Teaching Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chuan Po

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Teaching in Taiwan in recent years in response to the international trend of development, making at all levels of Chinese language teaching in full swing, for the recent boom in Chinese language teaching, many overseas Chinese language learning for children also had a passion while actively learning Chinese language, and even many overseas…

  14. Rehabilitation after falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiotis, Y; Dontas, I A; Economopoulos, D; Lyritis, G P

    2008-01-01

    Falls are one of the most common geriatric problems threatening the independence of older persons. Elderly patients tend to fall more often and have a greater tendency to fracture their bones. Fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic people due to increased bone fragility, resulting in considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. This article provides information for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic fractures pertaining to the rehabilitation of the fractured patient, based on personal experience and literature. It also outlines a suggested effective and efficient clinical strategy approach for preventing falls in individual patients.

  15. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.

  16. Tools for assessing fall risk in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hi

    2018-01-01

    The prevention of falls among the elderly is arguably one of the most important public health issues in today's aging society. The aim of this study was to assess which tools best predict the risk of falls in the elderly. Electronic searches were performed using Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, etc., using the following keywords: "fall risk assessment", "elderly fall screening", and "elderly mobility scale". The QUADAS-2 was applied to assess the internal validity of the diagnostic studies. Selected studies were meta-analyzed with MetaDisc 1.4. A total of 33 studies were eligible out of the 2,321 studies retrieved from selected databases. Twenty-six assessment tools for fall risk were used in the selected articles, and they tended to vary based on the setting. The fall risk assessment tools currently used for the elderly did not show sufficiently high predictive validity for differentiating high and low fall risks. The Berg Balance scale and Mobility Interaction Fall chart showed stable and high specificity, while the Downton Fall Risk Index, Hendrich II Fall Risk Model, St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool in Falling elderly inpatients, Timed Up and Go test, and Tinetti Balance scale showed the opposite results. We concluded that rather than a single measure, two assessment tools used together would better evaluate the characteristics of falls by the elderly that can occur due to a multitude of factors and maximize the advantages of each for predicting the occurrence of falls.

  17. Determinants of Falls and Fear of Falling in Ambulatory Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Lexell, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Falls and fear of falling (FOF) are common in persons with late effects of polio, but there is limited knowledge of associated factors. To determine how knee muscle strength, dynamic balance, and gait performance (adjusted for gender, age, and body mass index) are associated with falls and FOF in persons with late effects of polio. A cross-sectional study. A university hospital outpatient clinic. Eighty-one ambulatory persons with verified late effects of polio (43 men; mean age 67 years). Number of falls the past year, Falls Efficacy Scale-International to assess FOF, a Biodex dynamometer to measure knee muscle strength, the Timed Up & Go test to assess dynamic balance, and the 6-Minute Walk test to assess gait performance. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for falls (categorical data) and linear regression analyses for FOF (continuous data) as dependent variables. Fifty-nine percent reported at least 1 fall during the past year, and 79% experienced FOF. Reduced knee muscle strength in the more affected limb and gait performance were determinants of falls. An increase of 10 Nm in knee flexor and knee extensor strength reduced the odds ratio between 0.70 and 0.83 (P = .01), and an increase of 100 m in 6-Minute Walk test reduced the odds ratio to 0.41 (P = .001). All factors were determinants of FOF; reduced knee muscle strength in the more and less affected limbs explained 17%-25% of the variance in FOF, dynamic balance 30%, and gait performance 41%. Gender, age, and body mass index only marginally influenced the results. Reduced gait performance, knee muscle strength, and dynamic balance are to a varying degree determinants of falls and FOF in ambulatory persons with late effects of polio. Future studies need to evaluate whether rehabilitation programs targeting these factors can reduce falls and FOF in this population. IV. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Communicative competences and language learning in an ecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Lindø, Anna Vibeke; Bang, Jørgen Chr.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the basic question of language education: How can language education (mother tongue, second language, international language, foreign language) contribute to friendly and fair cooperation within and across places, regions and nations, ethnicity, gender/sex and age and to ...

  19. Parental Ethnotheories and Family Language Policy in Transnational Adoptive Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Lyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Family language policy refers to explicit and overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimize certain language and literacy practices over others in the home. Studies in family language policy have emphasized the ways in which family-internal processes are shaped by and shape…

  20. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  1. language and identity: a case of igbo language, nigeria igbokwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Concept of Language. Language is ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 8, No 1 ... fully and wholly all concepts, precepts, phenomena and value systems ... love and hospitality for visitors. The Igbo ..... the Igbo people ideological and strategic intellectual substance in.

  2. Falls: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and relationship to fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah D; Miller, Ram R

    2008-12-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury and disability. Most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and dementia, psychotropic medications, and certain types of footwear. Fewer studies have focused on acute precipitating factors, but environmental and situational factors are clearly important to fall risk. Approximately 30% of falls result in an injury that requires medical attention, with fractures occurring in approximately 10%. In addition to the risk factors for falls, the fall descent, fall impact, and bone strength are all important determinants of whether a fall will result in a fracture. In recent years, numerous studies have been directed toward the development of effective fall and fall-related fracture prevention interventions.

  3. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  4. Free Falling in Stratified Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.

  5. LANGUAGE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT: HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Dinillah Dinillah Harya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language can change and develop by itself slowly. Language can change and development because of adaptation of development and pattern change and system of society life, such as level of education, social, culture and technology mastery. Language change and development can occur internally and externally. In this article the changes internally and language development will be reviewed by looking through the study of historical change and development language based on the history of its development. While changes in external and development will be explored through the study of Sociolinguistics by examining and looking at changes and developments that language is influenced by socio-cultural factors that occur in society. Changes internally initially occurred in the behavior of speakers in their everyday lives to adjust to each other, and followed by a tendency to innovate in groups of people who are already familiar, then followed by other changes in sequence, which ultimately makes a language different each other, although originally derived from a single language family. Changes in the external language change and language development is caused by the contact of a language with other languages, where humans as social beings who have been cultured either interconnected or inter-ethnic nations in the world in a country. Key words: Language Changes, Internal Change, External Change, Historical linguistics

  6. Report on SPEC '94-Fall (Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '94-Fall). How to promote international cooperation over energy supply, energy conservation, and environmental protection; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi '94 aki hokokusho. Energy kyokyu, sho energy, kankyo ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku no susumekata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-17

    At the symposium named above, there were Keynote Address 1 (Recent energy development in China and its impact on Asia-Pacific region), Keynote Address 2 (Japan's attitude toward energy policy, concrete measures, and contents), Plenary Session 1 (Development of resources for energy supply assurance in Pacific region), Plenary Session 2 (Promotion of atomic power generation to substitute for fossil fuels), Plenary Session 3 (Removal of factors impeding enhancement of energy efficiency and international cooperation), and Plenary Session 4 (Removal of factors impeding promotion of environmental measures and international cooperation). Important points are mentioned below. The 1st point is that it is necessary to discuss what is the optimum price. The 2nd point is that the role of the government is important. The 3rd point is that importance should be attached to competition on the market. The 4th point relates to the importance of atomic power generation. For the promotion of the introduction of atomic power generation, it is indispensable for interested countries to cooperate with each other through for example exchanging information to win public acceptance in the respective countries and for them to enhance technology transfer. The 5th point relates to the importance of international cooperation. (NEDO)

  7. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  8. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  9. An Integrative Review of Pediatric Fall Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGerolamo, Kimberly; Davis, Katherine Finn

    Patient fall prevention begins with accurate risk assessment. However, sustained improvements in prevention and quality of care include use of validated fall risk assessment tools (FRATs). The goal of FRATs is to identify patients at highest risk. Adult FRATs are often borrowed from to create tools for pediatric patients. Though factors associated with pediatric falls in the hospital setting are similar to those in adults, such as mobility, medication use, and cognitive impairment, adult FRATs and the factors associated with them do not adequately assess risk in children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-21years, and publish date 2006-2015. The search yielded 22 articles. Ten were excluded as the population was primarily adult or lacked discussion of a FRAT. Critical appraisal and findings were synthesized using the Johns Hopkins Nursing evidence appraisal system. Twelve articles relevant to fall prevention in the pediatric hospital setting that discussed fall risk assessment and use of a FRAT were reviewed. Comparison between and accuracy of FRATs is challenged when different classifications, definitions, risk stratification, and inclusion criteria are used. Though there are several pediatric FRATs published in the literature, none have been found to be reliable and valid across institutions and diverse populations. This integrative review highlights the importance of choosing a FRAT based on an institution's identified risk factors and validating the tool for one's own patient population as well as using the tool in conjunction with nursing clinical judgment to guide interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Falls and patient safety for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovitch, Sharon A

    2006-10-01

    The risk of falling increases with age. Falls in the elderly have been found to raise mortality and morbidity rates and are a leading cause of premature admission to long-term care facilities. Attention to known intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose to falling is important in community dwelling and institutionalized older adults. New government guidelines for long-term care facilities have helped focus attention on the safety aspect of fall risk and information about the physical and psychological impact of falling is increasing. Implementation of fall prevention protocols, including the use of fall risk assessment tools, may help reduce the incidence of falls and resultant complications.

  11. Fall prevention in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  12. Frailty and Fear of Falling: The FISTAC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí-Víctor, M; Huedo-Rodenas, I; López-Utiel, M; Navarro-López, J L; Martínez-Reig, M; Serra-Rexach, J A; Romero-Rizos, L; Abizanda, P

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the association between frailty and Fear of Falling (FoF) in a cohort of older adults with previous falls. Cross-sectional study (FISTAC). Falls Unit, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario of Albacete (Spain). 183 adults older than 69 years, from the Falls Unit, with a history of a previous fall in the last year. FoF was assessed at baseline using the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) and three questions previously validated. Frailty was assessed with the frailty phenotype criteria. Age, gender, comorbidity, nutritional status, cognitive status and risk of depression were determined. Mean age 78.4, 80.3% women. FoF was present in 140 (76.5%) participants with the three questions and 102 (55.7%) presented high concern of falling with the FES-I. 88.8% of frail older adults presented FoF compared to 62.4% of those who were not frail, and only 37.8% of non frail had a high concern of falling, compared to 77.2% of those who were frail measured with the FES-I. Frail participants had an adjusted risk of FoF that was 3.18 (95% CI 1.32 to 7.65) higher compared to those who were not frail assessed with the three questions and 3.93 (95% CI 1.85 to 8.36) higher concern of falling when using the FES-I scale. Only female sex and depression risk were also associated to FoF in the final adjusted models. Frailty is independently associated with the FoF syndrome in older faller subjects.

  13. Exit Presentation Fall 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi Rong

    2014-01-01

    Our current International Space Station Probabilistic Risk Assessment (ISS PRA) model assumes all collisions between a visiting vehicle (VV) and the ISS result in worst case loss of the ISS crew and the vehicle (LOCV). Drawing results from the Mir-Progress collision, we know this assumption is inaccurate because that collision did not lead to LOCV. Therefore the PRA team is conducting a study to determine the likelihood of LOCV when a collision occurs between a VV and the ISS. Kinetic energy is calculated and converted to pounds of TNT for the moving VVs when they collide with the ISS. Different scenarios are evaluated to obtain collision related data such as translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy. These calculated data are integrated into the results from the expert elicitation performed on the Mir- Progress collision. As a result of this study, the PRA model will now calculate the probability of a VV collision with ISS, the probability that collision will result in Loss of Soyuz Crew (LOC) or Loss of ISS Crew and Vehicle (LOCV).

  14. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,

  15. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  16. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  17. Multiple sclerosis severity and concern about falling: Physical, cognitive and psychological mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Rob; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Gandevia, Simon; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Concern about falling can have devastating physical and psychological consequences in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about physical and cognitive determinants for increased concern about falling inthis group. To investigate direct and indirect relationships between MS severity and concern about falling using structural equation modelling (SEM). Two hundred and ten community-dwelling people (21-73 years) with MS Disease Steps 0-5 completed several physical, cognitive and psychological assessments. Concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale-International. Concern about falling was significantly associated with MS Disease Step and also balance, muscle strength, disability, previous falls, and executive functioning. SEM revealed a strong direct path between MS Disease Step and concern about falling (r = 0.31, p concern about falling in people with MS and had an excellent goodness-of-fit. The relationship between MS severity and increased concern about falling was primarily mediated by reduced physical ability (especially if this resulted in disability and falls) and less so by executive functioning. This suggests people with MS have a realistic appraisal of their concern about falling.

  18. Catch Them Before They Fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Saldanha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of mastering reading is universally seen across all populations and languages. A small fraction of students all over the world, however, fail in learning to read proficiently. Early assessments can help children who are likely to get into the vicious circle of failure in mastering word reading, leading to poor academic performance and eventually to low motivation in academics and possible lifelong socioeconomic and mental health consequences. In languages such as English, there are quite a few tests available for early assessment and interventions. In India, a multilingual society, all children going to school learn to read at least in three languages, including English. Dearth of suitable assessment tools in local languages is a major impediment in clinical services and research. Here, we report an attempt at developing a quick and reliable test for assessment of decoding and sight-word reading skills in Kannada language.

  19. On JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation. Proceedings of the JALT International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning (22nd, Nagoya, Japan, November 1995). Section Six: In the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    Texts of conference papers and summaries of colloquia on classroom environment and interaction in second language teaching are presented, including: "Fluency Development" (James Dean Brown); "Learner Development: Three Designs" (in Japanese) (Hiroko Naito, Yoshitake Tonia, Takao Kinugawa, Morio Hamada); "Desirable Japanese Teachers and Classroom…

  20. The International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF) - an example of research methods and language in describing 'social functioning' in medical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Medical research ventures into the area of social life with a holistic approach to health and disabilities. However, the specific language developed for this kind of research in the 'ICF' model (adopted by the UN) loses sight of the very phenomena it aims at describing. By contrast, based...

  1. Motivational and Cultural Correlates of Second Language Acquisition: An Investigation of International Students in the Universities of the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua; Watkins, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationships among motivational factors, cultural correlates and second language proficiency. The participants, from both Western and Asian backgrounds, were learning Chinese at university level in the People's Republic of China. 115 students (35 Western students and 80 Asian students) ranging from beginning to…

  2. 26 CFR 301.7503-1 - Time for performance of acts where last day falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday. 301.7503-1 Section 301.7503-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... where last day falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday. (a) In general. Section 7503 provides that... falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, such act shall be considered performed timely if...

  3. Competing Desires and Realities: Language Policies in the French-Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of

  4. Active lifestyle all your life : a multifactorial group-based falls-prevention programme

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, gerontology focuses on an emerging paradigm of healthy ageing where the goal is to extend the senior years in absence of morbidity by improving human health. A major threat to healthy ageing is accidental falls, as falls are the second-leading cause of unintentional injury or deaths worldwide. For the individual who falls, it is crucial to be able to continue living an active, independent life in one’s senior years. Additionally social engagement, valued activities, as well a...

  5. A Global Approach to Foreign Language Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Maurice W., Ed.

    The papers collected here are largely devoted to foreign language education as a means of increasing international and cross-cultural understanding. Titles include: (1) "Language Is the Medium, Culture Is the Message: Globalizing Foreign Languages" (Lorraine A. Strasheim); (2) "Cultural Understanding for Global Citizenship: An Inservice Model"…

  6. A Study of Rate and Predictors of Fall Among Elderly Patients in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Tehewy, Mahi Mahmoud; Amin, Ghada Essam; Nassar, Nahla Wassem

    2015-12-01

    Falls represent a serious problem facing hospital-admitted patients, and the severity of fall-related complications rises steadily after the age of 65 years. The aims of this study were (a) to calculate the rate of falls among elderly patients in the internal medicine departments in Ain Shams University Hospital, (b) to identify different predictors and characteristics of falls, and (c) to assess clinical consequences and hospitalization outcomes of falls. An observational longitudinal study has been conducted in Ain Shams University Hospital, where 411 elderly patients admitted to the internal medicine departments were included. Upon admission, the patients were assessed for their risk for falling using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS). Information about their medical condition and drugs administered was obtained. Functional assessment of the patients regarding their ability to perform different daily activities was also performed. The patients were followed up during their stay, and once a fall event occurred, complete details regarding the circumstances and consequences of that event were obtained. The incidence rate of falls was found to be 16.9 per 1000 patient days. The fallers had a significantly high risk for falling according to the MFS (P = 0.02). The MFS was able to predict patients at risk for falling and identified correctly 82.6% of the fallers. The most common medical conditions associated with falls were diabetes (48.7%), hypertension (58.7%), and visual impairment (41.3%). Anemia (P = 0.05) and osteoporosis (P = 0.02) showed a statistically significant difference between the fallers and the nonfallers. Presence of a history of a fall and increased length of hospital stay were highly significant (P = 0.01) factors that predisposed to falls. Logistic regression analysis showed that anemia, osteoporosis, and history of a fall were independent predictors of falls. Most falls had no serious consequences, approximately 18% had contusions, 2% had subdural

  7. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Falls in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Yvette Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Falls in Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are common. 50 % of moderately affected PD patients sustained two or more falls during a prospective follow-up of 6 months. During a 3 month period 40 % of HD patients reported one or more fall. Many falls resulted in minor injuries and 42 % of

  9. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  10. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  11. Patient centered fall risk awareness perspectives: clinical correlates and fall risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background While objective measures to assess risk of falls in older adults have been established; the value of patient self-reports in the context of falls is not known. Objectives To identify clinical correlates of patient centered fall risk awareness, and their validity for predicting falls. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and Participants 316 non-demented and ambulatory community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78 years, 55% women). Measurements Fall risk awareness was assessed with a two-item questionnaire, which asked participants about overall likelihood and personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Results Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (kappa 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on both fall risk awareness questions. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Conclusion Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. While patient centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies as they may influence participation and behaviors. PMID:27801936

  12. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  13. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  14. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  15. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  16. Falls: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Relationship to Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Sarah D.; Miller, Ram

    2008-01-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury, disability, and institutionalization. Although the causes of falls are complex, most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, age-associated comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and d...

  17. The nurse as bricoleur in falls prevention: learning from a case study of the implementation of fall prevention best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Helen; Boblin, Sheryl; Ireland, Sandra; Robertson, Kim

    2014-04-01

    Falls prevention in "real-life" clinical practice is a complex undertaking. Nurses play an active and essential role in falls prevention. This discussion paper presents a picture of the nurse as a bricoleur in falls prevention, requiring knowledge in many areas and the ability to perform multiple diverse tasks. Building on a qualitative case study with nurses at various levels in three acute care facilities, this paper posits that the concept of nurse as bricoleur has the potential to broaden our understanding of the complexity of falls prevention. The nurse as bricoleur within the Promoting Action Research in Health Services framework as the provider of person- or patient-centered evidence-based care is conceptualized. Within this framework, the nurse uses his or her professional knowledge or clinical experience while considering research, local data, and information, and the patient's experience and preferences to provide this care, the bricolage. Each of these areas is discussed as well as the impact on the nurse when a fall does occur. Recognizing this complexity of the nurses' world has important implications for both service delivery and education, including preparation of students, and the implementation of new organizational initiatives and supports for nurses when falls do occur despite the best efforts of all involved. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Internationalism and Our "Strenuous Family."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Explores the concept of internationalism within the context of teaching English as a Second Language, arguing that, in spite of diverse perspectives, instructors can unite internationally to advocate literacy and language education, protect multiculturalism, and support international goals. (16 references) (CB)

  19. Hypertension Treatment and Concern About Falling: Baseline Data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Dan R; Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya; Foy, Capri G; Gren, Lisa H; Kazis, Lewis; Lerner, Alan J; Newman, Jill C; Powell, James R; Riley, William T; Rosman, Robert; Wadley, Virginia G; Williams, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    To determine the extent of concern about falling in older adults with hypertension, whether lower blood pressure (BP) and greater use of antihypertensive medications are associated with greater concern about falling, and whether lower BP has a greater effect on concern about falling in older and more functionally impaired individuals. Secondary analysis involving cross-sectional study of baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Approximately 100 outpatient sites. SPRINT enrollees aged 50 and older (mean age 69) diagnosed with hypertension (N = 2,299). Concern about falling was determined using the shortened version of the Falls Efficacy Scale International as measured at the baseline examination. Mild concern about falling was present in 29.3% of participants and moderate to severe concern in 17.9%. Neither low BP (systolic BPconcern about falling (P > .10). Participants with moderate to severe concern about falling were taking significantly more antihypertensive medications than those with mild or no concern. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, no associations were evident between BP, medications, and concern about falling. Results were similar in older and younger participants; interactions between BP and age and functional status were not significantly associated with concern about falling. Although concern about falling is common in older adults with hypertension, it was not found to be associated with low BP or use of more antihypertensive medications in baseline data from SPRINT. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Anxiety, depression, and fall-related psychological concerns in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samantha L; Kneebone, Ian I; Farquharson, Lorna

    2013-12-01

    Establish the association between affect and fall-related psychological concerns (fear of falling, fall-related self-efficacy, balance confidence, and outcome expectancy). A total of 205 community-dwelling older people (mean age 81, SD 7.5 years) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling, Falls-Efficacy Scale- International, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Consequences of Falling Scale. Hierarchical regression models showed that anxiety was independently associated with all fall-related psychological concerns; depression was only associated with falls efficacy. Associations between fall-related psychological concerns and age, gender, accommodation,medications, self-rated physical health, falls history, mobility, and sensory aids are also discussed. This is the first study that investigates the association between affect and the four fall-related psychological concerns. Anxiety was a significant factor associated with all four, whereas depression was only associated with activity avoidance. Implications for healthcare providers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  3. Trapping fall armyworm in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a noctuid pest of row and vegetable crops throughout the Americas. It has recently invaded Africa and has been identified from almost all sub-Saharan countries. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likel...

  4. Nuclear fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An underground nuclear fall-out shelter has a plastics shell which, apart from service and access openings, is waterproof and provided, if desired, with a concrete roof. The shelter has an access opening, an air system, lighting, water storage, sanitation and sewage facilities. (author)

  5. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  6. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  7. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  8. AAAI 1993 Fall Symposium Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Robert; Epstein, Susan; Terveen, Loren; Bonasso, R. Peter; Miller, David P.; Bowyer, Kevin; Hall, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1993 Fall Symposium Series on October 22-24 in Raleigh, North Carolina. This article contains summaries of the six symposia that were conducted: Automated Deduction in Nonstandard Logics; Games: Planning and Learning; Human-Computer Collaboration: Reconciling Theory, Synthesizing Practice; Instantiating Intelligent Agents; and Machine Learning and Computer Vision: What, Why, and How?

  9. New generation - new methods of foreign language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    KAPPAS A.ZH.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a need to fit into a world increasingly globalized, in which communication and foreign languages have more importance than some years ago. The English language is the language of international communication. Present day English is the simplest adaptation of a very old language and yet it is still difficult to teach this language effectively, especially to those who speak English as a second or even third language. Teaching only the rules is found to be boring by most studen...

  10. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy; Estudo do processo de esferolizacao por queda gravitacional de particulas vitreas visando a aplicacao em radioterapia interna seletiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R., E-mail: eraldo.filho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Sene, F.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β{sup -} emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β{sup -} particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  12. The efficacy of fall-risk-increasing drug (FRID) withdrawal for the prevention of falls and fall-related complications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin Yusen; Holbrook, Anne

    2017-02-20

    Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of high risk medications known as "fall-risk increasing drugs" (FRIDs) is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. PROSPERO CRD42016040203.

  13. The efficacy of fall-risk-increasing drug (FRID withdrawal for the prevention of falls and fall-related complications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Yusen Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction of high risk medications known as “fall-risk increasing drugs” (FRIDs is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. Methods/design We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. Discussion We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD

  14. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  15. Language Problems in Applied Linguistics: Limiting the Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadarisman, A. Effendi

    2014-01-01

    This article critically discusses the paradigmatic shift in applied linguistics, resulting in a claim that countless real-world language problems fall within its scope, but in reality they weaken the discipline and make it lack a focus. Then it takes a closer look at the nature of these language problems, and picks out, for analysis, real examples…

  16. Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Language, Policy and Power in a Transient Multilingual Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Mortensen, Janus

    and English. We view this corporate language policy as one kind of norm negotiation. We want to look at the language policy from the perspective of language socialization, as a very explicit form of language socialization in a work setting. We are interested in linking language policy with company culture...... for language choice and the social meaning associated with different ways of speaking. Our case is an international company in Denmark which has recently implemented a new language policy. The language policy focuses on the introduction of English as a corporate language and on the choice between Danish...... and ask: how is the corporate language policy used as a tool for language socialization to bring about cultural change in the company? From the perspective of ‘Language, power and politics at work’, our case also lends itself to an analysis of how corporate language policy as a kind of norm negotiation...

  18. A Study on the “Things” in Chinua Achebe’sThings Fall Apart

    OpenAIRE

    Erdağ, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the reasons of the fall of the Umuofia tribe and the main character, Okonkwo. There are certain events, both internally and externally, caused things to fall apart. This study divides these “things” into two main subtitles: “Okonkwo’s dreams that fall apart” and “The tribal system that falls apart”. These subtitles include main influences of the changes that occur in the book. The first chapter includes the events such as Ikemefuna’s death, Nwoye’s conversion, Okokwo’s des...

  19. Language policy from below:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    . Not only is it at odds with the available empirical evidence, it also puts unnecessary constraints on the potential that transnational education holds for cultural and linguistic exchange and development. The article is based on a case study where the patterns of language choice of three student project......, to varying degrees, developed practice-based language policies ‘from below’ that allow for alternating and sometimes syncretic use of English and Danish....... internationalisation, and English is accordingly promoted as the ‘obvious’ language of instruction for international education in many university policies. This article argues that the idea that university internationalisation should equal the exclusive use of English as a lingua franca is essentially misguided...

  20. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  1. Avoidance and Overuse of Indonesian Language among Balinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Pageyasa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will take place from Balinese language to Indonesian language. This research aims to describe two phenomena of the language transfer process, namely avoidance and overuse (excessive use. Qualitative data were obtained from one Balinese child, namely Gede. Gede’s daily conversations were recorded to be analyzed. The researcher also used field notes. The results show that there is indeed avoidance and overuse in the use of Indonesian language by Gede.  The teachers must be aware of the student's avoidance and overuse of Indonesian language, then the teacher can choose a contextual teaching method that best fits their students’ need in order to enable them to cope with the avoidance and overuse in learning the second language. In conclusion, the Balinese child’s avoidance and overuse, displayed in his use of Indonesian Language, is a concequence of his prior knowledge of his first language (L1 as well as his cultural awareness.  Teachers should facilitate their students’ second language (L2 learning by being aware of their L1 prior knowledge and culture.

  2. Predictive effects of different clinical balance measures and the fear of falling on falls in postmenopausal women aged 50 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yuksel; MacWalter, Ronald S; Durmus, Bekir; Altay, Zuhal E; Baysal, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Falls among the elderly are associated with a high morbidity and mortality and can involve high-cost medical interventions. The risk of falls often remains undiagnosed until an episode occurs but if the risk is high, preventative measures could be introduced. This 6-month prospective study investigated whether different postural clinical measures and fear of falling (FOF) itself can predict future falls in postmenopausal women aged > or =50 years. 125 postmenopausal women were studied comparing the outcome of fallers vs. non-fallers within the 6-month follow-up study period. Clinical measures, history of falls and FOF data were determined at baseline and the number of falls and FOF were ascertained at the final visit or by telephone interview at 6 months. Of the clinical measures investigated, the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) >26 points (OR = 7.28, per additional point, 95% CI 2.25-23.61, p = 0.001) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) falls. Postmenopausal women aged > or =50 years who had FES-I scores >26 points and BBS risk factors of future falls and offered preventative measures.

  3. Fall-related activity avoidance in relation to a history of falls or near falls, fear of falling and disease severity in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Manzur; Iwarsson, Susanne; Odin, Per; Nilsson, Maria H

    2016-06-02

    There is limited knowledge concerning fall-related activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD); such knowledge would be of importance for the development of more efficient PD-care and rehabilitation. This study aimed to examine how fall-related activity avoidance relates to a history of self-reported falls/near falls and fear of falling (FOF) as well as to disease severity in people with PD. Data were collected from 251 (61 % men) participants with PD; their median (min-max) age and PD duration were 70 (45-93) and 8 (1-43) years, respectively. A self-administered postal survey preceded a home visit which included observations, clinical tests and interview-administered questionnaires. Fall-related activity avoidance was assessed using the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) as well as by using a dichotomous (Yes/No) question. Further dichotomous questions concerned: the presence of FOF and the history (past 6 months) of falls or near falls, followed by stating the number of incidents. Disease severity was assessed according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. In the total sample (n = 251), 41 % of the participants reported fall-related activity avoidance; the median mSAFFE score was 22. In relation to a history of fall, the proportions of participants (p fall-related activity avoidance were: non-fallers (30 %), single fallers (50 %) and recurrent fallers, i.e. ≥ 2 falls (57 %). Among those that reported near falls (but no falls), 51 % (26 out of 51) reported fall-related activity avoidance. Of those that reported FOF, 70 % reported fall-related activity avoidance. Fall-related activity avoidance ranged from 24 % in the early PD-stage (HY I) to 74 % in the most severe stages (HY IV-V). Results indicate that fall-related activity avoidance may be related to a history of self-reported falls/near falls, FOF and disease severity in people with PD. Importantly, fall-related activity avoidance is

  4. Equivalent Fall Risk in Elderly Patients on Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Janine; Rajan, Tasleem; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Accidental falls are common in the hemodialysis (HD) population. The high fall rate has been attributed to a combination of aging, kidney disease-related morbidity, and HD treatment-related hazards. We hypothesized that patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis (PD) would have fewer falls than those on chronic HD. The objective of this study was to compare the falls risk between cohorts of elderly patients maintained on HD and PD, using prospective data from a large academic dialysis facility. ♦ Patients aged 65 years or over on chronic in-hospital HD and PD at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first year recorded. Fall risk between the 2 groups was compared using both crude and adjusted Poisson lognormal random effects modeling. ♦ Out of 258 potential patients, 236 were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls. Of 74 PD patients, 40 (54%) experienced 86 falls while 76 out of 162 (47%) HD patients experienced a total of 305 falls (crude fall rate 1.25 vs 1.60 respectively, odds ratio [OR] falls in PD patients 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 - 0.92, p = 0.04). After adjustment for differences in comorbidity, number of medications, and other demographic differences, PD patients were no less likely to experience accidental falls than HD patients (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.88 - 3.04, p = 0.1). ♦ We conclude that accidental falls are equally common in the PD population and the HD population. These data argue against post-HD hypotension as the sole contributor to the high fall risk in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. Medication use and associated risk of falling in a geriatric outpatient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Kathryn N; Thompson, Amy N; Zhao, Yumin; Leal, Julie E; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P

    2012-09-01

    Studies have shown that approximately one third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older will experience a fall each year. Many studies indicate that use of multiple medications may put patients at an increased risk of falling, but few studies have been conducted to correlate the number of medications with the risk of falls. To determine the medications most frequently used in patients aged 65 years or older who have experienced a fall within the past year, with particular attention to type or number of medications most commonly associated with multiple falls or a fall with injury. We conducted a chart review in an outpatient internal medicine clinic over a 13-month period. A total of 118 patients 65 years of age or older who were taking 4 or more medications and had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months were included. Data relating to sex, age, race, diagnoses, medications, and number and type of falls were obtained during the chart review. The primary end point of the study was number and type of medications most commonly used in patients experiencing a fall. A total of 116 patients were examined for trends in fall risk. A logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated significant fall risk with the addition of medications, with patients experiencing a 14% increase in fall risk with the addition of each medication beyond a 4-medication regimen (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27; p = 0.027). The addition of medications is associated with a significant increase in risk of falls in elderly patients, regardless of drug class. Further studies are needed to assess the possible increased risk of falls with increasing number of medications.

  6. Concern about falling in older women with a history of falls: associations with health, functional ability, physical activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Radhika; Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Kannus, Pekka; Karinkanta, Saija; Sievänen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling has been linked to activity restriction, functional decline, decreased quality of life and increased risk of falling. Factors that distinguish persons with a high concern about falling from those with low concern have not been systematically studied. This study aimed to expose potential health-related, functional and psychosocial factors that correlate with fear of falling among independently living older women who had fallen in the past year. Baseline data of 409 women aged 70-80 years recruited to a randomised falls prevention trial (DEX) (NCT00986466) were used. Participants were classified according to their level of concern about falling using the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore associations between health-related variables, functional performance tests, amount of physical activity, quality of life and FES-I scores. 68% of the participants reported a moderate to high concern (FES-I ≥ 20) about falls. Multinomial logistic regression showed that highly concerned women were significantly more likely to have poorer health and quality of life and lower functional ability. Reported difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, balance, outdoor mobility and poorer quality of life contributed independently to a greater concern about falling. Concern about falling was highly prevalent in our sample of community-living older women. In particular, poor perceived general health and mobility constraints contributed independently to the difference between high and low concern of falling. Knowledge of these associations may help in developing interventions to reduce fear of falling and activity avoidance in old age.

  7. Neck pain, concerns of falling and physical performance in community-dwelling Danish citizens over 75 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendall, Julie C; Boyle, Eleanor; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    (Short Physical Performance Battery), self-reported psychological concerns related to falling (Falls Efficacy Scale International), depression (Major Depression Inventory), cognitive function (Mini Mental State Examination), self-reported low-back pain and self-reported history of falls. Associations...... physical performance (unadjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.09-4.69). However, these relationships became nonsignificant after adjusting for potential confounders. Bothersome neck pain and concerns of falling is attenuated by depression, and the relationship between bothersome neck pain and decreased physical...... performance is attenuated by concerns of falling, depression and previous history of falls. CONCLUSIONS: Bothersome neck pain in older people is associated with increased concerns of falling and decreased physical performance that are two known risk factors for falls in older people. However...

  8. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotom...

  9. Fall Prevention in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A

    2016-05-27

    Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.

  10. Intercultural Exposure through English Language Teaching: An Analysis of an English Language Textbook in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqie, Shamsun Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of culture in foreign language textbooks is comparatively a new trend in English Language Teaching (ELT) which is based on the growing consensus that language textbooks should attempt to raise students' awareness of international culture as well as that of their own. Being influenced by this thought, Bangladesh too like many other…

  11. Language Planning and Development Aid: The (In)Visibility of Language in Development Aid Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Benson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Despite the essential role of local, regional, national and international languages in human development, there is little reference to language planning in development aid discourse. Beginning with definitions of development aid and language planning, the paper examines how the two were linked in pre- and post-colonial times, showing how language…

  12. Languages: The Next Generation. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Nuffield Languages Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

    This report examines the United Kingdom's (UK) capability in foreign languages and reports on what the nation should do to improve the situation. It is argued that despite the fact that English is rapidly becoming an even more dominant language in the world--it is clearly the international language of science, law, banking, business,…

  13. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  14. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Hiroyuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point were 6.15 (p Conclusion These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  15. First Results of a Systematic Study of Internal Contamination Due to Fall-Out; Premiers Resultats d'une Etude Systematique des Contaminations Internes Consecutives aux Retombees Radioactives; 041f 0415 0420 0414 ; Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Sistematico de las Contaminaciones Internas Debidas a la Precipitacion Radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Remy, M. L. [Travail du Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Paris (France)

    1964-11-15

    Since September 1961 the Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants (Central Radiological Protection Service) has carried out more than 500 examinations with whole-body counter. Numerous individuals were examined at intervals of three or six months, and, in many cases, the urine was radio analysed during these examinations. A systematic examination of the urine sample by gamma-spectrometry generally preceded the radiochemical study. A comparative study of the results of the various examinations yielded a certain amount of data on internal contamination from radioactive fall-out. (1) Caesium-137 was the only-artificial radioisotope which was consistently detected by the whole-body, counter. The changes-occurring in the mean body burden could be observed throughout the entire period of the examinations. The normal variation in body burden depending on sex could also be observed. (2) For the low-level activities usually found, it was possible to study the ratio of the urinary excretion of caesium-: 137 to the total body burden of this isotope. The results seemed to confirm the ratios found by other authors for higher levels of contamination. (3) The presence of fission products, with moderate half-lives, particularly zirconium-95 and niobium-95 and, to a lesser extent, ruthenium-103, could be observed as a transitory phenomenon, at certain times. (4) A knowledge of the total body burden of strontium-90 would be extremely. useful but, in the case of low- level activities, this isotope cannot be measured directly with the whole-body counter. The authors therefore tried to estimate the order of magnitude of this burden in two different ways. A first approximation was arrived at by studying caesium-137, since the percentages of strontium-90 and caesium-137 in radioactive fall-out evolve along very similar lines. Then, the urinary excretion of strontium-90 in a number of individuals was measured in an attempt to deduce the body burden or, at least, to

  16. Oral and Written Language Development of Children Adopted from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Krakow, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The sharp increase in the number of international adoptions in the United States has prompted a heightened interest in the language development of internationally adopted children. Although recent studies have investigated the early language development of adoptees, little is known about the school-age language and literacy skills of…

  17. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  18. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  19. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  20. Local fall-out and the animal food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [fr

  1. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-08-12

    Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p fall, 15.04 (p falls, and 5.05 (p fall-related fractures. The results remained essentially unchanged in subgroup analysis accounting for locomotion status. These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  2. Falling Short in HR Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Jim

    2009-01-01

    A school district's strategic objectives typically include improving education outcomes of students, reducing costs, improving customer service and increasing productivity. While the language, emphasis and order will vary, it is difficult to imagine a district that does not strategically focus on these or related objectives. Most districts perform…

  3. Fall prevention in central coast community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L

    2018-04-19

    Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  4. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the version for children and youth as a tool in child habilitation/early childhood intervention--feasibility and usefulness as a common language and frame of reference for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck-Åkesson, Eva; Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats; Pless, Mia; Simeonsson, Rune; Adolfsson, Margareta; Almqvist, Lena; Augustine, Lilly; Klang, Nina; Lillvist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood intervention and habilitation services for children with disabilities operate on an interdisciplinary basis. It requires a common language between professionals, and a shared framework for intervention goals and intervention implementation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the version for children and youth (ICF-CY) may serve as this common framework and language. This overview of studies implemented by our research group is based on three research questions: Do the ICF-CY conceptual model have a valid content and is it logically coherent when investigated empirically? Is the ICF-CY classification useful for documenting child characteristics in services? What difficulties and benefits are related to using ICF-CY model as a basis for intervention when it is implemented in services? A series of studies, undertaken by the CHILD researchers are analysed. The analysis is based on data sets from published studies or master theses. Results and conclusion show that the ICF-CY has a useful content and is logically coherent on model level. Professionals find it useful for documenting children's body functions and activities. Guidelines for separating activity and participation are needed. ICF-CY is a complex classification, implementing it in services is a long-term project.

  5. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  6. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  7. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  8. 1970 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures, Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic Literatures; and Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the four-volume, international bibliography contains over 11,140 entries referring to books, Festschriften, analyzed collections, and articles which focus on General, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. A section of folklore is also included. The section on general literature includes: (1) aesthetics, (2)…

  9. The Interactive Modes of Non-Native Speakers in International Chinese Language Distance Class Discussions: An Analysis of Smiling as a Facial Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaoka, Kazuko

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this research is on an international distance discussion class carried out in Chinese between university students in Japan, China and Taiwan using videoconferencing. Smiling was used as an interactional index in an analysis of the archival footage of the recordings of the discussion between native speakers (NS) of Chinese and…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Language Version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-MLUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Ghanei, Behnaz; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2018-05-01

    Assessment instruments are essential for research, allowing diagnosis and evaluating treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of both genders. The purpose of this study was to translate the Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (MLUTS) Questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian subjects. After getting permission from the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) web site, the forward and backward translation of the MLUTS questionnaire were carried out by researcher team. The content/face validity, construct validity and reliability were assessed in a sample of MLUTS Iranian patients by measuring with the Cronbach's alpha test. In total, 121 male patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years. Cronbach alpha value was 0.757, consecrated the internal consistency of the form (r > 0.7). The internal consistency of each question was examined separately and found to be over 0.7. For the evaluation of reliability test-retest was done, the test was administered to 20% of the patients for a second time with an interval of 1-2 weeks. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) score was 0.901. The Correlation coefficient between the MLUTS and International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) was 0.879. ICIQ-MLUTS is a robust instrument, which can be used for evaluating male LUTS in Persian patients. We believe that the Persian version of the MLUTS is an important tool for research and clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Fall prevention in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Kathleen M; Balch, Christine

    2014-12-01

    In the oncology population, disease process and treatment factors place patients at risk for falls. Fall bundles provide a framework for developing comprehensive fall programs in oncology. Small sample size of interventional studies and focus on ambulatory and geriatric populations limit the applicability of results. Additional research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of Falling in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Armas; Joan Lappe; Veronica J. Slavik; Kellan Slattery; Shih-Chuan Cheng; Davender S. Malik; John N. Mordeson

    2015-01-01

    We propose a weighted average approach to measure the risk of falling in older women. We consider four causal variables of falling, namely serum 25-OHD levels, medication use, fracture, and age. We use five methods to derive linear equations with these four factors as independent variables in the linear equations with risk of falling as the dependent variable.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking Zone...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles, swivels...

  15. Stability of Language and Literacy Profiles of Children With Language Impairment in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M

    2015-08-01

    The present study focused on the identification and stability of language and literacy profiles of primary school children receiving school-based language therapy over the course of one academic year. Participants included 272 early elementary school-age children (144 boys, 128 girls) who had been clinically identified as having a language impairment. A latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct profiles on the basis of a battery of language and literacy assessments in the fall and spring of the academic year. Four profiles were identified in both fall and spring that could be best described as representing high, average, and low overall abilities. Two average groups were identified that differentiated according to phonological awareness abilities. Children's profile membership was variable from fall to spring with nearly 60% of children shifting into a higher profile. The results of t tests comparing children who shifted into higher profiles from those who remained stable in profile membership revealed group differences regarding language severity, socio-economic status, and proportion of therapy sessions received in the classroom. These results provide further evidence regarding the heterogeneity of children with language impairment served in the public schools, indicating that differences may be best conceptualized along a continuum of severity.

  16. The decline and fall of Esperanto: lessons for standards committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R; Huff, S M

    1999-01-01

    In 1887, Polish physician Ludovic Zamenhof introduced Esperanto, a simple, easy-to-learn planned language. His goal was to erase communication barriers between ethnic groups by providing them with a politically neutral, culturally free standard language. His ideas received both praise and condemnation from the leaders of his time. Interest in Esperanto peaked in the 1970s but has since faded somewhat. Despite the logical concept and intellectual appeal of a standard language, Esperanto has not evolved into a dominant worldwide language. Instead, English, with all its idiosyncrasies, is closest to an international lingua franca. Like Zamenhof, standards committees in medical informatics have recognized communication chaos and have tried to establish working models, with mixed results. In some cases, previously shunned proprietary systems have become the standard. A proposed standard, no matter how simple, logical, and well designed, may have difficulty displacing an imperfect but functional "real life" system.

  17. Gender perspective on fear of falling using the classification of functioning as the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Christina; Nordin, Ellinor; Lundquist, Anders; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate associations between fear of falling (FOF) and recurrent falls among women and men, and gender differences in FOF with respect to International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: Community-dwelling people (n = 230, 75–93 years, 72% women) were included and followed 1 year regarding falls. Data collection included self-reported demographics, questionnaires, and physical performance-based tests. FOF was assessed with the question “Are you afraid of falling?”. Results were discussed with a gender relational approach. Results: At baseline 55% women (n = 92) and 22% men (n = 14) reported FOF. During the follow-up 21% women (n = 35) and 30% men (n = 19) experienced recurrent falls. There was an association between gender and FOF (p = 0.001), but not between FOF and recurrent falls (p = 0.79), or between gender and recurrent falls (p = 0.32). FOF was related to Personal factors and Activity and Participation. The relationship between FOF and Personal factors was in opposite directions for women and men. Conclusions: Results did not support the prevailing paradigm that FOF increases rate of recurrent falls in community-dwelling people, and indicated that the answer to “Are you afraid of falling?” might be highly influenced by gendered patterns. Implications for Rehabilitation The question “Are you afraid of falling?” has no predictive value when screening for the risk of falling in independent community-dwelling women or men over 75 years of age. Gendered patterns might influence the answer to the question “Are you afraid of falling?” Healthcare personnel are recommended to be aware of this when asking older women and men about fear of falling. PMID:24786969

  18. Quantum self-controlling free-falling cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssomalakos, C; Serrano-Ensástiga, E; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2015-01-01

    In the separation of rotations from internal motions in the n-body problem, there appear some gauge fields which physically represent Coriolis effects. These fields are also present in the “falling cat” problem: at the kinematical level they map changes in the cat's shape to changes in its orientation whereas at the dynamical level they show up as gauge potentials in the Hamiltonian. Classically, the vanishing angular momentum condition allows for the orientation degrees of freedom to decouple from the internal ones and the cat's re-orientation can be accounted for at the kinematical level, partially. In the quantum case the cat's reorientation description requires to be done on dynamical grounds. In this paper we explore the quantum version of the falling cat modelled as a three body problem. (paper)

  19. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in Spanish community-dwelling middle-aged and older women: Association with balance confidence, fear of falling and fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar-Almazán, Agustín; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Jiménez-García, José D; Achalandabaso, Alexander; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; de la Torre-Cruz, Manuel; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the association of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with fear of falling (FoF) and balance confidence in a Spanish sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling women. A total of 235 women (69.21±7.56 years) participated in this study. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), hand-grip strength, and physical performance (gait speed) were evaluated for the diagnosis of sarcopenia, obesity, and SO. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) were employed to assess FoF and balance confidence, respectively. Scores of >26 on the FES-I and risk of falling. The independent associations of sarcopenia, obesity and SO with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk were evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regressions, adjusting for potential confounding variables. 27.23% and 18.72% of women presented with sarcopenia and SO, respectively. Gait speed, body mass index (BMI), and fall history were independently associated with ABC score (adjusted-R 2 =0.152) and fall risk (ABC) (adjusted-R 2 =0.115). FES-I score was independently associated (adjusted-R 2 =0.193) with fall history, gait speed, BMI, and depression, which, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, remained independent factors for fall risk measured as FES-I score (adjusted-R 2 =0.243). In community-dwelling middle-aged and older Spanish women, BMI, gait speed, and fall history were independently associated with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk. Depression was related only to FoF, and, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, was an independent predictor of fall risk as assessed by the FES-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-01-01

    Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  1. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  2. The variability of meteoroid falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  3. The Politics of Teaching English as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Robert N.; Eiseman, James

    1981-01-01

    Claims that the political socialization of international students remains the primary function of ESL. Gives examples of language and the immigrant and discusses the intrinsic relationship between language and politics. (BK)

  4. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  5. The Qur’anic Language in a Linguistic Perspective: The Language Engineering Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Akram A.M. Sa‘Adeddin

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to draw a plan for developing curricula for teaching the Qur’anic Language at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The article is in four sections. The first offers an overview of Language Engineering, the language profile in Malaysia, the Qur 'anic Language teaching situation at IIUM, and the conditions for competent Corpus Planning. The second discusses the significance of the Qur’anic Language, and the Islamic semantic affinity between the Qur’anic Language and Bahasa Melayu. The third focuses on the implications of the Qur’anic language Corpus Planning for language teachers, materials writers and curriculum designers. The fourth briefly introduces our theory of interpretive reading, goes on to apply it to an active reading of sūratu likhlās, and considers the implications of this type of reading for the Qur’anic Language syllabus design.

  6. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  8. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  9. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Disease state fingerprint for fall risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla

    2014-01-01

    Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.

  11. Prevalence of falls in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  12. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  13. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  14. Redefining the Boundaries of Language Study. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire, Ed.

    The papers in this volume fall into five categories. After "Introduction: Making the Invisible Visible" (Claire Kramsch), Part 1, "Theoretical Boundaries," includes "The Metamorphosis of the Foreign Language Director, or: Waking Up to Theory" (Mark Webber) and "Subjects-in-Process: Revisioning TA Development…

  15. Fear of falling and activity restriction{ in older adults from the urban community of Londrina: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Satiko Fucahori

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to assess the fear of falling and restriction of activities in the elderly of the city of Londrina (PR. Materials and method A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals over 60 years old of both sexes. They were interviewed at their home with the Falls Efficacy Scale International - Brazil the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly a socio-demographic and health perception questionnaire. Results The participants were 38 elderly people (mean age 71.6 ± 6.1 years with a prevalence of women (68.4%. The occurrence of a fall in the last year was reported by 44.7% of the elderly, and the prevalence of the fear of falling again by 56.3%. In the evaluation of the Falls Efficacy Scale, 97.4% of participants reported fear of falling in at least one of the activities while 55.3% had score ≥ 23 points showing high risk for falls. Fifty two percent of the elders restricted their activity due the fear of falling. Conclusion These results show a high frequency of fear of falling associated with restriction of activities and individuals with a high risk potential for falls. The evaluation of this data contributes to establishing indicators and development of preventive strategies and specific interventions for the elderly with fear of falling.

  16. Falling Behind: International Scrutiny of the Peaceful Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    confused with critical masses .5 Significant quantity values currently in use by the IAEA are given in Table 1. In a previous Natural Resources... actinides and fission products would not add significantly to the plutonium mass , the state could divert the spiked plutonium to a small clandestine...and manufacturing processes and should not be 152 confused with critical masses . Significant quantities are used in establishing the quantity

  17. The influence of an overactive bladder on falling: a study of females aged 40 and older in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Jin; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Tchun Yong; Moon, Hongsang; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Shin Ah; Choi, Bo Youl

    2011-03-01

    An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities. We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling. Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024). Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.

  18. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  19. Prediction of falls and/or near falls in people with mild Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Lindholm

    Full Text Available To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7 and 4 years (3.9, respectively. Their median (q1-q3 UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.Sixty-three participants (45% experienced ≥ 1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001 history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009 and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035. The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.

  20. Near-falls in people with Parkinson's disease: Circumstances, contributing factors and association with falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Svetel, Marina; Tomic, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Iva; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-10-01

    To describe circumstances of near-falls among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), assess factors associated with near-falling and assess whether near-falls in the first 6 months are associated with falling in the latter 6 months over one year of follow-up. In the period August 2011-December 2012, 120 consecutive persons with PD, who denied having fallen in the past 6 months, were recruited at Clinical center of Serbia in Belgrade. Occurrence of falling and near-falls was followed for one year. A total of 31 persons with PD (25.8%) experienced near-falls, but did not fall. Of 42 fallers, 32 (76.2%) experienced near-falls. Tripping was the most common cause of near-falls among fallers, whereas postural instability was the most common in non-fallers. Regardless of falling experience, the most common manner to avoid fall was holding onto furniture or wall. After adjustment for multiple motor and non-motor PD features, more severe freezing of gait was associated with occurrence of near-falls over one year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR]=1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.16; p=0.043). Adjusted regression analysis did not show associations between near-falling in the first 6 months and falling in the latter 6 months of follow-up. Near-falls commonly occur in persons with PD. More severe freezing of gait appears to predispose near-falling. Fall prevention programs focusing on balance maintenance when experiencing freezing of gait could potentially be useful in reduction of near-falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New methods for fall risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejupi, Andreas; Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-09-01

    Accidental falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and hospitalization in old age, with over one-third of the older adults experiencing at least one fall or more each year. Because of limited healthcare resources, regular objective fall risk assessments are not possible in the community on a large scale. New methods for fall prediction are necessary to identify and monitor those older people at high risk of falling who would benefit from participating in falls prevention programmes. Technological advances have enabled less expensive ways to quantify physical fall risk in clinical practice and in the homes of older people. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that sensor-based fall risk assessments of postural sway, functional mobility, stepping and walking can discriminate between fallers and nonfallers. Recent research has used low-cost, portable and objective measuring instruments to assess fall risk in older people. Future use of these technologies holds promise for assessing fall risk accurately in an unobtrusive manner in clinical and daily life settings.

  2. [Falls of older individuals: medical assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Breucker, S; Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; Ibebeke, B; Pepersack, T

    2007-01-01

    Falls are one of the most common problems that threaten the independence of older individuals. They usually occur when impairments in multiple domains compromise the compensatory ability of the individual, as is the case for many geriatric syndromes. A number of the physical conditions and environmental situations predispose to falls. The medical risk factors of falls are reviewed. Falls in older individuals are rarely due to a single cause. Mechanisms that maintain postural stability are altered with aging (balance, gait speed, cardiovascular function). Female gender, past history of a fall, cognitive impairment, lower extremity weakness, balance problems, psychotropic drug use, arthritis, history of stroke, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and anemia represent the most frequent causes of risk of falls. Physical examination should focus upon the above mentioned risk factors and also on the presence of orthostatic hypotension, visual acuity, hearing assessment, examination of the extremities for deformities or neuropathies, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity which contributes to falls in people with unexplained falls. In conclusion, assessment of older individual at risk of falls or who fall present medical specificities. However, these latter specificities should be included in a comprehensive assessment which focus on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Interventional strategies including comprehensive and interdisciplinary assessment lead to effective prevention.

  3. NOVUS ORTUS: THE AWAKENING OF LAZ LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KAVAKLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laz (South Caucasian language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history as a response to the threat of language attrition in the world. Accordingly, language endangerment is viewed in terms of a sociolinguistic phenomenon within the boundaries of both language-internal and -external factors. Laz language revitalization acts have also been scrutinized. Having a dekko at the history of modern Turkey will enlighten whether those revitalization acts and/or movements can offer a novus ortus (new birth for the current situation of Laz language.

  4. Simplexity, languages and human languaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Building on a distributed perspective, the Special Issue develops Alain Berthoz's concept of simplexity. By so doing, neurophysiology is used to reach beyond observable and, specifically, 1st-order languaging. While simplexity clarifies how language uses perception/action, a community's ‘lexicon......’ (a linguistic 2nd order) also shapes human powers. People use global constraints to make and construe wordings and bring a social/individual duality to human living. Within a field of perception-action-language, the phenomenology of ‘words’ and ‘things’ drives people to sustain their own experience....... Simplex tricks used in building bodies co-function with action that grants humans access to en-natured culture where, together, they build human knowing....

  5. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  6. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  7. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  8. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  9. Voices Falling Through the Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Elliman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Where am I? Or as the young boy in Jules Verne’s Journey to the Centre of the Earth calls back to his distant-voiced companions: ‘Lost… in the most intense darkness.’ ‘Then I understood it,’ says the boy, Axel, ‘To make them hear me, all I had to do was to speak with my mouth close to the wall, which would serve to conduct my voice, as the wire conducts the electric fluid’ (Verne 1864. By timing their calls, the group of explorers work out that Axel is separated from them by a distance of four miles, held in a cavernous vertical gallery of smooth rock. Feeling his way down towards the others, the boy ends up falling, along with his voice, through the space. Losing consciousness he seems to give himself up to the space...

  10. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Meanings of Falls and Prevention of Falls According to Rehabilitation Nurses: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Amy; Pierce, Linda L; Gies, Cheryl; Steiner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's theoretical framework, this survey explored the meaning of a fall of an institutionalized older adult or fall prevention to rehabilitation registered nurses and whether the experience changed the nurse's practice. Qualitative, descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 742 rehabilitation nurses was asked to describe these experiences and the impact on their practice. Themes discovered related to the meaning of a fall include negative feelings (incongruence) and positive feelings (congruence). Themes related to the meaning of preventing a fall include positive feelings (congruence). Practice change themes emerged from both the experience of a fall and fall prevention. Practice change themes were drawn to Friedemann's (1995) process dimensions. Nurses' experiences and meanings of falls uncovered negative and positive feelings about these falls. New findings of this study were the positive feelings expressed by nurses, when there was no injury or when a fall was prevented. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Characteristics and fall experiences of older adults with and without fear of falling outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Lee, Chang Dae

    2018-06-01

    Using a theoretical model that combines an ecological perspective and Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a guide, we sought to compare experiences and characteristics of community dwelling older adults with and without concern about falling outdoors. A survey of randomly selected community dwelling older adults across NYC (N = 120) was conducted using the outdoor falls questionnaire. Descriptive quantitative analyses of participant characteristics were conducted for all participants and for those with and without concern about falling outside. Conventional content analysis using two coders was employed to examine outdoor fall experiences for each group. A mixed methods matrix was used to integrate qualitative and quantitative findings. Some participant characteristics were more common among those with a concern about falling outside such as decreased functional status, female gender, and number of prior outdoor falls. As per descriptions of outdoor fall experiences, participants with concern were more likely to report a fall while climbing stairs or stepping up a curb, describe an intrinsic factor as a cause of their fall, use an injury prevention strategy during the fall, sustain a moderate to severe injury, seek medical attention, have had an ambulance called, require help to get up, and describe implementation of a behavioral change after the fall. Differences exist in participant characteristics and outdoor fall experiences of those with and without concern about falling outside. The proposed model can be used to understand fear of falling outdoors and can help to inform the target population and content of intervention programs.

  13. Medication use and fall-risk assessment for falls in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Huang; Lee, Hsin-Dai; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Wang, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2015-07-01

    A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan. There were 83 patients who experienced a fall during hospitalization in an acute-care hospital. Matched by age and sex, five control patients for each case were randomly selected from all other inpatients who had not experienced any fall at the time of the index fall. Patients who took tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, and narcotics were 3.36-, 1.83- and 2.09-fold, respectively, more likely to experience a fall than their counterparts. Conversely, patients who took beta-blockers were 0.34-fold more likely than those who did not take them to experience a fall. Patients taking ≥6 medications were 3.08-fold more likely than those taking fewer medications to experience a fall, whereas those with anxiety were 4.72-fold more likely to experience a fall than those without. A high fall-risk score was not significantly associated with the occurrence of falls. Among older hospitalized patients, tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, narcotics, and polypharmacy should be mindfully prescribed and reviewed on a regular basis. A fall-risk scale developed from community-dwelling older people might not accurately predict falls in hospitalized patients. Further research to validate the negative effect of beta-blocker use on falls is required. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Análisis del lenguaje controlado en tres bases de datos internacionales = A controlled language analysis in three international databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Moscoso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el lenguaje controlado utilizado para la indización de tres bases de datos internacionales de Ciencias Sociales, utilizando los parámetros fundamentales que deben regir todo proceso de indización: la relevancia, la consistencia y la exhaustividad. Asimismo, se comparan los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de los lenguajes controlados post-coordinados y pre-coordinados de cara a la recuperación de información por materias. Estos resultados constatan la mayor idoneidad del uso de descriptores frente a encabezamientos de materia en los entornos automatizados = This paper analyses the indexing of three Social Sciencies International databases taken into consideration relevance, consistency and exhaustivity of the vocabulary used in the controlled languajes. Post-coordinated languaje and pre-coordinated languaje are compared, and results identify the coherence of the use of descriptors versus subject headings.

  15. Language and Culture Pedagogy for Motivating Chinese Learning Beginners in the Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Bao, Rui; Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen

    Paper presented at International conference: From the specific patterns of Chinese language to its teaching, 12-13 January 2012......Paper presented at International conference: From the specific patterns of Chinese language to its teaching, 12-13 January 2012...

  16. Fall risk and prevention needs assessment in an older adult Latino population: a model community global health partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Erin R; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René

    2013-01-01

    The impact of falls in older adults presents a significant public health burden. Fall risk is not well-described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. The objectives of this study were to develop a needs assessment of falls in older adult Latinos at a community center (CC), determine fall prevention barriers and strengths in this population, determine the level of interest in various fall prevention methods, and provide medical students an opportunity for participation in a culturally diverse community project. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of older adult program participants. The survey was developed in collaboration with both partners. CC participants were approached by the interviewer and asked to participate. They were read the survey in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We conducted 103 interviews. We found that 54% of participants had fallen in the last year, and of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. Of all respondents, 52% had 5 or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling; 4% had no risk factors. Of all respondents, 75% were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (78% and 65%, respectively). Older adult Latinos in this selected population frequently fall and are worried about falling. Risk factors are prevalent. A fall prevention program is warranted and should include exercise classes and a connection with local primary care providers. A partnership between an academic organization and a CC is an ideal collaboration for the future development of prevention program.

  17. Identifying non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesande, Janelle; Richardson, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To identify the non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and before/after studies was conducted. Eligible studies identified non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with DM2. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and CINAHL were searched for relevant studies published through December 2015. Reference lists were also searched for relevant studies. Search terms were DM2, risk factors, falls and falling, older adults, aging, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, accidental falls and trip. Publication language was restricted to English. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: four cross-sectional, six prospective cohorts, two randomized controlled trials and one before/after study. These studies included a total of 13,104 participants, ≥50 years. The most common risk factors for falling were impaired balance, reduced walking velocity, peripheral neuropathy and comorbid conditions. However, lower extremity pain, being overweight and comorbid conditions had the greatest impact on fall risk. Interventions to reduce falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus should focus on reducing lower extremity pain, reducing body weight and managing comorbid conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation    Diabetes mellitus:   • Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have a higher risk for falling than older adults without.   • Older adults with DM2 are more likely to suffer serious injuries when they fall.   • Comprehensive risk factor identification is necessary for rehabilitation professionals to accurately determine whether their clients are at risk for falling.   • Rehabilitation professionals also need to tailor interventions based on the client's risk factors in order to effectively reduce falls and fall-related injuries.

  18. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  19. Animal communication and human language: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Barón Birchenall , Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Comparative research has proven to be a fruitful field of study on the ontogenetic and phylogenetic evolution of language, and on the cognitive capacities unique to humans or shared with other animals. The degree of continuity between components of human language and non-human animal communication systems, as well as the existence of a core factor of language, are polemic subjects at present. In this article, we offer an overview of the research on animal communication...

  20. Automatically Detecting Authors’ Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    exploring stylistic idiosyncrasies in the author’s writing [15]. Kop- pel used the data from International Corpus of Learner English version 1, which is... stylistic feature sets such as function words, letter n-grams, and er- rors and idiosyncrasies [15]. 1. Function words: 400 specific function words were...language on the choice of written second language words. Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computation Language Acquisition, pp. 9–16