WorldWideScience

Sample records for international irrigation exposition

  1. The Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keechang

    1994-03-01

    This book reports the Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993. The first part introduces domestic pavilions such as government pavilion, resources utilization pavilion, electric energy pavilion, currency culture pavilion, residential environmental pavilion, imagination pavilion and nature and life pavilion. The second part has abstract of the international pavilions such as Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Sweden, French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Portugal, Republic of Austria, Holy See of the Roman Pontiff, Azerbaijan Republic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Republic of Bolivia, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and European Community.

  2. Abstracts of Go-Expo 2003 : Gas and oil exposition and Canadian international petroleum conference 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Go-Expo 2003 gas and oil exposition, held in conjunction with the Canadian international petroleum conference, showcased some of the newest technologies, products and services available to the petroleum industry. The more than 30 presentations featured case studies on new technologies pertaining to exploration, drilling and production, environmental strategies, information technology and e-commerce. The presenters represented academia, industry, as well as provincial and territorial governments. Some of the topics discussed included: coalbed methane drilling procedures, upgrading processes, in-line separation techniques, reducing emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, safety and pollution prevention in the industry, water abatement in gas wells, and integrated crisis management.

  3. From Savagery to Sovereignty: Identity, Politics, and International Expositions of Argentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ashley

    2017-03-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Argentine intellectual elites turned to world’s fairs as a place to contest myths of Latin American racial inferiority and produce counternarratives of Argentine whiteness and modernity. This essay examines Argentine anthropological displays at three expositions between 1878 and 1892 to elucidate the mechanisms and reception of these projects. Florentino Ameghino, Francisco Moreno, and others worked deliberately and in conjunction with political authorities to erase the indigenous tribes from the national identity, even while using their bodies and products to create prehistory and garner intellectual legitimacy. Comparison of the three fairs also demonstrates how the representation of Amer-Indians and their artifacts shifted in accordance with local political needs and evolving international theories of anthropogenesis. The resulting analysis argues for the importance of considering the former colonies of the Global South in understanding the development of pre-twentieth-century anthropology and world’s fairs, particularly when separating them from their imperial context.

  4. Culture as Curriculum: Education and the International Expositions (1876-1904). History of Schools and Schooling. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…

  5. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  6. Exposition regarding small windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Emphasis is laid on the elucidation of the current situation of small windmills in Denmark by estimating the industry's strengths and weaknesses and evaluating the technical status and user economy relevant to these wind turbines, in addition to their technical and marketing potentials within the next 3-5 years. It is also attempted to survey and forecast their situation within a competitive market which includes marketing and sales potential outside Denmark, often by way of development projects financed by DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency, a department under the Danish Foreign Ministry that takes responsibility for Danish aid to developing countries, often by direct agreement). It is noted that it is difficult to make predictions in the light of currently rapidly changing global political aspects, but it is suggested that sales of smaller Danish windmills within the country could amount to 300-700 wind turbines by the year 2000. Regarding sales abroad, it is concluded that the current number will not increase unless great efforts are made within the export market and the instigation of close cooperation with foreign companies which use an international sales network and have access to local distribution channels. (AB) (15 refs.)

  7. Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge Platform and the New University Entrant. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... And for core students of Science and Technology, the problematic of grasping the idea of the “other science” has been a daunting task.

  8. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  9. Export Odyssey: An Exposition and Analytical Review of Literature Concerning an Undergraduate Student Project in International Marketing on Key Teaching-Learning Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Export Odyssey (EO), a structured, Internet-intensive, team-based undergraduate student project in international marketing. Presents an analytical review of articles in the literature that relate to three key teaching-learning dimensions of student projects (experiential versus non-experiential active learning, team-based versus…

  10. Florence Nightingale in absentia: nursing and the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    In 1893, Chicago hosted the Columbian Exposition. This event showcased America's social, cultural, and scientific advances and its growing cultural parity with Western Europe. This was the first major exposition in which women played a prominent role. Integral to the fair was a series of Congresses that provided an international platform for discussion of social issues. The Congress on Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing, a section of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, particularly focused on health care issues. Nursing leaders from Europe and North America participated. Although Florence Nightingale provided a major paper that was read at the Congress, she was unable to attend the event. The intent of this article is to examine the issues and themes debated at the 1893 Congress and identify how the influence of Nightingale effected these discussions and the development of Western nursing for the next half-century.

  11. AMERICAN MANUFACTURING, AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND THE LABOR QUESTION AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE OF 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Zieren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867 was devoted to the theme, “The History of Labor,” and awarded special prizes to firms with paternalistic labor policies to promote harmony between workers and employers. The guiding spirit of the Exposition and its labor theme was the French social thinker, Frédéric Le Play. American technology was a second trend on view at the Exposition, and American firms, including the Pacific Mills of Lawrence,MA won gold medals and international recognition.

  12. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Eskridge, Kent M; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. - Highlights: • Higher sand content in soil caused higher internalization of sulfamethoxazole and Salmonella in lettuce. • Drought

  14. The dialectic as scientific form of exposition

    OpenAIRE

    César Ruíz Sanjuán

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to point out the specific characters that present Marx’s conception of the dialectic as scientific form of exposition. In order to it we distinguish the conception of the dialectic that appears in his writings of youth from the one that appears in his mature work, and we show that in the latter the dialectic is not referred to the historical development, but to the theoretical exposition of the developed capitalist system. Then we deal with the issue of the succession ...

  15. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  16. Internalization of Murine Norovirus 1 by Lactuca sativa during Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2011-01-01

    Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown hydroponically or in soil and challenged with murine norovirus 1 (MNV) under two conditions: one mimicking a severe one-time contamination event and another mimicking a lower level of contamination occurring over time. In each condition, lettuce was challenged with MNV delivered at the roots. In the first case, contamination occurred on day one with 5 × 108 reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) U/ml MNV in nutrient buffer, and irrigation water was replaced with virus-free buffer every day for another 4 days. In the second case, contamination with 5 × 105 RT-qPCR U/ml MNV (freshly prepared) occurred every day for 5 days. Virus had a tendency to adsorb to soil particles, with a small portion suspended in nutrient buffer; e.g., ∼8 log RT-qPCR U/g MNV was detected in soil during 5 days of challenge with virus inoculums of 5 × 108 RT-qPCR U/ml at day one, but sativa. PMID:21296944

  17. Architecture of (impossibilities: Robert Smithson's expositive spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Romeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the North American artist Robert Smithson’s considerations on traditional expositive spaces: the museum and art gallery, as well as unusual and unexplored spaces by art up to that time. Looking through his texts we notice some enhanced perspectives and reset others, increasing limitation set on White Cube’s abstract and neutral quality and the substantiation on ideologies behind of these spaces manifestation.

  18. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of the Go-Expo Gas and Oil Exposition and the 4. Annual Canadian International Petroleum Conference and the 54. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Global Challenges and Technology Integration. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A series of technical papers dealing with various aspects of petroleum geology and resource development were presented at this conference and trade show which was attended by local and international participants. The 27 sessions reflected the changes facing the petroleum industry in terms of fluctuating product prices, aging staff, maturing basins, frontier development, and environmental concerns. The conference is truly international with nearly one third of the 250 presentations coming from outside of Canada. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with issues such as: business development; conventional oil and gas recovery; conventional and unconventional heavy oil recovery; corrosion, pipelines and process engineering; drilling engineering; enhanced recovery; environmental management; production operations; regulatory and operations management; reservoir fluid characterization; reservoir simulation; risk management; well test analysis; and, well design and completions. A total of 124 papers have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Internal and external exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at the workplace - the German PAH study; Eine deutschlandweite Studie zur inneren und aeusseren Exposition gegenueber polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) am Arbeitsplatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Rossbach, B.; Mueller, J.; Angerer, J. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    During a period of nearly three years we investigated altogether 270 employees from seven different industrial branches concerning their external and internal exposure to PAH (ambient and biological monitoring). In 20% (range: 6 to 30%) of the air samples benzo[a]pyrene concentrations above the relevant technical exposure limit (German TRK value) were observed. The internal exposure was determined by means of the urinary metabolites of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene. We hereby found 1-hydroxypyrene median levels ({mu}g/g creatinine) of 1.51 (coal tar distillation - TD), 4.30 (coking plants - KK), 5.17 (installation of fire proof materials - FFV), 8.65 (graphite electrode plants - GE) and 11.27 (production of fire proof materials - FFH). The corresponding concentrations of the sum of five isomeric hydroxyphenanthrenes were 6.87 (GE), 7.05 (TD), 9.81 (FFH), 10.29 (KK) and 15.75 (FFV) {mu}g/g creatinine. This study showed that ambient monitoring apart does not assure an adequate protection from health hazards as a result of occupational PAH exposure. This is due to the fact, that PAHs are absorbed through the skin to a considerable extent. In order to objectify this non-inhalative PAH absorption we introduced the 'relative internal burden' (RIB). (orig.)

  1. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  2. THE MOLDOVA VEGETATION EXPOSITION FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLACHE GHEORGHE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction phases of the Moldova Vegetation Exposition from the Botanical Garden of Chişinău are presented. Twelve forest micro-expositions, one steppe vegetation exposition, one grassland micro-exposition and an area of rare plants have been created during last 35 year on an area of 14 ha. The Moldova Vegetation Exposition includes 400 species of vascular plants.

  3. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  4. Benzene - exposure and risk evaluation; Benzol - Exposition und Risikoabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Hygiene-Institut und Umweltmedizin; Eikmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Goeen, T. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsmedizin

    2000-07-01

    Benzene is one of the most important environmental carcinogens. Because of its potential to induce leukemia, benzene is noted as carcinogeneous hazardous substance in legal guidelines for occupational use and environmental contact. Epidemiological studies resulted to unit-risk values between 2.8 x 10{sup -6} to 30 x 10{sup -6} for lifelong exposure to 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene. In Germany, the average unit-risk was estimated to be 9 x 10{sup -6}. The general population is mainly exposed to benzene due to the emissions of motor vehicles. The average annual air concentration of benzene at main roads and in industrial areas are 5 to 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Due to seasonal influences and special exposure situations distinctly higher peak concentrations are occurring. Regional differences, i.e. between rural and urban immission levels and between the concentration in air of the northern and southern part of Europe, are also recognizable. The life-style factor smoking increases the individual exposure distinctly, whereas contamination of the diet contribute little to the total uptake of benzene. The internal exposure of the general population varies due to living area, smoking habits and mobility. Individuals living in no-smoking buildings show benzene concentrations in blood of 15 to 170 ng/l, whereas the benzene level of persons with additional exposures (smoking, frequently use of motor vehicles, etc.) can reach approximately 1000 ng/l blood. Comparable conclusions result from data for the urinary levels of two sensitive metabolites of benzene: trans-, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. (orig.) [German] Benzol stellt aufgrund seines ubiquitaeren Auftretens und seiner Leukaemie verursachenden Wirkung eines der bedeutendsten Umweltkanzerogene dar. Es ist als krebserzeugender Gefahrstoff (Gefahrstoffverordnung: Gruppe II) und als eindeutig krebserzeugender Arbeitsstoff (Kategorie 1) ausgewiesen. Aus epidemiologischen Studien ergaben sich Unit

  5. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  7. 32nd IMAC Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Catbas, Fikret; Atamturktur, H; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Schoenherr, Tyler; Foss, Gary; Niezrecki, Christopher; Allemang, Randall; Kerschen, Gaetan

    2014-01-01

    This critical collection examines a range of topics in modal analysis, from experimental techniques to acoustics to biodynamics,  as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: Experimental Techniques, Processing Modal Data, Rotating Machinery, Acoustics, Adaptive Structures, Biodynamics, Damping

  8. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  9. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  10. Exposition concerning small windmills. List of relevant publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurvig, D.

    1992-09-01

    In connection with the publication of the report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'', it was decided that searching in databases should also be used in relation to the collection of relevant information, and that the results of these searches should be published in the form of a reading list. This is presented here. The subject areas covered are technology, research and development, marketing, developing countries and agricultural areas - all relevant to small windmills. Risoe Library, Roskilde, Denmark (Telephone no. (45) 42371212) will be helpful in acquiring any publication(s) referenced in the reading list. The report number J.No. 51171/92-0019 should also be quoted. (AB)

  11. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  12. Occupational radon expositions during cleaning processes of water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingmann, H.; Ehret, V.; Hegenbart, L.; Krieg, K.

    2002-01-01

    According to the new German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung'' (Radiation Protection Directive) the annual dose due to the exposition to radon has to be estimated for employees of water works. This includes employees of service companies. While the job of employees of water works usually covers a broad spectrum of different activities, employees of service companies may spend a considerable amount of time of their total working hours cleaning water reservoirs. This investigation is concerned with this type of employees. The radon exposition of one or more cleaning processes were determined by passive dosimeters. The mean radon concentration was calculated for the duration of the cleaning process. In some cases, members of the project team accompanied cleaning processes and performed stationary radon measurements on site. Sometimes, parallel to the passive dosimeters, electronic dosimeters were used to measure personal exposure. The results - and results from additional laboratory reference measurements - are compared. All results until January 2002 are considered. The project still goes on and will end in summer of 2002. Experiences made during this investigation are described in the end of this report. (orig.)

  13. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  14. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  15. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  16. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  17. Radiologist's exposition during the radioscopy of the digestive tract in esophagus-gastro-duodenum studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of personal dosimetry confirm that one of the most exposed groups to the ionizing radiations is those of Radiologists who work with radioscopy of the digestive tract. However, the particular conditions of the exposition complicate the interpretation of the reading for the values obtained on the dosimeter. In order to improve such interpretation, it has done simultaneous measurements with the routine dosimeter and with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) of lithium fluoride(LiF). It has selected eight places on the worker's body and located such dosimeters, so that the dose was integrated during thirty studies. It could verify that, if the dosimeter is located in agreement with the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection(ICRP), the reading overestimates in several times the dose in whole body(or effective dose). It has also considered that the amount of such procedures done by the radiologist is limited in this case, by the effective dose

  18. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  19. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  20. [Urs Fischer: faux amis : documentation d'exposition

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tiré du site internet des Musées d'art et d'histoire (www.ville-geneve.ch/mah): "Urs Fischer - Faux Amis propose une sélection inédite d'œuvres de la collection Dakis Joannou, présentée pour la première fois au Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève. Conçue par le commissaire Massimiliano Gioni comme une synthèse inhabituelle entre une présentation monographique et une exposition de groupe, Faux Amis réunit un ensemble d'œuvres signées Urs Fischer (né en 1973), l'un des artistes suisses les plus...

  1. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  2. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  3. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  4. Effective colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G

    1976-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  5. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  6. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  7. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  8. 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition. Held in Arlington, VA on 29-31 March 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Consequences , Vulnerabilities, and Threats) Prioritize Implement Protective Programs Measure Effectiveness 9March 2006 Major NIPP Theme: Sector Partnership... effect of exposure • Full understanding of the levels of exposure that mark the onset of miosis • Refined human operational exposure standard for GB...Untitled Document 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition.html[7/7/2016 11:38:26 AM] 2006 Homeland Security Symposium and Exposition

  9. Centre of nuclear research experience in the control of personal exposition between 2002 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayardo, Karina; Blanco, Daniel; Garcia, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The control of the personal exposition in the public University is done by the Centre of Nuclear Research since 1999. A look at the last years permitted to note the increase in the Personal Dosimeter users. In this work we study the annual collective dose, the annual effective dose average and the different dose in each University area between 2002-2005. The annual effective dose limit for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear), are the suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The actual application of the Basics Principles of Radiological Protection demand exposition levels as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) considering economics and social factors. In this way we decrease the probability to induce illness in the expose personal and their descendants. The different dependences of the University where the service is given are: Faculty of Medicine (Radiology, Oncology, Clinical Oncology, Nuclear Medicine), Faculty of Chemistry (Radiochemistry), Faculty of Odontology (Radiology), Faculty of Veterinary (Radiology) and Faculty of Sciences (Centre of Nuclear Research). The number of users between 2002-2006 varied from 292 in year 2002 to 329 in the year 2006. We see a maximum of persons in the year 2004. The annual collective dose have been changing too, the lowest was 0.13 Sv.person in the year 2002 and the highest was 0.21 Sv.person in the year 2005. The annual collective dose permits the evaluation of the radiological impact of the radiation ionising manipulation in the University. In these 5 years the 96% of the annual effective dose average were under 4 mSv, and the 76% were smaller than the minimum detectable limit. This 76% were obtained in teach and researches areas. In the 4% higher than 4 mSv we can find areas where works with open radioactive sources like: Nuclear Medicine and Radiochemistry (Faulted de Pumice). In these places we detect annual effective doses of 15 mSv, these levels

  10. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: info@arn.gov.br [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: nacosta@fuesmen.edu.ar [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  11. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  12. An assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A

    1988-04-01

    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  13. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & PAINTING OF AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Transformation of the U. S. Bicentennial on Science and Technology from an artist's concept to reality is well underway at KSC. At lower right are stages of the Saturn V rocket which will form part of the Exposition. Four of the 15 domes erected to house exhibits by 16 federal agencies and numerous industrial firms are visible in the foreground. At left center, workmen on a scaffold can be seen completing the blue field on the American flag being painted on the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Exposition will be open to the public from May 30 through September 7.

  14. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  15. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  16. Technology 2001: The Second National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the technical sessions of the Technology 2001 Conference and Exposition are presented. The technical sessions featured discussions of advanced manufacturing, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, computer graphics and simulation, communications, data and information management, electronics, electro-optics, environmental technology, life sciences, materials science, medical advances, robotics, software engineering, and test and measurement.

  17. The "Hefferline Notes": B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Terry J.

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the "Hefferline Notes" (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display…

  18. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, Dec. 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, are presented. Volume 2 features papers on artificial intelligence, CAD&E, computer hardware, computer software, information management, photonics, robotics, test and measurement, video and imaging, and virtual reality/simulation.

  19. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced.

  20. Biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation and hematology parameters in fitness for work. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokovic, J.; Milacic, S.; Rakic, B.; Pajic, J.; Petrovic, D.; Vuckovic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is frequently used in medicine, especially during diagnostic procedures. The workers who are exposed to radiation have obligation for periodic check up. Presented case shows changes in hematological parameters and biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation (chromosome aberrations, structural changes and micronucleus test). The aim of this case report is to indicate metodology of diagnostic procedures for chronicle radiation syndrome. (author) [sr

  1. Contribuição da estrutura interna na perda de carga de filtros de areia utilizados na irrigação Contribution of the internal structure in the sand filters head loss used in irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Mesquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica de operação dos filtros de areia afeta o desempenho hidráulico do sistema de irrigação, elevando a perda de carga e alterando a altura manométrica total do sistema. Buscando entender parte dessa dinâmica, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da estrutura interna de filtros de areia na perda de carga de três modelos de equipamentos fabricados no Brasil, sem a presença do elemento filtrante e utilizando água limpa. Adicionalmente, com o ajuste do modelo matemático exponencial aos dados experimentais, procurou-se estabelecer comparações entre os tipos de estrutura dos filtros avaliados. Os ensaios foram realizados em um módulo experimental construído no Laboratório de Hidráulica e Irrigação da FEAGRI/UNICAMP. Os resultados mostraram que a estrutura hidráulica interna dos filtros determinou comportamentos hidráulicos diferenciados e que os tipos de estruturas (placa difusora e drenos alteraram o padrão de operação dos modelos ensaiados. A função matemática proposta representou, significativamente, o fenômeno físico de perda de carga para as condições do experimento.The dynamic of operation of sand filters affect the hydraulic performance of irrigation systems, increasing the head loss and changing the total dynamic head of the system. Trying to understand part of this dynamic, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of internal hydraulic structures in the head loss of three sand filters of commercial models, manufactured in Brazil and operating without the filter layer and with clean water. In addition, using an exponential mathematical model adjusted to the experimental data, comparisons among types of structure of each evaluated filter were performed. The trails were accomplished in the experimental module developed in the Laboratory of Hydraulics and Irrigation of FEAGRI / UNICAMP. The results showed that the filters structures determined differentiate hydraulic behaviors

  2. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  3. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  4. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  5. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  6. [Irrigation in colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Juana; Lecona, Ana; Caparrós, M Rosario; Barbero, M Antonia; Javier Cerdán, F

    2002-01-01

    The degree of acceptation of irrigation from a colostomy varies ostensibly from some cases to others, therefore, we study what occurs in our medium, separating those patients which have previously undergone other procedures (Group A) from those patients who have been informed and trained about the immediate postoperative period (Group B). 48 patients, 22 or 46% of these patients were considered not apt for irrigation. Of the 26 to whom this procedure was proposed, 14 or 54% accepted. Of these, 5 or 36% abandoned its use while 9 continued its use; this is 64% of those who accepted this procedure, 35% of those to whom it was proposed and 19% of the total study group. 189 patients. This procedure was not recommended to 95 patients, 50%. Of the 94 patients to whom this procedure was proposed, 65 or 69% accepted. Of these, 22 or 34% abandoned its use while 43 continued its use; this is 66% of those; who accepted this procedure, 46% of those to whom it was proposed and 23% of the total study group. In our medium, the practice of irrigation oscillates between 19 and 23% of patients who have undergone a colostomy, without any significant difference referring to the moment when a patient started this procedure. A first report on this study was submitted in the III National Congress for Nursing in Colostomies.

  7. Tablatures : Exposition photographique d'instruments virtuels GENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoz, Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Le concept de « composer le son », introduit et expérimenté musicalement par Jean-Claude Risset à partir des années 1960 par la synthèse de sons par ordinateur, prolonge, élargit, dépasse et transforme l'acte d'écriture pour des instruments mécano-acoustiques. Il ne résout cependant pas la question de l'instrumentalité, particulièrement mise à mal avec l'ordinateur. Les technologies de modélisation et de simulation numériques pour « écrire l'instrument pour le composer...

  8. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  9. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  10. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  11. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  12. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What's All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO 2 Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  13. Inactivation of Candida albicans by Corona Discharge: The Increase of Inhibition Zones Area After Far Subsequent Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava Fantova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold atmospheric pressure plasma generated by the negative corona discharge has inhibition effect on the microorganism growth. This effect is well-known and it can be demonstrated on the surface of cultivation agar plates by the formation of inhibition zones. We exposed the cultures of Candida albicans to the negative corona discharge plasma in a special arrangement in this study: The equal doses of plasma were applied subsequently twice or four times on the same culture on one Petri dish, while the distance between exposed points was variable. Only small differences were observed in decontaminated zone areas for twice exposed agar at the shortest distance between exposed points (1.5 cm. In case of the four times exposed agars, we observed significant differences in inhibition zone areas, dependent not only on the exposition site distances, but also on the exposition order. The largest inhibition zone size was observed for the first exposition decreasing to the fourth one. To check relevancy of these dependencies, we presume to conduct further set of experiments with lower yeast concentration. In conclusion, significant difference in partial inhibition zone sizes appeared only when four expositions on one Petri dish were carried out, whereas no significant difference was observed for two subsequent expositions. The explanation of this effect may be the subject of subsequent remote exposition(s, when minute amounts of scattered active particles act on the previously exposed areas; the influence of diffused ozone may also take place.

  14. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M

    1985-08-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  15. International Powered Lift Conference and Exposition, Santa Clara, CA, Dec. 7-10, 1987, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on VTOL, STOVL and V/STOL fixed-wing aircraft powered lift discusses hot gas recirculation in V/STOL, flight testing of a single-engine powered lift aircraft, RAF experience with VTOL, near-term improvements of the AV-8B Harrier II, recent advancements in thrust augmentation, lift ejectors for STOVL combat aircraft, the correlation of entrainment and lift enhancement for a two-dimensional propulsive wing, the thrust efficiency of powered lift systems, and flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft. Also discussed are VSTOL design implications for tactical transports, the numerical investigation of a jet in ground effect with a cross flow, the NASA supersonic STOVL propulsion technology program, the aeroacoustics of advanced STOVL aircraft plumes, powered lift transport aircraft certification criteria status, the application of vectored thrust V/STOL experience in supersonic designs, wave drag and high speed performance of supersonic STOVL fighter configurations, and the impact of bypass ratio on thrust-to-weight for V/STOL.

  16. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  17. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  18. Risk inSight catalogue d'exposition sciences, arts et société

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    De type sciences/arts/société, l'exposition Risk inSight veut faire réfléchir sur les risques et met en évidence pourquoi et comment ceux-ci jouent un rôle grandissant dans nos sociétés contemporaines. L'espace d'exposition s'articule en 4 modules thématiques: identifier les risques, habiter les risques, débattre des risques, vivre avec les risques. Installations visuelles et sonores, photographies, modélisations vidéo, interfaces interactives et film documentaire sont mis en dialogue avec une série de contributions de tous horizons scientifiques, pour partager les questionnements des chercheurs avec un large public.

  19. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  20. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  1. Biological dosimetry in cases gives occupational high exposition to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A.

    1998-01-01

    From 1983 the cytogenetics dosimetry method it has been used as routine in the IRD laboratory in the period 1983 at 1997 but a high exposition occupational case the physical dosimeters happened in Brazil they were investigated through the cytogenetics dosimetry technique. This technique is employ when the dosimetry personal marks a high dose to 100 mSv (0,1 Gy) that is the cut-off minimum detected in the dosimetry cytogenetics

  2. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Pillaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hoogesteger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems together with an analysis of the normative structures that define the governance systems through which the interactions in irrigation systems are mediated. I argue that the external interventions by the state and NGOs imposed a new governance system that undermined the existing normative structures and related organizations, leading to internal conflicts. The case study suggests that a reformulation of irrigation policies and state intervention methodologies in user managed supra-community irrigation systems in the Andes could lead to higher levels of cooperation.

  3. Wastewater Irrigation and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Web: www.idrc.ca ... The paper used is FSC certified. ..... Manzoor Qadir, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and International ... IR. ingestion rates. IWMI. International Water Management Institute. KAPP.

  4. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomgren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  5. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  6. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  7. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  8. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-01-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  9. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  10. Insufficient irrigation induces peri-implant bone resorption: an in vivo histologic analysis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardini, Marco; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Perfetti, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    To measure in vivo impact of dense bone overheating on implant osseointegration and peri-implant bone resorption comparing different bur irrigation methods vs. no irrigation. Twenty TI-bone implants were inserted in the inferior edge of mandibles of sheep. Different cooling procedures were used in each group: no irrigation (group A), only internal bur irrigation (group B), both internal and external irrigation (group C), and external irrigation (group D). The histomorphometric parameters calculated for each implant were as follows: %cortical bone-implant contact (%CBIC) and %cortical bone volume (%CBV). Friedman's test was applied to test the statistical differences. In group A, we found a huge resorption of cortical bone with %CBIC and %CBV values extremely low. Groups B and C showed mean %CBIC and %BV values higher than other groups The mean %CBV value was significantly different when comparing group B and group C vs. group A (P bone caused massive resorption of the cortical bone and implant failure. Drilling procedures on hard bone need an adequate cooling supply because the bone matrix overheating may induce complete resorption of dense bone around implants. Internal-external irrigation and only internal irrigation showed to be more efficient than other types of cooling methods in preventing bone resorption around implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The full financial costs of irrigation services: A discussion on existing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering water as an economic good entails, among other requisites, properly assessing the cost incurred by supplying and managing the resource, and the required infrastructure thereof. Regarding irrigation, the International Commission for Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) set up a method for assessing the full financial ...

  12. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  13. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  14. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  15. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  16. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  17. Residues of maneb in potatoes and lettuce and their persistence during cooking, washing and uv exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Zennouche, B.; Hylin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Lettuce plants were treated each with 0,186 mg of 14C maneb and 1,86 mg unlabelled maneb. The plants were analyzed 30 days later and subjected to washing. Washing eliminates 17,46% of total 14C maneb applied. No Etu was observed in water.Washing and baking cause a significant decrease of EBDC in potatoes samples and the UV exposition involves a decrease of the fungicide and a formation of Etu. On the other hand 54 % and 38% of lettuce and potatoe samples analyzed by CS2 method exceed the authorized norms

  18. 35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Maio, Dario; Castellini, Paolo; Mains, Michael; Blough, JR; Kerschen, Gaetan; Caicedo, Juan; Pakzad, Shamim; Barthorpe, Robert; Platz, Roland; Lopez, Israel; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; v.1 Nonlinear dynamics; v.2 Dynamics of civil structures; v.3 Model validation and uncertainty quantification; v.4 Dynamics of coupled structures; v.5 Sensors and instrumentation; v.6 Special topics in structural dynamics; v.7 Structural health monitoring & damage detection; v.8 Rotating machinery, hybrid test methods, vibro-acoustics & laser vibrometry; v.9 Shock & vibration, aircraft/aerospace, energy harvesting, acoustics & optics; v.10 Topics in modal analysis & testing

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 35th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2017, the first volume of ten from the Conference brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Nonlinear Dynamics, including papers on: Nonlinear System Identification Nonlinear Modeling & Simulation Nonlinear Reduced-order Modeling Nonlinearity in Practice Nonlinearity in Aerospace Systems Nonlinearity in Multi-Physics Systems Nonlinear Modes and Modal Interactions Experimental Nonlinear Dynamics.

  19. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to the main report. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The second appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' contains a description of the search for literature on the subject, a survey of relevant properties and a calculation of the ''shadow'' effect of small windmills, demands on electrical technology placed on small windmills, a survey of participating institutions and consultants, descriptions of the way the project was carried out (divided into phases) and maps of developing countries with details of wind conditions and possibilities of obtaining loans from the World Bank. (AB)

  20. Determination of the changes of the plasma catecholamine level by radioenzymatic method following noise-exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Cs.; Vincze, I.

    1982-01-01

    A new method was applied for the determination of plasma catecholamine levels: all the catecholamines were methylated in the presence of S-adenosyl-1-methyl 3 H-methyonine and the radioactivity of the components - separated with thin-layer chromatography - was measured by liquid scintillation. It is concluded that noise exposition for one hour per day significantly increases the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and dopamine whereas the adrenaline-level shows biphasic change: after a short increase it decreases. (L.E.)

  1. Reasons between effective doses for tomographic and mathematical models due to external exposition by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H.J.; Yoriyaz, H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Loureiro, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of Monte Carlo codes and new and sophisticated tomographic human models, or based on voxel, motivated the ICRP to propose a revision of the traditional exposition models, which have been used to calculate doses on organs and tissues using mathematical phantoms MIRD-type 5. This article presents calculations made with tomographic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel), recently developed and also, for comparison, with ADAM and Eve mathematician phantoms. All models were coupled to the EGS4 and MCNP4 codes for full body external irradiation by photons. It were simulated expositions AP, PA and rotational for energies varying between 10 keV and 10 MeV. The effective calculated doses were compared separately to evaluate: the replacement of the Monte Carlo code; the composition of the tissues and the replacement of tomographic phantoms by mathematical ones. Effective doses calculated results indicate that for external exposures by photons to introduce models based on voxels can cause a reduction of about 10% to the energies considered in this study

  2. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  3. Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author)

  4. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  5. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  6. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  7. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  8. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Walmsley, A D; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2013-11-01

    (i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall contact on file oscillation. File-to-wall contact was measured during ultrasonic activation of the irrigant performed by 15 trained and 15 untrained participants in two metal root canal models. Results were analyzed by two 5-way mixed-design anovas. The level of significance was set at P root canal (P root canal (P irrigant activation. Therefore, the term 'Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation' should be amended to 'Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation'. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Transcendental Character of Money: An Exposition of Marx's Argument in the Grundrisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frederick Humphrey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An exposition of Karl Marx’s argument in the Grundrisse for the logical development of money, this essay is divided into three parts. Since Marx is concerned to distinguish himself and his method from that of the seventeenth century political economists, I begin my paper with a brief reflection on “the scientifically correct method” or the “theoretical method” (Grundrisse 101 and 102. The second part of this paper considers how Marx justifies beginning his reflection with the concept of production in general. To understand the importance that Marx attributes to production, one must also appreciate the way in which distribution, exchange, and consumption belong to the sphere of production. In the remaining pages of this section of my paper, then, I attempt to reconstruct Marx’s argument for the way in which these concepts (distribution, exchange, and consumption are to be understood in relation to the sphere of production.

  10. Risks associated to exposition to X-rays for medical diagnosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, M. L.; Prieto, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The risks for the embryo-foetus in the developing stages, associated to pregnant patients being exposed to X-rays for diagnostic procedures, implies that the fulfillment of the principles of justification and optimisation and the recommendations established by the different organisations related to radiological protection are carried out. In order to do so, it is necessary for the professional people involved to have the maximum information available on the biological effects of ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus that is developing. In this article this matter is updated: the estimated doses values on the embryo-foetus in radiodiagnosis and the risks associated, as well as a series of recommendations that can be of use to establish procedure protocols, on which the measurements taken to reduce the risks of exposition to ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus in the developing stages are recorded. (Author) 11 refs

  11. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  12. Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galster, M.; Adamus, R.; Guhl, C.; Uder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. Materials and Methods: A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. Results: The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 μSv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25 LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. Conclusion: The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. (orig.)

  13. [Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, M; Guhl, C; Uder, M; Adamus, R

    2013-05-01

    Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 μSv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25°LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  15. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  16. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  17. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  18. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  19. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  20. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  1. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  2. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  3. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  4. Nuclear techniques to assess irrigation schedules for field crops. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Assessment of Irrigation Schedules of Field Crops to Increase Effective Use of Water in Irrigation Projects. The programme was carried out between 1990 and 1995 through the technical co-ordination of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water use efficiency through a type of irrigation scheduling known as deficit irrigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Nuclear techniques to assess irrigation schedules for field crops. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Assessment of Irrigation Schedules of Field Crops to Increase Effective Use of Water in Irrigation Projects. The programme was carried out between 1990 and 1995 through the technical co-ordination of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water use efficiency through a type of irrigation scheduling known as deficit irrigation. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  7. Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Mingyao; Wang , Susheng; Zhang , Zhen; Chen , Lidong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other t...

  8. African Farmer-led Irrigation Development: re-framing agricultural policy and investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Venot , Jean-Philippe; Brockington, Daniel; Komakech, Hans; Manjichi , Ângela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food supplies to increasing instability in international commodity markets are driving pan-African agricultural investment initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program...

  9. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the community of Ccarhuancho in the Central Andes of Peru. For more than two centuries, they have been constructing small-scale irrigation canals to maintain and expand the local wetlands, called bofedales. Th...

  10. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  11. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  12. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  13. Physique appliquée à l’exposition externe dosimétrie et radioprotection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage fait la synthèse de nombreuses années d'expériences en dosimétrie et techniques de protection contre l’exposition externe, aussi bien dans le domaine industriel que médical. Il rappelle les concepts physiques de base puis propose un certain nombre d'outils d’évaluation des nuisances radiologiques, et les moyens de s'en prémunir, en détaillant notamment les techniques de calcul pour des blindages appropriés. Le premier chapitre traite de la définition des grandeurs radiométriques et dosimétriques fondamentales. Il permet d’aborder au chapitre 2 la question de l'interaction rayonnement-matière sous un angle dédié au dépôt de la dose dans les tissus biologiques. Le troisième chapitre définit quant à lui les grandeurs de protection et les grandeurs opérationnelles liées à la radioprotection. Dans les deux chapitres suivants, l’accent a été mis sur la définition des risques et contre-mesures associées (i.e. protections biologiques) inhérents aux sources de rayonnemen...

  14. "Focus on glaciers": an exposition of geo-photos to attract interest on a vanishing beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Bohm, Gualtiero; Saraò, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Public awareness of the effects of industrial activity on the environment and climate is growing, but the information needs to be disseminated to a larger number of people, of all ages, to be effective. Images can certainly be an optimal tool to communicate the important message of global warming effects and, thanks to the digital techniques, photography is gaining a new popularity. Anybody, owning just a phone or a tablet, has a camera to catch images that can be immediately spread worldwide via web sites, on-line newspapers, social media or blogs to convey messages and emotions. Fine art photography can surely help in attracting interest and in educating people. For this reason, we organize an exposition of artistic pictures; the beauty of the images attracts the eyes of the public, discovering an unknown reality and gives the opportunity to illustrate the dramatic retreat of the Alpine glaciers, and the majesty of the Antarctic landscape, put in danger by the climate changes. The glaciers are the main characters, with the infinite grey-blue shadows due to change in ice density, the spectacular staircases created by the seracs, and the contrast with the embedding rocks. A sub-set of the images will be presented in this context.

  15. Achieving sustainable irrigation water withdrawals: global impacts on food security and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.

  16. Effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of sulfonated poly-(styrene acrylic acid) (PSAA-S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, G.W.; Becker, E.B.; Silva, L.; Naspolini, A.M.; Consenso, E.C.; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M.A., E-mail: glau_bn@hotmail.co [University of Extreme South of Santa Catarina Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Silveira, F.Z. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Polymers with special properties have been increasingly applied in the development of technological devices. For example, polymeric materials with special electric properties, such as sulfonated poly-(styrene-acrylic acid) - PSAA-S, are of great interest for showing different conductivities depending on the environment where they are applied. The special properties of PSAA are obtained only after sulfonation step in acidic media. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, through a statistical experimental factorial planning. The samples of PSAA-S were submitted to FT-IR and DRX tests. The results showed that the temperature and the time of exposition are significant factors in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, considering that the crystal lattices created during the polymerization are damaged by the action of time and temperature at which the polymer is exposed. (author)

  17. Effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of sulfonated poly-(styrene acrylic acid) (PSAA-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.W.; Becker, E.B.; Silva, L.; Naspolini, A.M.; Consenso, E.C.; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M.A.; Silveira, F.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with special properties have been increasingly applied in the development of technological devices. For example, polymeric materials with special electric properties, such as sulfonated poly-(styrene-acrylic acid) - PSAA-S, are of great interest for showing different conductivities depending on the environment where they are applied. The special properties of PSAA are obtained only after sulfonation step in acidic media. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of time and temperature exposition in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, through a statistical experimental factorial planning. The samples of PSAA-S were submitted to FT-IR and DRX tests. The results showed that the temperature and the time of exposition are significant factors in the crystallinity degree of PSAA-S, considering that the crystal lattices created during the polymerization are damaged by the action of time and temperature at which the polymer is exposed. (author)

  18. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  19. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  20. L’exposition au risque de change et les déterminants de la couverture : le cas

    OpenAIRE

    Bellalah, Mondher; Mefteh, Salma

    2002-01-01

    Cet article examine si la valeur d’une entreprise exportatrice française est affectée par les fluctuations contemporaines et retardées du taux de change. En se basant sur un ´échantillon de 100 entreprises exportatrices françaises, l’´étude trouve que 22% des entreprises connaissent une exposition ´économique significative aux fluctuations de change du mois précédent et ce pour la période allant de janvier 1996 à d´décembre 1998. L’´étude examine aussi si l’exposition au risque de change est ...

  1. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  2. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  3. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  4. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  5. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  6. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  7. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  8. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  9. Apical negative pressure irrigation versus syringe irrigation: a systematic review of cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, E; Psimma, Z; Chávez de Paz, L E; Boutsioukis, C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically analyse the published data on the treatment outcome (primary outcome) and on the cleaning and disinfection of root canals (secondary outcomes) achieved by negative pressure irrigation as compared to syringe irrigation. An electronic search was conducted in EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using both free-text keywords and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand searching of endodontic journals and of the relevant chapters of endodontic textbooks. No language restriction was imposed. The retrieved studies were screened by two reviewers according to predefined criteria. Included studies were critically appraised and the extracted data were arranged in tables. The electronic search and hand search retrieved 489 titles. One clinical study and 14 in vitro studies were finally included in the review; none of these studies assessed treatment outcome, four studies assessed the antimicrobial effect, seven studies evaluated the removal of pulp tissue remnants, and four studies investigated the removal of hard tissue debris or both hard tissue debris and pulp tissue remnants. Poor standardization and description of the protocols was evident. Inconclusive results were reported about the cleaning and disinfection accomplished by the two irrigation methods. Negative pressure irrigation was more effective under certain conditions when compared to suboptimal syringe irrigation; however, the variability of the protocols hindered quantitative synthesis. There is insufficient evidence to claim general superiority of any one of these methods. The level of the available evidence is low, and the conclusions should be interpreted with caution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Repeated Exposition to Mercury (II Chloride Enhances Susceptibility to S. schenckii sensu stricto Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batista-Duharte

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that has re-emerged in several tropical and subtropical regions over the last decades. Growing findings suggest that the interplay of host, pathogen, and environment has a determinant effect on the diversity, local distribution, and virulence of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato, the etiologic agent. Among the environmental factors, we have studied the potential role of repeated exposures to mercury (Hg, a known immunotoxic xenobiotic that is widely used in gold mining regions where sporotrichosis outbreaks are frequently reported. In this study, male Swiss mice received subcutaneous injections of either 300 or 1200 µg/kg of mercury (II chloride (HgCl2 for 14 days, three times a week. A control group was injected with the vehicle Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS. Treatment with HgCl2 impaired several immunologic parameters that are involved in host response to Sporothrix infection, such as the production of TNFα, IL-1, and nitric oxide by macrophages, and Th1/Th2/Th17 populations and their respective cytokines. The consequences of these effects on the host resistance to S. schenckii infection were subsequently evaluated. Hg-exposed mice exhibited a higher fungal load in the fungal inoculation site associated to systemic dissemination to spleen and liver on 14 days post-infection and a higher production of specific IgG1 and mild reduction of IgG2a. These findings suggest that repeated exposition to Hg enhances susceptibility to S. schenckii infection in mice and can be a factor associated to sporotrichosis outbreaks in endemic and highly Hg-polluted areas.

  11. Study of an accidental exposition of three workers during a gammagraphy with 192Ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellintani, S.A.; Sahyun, A.; Graciotti, M.E.; Santos, O.R.; Alvares, R.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' This paper is concerned with an accident occurred in an industrial gammagraphy unit located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on 2nd of July, 1988. A work team, composed of three workers, was engaged on a routine operation with a 192 Ir source of 3,299 TBq, when the flexible cable of the holder broke, giving rise to an accidental exposure. The evaluation of the dose received by the three workers was carried out by three different methods: the film badge measurement, the biological dosimetry and the reconstitution of the accident taking into account the exposition time and the distance between the source and the workers. In the film badge evaluation the dose obtained was around 300 mSv, whereas for the biological dosimetry doses of 370 mSv, 290 mSv and 110 mSv was achieved. In the accident reconstitution the doses obtained where: 200 mSv (whole body), 131,000 mSv (left hand) for the first worker; 232 mSv (whole body), 25,000 mSv (left hand), 99,000 mSv (right hand), for the second one and finally 232 mSv (whole body) for the last one. It was concluded, by the evaluation for the doses, that the irradiation was not uniform, being the hand the more severely irradiated organ. From 18th of July, 1988, the victims were treated by the medical staff, together with the radiological protection group, both from the IPEN. In this paper the clinical and laboratorial exams carried out for the evaluation of the extension of the deleterious effects are described. By that time, the victims presented already radiodermatitis in their hands, and the clinical treatment pursued is also described. (author)

  12. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  13. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  14. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. How to expand irrigated land in a sustainable way ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine V.; Ludwig, Fulco; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Allocation of agriculture commodities and water resources is subject to changes due to climate change, population increase and changes in dietary patterns. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors (industry, household and hydropower) at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 2.6 W/m2 (RCP2.6), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 37% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions and parts of South-East Asia where the Water Stress Indicator (WSI) ranges from 0.4 to 1 by 2050. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Some countries such as India expect a significant increase in water demand which might be compensated by an increase in water supply with climate change scenario. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on

  17. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  18. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2008-04-15

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  19. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  20. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  1. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  2. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  5. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  6. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  7. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  8. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  9. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  10. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  11. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  12. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  13. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  14. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  15. SEG international exposition and sixty-fourth annual meeting -- 1994 Technical program: Expanded abstracts with authors' biographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting are arranged into the following sections: Borehole geophysics; Computing techniques; Development and production geophysics; Electromagnetics; Gravity and magnetics; Interpretation methods and case histories; Mining geophysics; Near-surface geophysics; Poster presentations; Seismic acquisition; Seismic inversion; Seismic lithology; Seismic modeling and migration; Seismic processing; and a workshop on Seismic data acquisition and processing in mountainous thrust areas. 266 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. International Methane Partnership Fighting Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Due to the growth of international attention on the problem of climate change combined with the attractiveness of methane mitigation technologies, the capture and use of methane in agriculture, coal mines, landfills, and the oil and gas sector has increasingly become popular over the past few years. Highlighting this, several countries hosted the international 'Methane to Market' Partnership Conference and Exposition in October 2007 in Beijing, China.

  17. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  18. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  19. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  20. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  1. Improving Students� Ability in Writing Hortatory Exposition Texts by Using Process-Genre Based Approach with YouTube Videos as the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fifin naili rizkiyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is aimed at finding out how Process-Genre Based Approach strategy with YouTube Videos as the media are employed to improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. This study uses collaborative classroom action research design following the procedures namely planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The procedures of carrying out the strategy are: (1 relating several issues/ cases to the students� background knowledge and introducing the generic structures and linguistic features of hortatory exposition text as the BKoF stage, (2 analyzing the generic structure and the language features used in the text and getting model on how to write a hortatory exposition text by using the YouTube Video as the MoT stage, (3 writing a hortatory exposition text collaboratively in a small group and in pairs through process writing as the JCoT stage, and (4 writing a hortatory exposition text individually as the ICoT stage. The result shows that the use of Process-Genre Based Approach and YouTube Videos can improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. The percentage of the students achieving the score above the minimum passing grade (70 had improved from only 15.8% (3 out of 19 students in the preliminary study to 100% (22 students in the Cycle 1. Besides, the score of each aspect; content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics also improved. � Key Words: writing ability, hortatory exposition text, process-genre based approach, youtube video

  2. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  3. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  4. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  5. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  6. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  7. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  8. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  9. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  10. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  11. The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-02-01

    A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.

  12. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  13. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the

  14. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  15. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  16. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  17. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  18. Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions; Exposition der Augenlinse des Untersuchers und Effizienz der Strahlenschutzmittel bei fluoroskopischen Interventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galster, M.; Adamus, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord, Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Guhl, C. [Klinikum Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Uder, M. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. Materials and Methods: A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber. The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding (undercouch drapes and overcouch top) was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam. Results: The exposition of the lens of about 110 to 550 {mu}Sv during radiologic interventions is only slightly reduced by the undercouch drapes. Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25 LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1.2 and 5. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about 30. The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to 10. Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam. Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. Conclusion: The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. (orig.)

  19. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  20. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be... project or division shall be treated as an involuntary conversion to which the provisions of section 1033...

  1. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  2. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  3. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  4. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  5. Publications | Page 259 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Use this search tool to locate a specific publication for your field of research. ... from a local treatment plant is being used for supplemental irrigation of cereal crops, ... generation of water leaders" (NGWL) by the International Water Resources.

  6. Ecocar Expo: Une exposition grand public dédiée à la voiture écologique

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Le 8 octobre 2011, 9h-16h à Meyrin, sur la place des Cinq-Continents, l’association suisse chargée de la promotion des véhicules écologiques e’mobile et la commune de Meyrin réuniront un aperçu des voitures à motorisation alternative efficiente et respectueuse du climat actuellement disponibles sur le marché. Cette manifestation grand-public proposera, démarche originale, des essais gratuits sur route.   Les conducteurs sont de plus en plus sensibles à l’impact de leur voiture sur l’environnement. Des questions sur la consommation, la pollution et les alternatives possibles sont fréquemment évoquées lors de l’achat d’une voiture neuve. Durant l'exposition Ecocar, des professionnels de e’mobile, association indépendante pour la promotion de véhicules rout...

  7. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  8. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  10. De la restauration à l’exposition : à la recherche de sens et de cohérence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland May

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s'intéresse à la distance existant entre une opération de restauration et sa présentation au grand public. Il s'appuie sur une étude de cas, la restauration d’une toile de Michel Serre, peintre actif en Provence aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Dans le temps imparti pour cette restauration se sont enchaînées études et interventions, mettant en œuvre de nombreux acteurs – restaurateurs, conservateurs, historiens d’art, photographes et scientifiques du patrimoine – dont les échanges étaient orientés vers la réalisation de l’intervention. Passer de ce "faire" au "faire connaître" de l’exposition nécessite des étapes de reconstruction / agrégation analytiques, qui ne sont pas sans rappeler les enquêtes policières : les indices au départ disjoints convergent pour construire des liens nouvellement mis en perspective dans l’exposition.This article focuses on the gap existing between the restoration of a painting and its presentation to the general public. The case study is a painting by Michel Serre, an artist working in Provence in the 17th-18th centuries. During the alloted time for restoration, studies and interventions of numerous actors –conservators, curators, art historians, photographers and conservation scientists – have been focusing on the achievement of the restoration. Translating this "doing" into a "making of" for the exhibition implies reconstruction / analytical aggregation steps, which echo mystery investigation : clues, at the beginning appart, converge towards building links and new standpoints presented in the exhibition.

  11. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  12. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  13. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  14. Le ministre italien de la science inaugure une exposition industrielle au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    On 30 November 1993 His Excellency Professor Umberto Colombo, Italy's Minister for Universities and Research opened the sixth "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Minister was accompanied by His Excellency the Ambassador Giulio di Lorenzo Badia, Permanent Representative of Italy to the International Organizations in Geneva. CERN's Director-General, Prof. Carlo Rubbia welcomed the Minister and expressed his pleasure at the extremely wide range and high quality of the equipment on display at the exhibition.

  15. Petition Signed by Thomas A. Edison for Sunday Openings at the World's Columbian Exposition. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Linda

    In 1893, in just 184 days, 28 million people, about one-third of the U.S. population, visited the World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago (Illinois). This lesson focuses on petitioning the federal government, peaceably assembling, and exercising freedom of speech and religion, all of which are protected by the First Amendment to the U.S.…

  16. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  17. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  18. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  19. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  20. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  1. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  2. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  3. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  4. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  5. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  6. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  7. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  8. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  9. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  10. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  11. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  12. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  13. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  14. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  15. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  16. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  17. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  18. Hidden links: Irrigation, malaria, and gender | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-22

    Feb 22, 2011 ... Malaria hits children hardest: one in four childhood deaths on the continent is ... considerably increasing women's workload did not improve their economic status or ... The wider lesson is that traditional approaches to studying ...

  19. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  20. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat

    2018-01-01

    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  1. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  2. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  3. Relationship of the Australian Stock Market with its Major Trading Partners: a Simple Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazharul H. Kazi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available markets of its major trading partners namely, UK, USA, Canada, Germany, France, andJapan using 1945 to 2002 annual data series. The analysis of this paper considers boththe foreign exchange risk element and the notion of share-return parity into its modifiedstructural model which is estimated by applying both OLS and GMM methods. TheUK, Canadian and French markets are found significant from OLS estimation; whileGMM estimation suggests four markets including the German are significant at 5%level. Accordingly, this paper concludes that Australian stock market is related to thatof its trading partners; and it is being influenced by 3 to 4 markets of which the UK isthe most significant. The outcomes of this paper seem beneficial to Australian investorsfor effective diversifications of their international portfolio risks.

  4. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  5. Potentials for Supplemental Irrigation in Some Rainfall Areas of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there were up to five months of the year during which rainwater was much in deficit of evapotranspiration. All these stress the need for irrigation. Analysis of water quality (surface, groundwater, and rainfall runoff) showed their suitability for irrigation. Quantity assessment of supplemental irrigation during the dry ...

  6. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  7. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  8. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  9. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  10. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  11. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  12. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  13. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  14. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  15. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  16. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  17. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  18. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  19. Sustainable Irrigation Development in the White Volta Sub-Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofosu, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study on sustainable irrigation development identified growing markets for irrigated products as an important driving force behind the expansion of irrigation which has given rise to new technologies. The new technologies have spread because they gave farmers direct control over water sources.

  20. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  1. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  2. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  3. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  4. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  5. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  6. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  7. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  8. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  9. FAO study on irrigation potential for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record To improve the conjunctive use of sub-surface and surface water in order to increase water resources availability for sustainable small-scale irrigation development in support of food security in West Africa, south of the Sahara.

  10. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  11. Strategies of smallholder irrigation management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government

  12. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  13. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  14. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  15. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  16. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... indicators for diagnosing plant water information, but it is troublesome to measure leaf water potential using a pressure chamber (Turner, 1981). It is also difficult to achieve automatic and continuous records with the pressure chamber. Definition of threshold values of soil moisture for irrigation management ...

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and soil samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, ... So, attention and investment in these areas have been very limited in Africa and ... The shape of the watershed is almost elliptical (Fig. 1). 2.1. Soil. Texturally ..... quality of the irrigation water, soil factors such as structure, degree of compaction, organic.

  18. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  19. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  20. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.

    2012-01-01

    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  1. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  2. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  3. EXPOSITION OF PRIVACY IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS:AN ASSESSMENT ON THE BASIS OF FACEBOOK AND TWITTERUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilge KODAK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With developing new communication technologies, concept of socialization hasbeen changing in terms of content. Social media platforms have become one ofthe most important tools of peoples’ daily lives. This telescopic situation hasrevealed a security problem and vanished privacy inglobal context. Globally asFederal Trade Commission and International Center for Watching Violation ofRights are working on enhancing cyber security. When assessing the problemfrom the individual perspective, there is a clear contradiction between the need ofsecurity and privacy of users and exposing privacyon social media. (Wenger etal., 2009 In other words the facts of security andprivacy are ignored by peoplewho demand it. Exposing oneself makes individual strong as a social subject andenhancing the effort of transforming their identities to a popular Meta. The aim ofthis study is to display people who need respect toprivacy and security presentingtheir privacy life on purpose at social media platforms. This paper suggests thatpeople need to have their own security about privacy on social media first.(Ulaşanoğlu et al., 2010 2 focus group discussions, each comprising of sevenmale and female students between 18-25 years at Maltepe University who haveaccounts both at Facebook and Twitter will be conducted for this study. In thiscontext the study reaches the relational and causative results of sample group’ssharing their private areas on ground of privacy and security. As a result it gets aperspective for describe the conscious internet user.

  4. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  5. CONTROL OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN THE GEZIRA IRRIGATION SCHEME, SUDAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mutamad; Abubaker, Hwiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level. By highlighting the inter-play between the above-mentioned factors, the article reflects on the wisdom of prioritizing community-directed mass drug administration for the control of schistosomiasis in Gezira and elsewhere. The review demonstrates that not all efforts to control schistosomiasis are sustainable. A comprehensive control strategy involving political commitment, community participation and socioeconomic development is important for sustainable control of schistosomal infection.

  6. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  7. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  8. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  9. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  10. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    tBiochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase cropproductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield andquality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, theplants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation(PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot waterholding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots,respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry sidedecreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DIand PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and quality...

  11. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  12. Evaluation of water quality for drinking and irrigation purpose from simly lake, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Shah, M.H.; Tirmizi, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the seasonal distribution of essential metals (Ca, K, Mg and Na) and physicochemical parameters (pH, T, DO, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Cl-, , PS, SAR, RSBC and MAR) in freshwater samples of Simly Lake, Pakistan. The suitability of water for drinking and agricultural purpose was assessed using various water quality parameters and indices. The average concentrations for most of the studied parameters were found to be within the national/international guidelines. However, the levels of bicarbonate ion and residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC) in the water were significantly higher than international standards. Irrigation water quality (IWQ) index revealed that the water was of medium level suitability for the irrigation purpose. (author)

  13. Initial hospital management of irradiated and radio-contaminated victims in case of accidental exposure of populations; Prise en charge hospitaliere initiale de victimes irradiees et contaminees dans un contexte d'exposition accidentelle de populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehrenbach; Mantzarides, M.; Bonardel, G.; Gontier, E. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de [Hopital des Armees Percy, Service de Protection Radiologique, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-08-15

    The current risk of radiologic exposure of the population occurs in many circumstances. The industrial accident is remarkably illustrated by the Tchernobyl event. Another kind is still virtual but the international situation does not allow to turn this hypothesis down. It is terrorist utilization of radioactive material. In these situations, medical problems are specific and require particular knowledge about the two forms of exposure which are external irradiation and external and internal contamination. Pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation effects concerning biological tissues are similar in these situations but care actions are dedicated. These elements are mandatory for the elaboration of procedures for the reception of irradiated or contaminated victims, being wounded or not, in a first-aid department. These procedures must comprise two aspects: the recognition of the radiologic exposition and the therapeutic actions taking into account the severity of associated injuries. Diagnosis of a radioactive contamination is rather simple by external detection. Conversely, to estimate the reality of an external irradiation is much more difficult but necessary for dosimetric evaluation. This latter is of the highest importance for the prevision of delayed clinical manifestations. At the hospital level, despite the training effort for first aid departments staff, the nuclear medicine physician, specialist for radioactive contamination, can play a specific role for the preparation of the equipment, the procedures and during intervention after a radiologic event has happened. This emphasizes the obligation for him to update his knowledge about this subject. (author)

  14. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  15. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  16. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  17. Regulated deficit irrigation for crop production under drought stress. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Chai , Qiang; Gan , Yantai; Zhao , Cai; Xu , Hui-Lian; Waskom , Reagan M.; Niu , Yining; Siddique , Kadambot H. M.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractAgriculture consumes more than two thirds of the total freshwater of the planet. This issue causes substantial conflict in freshwater allocation between agriculture and other economic sectors. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is key technology because it helps to improve water use efficiency. Nonetheless, there is a lack of understanding of the mechanisms with which plants respond to RDI. In particular, little is known about how RDI might increase crop produc...

  18. Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt, sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62, soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21, electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm, magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97, Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62, total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l, permeability index (68.02-94.16 and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l. Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.

  19. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  20. EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE DURING A MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE TASK DUE TO THE TYPE AND ORDER OF EXPOSITION TO THE TRANSFERENCE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMILO HURTADO-PARRADO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of manipulating the type and order of presentation of transference tests. Twenty eightundergraduate students divided in 4 groups were exposed to a second order matching to sample procedure. Theconditions of exposition were: ascending difficulty/complexity order of the tests, descending order and two randomlyassigned orders. Results are discussed in terms of percentages of effectiveness; additionally, the latency is proposed asan alternative measure sensitive to the level of difficulty of this kind of tasks. Findings showed heterogeneity in thevelocity of acquisition of the conditional discriminations during the training phase, even though the conditions of thetask were equal for all the subjects. The exposition to the ascending and descending order seemed to affect negativelythe effective behavioral adjustment, whereas one of the randomly assigned sequences seemed to be the best condition.The order of exposition to transference tests, in interaction with a history of early acquisition in the training phase,served to understand the findings of this study and to discuss the necessity of a systematical evaluation of the factors implied in the transference tests. It is suggested to assess the validity of different kind of transference tests and theconvenience of some of them to be use in the investigation of the phenomena related to the effective and variablebehavior.

  1. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  2. Control system design for concrete irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, Timm; Aamo, Ole Morten; Cantoni, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Concrete channels find use at the periphery of irrigation networks, for expansion and to replace small earthen channels given the relative ease of maintenance and elimination of seepage losses. In design, it is important to account for control system performance when dimensioning the channel infrastructure. In this paper, the design of a distributed controller is investigated in terms managing water-levels, and thereby the depth profile (i.e., amount of concrete) needed to support peak flow l...

  3. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  4. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisaharu Suzuki,1 Yoichiro Masuda,2 Yuki Hamajima,1 Hiroshi Takahashi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University, Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome.Purpose: We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port.Patients and methods: The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control. The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1 the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2 the need for conventional hydration, and 3 watertight completion at the end stage of surgery.Results: The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.Conclusion: The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse. Keywords: cataract surgery, hydration, irrigation and aspiration, phacoemulsification, wound, self-sealing 

  5. Antimicrobial Irrigants in the Endodontic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. An objective of endodontic treatment is removal of diseased tissue, elimination of bacteria from the canal system and prevention of recontamination. (1) Disinfection of the root canal system, as part of endodontic therapy, by...

  6. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  7. Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sacha M; Uludağ, Ozenç; El Naggar, Kadri; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor G

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic graciloplasty (DGP) improves anal continence and quality of life for most patients. However, in some patients, DGP fails and fecal incontinence is unsolved or only partially improved. Constipation is also a significant problem after DGP, occurring in 13-90%. Colonic irrigation can be considered as an additional or salvage treatment for defecation disorders after unsuccessful or partially successful DGP. In this study, the effectiveness of colonic irrigation for the treatment of persistent fecal incontinence and/or constipation after DGP is investigated. Patients with defecation disorders after DGP visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Maastricht were selected for colonic irrigation as additional therapy or salvage therapy in the period between January 1999 and June 2003. The Biotrol(R) Irrimatic pump or the irrigation bag was used for colonic irrigation. Relevant physical and medical history was collected. The patients were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about colonic irrigation. Forty-six patients were included in the study with a mean age of 59.3 +/- 12.4 years (80% female). On average, the patients started the irrigation 21.39 +/- 38.77 months after the DGP. Eight patients started irrigation before the DGP. Fifty-two percent of the patients used the irrigation as additional therapy for fecal incontinence, 24% for constipation, and 24% for both. Irrigation was usually performed in the morning. The mean frequency of irrigation was 0.90 +/- 0.40 times per day. The mean amount of water used for the irrigation was 2.27 +/- 1.75 l with a mean duration of 39 +/- 23 min. Four patients performed antegrade irrigation through a colostomy or appendicostomy, with good results. Overall, 81% of the patients were satisfied with the irrigation. Thirty-seven percent of the patients with fecal incontinence reached (pseudo-)continence, and in 30% of the patients, the constipation completely resolved. Side effects of the irrigation were

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-05

    in the realization of a 36,000-hectare irrigation project in the Managua— Granada —Masaya region and the construction of two large workshops for the...coordinating country for the aforementioned irrigation plan in the Managua— Masaya— Granada region. Multilateral collaboration, like bilateral...international economic security corresponding to the needs of the people of the whole world is... a natural continuation of the unions’ basic demands

  9. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  10. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Umweni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  11. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  12. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  13. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  14. Consumer exposure. Basic considerations for regulatory exposure estimations; Exposition des Verbrauchers. Grundlegende Ueberlegungen fuer die Expositionsabschaetzung im regulatorischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, G. [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    ) or LOAEL (low observed adverse effect level). A small hazard/exposure ratio can be attributed to a probability of high risk, whereas a large ratio indicates a small risk of health hazards. The following article discusses the main principles of exposure estimation. (orig.) [German] Die Bewertung von Verbraucherexpositionen umschliesst alle Quellen und Pfade, ueber die Personen im privaten und haeuslichen Umfeld mit Chemikalien in Kontakt kommen. Dabei sind Verbraucher nicht nur diejenigen, die selbst Verbraucherprodukte anwenden, sondern auch alle weiteren Personen, die sekundaer (indirekt) mit dem Produkt Kontakt haben, z.B. Familienangehoerige. Eine Verbraucherexposition kann gemessen oder geschaetzt werden. Beide Verfahren haben Vor- und Nachteile. Waehrend sich Messungen meistens auf individuelle Expositionssituationen beziehen, beschreiben Modelle eher eine verallgemeinerte Expositionssituation (Szenario). Messungen haben daher ihren Platz, wo Quellen von Schadstoffen aufgespuert werden muessen, Modelle eher dort, wo systematisierte Betrachtungen von Risiken durchgefuehrt werden. Zur Expositionsschaetzung gehoeren 3 Abschnitte, erstens die Charakterisierung der Expositionsquelle (z.B. eine Haushaltschemikalie) mit Beschreibung der Anwendungsmodalitaeten (Haeufigkeit, Dauer); zweitens die Beschreibung des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Konzentration des Stoffes im Kontaktmedium, vor allem in der Luft und auf der Haut. Die Exposition wird darueber hinaus durch das Verhalten der exponierten Person selbst bestimmt. Hier ist die Kontaktdauer, auch Zeitbudget genannt, von grosser Bedeutung. Besondere Verhaltensmuster koennen auch fuer bestimmte Populationen von Bedeutung sein. Man nimmt an, dass z.B. im Kindesalter die orale Aufnahme durch das sog. Mouthing (Hand-in-den-Mund-Stecken) eine besondere Rolle spielt. Die Risikocharakterisierung erfolgt durch einen Vergleich der Exposition, ausgedrueckt als Konzentration oder Dosis, mit dem NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level

  15. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS‘ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH KNOW-WANT-LEARN (KWL TECHNIQUE TO TEACH ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION ( Class Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Imelda Wachyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the impacts of the use of Know-Want-Learn technique in improving the reading comprehension to teach analytical exposition among eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Indramayu in the academic year of 2017/2018. The study was action research in two research cycles. In the study, the researcher collaborated with the English teachers and the students. The data of this study were qualitative in nature supported by quantitative data. Qualitative data were obtained from the results of classroom observation and collaborators‘ discussion. Quantitative data were obtained from pre-test and post test results. The instruments for collecting the data were observation guides, interview guides, and the pre-test and posttest. The data were in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, and the scores of the students‘ pre-test and posttest. The results of the two cycles show that the use of Know-WantLearn technique is effective to improve the students‘ reading comprehension. It is supported by the qualitative data which show that (1 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the teacher to scaffold the students‘ comprehension of the text by focusing on the steps before, during, and after reading; (2 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the students to preview the text, assess what they have learned after reading, and motivate their interest in reading; (3 The kind of activities given such as preeteaching vocabulary, using skimming and scanning, using fix-up strategies, and guessing meaning can help the students to read the text efficiently.

  16. 14. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 14. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Selected papers from the 14th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, PEMEX, and FIDE.

  17. 16. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 16. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Selected papers from the 16th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  18. 16. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 16. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Selected papers from the 16th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  19. 13. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 13. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Selected papers from the 13th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE and FIDE.

  20. 18. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 18. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicos. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Selected papers from the 18th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  1. 17. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 17. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Selected papers from the 17th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  2. 18. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 18. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicos. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Selected papers from the 18th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  3. 13. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 13. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Selected papers from the 13th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE and FIDE.

  4. 14. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 14. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Selected papers from the 14th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, PEMEX, and FIDE.

  5. 17. national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 17. seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria tecnica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Selected papers from the 17th annual national seminar on the rational use of the energy and exposition of equipment and services have been separately cited in the database. The seminar is jointly sponsored by ATPAE, CONAE, and FIDE.

  6. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  7. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  8. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  9. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  10. Gas exchange in ‘BRS Princesa’ banana (Musa spp. under partial rootzone drying irrigation in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rocha dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate physiological characteristics of 'BRS Princesa' banana under Partial Rootzone Drying irrigation, PRD. The five treatments, 1 - 50% of reduction in water depth (WD with a frequency alternation of irrigation side (FA of seven days during the whole production cycle; 2 - 50% of WD and FA of 14 days in the cycle; 3 - 50% of WD and FA of 21 days; 4 - 50% of WD with a fixed irrigation (only one lateral line on one side of the plant; and 5 - full irrigation (two lateral lines with open shutoff valve throughout the cycle, they were arranged in a randomized block design with five replicates. There is a reduction in photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency as a result of enzymatic impairment or stomatal closure, due to the increased of leaf temperature. The stomatal conductance - gs was lower in plants irrigated with 50% of ETc with fixed irrigation in one side of the plant. Even with water deficit in the soil, using the PRD with 50% of ETc, Photosynthesis - A Transpiration - E; Leaf temperature - Tleaf, internal concentration of CO2 - Ci; stomatal conductance - gs; photosynthetically active radiation - Qleaf; carboxylation efficiency - A/Ci; Quantum efficiency of Photosynthesis - A/Qleaf; and instantaneous water use efficiency - WUE 'BRS Princesa' banana were similar among strategies, highlighting the possibility of use of the irrigation management technique with PRD, saving water, and no physiological changes in the plants.

  11. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  12. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  13. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  14. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world’s museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell’s Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell’s Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell’s Vireo. PMID:26312181

  15. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner

    1975-01-01

    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley....... Productions of grain and straw and chemical composition were almost the same after the two irrigation methods, and it was concluded that the laborious manual watering could be replaced by automatic irrigation. Comparison of the yield from individual plants in the pots showed a large difference between centre...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  16. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  17. Exposition by Emil Artin

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Emil Artin was one of the great mathematicians of the twentieth century. He had the rare distinction of having solved two of the famous problems posed by David Hilbert in 1900. He showed that every positive definite rational function of several variables was a sum of squares. He also discovered and proved the Artin reciprocity law, the culmination of over a century and a half of progress in algebraic number theory. Artin had a great influence on the development of mathematics in his time, both by means of his many contributions to research and by the high level and excellence of his teaching and expository writing. In this volume we gather together in one place a selection of his writings wherein the reader can learn some beautiful mathematics as seen through the eyes of a true master. The volume's Introduction provides a short biographical sketch of Emil Artin, followed by an introduction to the books and papers included in the volume. The reader will first find three of Artin's short books, titled The Gamma...

  18. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  19. Memory of irrigation effects on hydroclimate and its modeling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiaoyu; Barlage, Michael; Rasmussen, Roy; Shen, Shuanghe; Miao, Shiguang; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation modifies land-surface water and energy budgets, and also influences weather and climate. However, current earth-system models, used for weather prediction and climate projection, are still in their infancy stage to consider irrigation effects. This study used long-term data collected from two contrasting (irrigated and rainfed) nearby maize-soybean rotation fields, to study the effects of irrigation memory on local hydroclimate. For a 12 year average, irrigation decreases summer surface-air temperature by less than 1 °C and increases surface humidity by 0.52 g kg‑1. The irrigation cooling effect is more pronounced and longer lasting for maize than for soybean. Irrigation reduces maximum, minimum, and averaged temperature over maize by more than 0.5 °C for the first six days after irrigation, but its temperature effect over soybean is mixed and negligible two or three days after irrigation. Irrigation increases near-surface humidity over maize by about 1 g kg‑1 up to ten days and increases surface humidity over soybean (~ 0.8 g kg‑1) with a similar memory. These differing effects of irrigation memory on temperature and humidity are associated with respective changes in the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes for maize and soybean. These findings highlight great need and challenges for earth-system models to realistically simulate how irrigation effects vary with crop species and with crop growth stages, and to capture complex interactions between agricultural management and water-system components (crop transpiration, precipitation, river, reservoirs, lakes, groundwater, etc.) at various spatial and temporal scales.

  20. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  1. Trash-polluted irrigation: characteristics and impact on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, D.; Arif, SS; Sudarmadji

    2018-04-01

    Trash pollution has been a problem in sustainable water resources management. Trash pollutes not only rivers, lakes and seas, but also irrigation canals and rice fields. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of solid waste (type, time of occurrence and sources of trash) and its impact on agriculture. The study was conducted in four irrigation areas, namely Gamping, Merdiko, Nglaren and Karangploso in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Region. We applied the Irrigation Rapid Trash Assessment (IRTA) as our field survey instrument. The results showed that trash was found throughout irrigation canals and rice fields, and the occurrence was influenced by water flow, time and farmer activities. The irrigation was dominantly polluted by plastic trash (52.2%), biodegradable waste (17.91%) and miscellaneous trash (12.3%). The IRTA score showed that Gamping Irrigation Area was at marginal condition, bearing a high risk of disturbing the operation and maintenance of the irrigation canals as well as farmers’ health. Trash in irrigation also generated technical impact of the irrigation operation and maintenance, environmental quality, and social life. This research also offered environmental policy integration approach and water-garbage governance approach as an alternative solution to manage water resources and agriculture in a sustainable manner, under the pressure of increasing amount of trash.

  2. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...; (c) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  3. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  4. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  5. Perception, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies of Irrigated Paddy Farmer Community to Face Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Rasiska Suantapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a real impact on the condition of agriculture in developing countries, including Indonesia. Irrigated paddy farmers are the ones really feeling the impact of climate change. Therefore, we need to understand the perceptions, mitigation and adaptation strategies of irrigated paddy farmer community to face climate change. The study is conducted in Indramayu and Tasikmalaya Regency in West Java by using descriptive survey method, regression analysis and path analysis through Structural Equation Modelling approach with Lisrel TM 8.5. The results showes that: (1 changes to climate variability affects the productivity of rice; (2 perception of irrigated paddy farmer community on climate change and its affects are influenced by internal and external factors; and (3 adaptation strategy are influenced by internal and external factors, whereas no mitigation strategy. Therefore, mitigation and adaptation strategies with site specific location are very necessary improving climate information services, increasing empowerment of farmers through field schools, and providing the provision of facilities that are practical and adaptive to climate.

  6. STUDY ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED VERTISOL FROM BOIANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation, when administered correctly, confers the producers the possibility to overcome drought effects and obtain higher yields, supplementing the quality of food for animals or human consumers. In the mean time, soil erosion, pathogens attack and nutrients or pesticides spreading can be prevented by an adequate management of irrigation water. As a consequence, soil microbial community structure, composition and activities, as well as the organic matter quality can be different from those in non-irrigated soil. Research have been carried out in order to assess changes in bacterial and fungal communities and activity in irrigated Vertisol from Boianu, as compared with non-irrigated. The paper presents the results concerning the taxonomical composition of bacterial and fungalmicroflora in the horizons of the two soil profiles, as well as the level of CO2 released by microorganisms. Chromatographic aspects of humus fractions were used to characterize the organic matter in irrigated and nonirrigated soil. Increased moisture and lowered temperature in Ap horizon of irrigated soil increased bacterial counts(18 x106 viable cells x g-1 dry soil and their metabolic activity expressed by carbon dioxide released (46.838mg CO2 x g-1 dry soil comparatively with non- irrigated soil. Fungal microflora was more abundant after 25-50cm under irrigation. Species diversity slightly increased under irrigation in both upper and lower part of soil profile. In irrigated soil, associations of species belonging to bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant in surface and white actinomycetes in the depth. Fungal consortia of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium dominated in both soil profiles.Irrigation induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, as well as in the aspect of their migration pattern, as revealed on circular chromatograms.

  7. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  8. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  9. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  10. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  11. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  12. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition....... In the groundwater and lysimeter samples primarily the ICM diatrizoate and iopamidol, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole were detected up to several mu g l(-1), while the acidic pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, estrogens and betablockers were likely sorbed or transformed while...

  13. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  14. Intracavity lavage and wound irrigation for prevention of surgical site infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Atkinson, Ross A; Smith, Tanya A; Rowlands, Ceri; Rithalia, Amber D; Crosbie, Emma J; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-01-01

    antibacterial and non-antibacterial interventions. Clinicians should also consider whether the evidence is relevant to the surgical populations under consideration, the varying reporting of other prophylactic antibiotics, and concerns about antibiotic resistance. We did not identify any trials that compared an antibiotic with an antiseptic. This gap in the direct evidence base may merit further investigation, potentially using network meta-analysis; to inform the direction of new primary research. Any new trial should be adequately powered to detect a difference in SSIs in eligible participants, should use robust research methodology to reduce the risks of bias and internationally recognised criteria for diagnosis of SSI, and should have adequate duration and follow-up. 'Washout' during surgery for prevention of surgical site infection What is the aim of this review? The aim of this review was to find out whether intracavity lavage and wound irrigation (washing out a wound during surgery) can help to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). Researchers from Cochrane collected and analysed all relevant studies (randomised controlled trials) to answer this question and found 59 relevant studies. Key messages The certainty of all the evidence we gathered on the effect of washing out wounds on SSIs was low or very low. This was due to problems with how results were reported, some small sample sizes and concern that not all relevant evidence was published. This means that the true effects of treatments may be substantially different from our results. Washing out surgical wounds may make no clear difference to SSI rates compared with not washing out. Using antibacterial solutions to wash out wounds may reduce infection rates compared with non-antibacterial products. Pumping the washing solution into the wound may reduce infections compared with other methods of washing out. Side effects were not well reported. What was studied in the review? Infections can often develop in wounds

  15. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, J W; Schouten, W R; Vlot, E A; Smits, S; van Kessel, I

    1997-07-01

    Continence disturbances, especially fecal soiling, are difficult to treat. Irrigation of the distal part of the large bowel might be considered as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with impaired continence. This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical value of colonic irrigation. Thirty-two patients (16 females; median age, 47 (range, 23-72) years) were offered colonic irrigation on an ambulatory basis. Sixteen patients suffered from fecal soiling (Group I), whereas the other 16 patients were treated for fecal incontinence (Group II). Patients were instructed by enterostomal therapists how to use a conventional colostomy irrigation set to obtain sufficient irrigation of the distal part of their large bowel. Patients with continence disturbances during the daytime were instructed to introduce 500 to 1,000 ml of warm (38 degrees C) water within 5 to 10 minutes after they passed their first stool. In addition, they were advised to wait until the urge to defecate was felt. Patients with soiling during overnight sleep were advised to irrigate during the evening. To determine clinical outcome, a detailed questionnaire was used. Median duration of follow-up was 18 months. Ten patients discontinued irrigation within the first month of treatment. Symptoms resolved completely in two patients. They believed that there was no need to continue treatment any longer. Irrigation had no effect in two patients. Despite the fact that symptoms resolved, six patients discontinued treatment because they experienced pain (n = 2) or they considered the irrigation to be too time-consuming (n = 4). Twenty-two patients are still performing irrigations. Most patients irrigated the colon in the morning after the first stool was passed. Time needed for washout varied between 10 and 90 minutes. Frequency of irrigations varied from two times per day to two times per week. In Group I, irrigation was found to be beneficial in 92 percent of patients, whereas 60 percent of patients in Group II

  16. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  17. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  18. Climate change and irrigation. An Australian response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigram, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Climatic changes on a global or regional scale, resulting from human activities, and the likely effects of such changes on Australia were discussed. Irrigation concerns of the Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia associated with global climate were described. Potential risks for regional economies and communities (agriculture in this instance) which may be significant, were assessed. Restructuring of the irrigation industry, and appropriate policy initiatives were urged now, while there is still some time to prepare. Application of the 'Precautionary Principle' to reduce global climate change effects was recommended. (This principle states that in areas threatened by severe climatic change lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to delay decisive measures designed to mitigate environmental degradation). Bold policy adjustments and the creation of a new institutional framework to promote sustainable resource management were called for. It was suggested that the region could become a 'laboratory' for the whole world for assessing the effectiveness of managerial responses to environmental changes

  19. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  20. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  1. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  2. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  3. Assessment of the efficiency and water productivity in the Spanish irrigation associations "Canal Toro-Zamora" and "Canal Villagonzalo" from the Duero basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Amado Mendoza Hidalgo, Edwin

    2017-04-01

    observed. Likewise, water use efficiency was good (ARIS = 1) and the other indicators behave reasonably highlighting a good irrigation management. Thus, these indicators, and the methodology proposed to estimate kc, could assist water stakeholder decisions for water management strategies at the irrigation district. Moreover, the results could be references for benchmarking at regional, national or international level.

  4. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  5. L’exposition prolongée des consommateurs à un nouveau produit permet-elle d’accroître son adoption ?

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Josselin; Aurier, Philippe; D'hauteville, François

    2010-01-01

    Cette recherche évalue l’effet de la consommation à domicile d’un nouveau produit (le vin à teneur réduite en alcool) sur son acceptabilité à long terme par les consommateurs, et suppose que l’exposition au produit et l’information non-sensorielle influenceront leurs évaluations hédoniques. Deux groupes de consommateurs ont alors été exposés soit à un vin normal, soit à un vin à teneur réduite en alcool, en condition aveugle le premier mois puis avec l’indication de leurs teneurs en alcool le...

  6. Investigating deficit irrigation as a climate-smart farming option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global water supplies available for irrigation are declining while food demand continues to rise. Deficit irrigation offers a promising strategy to reduce water use with minimal impacts to yields, but is likely to have a range of impacts on soil nutrient cycling processes and climate change mitigati...

  7. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  8. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  9. Atmospheric effects of irrigation in monsoon climate: the Indian subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the 20th century, an increasing population increased the demand for food. As a consequence, agricultural activity has expanded and become more intense. A part of this intensification is the use of irrigation systems to water crops. Due to this irrigation, dams and channeling systems,

  10. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the entire fruit and wine industries are dependent on irrigation. Cropping in the Eastern and Northern Cape also relies heavily on irrigation. ..... The soils were described as deep, fine sandy, dominantly red, ..... crops. For example, leaves of deciduous fruit trees (apri- ..... Laboratory Handbook 60, USDA, Washington. 160 pp.

  11. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  12. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  13. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) values varied from 93.1 to 466.3 mm for the treatments. The highest yield was obtained from the S3 and S4 treatments. A significant polynomial correlation was obtained between the yield and irrigation water, and between the yield and ET (P < 0.01). This indicated that when irrigation water and ET ...

  14. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  15. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  16. Small private irrigation: Enhancing benefits and managing trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordano, M.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia benefit from readily available and affordable irrigation technologies. The rapid uptake of small private irrigation in South Asia had a proven positive effect on poverty alleviation. In sub-Saharan Africa similar trends are

  17. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  18. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of

  19. land evaluation for improved rice production in watari irrigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap ... land including details about maintenance and ... Area of Kano state and cover a total of 4,574 .... which requires a depth of more than 50cm for efficient .... raise the productivity of the soils to optimum for.

  20. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  1. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  2. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  3. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  4. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  5. Remote sensing, GIS and hydrological modelling for irrigation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Urso, d' G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of literature and of work done by the authors between 1988 and 1993. It was presented at a NATO expert meeting on sustainability of irrigated agriculture in 1994. The paper deals with crop water requirements and crop waterstress, assessing irrigation performance with

  6. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  7. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  8. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  9. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  10. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  11. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  12. Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process

  13. Which Order? Whose Order? Balinese Irrigation Management in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with irrigation management among Balinese migrant settlers in Sulawesi, Indonesia. As settlers in the command area of a state-built irrigation system, they have become part of its blueprinted managerial structure. However, many settlers derived their experience from subak, the

  14. Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches. ... correlations were found between soil P and stream water P on one hand, and between soil pH and stream water pH on the other, indicating that the irrigation water may indeed, have had little or no influence on the properties of the ditches' soils.

  15. Automated cycled sprinkler irrigation for spring frost protection of cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkler irrigation is essential for preventing spring frost bud damage in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait). Risk-averse growers have been reluctant to adopt the intermittent cycling of irrigation pumps as a standard management practice. In the spring of 2013 and 2014, an experiment was conduc...

  16. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  17. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  18. The Current State of Predicting Furrow Irrigation Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There continues to be a need to predict furrow irrigation erosion to estimate on- and off-site impacts of irrigation management. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of furrow erosion prediction technology considering four models: SISL, WEPP, WinSRFR and APEX. SISL is an empiri...

  19. Irrigated cotton grown on sierozem soils in South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gloldnaya steppe has large areas of fertile sierozem soils that are important for crop production and its accompanying economic development. The soils are fertile loams but because of the steppe’s dry environment, they need to be irrigated. Our objective was to study irrigation management of cot...

  20. Profitability of Irrigated Improved Pecan Orchards in the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Job D.; Swinford, Wyatt; Rohla, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine if an irrigated improved pecan orchard is economical relative to agronomic systems commonly implemented by producers that have access to irrigation. Results show that the improved pecan orchard is more profitable than competitive enterprises after a twenty year time frame, but is sensitive to pecan price, pecan yield and attitude toward risk.

  1. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...

  2. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-07-15

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions.

  3. Thermal injury of the colon due to colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, F.R.; Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    A case of thermal burn and stricture of the colon following colostomy irrigation with hot water is described. The initial radiographic features on barium enema simulated nonspecific segmental colitis. Colonic stricture and enterolith formation developed subsequently. This case emphasizes that care should be taken in preparing irrigating and barium enema solutions. (orig.)

  4. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  5. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  6. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  7. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  8. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  9. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  10. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  11. Treadle pump irrigation in Malawi: adoption, gender and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamwamba-Mtethiwa, J.; Namara, R.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Mangisoni, J.; Owusu, E.

    2012-01-01

    As part of their irrigation strategy, the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Malawi are actively promoting the use of treadle pumps in smallholder irrigation. The positive impact of treadle pumps on food security and poverty reduction in Malawi and elsewhere in sub-Saharan

  12. Implications of rural irrigation schemes on household economy. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of life as measured through the use of standardised HDI. In light of the above, there is a need to fund and develop more rural irrigation schemes so as to ensure livelihood security and rural development in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Rural livelihood, Poverty, Climate change, Irrigation, Lower Gweru, Extension.

  13. Technology transfer: Promoting irrigation progress and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational efforts promoting irrigation best management practices are designed to increase adoption of these practices and increase public understanding of the importance of irrigation. They increase visibility and the impact of the Ogallala Aquifer Program and promote affiliated research and exten...

  14. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Irrigation Project on the proposed rates about the following issues: (1) The methodology for O&M rate setting..., Irrigation Project Manager, (Project operations and management contracted to Tribes), R.R.1, Box 980, Harlem... Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of rate adjustments. SUMMARY: The...

  15. Irrigation Management in the Pamirs in Tajikistan: A Man's Domain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Families living in Gorno-Badakhshan—situated in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan—depend on irrigated agriculture to meet their subsistence needs. Because men predominate, and are most visible in, the operation and management of irrigation systems in this region, water-related activities are often

  16. Wedlock or deadlock? Feminists' attempts to engage irrigation engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I describe my search for ways of thinking about, and conceptualizing, irrigation realities that allow recognition of gender as constitutive of such realities. This effort logically follows from the realization that in mainstream conceptualizations of irrigation it is difficult to

  17. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  18. Sensor-Based Model Driven Control Strategy for Precision Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lozoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of the agricultural irrigation systems substantially contributes to sustainable water management. This improvement can be achieved through an automated irrigation system that includes a real-time control strategy based on the water, soil, and crop relationship. This paper presents a model driven control strategy applied to an irrigation system, in order to make an efficient use of water for large crop fields, that is, applying the correct amount of water in the correct place at the right moment. The proposed model uses a predictive algorithm that senses soil moisture and weather variables, to determine optimal amount of water required by the crop. This proposed approach is evaluated against a traditional irrigation system based on the empirical definition of time periods and against a basic soil moisture control system. Results indicate that the use of a model predictive control in an irrigation system achieves a higher efficiency and significantly reduce the water consumption.

  19. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  20. Infrastructure performance of irrigation canal to irrigation efficiency of irrigation area of Candi Limo in Mojokerto District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisnanto, S.; Hadiani, R. R. R.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    Performance is a measure of infrastructure success in delivering the benefits corresponding it’s design implementation. Debit efficiency is a comparison between outflow debit and inflow debit. Irrigation canal performance is part of the overall performance aspects of an irrigation area. The greater of the canal performance will be concluded that the canal is increasingly able to meet the planned benefits, need to be seen its comparison between the performance and debit efficiency of the canal. The existing problems in the field that the value of the performance of irrigation canals are not always comparable to the debit efficiency. This study was conducted to describe the relationship between the performance of the canal to the canal debit efficiency. The study was conducted at Candi Limo Irrigation Area in Mojokerto Disctrict under the authority of Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Timur. The primary canal and secondary canal are surveyed to obtain data. The physical condition of the primary and secondary canals into the material of this study also. Primary and secondary canal performance based on the physical condition in the field. Measurement inflow and outflow debit into the data for the calculation of the debit efficiency. The instrument used in this study such as the current meter for debit measurements in the field as a solution when there is a building measure in the field were damaged, also using the meter and the camera. Permen PU No.32 is used to determine the value of the performance of the canal, while the efficiency analysis to calculate a comparison value between outflow and inflow debit. The process of data running processing by performing the measurement and calculation of the performance of the canal, the canal debit efficiency value calculation, and display a graph of the relationship between the value of the performance with the debit efficiency in each canal. The expected results of this study that the performance value on the primary canal in the

  1. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  2. Scenario Studies on Effects of Soil Infiltration Rates, Land Slope, and Furrow Irrigation Characteristics on Furrow Irrigation-Induced Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, Jibrin M; Ramalan, A A; Mudiare, O J; Igbadun, H E

    2014-01-01

    Furrow irrigation proceeds under several soil-water-furrow hydraulics interaction dynamics. The soil erosion consequences from such interactions in furrow irrigation in Samaru had remained uncertain. A furrow irrigation-induced erosion (FIIE) model was used to simulate the potential severity of soil erosion in irrigated furrows due to interactive effects of infiltration rates, land slope, and some furrow irrigation characteristics under different scenarios. The furrow irrigation characteristics considered were furrow lengths, widths, and stream sizes. The model itself was developed using the dimensional analysis approach. The scenarios studied were the interactive effects of furrow lengths, furrow widths, and slopes steepness; infiltration rates and furrow lengths; and stream sizes, furrow lengths, and slopes steepness on potential furrow irrigation-induced erosion, respectively. The severity of FIIE was found to relate somewhat linearly with slope and stream size, and inversely with furrow lengths and furrow width. The worst soil erosion (378.05 t/ha/yr) was found as a result of the interactive effects of 0.65 m furrow width, 50 m furrow length, and 0.25% slope steepness; and the least soil erosion (0.013 t/ha/yr) was induced by the combined effects of 0.5 l/s, 200 m furrow length, and 0.05% slope steepness. Evidently considering longer furrows in furrow irrigation designs would be a better alternative of averting excessive FIIE.

  3. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  4. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  5. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  6. Potential microbial risk factors related to soil amendments and irrigation water of potato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, M V; Allende, A; López-Gálvez, F; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R; Gil, M I

    2007-12-01

    This study assesses the potential microbial risk factors related to the use of soil amendments and irrigation water on potato crops, cultivated in one traditional and two intensive farms during two harvest seasons. The natural microbiota and potentially pathogenic micro-organisms were evaluated in the soil amendment, irrigation water, soil and produce. Uncomposted amendments and residual and creek water samples showed the highest microbial counts. The microbial load of potatoes harvested in spring was similar among the tested farms despite the diverse microbial levels of Listeria spp. and faecal coliforms in the potential risk sources. However, differences in total coliform load of potato were found between farms cultivated in the autumn. Immunochromatographic rapid tests and the BAM's reference method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual; AOAC International) were used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the potential risk sources and produce. Confirmation of the positive results by polymerase chain reaction procedures showed that the immunochromatographic assay was not reliable as it led to false-positive results. The potentially pathogenic micro-organisms of soil amendment, irrigation water and soil samples changed with the harvest seasons and the use of different agricultural practices. However, the microbial load of the produce was not always influenced by these risk sources. Improvements in environmental sample preparation are needed to avoid interferences in the use of immunochromatographic rapid tests. The potential microbial risk sources of fresh produce should be regularly controlled using reliable detection methods to guarantee their microbial safety.

  7. IRRIGATION STATION EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTING THE USE OF LOW WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Nicolescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  8. Factors Affecting the Ability of Agriculture to Pay Irrigation-Water Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagood, M. A. [Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1967-11-15

    There are no universally acceptable standard criteria for determining how much agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Justification of cost will depend upon the country's need to develop its soil and water resources for food, for international trade, and for its cumulative effect on other industries in comparison with other possible uses and their over-all contributions to the economy. Social and political conditions often have as much or more influence on development cost decisions than do strictly economic analyses. Many studies indicate that US $0.10/1000 US gal is an upper limit of acceptable costs for developing irrigation water at present economic levels. Under private development and on projects where water users must pay total water costs, methods are available for making feasibility budgets based on present prices. Because of inflation, world food shortage, recessions, future population and other unknown factors, it is hazardous to predict how much farmers or agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Better utilization of water available now offers opportunities for ''developing'' sources at costs much less than those for sources such as sea-water conversion. (author)

  9. Microteaching as a self-learning tool. Students' perceptions in the preparation and exposition of a microlesson in a tissue engineering course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Campos-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Microteaching is a didactic tool of recent application to undergraduate and postgraduate students as a way to promote self-learning. In this work we compared the perceptions of the students who provide instruction in tissue engineering using microteaching and the perceptions of the same students when they receive such instructions. Two similar questionnaires with items related to the preparation and exposition of a microlesson were used to investigate the perception of 56 students before and after the microteaching session. In our results, students significantly prefer to use specific objectives, textbooks and Internet information when they are preparing a microlesson as compared to the situation when they receive it. On the other hand, the use of a pre-programmed index during the exposition and the reduction of the use of PowerPoint software are significantly more preferred by the students after receiving the microlesson. No statistical differences were found for the rest of the options analyzed. These results show that the self-assessment generated in the microteaching session, which is linked to the feedback related to the self-learning process, makes microteaching a technique not only useful for self-learning but also an important tool to promote self-regulation across the curriculum.

  10. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From event to impact: International Exhibition and urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The realization of a mega event mainly affects the city life. On the one hand, the exceptional event represents a factor which speeds up urban transformations, that could not be realized otherwise. This characteristic has been defined as “pulsar effect” to explicate the impulse given to normal course of urban living by the mega events. On the other hand, mega events ask for actions aimed at managing the intense displacements due to their organizations and attractive capacity. Among the different types of events, this study considers the Universal Expositions, as they have been defined by the Bureau International des Expositions (the non-governmental organization having the decision power about great exposition. Universal or International Expo’s realization affects specific urban areas, interested by important transformations, especially referred to realization of infrastructure (mobility or dedicated to the event. While the management of urban mobility requires to define specific actions aimed at traffic congestion minimization. Increasing transport demand (visitors and tourists + residents and city-users is one of mega event effects. This work deals with individuations of mega event effects on city organization by analysing some case studies of Expos cities. Particularly referred to transformations occurred in transport infrastructures this articles sketches out the contemporary Expos profile and theirs effects on city.

  12. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  13. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  14. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  15. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  16. An in vitro comparison of irrigation using photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming, ultrasonic, sonic and needle techniques in removing calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Akcay, M; Capar, I D; Saygili, G; Gok, T; Ertas, H

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of various techniques including photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), ultrasonic, sonic and needle irrigation on the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] from artificial grooves created in root canals. The root canals of 48 extracted single-rooted teeth with straight canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary instruments up to size 40. After the specimens had been split longitudinally, a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of one segment that was filled with Ca(OH)2 powder mixed with distilled water. Each tooth was reassembled and the apices closed with wax. The specimens were irrigated for 60 s with one of the following techniques: needle irrigation using 17% EDTA, PIPS with 17% EDTA, ultrasonic irrigation using 17% EDTA and sonic irrigation (EndoActivator) using 17% EDTA. The root segments were then disassembled, and the amount of remaining Ca(OH)2 evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 25× magnification. A pixel count of Ca(OH)2 remaining on the artificially created grooves was recorded as a percentage of the overall groove surface. The data were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference post hoc tests at 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). Photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming was superior in removing Ca(OH)2 as compared to needle irrigation (P streaming provided complete removal of Ca(OH)2 from artificial grooves in straight root canals. Ultrasonic irrigation enhanced the Ca(OH)2 removal capacity of irrigating solution but did not provide complete removal from artificial grooves. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Observations of cloud and rainfall enhancement over irrigated agriculture in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    The impact of irrigated agriculture on clouds and rainfall remains uncertain, particularly in less studied arid regions. Irrigated crops account for 20% of global cropland area, and non-renewable groundwater accounts for 20% of global irrigation water demand. Quantifying the feedbacks between agriculture and the atmosphere are therefore not only necessary to better understand the climate impacts of land-use change, but are also crucial for predicting long-term water use in water-scarce regions. Here we use high spatial-resolution satellite data to show the impact of irrigated crops in the arid environment of northern Saudi Arabia on cloud cover and rainfall patterns. Land surface temperatures over the crops are 5-10 K lower than their surroundings, linked to evapotranspiration rates of up to 20 mm/ month. Daytime cloud cover is up to 30% higher over the cropland compared to its immediate surroundings, and this enhancement is highly correlated with the seasonal variability in leaf area index. The cloud enhancement is associated with a much more rapid cloud cloud development during the morning. Afternoon rainfall is 85% higher over, and just downwind, of the cropland during the growing season, although rainfall remains very low in absolute terms. The feedback sign we find is the opposite to what has been observed in tropical and semiarid regions, where temperature gradients promote convergence and clouds on the warmer side of land-surface type discontinuities. This suggests that different processes are responsible for the land-atmosphere feedback in very dry environments, where lack of moisture may be a stronger constraint. Increased cloud and rainfall, and associated increases in diffuse radiation and reductions in temperature, can affect vegetation growth thus producing an internal feedback. These effects will therefore need to be taken into account to properly assess the impact of climate change on crop productivity and water use, as well as how global land

  18. Use of small scale electrical resistivity tomography to identify soil-root interactions during deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, D.; Cassiani, G.; Busato, L.; Boaga, J.; Barbagallo, S.; Binley, A.; Consoli, S.

    2018-01-01

    Plant roots activity affect the exchanges of mass and energy between the soil and atmosphere. However, it is challenging to monitor the activity of the root-zone because roots are not visible from the soil surface, and root systems undergo spatial and temporal variations in response to internal and external conditions. Therefore, measurements of the activity of root systems are interesting to ecohydrologists in general, and are especially important for specific applications, such as irrigation water management. This study demonstrates the use of small scale three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to monitor the root-zone of orange trees irrigated by two different regimes: (i) full rate, in which 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is provided; and (ii) partial root-zone drying (PRD), in which 50% of ETc is supplied to alternate sides of the tree. We performed time-lapse 3-D ERT measurements on these trees from 5 June to 24 September 2015, and compared the long-term and short-term changes before, during, and after irrigation events. Given the small changes in soil temperature and pore water electrical conductivity, we interpreted changes of soil electrical resistivity from 3-D ERT data as proxies for changes in soil water content. The ERT results are consistent with measurements of transpiration flux and soil temperature. The changes in electrical resistivity obtained from ERT measurements in this case study indicate that root water uptake (RWU) processes occur at the 0.1 m scale, and highlight the impact of different irrigation schemes.

  19. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  20. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  1. Stakeholder analysis in the management of irrigation in Kampili area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumiati; Ali, M. S. S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Mahyuddin

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation has appreciable contribution in building food security, particularly rice crops. This study aims to analyze the role of stakeholders involved in distributing of irrigation water. The study was conducted in the Kampili Irrigation Area in South Sulawesi Province Indonesia, the data were obtained through observation and interviews with stakeholders involved, and analysed by stakeholder analysis, based on the interests and power held by the actors. This analysis is intended to provide an optimal picture of the expected role of each stakeholder in the management of irrigation resources. The results show that there were many stakeholders involved in irrigation management. In the arrangement of irrigation distribution there was overlapping authority of the stakeholders to its management, every stakeholder had different interests and power between each other. The existence have given positive and negative values in distributing irrigation water management, then in the stakeholder collaboration there was contestation between them. This contestation took place between the agriculture department, PSDA province, the Jeneberang River Region Hall, the Farmers Group and the P3A.

  2. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  3. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  4. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION PROTOCOLS IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka N. Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  5. Irrigation scheduling of spring wheat using infrared thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, E.C.; Soderlund, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling for spring wheat requires information on different irrigation timing methods. Irrigation timing based on allowable root zone available water depletion and selected crop water stress index (CWSI) thresholds were evaluated in terms of their effect on spring wheat yield. A field study was conducted at Oakes, North Dakota in 1987 and 1988 on a Maddock sandy loam soil with two varieties of spring wheat (Marshall and Wheaton) using a split plot randomized block design. Irrigation was metered to each plot using trickle irrigation tubing. Neutron soil water measurements along with a water balance model were used to time irrigations that were based on different allowed root zone depletions. Infrared thermometer sensors (IRT) were used to measure in situ canopy temperatures and along with measured climatic information were used to time irrigations using the CWSI approach. Additionally, crop phenological stages and final grain yield were measured. The non-water-stressed baselines necessary for the CWSI differed between the two seasons but were similar to those from previous studies. The CWSI methods were feasible from the Feekes scale S4 (beginning pseudo-stem) to S11.2 (mealy ripe). Minimal yield reductions were observed using the CWSI method for thresholds less than 0.4-0.5 during this period. Minimal yield reductions were observed by maintaining the root zone allowable depletion below 50%. The grain yield-evapotranspiration (ET) relationship was linear in both years but with different slopes and intercepts. When analyzed on a relative basis to maximum ET (ETm), a single relationship fit both years’ data with a yield sensitivity factor of 1.58. Irrigations timed at CWSI = 0.5 reduced seasonal water application by 18% relative to treatments irrigated at CWSI = 0.2. (author)

  6. Fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Aye Gyi, Aye; Schultz, Tim

    2008-09-01

    Background  Various techniques for managing faecal evacuation have been proposed; however, colostomy irrigation is favoured as it leads to better patient outcomes. Alternative fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation have been suggested to achieve effective evacuation. Aim  The objective of this review was to summarise the best available evidence on the most effective fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation. Search strategy  Trials were identified by electronic searches of CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. Unpublished articles and references lists from included studies were also searched. Selection criteria  Randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies investigating any fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes measured included fluid inflow time, total wash-out time, haemodynamic changes during irrigation, cramps, leakage episodes, quality of life and level of satisfaction. Data collection and analysis  Trial selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion. Main results  The systematic literature search strategy identified two cross-over trials that compared water with another fluid regimen. Owing to the differences in irrigating solutions used, the results were not pooled for analysis. Both the polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and glyceryl trinitrate performed significantly better than water. Conclusion  There is some evidence to support the effectiveness of fluid regimens other than water, such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte and glyceryl trinitrate, for colostomy irrigation. Further well-designed clinical trials are required to establish solid evidence on the effectiveness of other irrigating solutions that might enhance colonic irrigation. © 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Les pratiques participatives des associations d'usagers de l'eau dans la gestion de l'irrigation au Maroc : étude de cas en petite, moyenne et grande hydraulique

    OpenAIRE

    El Alaoui , Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    International audience; En matière d'irrigation, jusqu'au début des années 90, l'Etat marocain s'est préoccupé essentiellement d'aménager le maximum de surfaces pour l'irrigation afin de promouvoir une agriculture moderne, d'intensifier la production agricole et de contribuer durablement à la sécurité alimentaire du pays. Les choix des politiques d'irrigation ont ensuite évolué en fonction du contexte. Cependant, certaines contraintes pesaient toujours fortement (endettement de l'Etat, écart ...

  8. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  9. Remotely-Sensed Mapping of Irrigation Area in the Chu-Talas River Basin in Central Asia and Application to Compliance Monitoring of Transboundary Water Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Siegfried, T.; Herberz, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the Central Asian Chu-Talas River Basin, farmers depend on freshwater from international rivers to irrigate their fields during the summer growing season. While the allocation percentages of water sharing between up- and downstream are defined for both rivers, marked interannual supply variability plus inadequate monitoring renders the compliance with these quotas difficult. In such circumstances, data on irrigated area obtained by remote sensing can be used to map the extent of irrigation in terms of its area on at national and subnational scales. Due to its transparency on how the data was obtained (freely available satellite data) and processed, this objective measure could potentially be used as a data product for confidence building and for compliance monitoring. This study assesses the extent and location of irrigated areas over the period 2000 - 2016 in the basins by using state-of-the-art remote sensing technology. Using a random forest classifier, an automated irrigated cropland mapping algorithm was implemented in Google Earth Engine using Landsat 7 data. First, a training set was established through visual interpretation (irrigated and non-irrigated classes for the year 2015) and the classifier then trained. The classier was then applied on a series of seasonal greenest pixels image mosaics from 2000 to 2016. A four-stepped accuracy assessment confirmed that the classifier yielded robust, reliable and reproducible results. Outcomes indicate that irrigated areas in the Kyrgyz side of the Talas Basin approximately doubled by 2016 since 2000 while the irrigated area in the Kazakh part of the basin did not significantly change over the 17 year time period. In the Chu River Basin, total irrigated area tripled since 2000. Comparison with officially reported statistics shows differences and points to reporting issues in both countries. We conclude that remote sensing of irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions in combination with cloud computing offers

  10. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  11. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  12. Optimization of irrigation water in stone fruit and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Castillo, Cristina; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. The main objective of this experiment was to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. Five demonstration plots were established in representative crops of the irrigating community of Campotejar (Murcia, Spain): i) Peach trees, cv. catherina in the "Periquitos" farm; ii) Apricot trees, cv. "Red Carlet" in "La Hoya del Fenazar" farm; iii) Nectarine trees, cv. Viowhite in "Agrícola Don Fernando" farm; iv) Table grape, cv "Crimson Seedless" in "La Hornera" farm; and v) Paraguayan cv. carioca in "The Hornera" farm. In each demonstration plot, at least two irrigation treatments were established: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential and Trunk Diameter Fluctuation derived indices: maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and trunk daily growth rate (TGR); vegetative growth of the different crops from trunk diameter and pruning dry weight, fruit growth and fruit

  13. Développement de l'irrigation et partenariats public-privé au Maroc ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le modèle sera fondé sur une étude comparative de deux modes d'irrigation dans le ... à un débat plus large sur le développement du marché de l'eau au Maroc. ... Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international est heureux ... Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique de ...

  14. Irrigation Scheduling for Green Bell Peppers Using Capacitance Soil Moisture Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Femminella, K.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable production areas are intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers (SMS) on yield, irrigation water use

  15. The phenology of malaria mosquitos in irrigated rice fields in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; Takken, W.; Huibers, F.P.; Touré, Y.T.

    2003-01-01

    A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency.

  16. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  17. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect o...

  18. Exposition orale aux nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) : du franchissement de l’épithélium buccal et intestinal au devenir et aux effets dans l’organisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Face à l’utilisation exponentielle des nanomatériaux dans des produits de consommation courante, dont l’alimentation, les conséquences pour l’homme d’une exposition quotidienne aux faibles doses de nanoparticules posent des questions de santé publique. Parmi les différentes voies d’exposition, la voie orale reste la moins documentée, alors que des nanomatériaux sont couramment utilisés comme additifs alimentaires, ou incorporés `a des emballages au contact des aliments, de l’eau, pour b´en´ef...

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  20. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  1. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  2. comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Rainfed, irrigated, food crops, profitability, Adamawa, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... some or all of three motives (Olayide and Heady, 1982). The major resources .... The third stage was the purposive selection of villages based on ...

  3. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Mooi River Irrigation Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal. Province ..... Seven principal components were extracted using Pearson cor- relations. By applying the ..... OLSON M (1965) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the.

  4. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  5. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  6. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and it achieves very high irrigation efficiency and uses. *Corresponding ... serious harmful effect on lettuce growing (Table 1). During the ... Seeds were sown in a seed bed under greenhouse conditions on. October 20th in ...

  7. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  9. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... results were obtained from the methods the following critical assumptions were ... system design, irrigation water management and the use of alternative ... to provide decision support regarding pipeline investments. SWIP-E ...

  10. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  11. Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Genotypes were grouped in cluster analysis (using Ward's method) based on Yp, Ys and ...

  12. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  13. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  14. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  15. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... both years of experimentation, application of two irrigations significantly increased the India ... marginal lands with poor fertility under rainfed conditions. ... and 40 kg K20 ha-1 as muriate of potash was applied to each plot.

  16. Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling of lettuce and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficient irrigation water management, which in turn supports water conservation, mitigation of groundwater depletion/degradation, energy savings, and crop quality maintenance. Past research in California has revealed strong relationships between fract...

  17. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Heerink, N.; Dries, L.K.E.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows

  18. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  19. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  20. Column leaching experiments of a uranium ore by atomizing irrigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yingying; Lei Zeyong; Chen Haihui

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiments ora uranium ore were made by atomizing irrigation technique. The leaching results are compared with the results obtained by spray irrigation and drip irrigation techniques respectively under the same conditions of column leaching experiments. The results show that the atomizing irrigation technique has more uniform solution distribution, higher leaching rate, shorter leaching period, and less ratio of liquid to solid. Consequently, the atomizing irrigation technique is suitable to the ore. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of best management practices under intensive irrigation using SWAT model

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Land management practices such as conservation tillage and optimum irrigation are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. The calibrated and validated SWAT-IRRIG model is the first modified SWAT version that reproduces well the irrigation return flows (IRF) when the irrigation source is outside of the watershed. The application of this SWAT version in intensive irrigated systems permits to better evaluate the best management practices (BMPs) in such syst...

  2. Irrigation in the Lower Durance: positive impacts of the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Blavoux, B.

    1995-01-01

    The water of river Durance is used to produce hydroelectricity and as stretch of water for tourism and since the thirteenth century for irrigation. The inherited situation is a well extended network of gravitation irrigation canals. This system is spendthrift of water, the water supplies are roughly 5 times the farming needs. The impact of this irrigation on the alluvial aquifer of the Lower Durance is the generalisation of the highest level of the water table in summer on the plain though the water budget has an average deficit of 550 mm. In addition, the nitrate concentration is maintained to an average of 17 mg/l in groundwater and 5 mg/l in streams by dilution. In fact, the irrigation dictates an average input of water with 25.4 mg/l of NO 3- . The natural isotopic tracing (oxygen 18) allows to say that 50 to 75% of the water of the alluvial aquifer come from irrigation. To improve the knowledge about the efficiency of irrigation, a mathematical groundwater model has been created. As a result, 53% of the water is lost while reaching the agricultural parcels, 19% is infiltrated during watering at the parcel and only 28% are used to satisfy the needs of plants. The realisation of this model has allowed to simulate the impact on groundwater of changes in irrigation practices which would lead to reduce the consummation of water. In the case of Lower Durance, the reduction of irrigation losses would have a strong impact on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer. (J.S.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip radiofrequency catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures radiofrequency ablation. Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation using power control and high infusion rates enlarges lesion......: We conclude that temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation with irrigated tip catheters using low target temperature and low infusion rate enlarges lesion size without increasing the incidence of cratering and reduces coagulum formation of the tip....

  4. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were typically higher in the AIS than in the conventional irrigation control system (CIS). Under the AIS treatment, the WUE and IWUE values were 1.64 and 1.37 k·gm-3 for wheat, and 7.50 and 6.50 kg·m-3 for tomato crops; ...

  5. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supplemental irrigation in farming systems : history of a practice and outlooks for Burkina Faso. Études. Adoption et impacts de l'irrigation de complément en zone sahélienne : modélisation bioéconomique d'une exploitation à Kongoussi. Études. Analyse comparative des modes d'exhaure et de deux techniques culturales ...

  6. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  7. Estimation of Maize photosynthesis Efficiency Under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadithi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims at estimating maize photosynthesis efficiency under deficit irrigation and soil mulching. A split-split plot design experiment was conducted with three replicates during the fall season 2000 and spring season 2001 at the experimental Station of Soil Dept./ Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. The main plots were assigned to full and deficit irrigation treatments: (C) control. The deficit irrigation treatment included the omission of one irrigation at establishment (S1, 15 days), vegetation (S2, 35 days), flowering (S3, 40 days) and yield formation (S4, 30 days) stages. The sub-plots were allocated for the two varieties, Synthetic 5012 (V1) and Haybrid 2052 (V2). The sub-sub-plots were assigned to mulch (M1) with wheat straw and no mulch (M0). Results showed that the deficit irrigation did not affect photosynthesis efficiency in both seasons, which ranged between 1.90 to 2.15% in fall season and between 1.18 and 1.45% in spring season. The hybrid variety was superior 9.39 and 9.15% over synthetic variety in fall and spring seasons, respectively. Deficit irrigation, varieties and mulch had no significant effects on harvest index in both seasons. This indicates that the two varieties were stable in their partitioning efficiency of nutrient matter between plant organ and grains under the condition of this experiment. (Author) 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  9. Bureaucratic Reform in Irrigation: A Review of Four Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance of government-managed irrigation systems persists globally. This paper argues that addressing performance requires not simply more investment or different policy approaches, but reform of the bureaucracies responsible for irrigation management. Based on reform experiences in The Philippines, Mexico, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan, we argue that irrigation (policy reform cannot be treated in isolation from the overall functioning of government bureaucracies and the wider political structure of the states. Understanding of how and why government bureaucracies shape reform processes and outcomes is crucial to increase the actual significance of reforms. To demonstrate this, the paper links reform processes in the irrigation sector with the wider discourse of bureaucratic reform in the political science, public administration, and organisational science literature. Doing so brings to light the need for systematic comparative research on the organisational characteristic of the irrigation bureaucracies, their bureaucratic identities, and how these are shaped by various segments within the bureaucracies to provide the insights needed to improve irrigation systems performance.

  10. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bo Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Film hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ, film hole diameter (D, and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov model for infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141–2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177–2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131–1.479%, and a large Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0.

  11. TRANSPORT OF SOLUTES IN THE FIELD AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Comegna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study documents and compares the transport of a conservative solute in near saturated soil profiles under flood and sprinkler irrigation. The experiments were carried out on a clay Vertic-Usthortens soil located near Potenza (Italy. Two 2x2 m2 plots were clipped of their native grass vegetation. After spraying on the surface a Cl- pulse as KCl salt; water was applied in five increments over two months as flood irrigation on the first plot and as sprinkler irrigation on the second one. Chloride resident concentration Cr, was sampled by soil coring at four different days after chemical application. Cr(z,t profiles were analyzed by spatial moment method. The recovered mass of Cl- and location of center of mass were comparable for the two types of irrigation. The spread around the center of mass, however, was higher for the flood-irrigated plot. In the flood-irrigated plot, more mass leached below the depth of 90 cm. The velocity of the center of mass was consistently 10-20% larger than the piston displacement velocity. To evaluate the nature of transport, the Cr(z,t distributions were modelled using quasi-steady solution of convection-dispersion equation(CDE. At the scale of our experiments the profiles of Cl- resident concentration are well-simulated.

  12. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  13. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  14. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  15. Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstmann, Elena; Gräwe, Dennis; Tamminga, Matthias; Fischer, Elke Kerstin

    2017-02-15

    The abundance, weight and composition of marine debris were determined at the northwest coast of the Isle of Rügen in 2015. A total number of 1115 macrolitter items were registered, resulting in an abundance of 304±88.96 items per 100m of beach length and therefore being greater than the abundances found for other beaches at the Baltic Sea. Macrolitter items were predominantly composed of plastic, on average 83%. The four beaches under investigation have different exposition as well as touristic levels. The differing influence of wind and water currents as well as recreational activities on the macrolitter at these beaches was detectable. The distribution of items within a beach segment was analyzed by implementing D-GPS and drone aerial photography. The results of this analysis suggested that the identity of the substrate as well as the presence of vegetation are both major influencing factors in the macrolitter distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. « Un chaos savamment ordonné… ». L’élaboration conceptuelle de l’Exposition internationale japonaise en 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Houdart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available  « Pas besoin de roman, Orsenna, ni même de nouvelles, moi je ne suis écrivain que de quelques mots. “Un chaos savamment ordonné de plantes, d’animaux et d’êtres humains”.Dites-moi, Orsenna, franchement, c’est bien ça une exposition coloniale : ça et rien que ça ?Alors [Gruvel] proposait à chaque séanceson chaos. […]Le chef de service proposait une descriptiondu palais des Colonies :“Derrière son élégante et pure colonnade, la haute façade apparaîtra tout entière transformée en une immense fr...

  17. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  18. Nitrogen-use efficiency of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvalle-Bueno, X.; Osorio-Alatorre, R.; Ortiz-Monasterio, I.

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments with irrigated wheat were conducted from 1994 to 1998, using 15 N, with the objective of identifying appropriate ways of managing applied N to maximize economic profit, minimize N losses and avoid environmental pollution. Fertilizer application was partitioned with one third applied at sowing and two thirds added at Zadoks growth-stage 30 (Z-30), or two thirds at sowing and one third at Z-30, at total rates of 84, 167 and 250 kg N ha -1 . Urea and ammonium sulphate were compared as N-sources at sowing, whereas ammonium nitrate was used at Z-30. The optimum agronomic rate based on the average of the first two years was 178 kg N ha -1 . The economic optimum was 118 kg N ha -1 . The uptake of N from ammonium fertilizer was 20% higher than that from nitrate. Soil mineral N was relatively high at sowing and subsequent mineralization resulted in uptake of 90 kg N ha -1 from the zero-applied-N control plots. Soil-supplied N is, however, not considered when farmers decide on the rate of fertilizer to be applied, potentially resulting in high losses. Nitrogen-15 constituted a useful tool for understanding the relative contributions of soil and fertilizer to the N-nutrition of wheat. (author)

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation and Hydropower Potential: A Case of Upper Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, E. J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the growing pressure in water resource and climate change there is great uncertainty in the availability of water for existing as well as proposed irrigation and hydropower projects in the Upper Blue Nile basin (longitude 34oE and 39oE and latitude 7oN and 12oN). This study quantitatively assessed the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the basin which intern affect water availability for different use including hydropower and irrigation. Ensemble of four bias corrected regional climate models (RCM) of CORDEX Africa domain and two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to determine climate projections for future (2021-2050) period. The outputs from the climate models used to drive the calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model to simulate future runoff. The simulated discharge were used as input to a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) water allocation model to determine the implication in hydropower and irrigation potential of the basin. The WEAP model was setup to simulate three scenarios which includes Current, Medium-term (by 2025) and Long-term (by 2050) Development scenario. The projected mean annual temperature of the basin are warmer than the baseline (1982 - 2005) average in the range of 1 to 1.4oC. Projected mean annual precipitation varies across the basin in the range of - 3% to 7%, much of the expected increase is in the highland region of the basin. The water use simulation indicate that the current annual average irrigation water demand in the basin is 1.29Bm3y-1 with 100% coverage. By 2025 and 2050, with the development of new schemes and changing climate, water demand for irrigation is estimated to increase by 2.5 Bm3y-1 and 3.4 Bm3y-1 with 99 % and 96% coverage respectively. Simulation for domestic water demand coverage for all scenarios shows that there will be 100% coverage for the two major cities in the basin. The hydropower generation simulation indicate that 98% of hydroelectricity

  20. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C.

    2014-10-01

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)