WorldWideScience

Sample records for international interlaboratory comparisons

  1. First international 26Al interlaboratory comparison - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchel, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    After finishing Part I of the first international 26 Al interlaboratory comparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories [S. Merchel, W. Bremser, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 393], the evaluation of Part II with radionuclide counting laboratories took place. The evaluation of the results of the seven participating laboratories on four meteorite samples shows a good overall agreement between laboratories, i.e. it does not reveal any statistically significant differences if results are compared sample-by-sample. However, certain interlaboratory bias is observed with a more detailed statistical analysis including some multivariate approaches

  2. PSF interlaboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments for interlaboratory verification of radiometric analysis methods have been conducted with dosimeters irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) Poolside Facility (PSF) Surveillance Dosimeter Measurement Facility (SDMF). In a preliminary analysis of data supplied by the six participants, biases as large as 60% were observed which could lead to errors of this general magnitude in reported surveillance capsule fluence values. As a result of these comparisons, problems were identified and the spread in final values was greatly reduced. Relative agreement among the final results reported by four of the laboratories now appears to be satisfactory (the non-fission dosimeter results generally falling within +-5% and the fission dosimeter results within +-10%), but improvement is required in order to routinely meet Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program goals

  3. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  4. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practica...

  5. An inter-laboratory comparison of Si isotope reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, B.C.; Aggarwal, J.; André, L.; Baxter, B.; Beucher, C.; Brzezinski, M.A.; Engström, E.; Georg, R.B.; Land, M.; Leng, M.J.; Opfergelt, S.; Rodushkin, I.; Sloane, H.J.; Van den Boorn, S.H.J.M.; Vroon, P.Z.; Cardinal, D.

    2007-01-01

    Three Si isotope materials have been used for an inter-laboratory comparison exercise to ensure reproducibility between international laboratories investigating natural Si isotope variations using a variety of chemical preparation methods and mass spectrometric techniques. These proposed standard

  6. The distribution of interlaboratory comparison data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of mutually consistent results from interlaboratory comparisons is expected to be leptokurtic, and readers are warned against accepting conclusions based on simulations assuming normality.......The distribution of mutually consistent results from interlaboratory comparisons is expected to be leptokurtic, and readers are warned against accepting conclusions based on simulations assuming normality....

  7. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  8. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Adelman, Dave; Apell, Jennifer N; Burgess, Robert M; Choi, Yongju; Fernandez, Loretta A; Flavetta, Geanna M; Ghosh, Upal; Gschwend, Philip M; Hale, Sarah E; Jalalizadeh, Mehregan; Khairy, Mohammed; Lampi, Mark A; Lao, Wenjian; Lohmann, Rainer; Lydy, Michael J; Maruya, Keith A; Nutile, Samuel A; Oen, Amy M P; Rakowska, Magdalena I; Reible, Danny; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Smedes, Foppe; Wu, Yanwen

    2018-03-20

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practical guidance for standardized passive sampling, and advance the use of passive sampling in regulatory decision making by increasing confidence in the use of the technique. The study was performed by a consortium of 11 laboratories and included experiments with 14 passive sampling formats on 3 sediments for 25 target chemicals (PAHs and PCBs). The resulting overall interlaboratory variability was large (a factor of ∼10), but standardization of methods halved this variability. The remaining variability was primarily due to factors not related to passive sampling itself, i.e., sediment heterogeneity and analytical chemistry. Excluding the latter source of variability, by performing all analyses in one laboratory, showed that passive sampling results can have a high precision and a very low intermethod variability (sampling, irrespective of the specific method used, is fit for implementation in risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, provided that method setup and performance, as well as chemical analyses are quality-controlled.

  9. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation...

  10. Design and operation of an interlaboratory comparison scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculescu, R. M.; Olteanu, M. C.; Nistor, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    The competence of laboratories is assessed by two complementary techniques. One of the techniques is the on-site evaluation following the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The other one implies the proficiency testing which involves the determination of laboratory performance by means of interlaboratory comparisons, whereby the laboratory performs practical tests and their results are further compared with those of other laboratories. The paper treats one of the most important topics of the proficiency testing – the interlaboratory comparison (ILC). There will be presented the need, the purpose and the main objectives of an ILC and also a typically situation where an interlaboratory comparison exercise (for radio-analytical methods) was planned. A fully description of the design and operation of an ILC scheme is the main purpose of this paper. A special attention will be given to the data analysis and evaluation of interlaboratory comparison scheme results. (authors)

  11. Interlaboratory comparison: Radionuclides in Irish sea water. IAEA-443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Our society is giving increasing importance to the study and assessment of the state and health of the environment. Organizations involved in such activities rely on the quality of the information provided and, ultimately, on the precision and accuracy of the data on which the information is based. Many laboratories are involved in the production of environmental data, in many cases leading to wider assessments. These laboratories may develop and validate new analytical methods, study the environmental impact of human activities, provide services to other organizations, etc. In particular, laboratories are providing data on levels of radioactivity in a variety of marine matrixes such as water, suspended matter, sediments and biota. Because of the need to base scientific conclusions on valid and internationally comparable data, the need to provide policy makers with correct information and the need for society to be informed of the state of the environment, it is indispensable to ensure the quality of the data produced by each laboratory. Principles of good laboratory practice require both internal and external procedures to verify the quality of the data produced. Internal quality is verified in a number of ways, such as the use of laboratory information systems, keeping full records of equipment performance and standardization of analytical procedures. External quality can also be ascertained in a number of ways, notably accreditation by an external body under a defined quality scheme but also, amongst others, the use of internationally accepted calibration standards that are traceable to the SI international system of units, the participation in interlaboratory comparisons or the regular use of Reference Materials to test laboratory performance. The Radiometrics Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratories has been providing quality products for the last 40 years, which include the organization of interlaboratory

  12. Reference materials and interlaboratory comparison for actinide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanssens, Alain; Viallesoubranne, Carole; Roche, Claude; Liozon, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Measurement quality is crucial for the safety of nuclear facilities and is a primary requirement for fissile material monitoring and accountancy. CETAMA (Cea Committee for the establishment of analysis methods), in collaboration with Cea and AREVA laboratories, fabricates certified reference materials and organizes interlaboratory comparison programs for plutonium and uranium assay in solution. A new plutonium metal measurement standard (MP3) is currently being prepared by Cea and is a subject of cooperative work in view of its certification and use by analysis laboratories. U and Pu interlaboratory comparisons are carried out at regular intervals on benchmark samples in coordination with working groups from French nuclear laboratories. These programs are supported by international cooperation. 'Chemical' methods (potentiometry, gravimetric analysis, etc.) generally provide the best accuracy. Coulometry is the benchmark technique for plutonium assay: its metrological qualities should be an incentive for wider use by laboratories performing precise control assays of plutonium as well as uranium. Gravimetric analysis provides excellent results for analysis of pure uranyl nitrate solutions. In view of its many advantages we encourage laboratories to employ this technique to assay pure U or Pu solutions. 'Physical' or 'physicochemical' methods are increasingly used, and their performance has improved. K-edge absorption spectrometry and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are capable of reaching measurement quality levels comparable to those of the best 'chemical' methods. (authors)

  13. Reference materials and interlaboratory comparison for actinide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssens, Alain; Viallesoubranne, Carole; Roche, Claude; Liozon, Gerard [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule: BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    Measurement quality is crucial for the safety of nuclear facilities and is a primary requirement for fissile material monitoring and accountancy. CETAMA (Cea Committee for the establishment of analysis methods), in collaboration with Cea and AREVA laboratories, fabricates certified reference materials and organizes interlaboratory comparison programs for plutonium and uranium assay in solution. A new plutonium metal measurement standard (MP3) is currently being prepared by Cea and is a subject of cooperative work in view of its certification and use by analysis laboratories. U and Pu interlaboratory comparisons are carried out at regular intervals on benchmark samples in coordination with working groups from French nuclear laboratories. These programs are supported by international cooperation. 'Chemical' methods (potentiometry, gravimetric analysis, etc.) generally provide the best accuracy. Coulometry is the benchmark technique for plutonium assay: its metrological qualities should be an incentive for wider use by laboratories performing precise control assays of plutonium as well as uranium. Gravimetric analysis provides excellent results for analysis of pure uranyl nitrate solutions. In view of its many advantages we encourage laboratories to employ this technique to assay pure U or Pu solutions. 'Physical' or 'physicochemical' methods are increasingly used, and their performance has improved. K-edge absorption spectrometry and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are capable of reaching measurement quality levels comparable to those of the best 'chemical' methods. (authors)

  14. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nathan D.; Lund, Steven P.; Zook, Justin M.; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S.; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  15. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Olson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing®, or Ion Torrent PGM®. The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1 identity of biologically conserved position, (2 ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3 the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies.

  16. Assessment of quality of measurement results in interlaboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Matel, L.; Rajec, P.

    2009-01-01

    Testing laboratory accredited according to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 has to ensure the quality of their results. Important aspect of correct evaluation of the result is the accuracy and uncertainty. Requirement of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 is the accredited laboratories to express their results with the corresponding uncertainty. Participation of laboratories in interlaboratory comparisons provides objective evidence of the level of reliability and quality of their results. Thereby the competency of accredited laboratories verified, including the verification of the declared measurement uncertainty. Some interlaboratory comparisons in which took participation the Testing Laboratory of Radiochemical Analysis (LARCHA) are presented.

  17. Role and Evaluation of Interlaboratory Comparison Results in Laboratory Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, P.

    2008-08-01

    Participation in interlaboratory comparisons provides laboratories an opportunity for independent assessment of their analytical performance, both in absolute way and in comparison with those by other techniques. However, such comparisons are hindered by differences in the way laboratories participate, e.g. at best measurement capability or under routine conditions. Neutron activation analysis laboratories, determining total mass fractions, often see themselves classified as `outliers' since the majority of other participants employ techniques with incomplete digestion methods. These considerations are discussed in relation to the way results from interlaboratory comparisons are evaluated by accreditation bodies following the requirements of Clause 5.9.1 of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The discussion and conclusions come largely forth from experiences in the author's own laboratory.

  18. Empirical insights and considerations for the OBT inter-laboratory comparison of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Bog; Roche, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) is an important tritium species that can be measured in most environmental samples, but has only recently been recognized as a species of tritium in these samples. Currently, OBT is not routinely measured by environmental monitoring laboratories around the world. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) for environmental samples. Thus, quality assurance (QA), or verification of the accuracy of the OBT measurement, is not possible. Alternatively, quality control (QC), or verification of the precision of the OBT measurement, can be achieved. In the past, there have been differences in OBT analysis results between environmental laboratories. A possible reason for the discrepancies may be differences in analytical methods. Therefore, inter-laboratory OBT comparisons among the environmental laboratories are important and would provide a good opportunity for adopting a reference OBT analytical procedure. Due to the analytical issues, only limited information is available on OBT measurement. Previously conducted OBT inter-laboratory practices are reviewed and the findings are described. Based on our experiences, a few considerations were suggested for the international OBT inter-laboratory comparison exercise to be completed in the near future. -- Highlights: ► Inter-laboratory OBT comparisons would provide a good opportunity for developing reference OBT analytical procedures. ► The measurement of environmental OBT concentrations has a higher associated uncertainty. ► Certified reference materials for OBT in environmental samples are required

  19. Be-10 and Cl-36 interlaboratory comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Bremser, Wolfram [BAM, Berlin (Germany); Alfimov, Vasily; Christl, Marcus; Kubik, Peter W. [PSI/ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Arnold, Maurice; Aumaitre, Georges; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier L.; Braucher, Regis [CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); Caffee, Marc [PRIME Lab, Purdue, IN (United States); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [ANU, Canberra (Australia); Finkel, Robert C. [CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, Stewart P.H.T.; Wilcken, Klaus M.; Xu, Sheng [SUERC, East Kilbride (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Gomez, Aaron [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Rood, Dylan H. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States); Sasa, Kimikazu [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton [VERA, Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Driven by the progress in AMS and its spreading application within geosciences, measurements of increasing numbers of samples with low isotopic ratios will be required in the future. Therefore, we have examined the linearity of {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be as a function of isotope ratio by distributing 3 secondary standards (dilutions of NIST4325: 10{sup -12}-10{sup -14}) to 9 AMS labs. The problem of low ratio samples is even more crucial for {sup 36}Cl mainly due to the high volatility of chlorine. Thus, we have prepared large quantities of 3 {sup 36}Cl/Cl solutions from a certified {sup 36}Cl activity (NIST4943) by dilution with NaCl. AgCl precipitated from these solutions (10{sup -11}-10{sup -13}) has been distributed to 9 AMS labs. Some measurements are still ongoing. First results from 6 labs for each nuclide show that these interlaboratory exercises are very valuable.

  20. International and interlaboratory collaboration on Neutron Science Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    For effectiveness of facility development for Neutron Science Projects at JAERI, international and interlaboratory collaborations have been extensively planned and promoted, especially in the areas of accelerator and target technology. Here status of two collaborations relevant to a spallation neutron target development is highlighted from those collaborations. The two collaborations are experiments on BNL-AGS spallation target simulation and PSI materials irradiation. Both are planned to start in spring of 1997. (author)

  1. Interlaboratory comparison on high-temperature superconductor critical-current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiejaczka, J.A.; Goodrich, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive interlaboratory comparison was conducted on high temperature superconductor (HTS) critical-current measurements. This study was part of an international cooperative effort through the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). The study involved six US laboratories that are recognized leaders in the field of HTS. This paper includes the complete results from this comparison of critical-current measurements on Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10-x (2223) tapes. The effects of sample characteristics, specimen mounting, measurement technique, and specimen damage were studied. The future development of a standard HTS measurement method is also discussed. Most of the evolution of this emerging technology has occurred in improvement of the performance of the conductors. The successful completion of this interlaboratory comparison is an important milestone in the evolution of HTS technology and marks a level of maturity that the technology has reached

  2. An inter-laboratory comparison of urinary 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid measurement demonstrates good reproducibility between laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Brian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers have been used extensively in clinical studies to assess toxicant exposure in smokers and non-smokers and have recently been used in the evaluation of novel tobacco products. The urinary metabolite 3-HPMA, a metabolite of the major tobacco smoke toxicity contributor acrolein, is one example of a biomarker used to measure exposure to tobacco smoke. A number of laboratories have developed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS based methods to measure urinary 3-HPMA; however, it is unclear to what extent the data obtained by these different laboratories are comparable. Findings This report describes an inter-laboratory comparison carried out to evaluate the comparability of 3-HPMA measurement between four laboratories. A common set of spiked and authentic smoker and non-smoker urine samples were used. Each laboratory used their in-house LC-MS/MS method and a common internal standard. A comparison of the repeatability ('r', reproducibility ('R', and coefficient of variation for 3-HPMA demonstrated that within-laboratory variation was consistently lower than between-laboratory variation. The average inter-laboratory coefficient of variation was 7% for fortified urine samples and 16.2% for authentic urine samples. Together, this represents an inter-laboratory variation of 12.2%. Conclusion The results from this first inter-laboratory comparison for the measurement of 3-HPMA in urine demonstrate a reasonably good consensus between laboratories. However, some consistent measurement biases were still observed between laboratories, suggesting that additional work may be required to further reduce the inter-laboratory coefficient of variation.

  3. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  4. Interlaboratory comparisons in kerma in the air measures and absorbed dose in water using 60Co beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves; Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that the measures of a quantity have high reliability and traceability interlaboratory comparisons are performed. The LNMRI has participated in several these interlaboratory comparisons. In the period 2000-2013 the LNMRI participated in 5 interlaboratory comparisons for measurement of kerma coefficients in the air and absorbed dose coefficients in the water. The results of interlaboratory comparisons indicate that the measures taken are appropriate to the LNMRI regarding the accuracy and precision measuring of these quantities

  5. Characterisation of humic material for inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peachy, D.; Bradley, A.D.; Davis, A.E.; Stuart, M.E.; Tait, B.A.R.; Vickers, B.P.; Williams, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterisation and interlaboratory comparison of common humic materials by members of the European Commission's COCO group (set up to study complexes and colloids), forms part of a study of the effects of natural organic compounds in groundwater on the complexation and mobility of radionuclides. Three samples have been characterised: a sodium salt and a protonated form of the commercially available humic acid from Aldrich Chemicals; and a protonated humic acid from the Gorleben research site in Germany. Characterisation undertaken by BGS includes moisture content, elemental analysis, metal content, functional group analysis, infra-red spectroscopy, ultra-violet absorbance (E 4 /E 6 ratios), and ultra-filtration. (author)

  6. 129I Interlaboratory comparison: phase I and phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Roberts, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for 129 I was organized and conducted. Nine laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In Phase I of the comparison, 11 samples were measured. The suite of samples contained both synthetic ''standard type'' materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic 129 I/ 127 I ratios of the samples varied from 10 -8 to 10 -14 . In this phase, each laboratory was responsible for its own chemical preparation of the samples. In Phase I, the 129 I AMS measurements for prepared AgI were in good agreement. However, large discrepancies were seen in 129 I AMS measurements of environmental samples. Because of the large discrepancies seen in the Phase I 129 I intercomparison, a subsequent study was conducted. In Phase II of the 129 I intercomparison, three separate laboratories prepared AgI from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maples leaves). Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method with each of the methods being distinctly different. The resulting six samples (two sets of three) were then re-distributed to the participating 129 I AMS facilities and 129 I/ 127 I ratios measured. Results and discussion of both the Phase I and Phase II interlaboratory comparison are presented

  7. Empirical insights and considerations for the OBT inter-laboratory comparison of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Bog; Roche, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) is an important tritium species that can be measured in most environmental samples, but has only recently been recognized as a species of tritium in these samples. Currently, OBT is not routinely measured by environmental monitoring laboratories around the world. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) for environmental samples. Thus, quality assurance (QA), or verification of the accuracy of the OBT measurement, is not possible. Alternatively, quality control (QC), or verification of the precision of the OBT measurement, can be achieved. In the past, there have been differences in OBT analysis results between environmental laboratories. A possible reason for the discrepancies may be differences in analytical methods. Therefore, inter-laboratory OBT comparisons among the environmental laboratories are important and would provide a good opportunity for adopting a reference OBT analytical procedure. Due to the analytical issues, only limited information is available on OBT measurement. Previously conducted OBT inter-laboratory practices are reviewed and the findings are described. Based on our experiences, a few considerations were suggested for the international OBT inter-laboratory comparison exercise to be completed in the near future. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. I: Activated carbon" Carbon 47 ( 2009 ) 2958 -2969 Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Duffy, G., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K.A.M., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M., Levy, J., Ozdemir, E., Pan, Z., Robinson, Jr., R.L., Schroeder, K., Sudibandriyo, M., White, C. (2004). An Inter-laboratory Comparison of CO2 Isotherms Measured on Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Energy and Fuels 18, 1175-1182. Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Day, S., Duffy, G.J., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K.A.M., Gensterblum, Y., Hartman, C., Krooss, B.M., Pan, Z., Pratt, T., Robinson, Jr., R.L., Romanov, V., Sakurovs, R., Schroeder, K., Sudibandriyo, M., White, C.M. (2007) "Inter-laboratory Comparison II: CO2 Isotherms Measured on Moisture-Equilibrated Argonne Premium Coals at 55oC and 15 MPa", International Journal of Coal Geology 72, 153-164.

  9. Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Poel, W. H. M.; Cay, B.; Zientara, S.

    2014-01-01

    Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, a...

  10. An interlaboratory comparison exercise for organohalogens in marine mammal blubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, J.; Becker, P.; Pugh, R. [NIST, Hollings Marine Lab., Charleston (United States); Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [NIST, Gaithersburg (United States); Rowles, T. [NOAA, Silversprings (United States)

    2004-09-15

    For analytical data generated on marine mammal tissues, such as blubber, harmonizing measurements of organohalogen compounds is very important. Often organohalogen data on marine mammal samples from different laboratories are combined to provide an indication of geographical trends or to help ascertain toxicological significance. In at least one study that combined data on organohalogen concentrations from marine mammal blubber to examine geographical trends, it was found that among laboratory variability contributed significantly to the observed data variability (Schwacke, personal communication). To help resolve such problems, NIST and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated an interlaboratory comparison exercise program patterned after the exercise described above but using marine mammal blubber as the exercise materials. The objective of this paper is to describe the exercises, summarize selected results, and discuss the value of these interterlaboratory comparison exercises. The exercises have been held on a small scale (<10 laboratories) starting in 1991 and on a larger scale (10 or more laboratories) starting in 1999. Twenty-four laboratories participated in the 2003 exercise.

  11. An interlaboratory comparison of methods for measuring rock matrix porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Kivekaes, L.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Melamed, A.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    1996-09-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study was conducted for the available Finnish methods of rock matrix porosity measurements. The aim was first to compare different experimental methods for future applications, and second to obtain quality assured data for the needs of matrix diffusion modelling. Three different versions of water immersion techniques, a tracer elution method, a helium gas through-diffusion method, and a C-14-PMMA method were tested. All methods selected for this study were established experimental tools in the respective laboratories, and they had already been individually tested. Rock samples for the study were obtained from a homogeneous granitic drill core section from the natural analogue site at Palmottu. The drill core section was cut into slabs that were expected to be practically identical. The subsamples were then circulated between the different laboratories using a round robin approach. The circulation was possible because all methods were non-destructive, except the C-14-PMMA method, which was always the last method to be applied. The possible effect of drying temperature on the measured porosity was also preliminarily tested. These measurements were done in the order of increasing drying temperature. Based on the study, it can be concluded that all methods are comparable in their accuracy. The selection of methods for future applications can therefore be based on practical considerations. Drying temperature seemed to have very little effect on the measured porosity, but a more detailed study is needed for definite conclusions. (author) (4 refs.)

  12. Inter-laboratory comparisons. Determination of actinides in excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Cavadore, D.; Harduin, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Inter-laboratory tests are a means of assessing the analytical coherence of medical laboratories. In radio toxicology, this kind of exercise makes it possible to keep up with laboratory know-how and with the evolution and relative performances of analytical techniques (precision and reproducibility). However, the goal of the laboratories taking part in these annual exercises is not only to check the accuracy of their results. The analytical discussions and the chance to compare experience enrich the groups general competence. French biologists have been organizing annual radio toxicology intercomparison exercises since 1978. The exercises are carried out within the framework of a working group (GT1) operating under the aegis of the French Atomic Energy Commission's (CEA) Medical Coordinator. Using reports and diagrams which present the results obtained by the participants in the form of syntheses, the authors describe how the exercises for determining actinides in excreta (urine and faeces) are organized, how the results are evaluated in terms of the analytical methods used, and the improvements made in analytical and metrological performance. Up until 1985, these exercises were limited to French laboratories. Since then, the exercises have acquired an international dimension, opening up to include interested foreign radio chemists, initially from European laboratories, and now from laboratories worldwide. At the present time, 35 laboratories representing 9 countries take part regularly in these intercomparison exercises. (author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  13. The third international interlaboratory study on brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Wells, D. [FRS Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been produced as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) since the early 1970s and have been found in the aquatic environment since the late 1970s. However, as a result of their detection in sperm whales from deeper Atlantic waters and in human milk, many laboratories are now measuring PBDEs in environmental samples. A first international interlaboratory study (ILS) on the analysis of PBDEs, organised by the Bromine Science and Environmental Forum (BSEF), Brussels, Belgium, in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO) was conducted in 1999-2000. The results showed that the 18 participating laboratories produced comparable results for BDE 47 in various matrices but had analytical difficulties for other BDEs, in particular for the BDEs 99 and 209. A second study was organised in 2001-2002 by BSEF, QUASIMEME and RIVO. That study showed improvement in comparability of the participating laboratories for BDE99 and some other BDEs. However, there was no improvement for BDE209. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and the dimethyl derivative of TBBP-A (dimethyl TBBP-A) were included in the second study. However, it appeared that only two or three laboratories were able to analyse these determinands. Others laboratories were still in the development phase with their methods for these BFRs. This third study was organised as a development exercise by QUASIMEME, in collaboration with RIVO between September and December 2003. The BFRs selected were the same as in the second study. Two biota test materials, a harbor sediment, a sewage sludge, and two standard solutions were dispatched to the participants.

  14. An inter-laboratory comparison of arsenic analysis in Bangladesh. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Dargie, M.; Groening, M.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Gibson, J.J.

    2001-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducted an evaluation of the quality of arsenic analysis in Bangladesh through an inter-laboratory comparison of the analysis of synthetic standards and field samples. A set of 8 synthetic standards with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0 to about 500 μg/kg, traceable to an internationally recognized standard solution of arsenic, were prepared by the IAEA and provided to the participating laboratories. In addition, two samples of drinking water were collected from near Dhaka by the local office of the World Health Organization (WHO) and provided to all participating laboratories and the IAEA for analysis. Out of the 25 laboratories who received the synthetic standards and field samples, 17 laboratories submitted results to the IAEA for comparison. The reported arsenic concentrations have a wide range with values much higher or much lower than the expected value. Analysis of field samples shows a range of values from 0 to 396 μg/kg. Less than one third of the participating laboratories obtained results that were within about 20% of the expected values (about 60 μg/kg) obtained by a laboratory cooperating with the IAEA (University of Rochester). Results of this inter-laboratory comparison point to a lack of consistency in the analytical results that have been and are being obtained in Bangladesh. More importantly, drinking water wells where elevated arsenic concentrations have been found may in fact have low concentrations. Similarly, wells that have been found to be free of arsenic may in fact have substantially higher arsenic concentrations. The quality and reliability of arsenic analysis needs to be established and continually evaluated in order to identify all affected areas and to provide appropriate mitigation

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  16. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu

    2014-01-01

    /L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.......An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0...

  17. Toward the Standardization of Biochar Analysis: The COST Action TD1107 Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Bucheli, Thomas D; Dieguez-Alonso, Alba; Fabbri, Daniele; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Ulbricht, Axel; Becker, Roland; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Buerge, Diane; Cross, Andrew; Dickinson, Dane; Enders, Akio; Esteves, Valdemar I; Evangelou, Michael W H; Fellet, Guido; Friedrich, Kevin; Gasco Guerrero, Gabriel; Glaser, Bruno; Hanke, Ulrich M; Hanley, Kelly; Hilber, Isabel; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Leifeld, Jens; Masek, Ondrej; Mumme, Jan; Carmona, Marina Paneque; Calvelo Pereira, Roberto; Rees, Frederic; Rombolà, Alessandro G; de la Rosa, José Maria; Sakrabani, Ruben; Sohi, Saran; Soja, Gerhard; Valagussa, Massimo; Verheijen, Frank; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-01-20

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of organic residues is increasingly used for soil amendment and many other applications. However, analytical methods for its physical and chemical characterization are yet far from being specifically adapted, optimized, and standardized. Therefore, COST Action TD1107 conducted an interlaboratory comparison in which 22 laboratories from 12 countries analyzed three different types of biochar for 38 physical-chemical parameters (macro- and microelements, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pH, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area) with their preferential methods. The data were evaluated in detail using professional interlaboratory testing software. Whereas intralaboratory repeatability was generally good or at least acceptable, interlaboratory reproducibility was mostly not (20% < mean reproducibility standard deviation < 460%). This paper contributes to better comparability of biochar data published already and provides recommendations to improve and harmonize specific methods for biochar analysis in the future.

  18. Use of an excess variance approach for the certification of reference materials by interlaboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozet, M.; Rigaux, C.; Roudil, D.; Tuffery, B.; Ruas, A.; Desenfant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the nuclear field, the accuracy and comparability of analytical results are crucial to insure correct accountancy, good process control and safe operational conditions. All of these require reliable measurements based on reference materials whose certified values must be obtained by robust metrological approaches according to the requirements of ISO guides 34 and 35. The data processing of the characterization step is one of the key steps of a reference material production process. Among several methods, the use of interlaboratory comparison results for reference material certification is very common. The DerSimonian and Laird excess variance approach, described and implemented in this paper, is a simple and efficient method for the data processing of interlaboratory comparison results for reference material certification. By taking into account not only the laboratory uncertainties but also the spread of the individual results into the calculation of the weighted mean, this approach minimizes the risk to get biased certified values in the case where one or several laboratories either underestimate their measurement uncertainties or do not identify all measurement biases. This statistical method has been applied to a new CETAMA plutonium reference material certified by interlaboratory comparison and has been compared to the classical weighted mean approach described in ISO Guide 35. This paper shows the benefits of using an 'excess variance' approach for the certification of reference material by interlaboratory comparison. (authors)

  19. Statistical evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison for the determination of uranium by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketema, D.J.; Harry, R.J.S.; Zijp, W.L.

    1990-09-01

    Upon request of the ESARDA working group 'Low enriched uranium conversion - and fuel fabrication plants' an interlaboratory comparison was organized, to assess the precision and accuracy concerning the determination of uranium by the potentiometric titration method. This report presents the results of a statistical evaluation on the data of the first phase of this exercise. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 24 tabs

  20. Preliminary report on SG126 Task 3: 129I interlaboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Caffee, M.W.; Proctor, I.D.

    1996-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for 129 I has been organized and conducted. A total of seven laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In the comparison, a suite of 11 samples was used. This suite of standards contained both synthetic 'standard type' materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic 129 I/ 127 I ratio of the samples varied from 10 -8 to 10 -14 . Results of the comparison are presented

  1. Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Calibration of Relative Humidity Devices Among Accredited Laboratories in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, F.; Khairuddin, S.; Othman, H.

    2017-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison in relative humidity measurements among accredited laboratories has been coordinated by the National Metrology Institute of Malaysia. It was carried out to determine the performance of the participating laboratories. The objective of the comparison was to acknowledge the participating laboratories competencies and to verify the level of accuracies declared in their scope of accreditation, in accordance with the MS ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. The measurement parameter involved was relative humidity for the range of 30-90 %rh at a nominal temperature of 50°C. Eight accredited laboratories participated in the inter-laboratory comparison. Two units of artifacts have been circulated among the participants as the transfer standards.

  2. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using OSL of electronic components: Results of an inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Woda, C.; Bortolin, E.; Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Quattrini, M.C.; Bulanek, B.; Ekendahl, D.; Burbidge, C.I.; Cauwels, V.; Kouroukla, E.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Sholom, S.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Smith, R.W.; Veronese, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MULTIBIODOSE project, two protocols using OSL of resistors removed from the circuit board of mobile phones were developed with the aim to use the resistors as fortuitous dosimeters in the event of a large scale radiological accident. This paper presents the results of an inter-laboratory comparison carried out under the umbrella of EURADOS. The two aims of this exercise were the validation of the MULTIBIODOSE protocols by a large number of laboratories and the dissemination of the method with the objective of preparing the basis for a network that could increase Europe's response capacity in the case of a mass casualty radiological emergency. Twelve institutes from eleven European countries and one institute from the USA, with various degrees of expertise in OSL dosimetry, took part in the OSL inter-laboratory comparison. Generally, a good agreement within uncertainties was observed between estimated and nominal doses. - Highlights: • Resistors in mobile phones could function as reliable fortuitous dosimeters in case of a large scale radiological accident. • Two OSL protocols were validated by an inter-laboratory comparison. • It is feasible to set up a network of laboratories so as to increase the measurement capacity

  3. Analytical quality control of neutron activation analysis by interlaboratory comparison and proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jeong, Y. S.

    2002-01-01

    Two air filters (V-50, P-50) artificially loaded with urban dust were provided from IAEA and trace elements to study inter-laboratory comparison and proficiency test were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis non-destructively. Standard reference material(Urban Particulate Matter, NIST SRM 1648) of National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for internal analytical quality control. About 20 elements in each loaded filter sample were determined, respectively. Our analytical data were compared with statistical results using neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, etc., which were collected from 49 laboratories of 40 countries. From the results that were statistically re-treated with reported values, Z-scores of our analytical values are within ±2. In addition, the results of proficiency test are passed and accuracy and precision of the analytical values are reliable. Consequently, it was proved that analytical quality control for the analysis of air dust samples is reasonable

  4. Interlaboratory test comparison among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories using the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Ramos, L.; Salas, R.

    1998-01-01

    World-wide acceptance of results from radiochemical analyses requires reliable, traceable and comparable measurements to SI units, particularly when data sets generated by laboratories are to contribute to evaluation of data from environmental pollution research and monitoring programmes. The Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) organizes in collaboration with CIEMAT periodical interlaboratory test comparisons for environmental radioactivity laboratories aiming to provide them with the necessary means to asses the quality of their results. This paper presents data from the most recent exercise which, for the first time, was evaluated following the procedure recommended in the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories (1). The test sample was a Reference Material provided by the IAEA-AQCS, a lake sediment containing the following radionuclides: k-40, Ra-226, Ac-228, Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-(239+240). The results of the proficiency test were computed for the 28 participating laboratories using the z-score approach, the evaluation of the exercises is presented in the paper. The use of a z-score classification has demonstrated to provide laboratories with a more objective means of assessing and demonstrating the reliability of the data they are producing. Analytical proficiency of the participating laboratories has been found to be satisfactory in 57 to 100 percent of cases. (1)- The International harmonized protocol for the proficiency testing of (chemical) analytical laboratories. Pure and Appl. Chem. Vol. 65, n 9, pp. 2123-2144, 1993 IUPAC. GB (Author) 3 refs

  5. Worldwide Interlaboratory Comparison on the Determination of Trace Elements in the IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, the IAEA has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance and quality control are two fundamental requirements to ensure the reliability of analytical results. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. In this regard, the IAEA has a long history of organizing interlaboratory studies, which have evolved to include an increasing array of potential contaminants in the marine environment. Relevant activities comprise global interlaboratory comparison, regional proficiency tests, the production of marine reference materials and the development of reference methods for trace elements and organic pollutants analysis in marine samples. This publication summarizes the results of the IAEA-457 interlaboratory comparison on the determination of trace elements in a marine sediment sample

  6. First Interlaboratory Comparison on Calibration of Temperature-Controlled Enclosures in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uytun, A.; Kalemci, M.

    2017-11-01

    The number of accredited laboratories in the field of calibration of temperature-controlled enclosures has been increasing in Turkey. One of the main criteria demonstrating the competence of a calibration laboratory is successful participation in interlaboratory comparisons. Therefore, TUBITAK UME Temperature Laboratory organized the first interlaboratory comparison on "Calibration of Temperature-Controlled Enclosures" in Turkey as a pilot laboratory between January and November, 2013. Forty accredited laboratories which provide routine calibration services to the industry in this field participated in the comparison. The standards used during the comparison was a climatic chamber for the measurements at -40 {°}C, -20 {°}C, 40 {°}C and 100 {°}C and an oven for the measurements at 200 {°}C. The protocol of the comparison was prepared considering guide EURAMET cg-20 and BS EN/IEC standards 600068-3-5 and 600068-3-11. During the comparison measurements, each participant had the liberty to choose the most convenient calibration points in terms of their accreditation scope among the values mentioned above and carried out on-site measurements at UME. The details and the results of this comparison are given in the paper. Determination of the statistical consistency of the results with the uncertainties given by the participants can be assessed by the method of En value assessment for each laboratory. En values for all measurement results based on the results of pilot and participating laboratories were calculated.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison exercise for the determination of uranium by potentiometric titration (first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdingh, V.; Le Duigou, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Upon request of the Esarda working group on low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants an interlaboratory comparison was organized, to assess the precision and accuracy concerning the determination of uranium by the potentiometric titration method. This report presents the results of the first phase of this exercise (pure uranyl-nitrate solutions). The solutions used in this intercomparison have been certified for their uranium content by the CBNM, Geel. Comparison of the laboratory results with the certified values shows excellent, good and fairly good agreement for many of the participating laboratories. 10 tabs., 5 figs., 10 refs

  8. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators: Interlaboratory comparison of thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1985-01-01

    After 131 I and sup(99m)Tc comparisons in 1982 and 1983, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in cooperation with the firm Amersham-Buchler organized a further comparison in October 1984 in order to investigate the accuracy of activity measurements in nuclear medicine. 48 hospitals or institutes participated in this 201 TI comparison. The wast majority of the reported results agreed with the PTB-value to within 10%, however in 5 cases deviations amounted to more than 20%. (orig.) [de

  10. Interlaboratory Comparison Test as an Evaluation of Applicability of an Alternative Edible Oil Analysis by 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailer, Elina; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2017-11-01

    A proton (1H) NMR spectroscopic method was established for the quality assessment of vegetable oils. To date, several research studies have been published demonstrating the high potential of the NMR technique in lipid analysis. An interlaboratory comparison was organized with the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate an alternative analysis of edible oils by using 1H NMR spectroscopy; and (2) to determine the robustness and reproducibility of the method. Five different edible oil samples were analyzed by evaluating 15 signals (free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, double bonds, and linoleic and linolenic acids) in each spectrum. A total of 21 NMR data sets were obtained from 17 international participant laboratories. The performance of each laboratory was assessed by their z-scores. The test was successfully passed by 90.5% of the participants. Results showed that NMR spectroscopy is a robust alternative method for edible oil analysis.

  11. Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Carstensen, Bendix; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious...... pancreatic necrosis Virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well...

  12. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  13. Results of the 1988 interlaboratory comparison on the gamma spectrometry of dried whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Tait, D.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1988-01-01

    Following the accident in Chernobyl in 1986 the number of units available for monitoring radioactivity, mainly gamma spectrometers, has been increased considerably in the Federal Republic of Germany. Furthermore, new legislation requires that all official monitoring laboratories verify the quality of their analytical technique by participating in interlaboratory comparison studies organized by Federal institutions. Such a study was therefore organized in March 1988. 86 laboratories collaborated on the gamma-spectrometry analysis of the radionuclides Cs-137, Cs-134 and K-40 in dried whey. This paper describes the statistical evaluation of the 144 sets of data received. The results of the study were surprisingly good. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , NO 3 , SiO 2 , B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.; Lyons, P.B.; Blackburn, J.C.

    1989-08-01

    A comparison of the losses induced in step index multimode, graded index multimode and single mode fibers by pulsed radiation exposure has been made among 12 laboratories over a period of 5 years. The recoveries of the incremental attenuations from 10 -9 to 10 1 s are reported. Although a standard set of measurement parameters was attempted, differences between the laboratories are evident; possible origins for these are discussed. 18 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez–Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137 Cs and 60 Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented. - Highlights: • A European comparison was conducted on measurement of 137 Cs activity in fume dust. • Participants used high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. • Efficiency calibration included Monte Carlo, numerical and experimental methods. • Reference 137 Cs and 60 Co activity concentrations in the fume dust were determined. • A new traceable activity standard of fume dust matrix is available to end-users.

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of positron and positronium lifetimes in polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastlund, C.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the results of a series of positron annihilation lifetime measurements performed in 12 laboratories is presented. The measurements were conducted on three different polymer samples, all prepared in one laboratory under standard conditions. The objective of the work was to gain...... insight into the variation in derived positron and positronium lifetimes and intensities measured in the different laboratories on identical specimens. Lifetime data were collected at room temperature by each laboratory following their own standard measurement and data evaluation procedures. The polymers...

  18. Interlaboratory model comparisons of atmospheric concentrations with and without deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.; Cooper, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    To calculate the dose to the regional and U.S. populations, the pollutant concentration both with and without deposition and the amount of material deposited on the ground and watersheds around such a facility must be known. The following report (Article 50) of this document contains some initial estimates of population exposure from atmospheric effluents. The expertise of laboratories supported by U.S. Department of Energy funds ensures that the latest methods and data are available. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) performed regional calculations (out to distances of the order of 200 km from a hypothetical fuel reprocessing plant). The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) performed U.S. scale calculations, and ARL also did the global calculations. Data from a winter and summer period were used to make comparisons of calculations by LLL, ARL, and PNL to determine which model should be used for the final calculations and to determine if a 200-km square area centered on the site would be large enough for dose calculations via the water and food pathways

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of low energies anthropo-radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, F.; Berard, Ph.; Dubiau, C.; Soulie, R.

    1999-01-01

    The radio-toxicology of actinides (U, Pu, Am) has for aim to verify the norms respect by proceeding to doses evaluations following an internal irradiation. The in vivo measure, called also pulmonary anthropo-radiometry consists in estimating the quantity of radionuclides present in lungs by the direct measurement of their low energies X and gamma rays. This technique is particularly used at the Laboratories of Medical Biology Analysis. It has the great advantage to give the totality of activity present at a given time and kept in lungs. But the low activities to measure and the strong absorption of rays in these tissues lead to a lack of sensitivity of measurement systems usually used and to a difficulty in calibrating these installations. These determinations need performing methods to detect and quantify some quantities of actinides in human body. Nine laboratories have taken part in intercomparison, the results have allowed to collect numerous and very useful information, the following objective is to realize a French standardization of practices in the anthropo-radiometry measurement. (N.C.)

  20. The European cooperation for Acreditation of Laboratories interlaboratory comparison Pr3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Pr3 interlaboratory comparison has been organized in the gauge pressure mode, gas medium, for the range 0-5 MPa. It was planned at the Western European Calibration Cooperation expert group for pressure held at Laboratoire National d'Essais Paris on the nineteenth and twentieth of November 1992. The used transfer standard has been a Desgranges et Huot digital piston manometer. The manometer delivers a digital reading proportional to the input pressure. Thirty-seven accredited laboratories from fourteen countries participated in the comparison from January 1993 to July 1994. One of them was acreditation laboratory of Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava LTD. In the article the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava LTD. laboratory results are discussed. The declared relative uncertainty of the standard pressure at 5 MPa were included between 0.4 and 3.10 -4 (most values between 0.5 and 1.10 -4 )

  1. An interlaboratory comparison programme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements: the second round of the scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolopoulou, E.P.; Ztoupis, I.N.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A.; Karabetsos, E.

    2015-01-01

    The second round of an interlaboratory comparison scheme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements has been conducted in order to evaluate the overall performance of laboratories that perform measurements in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and broadcast antenna facilities. The participants recorded the electric field strength produced by two high frequency signal generators inside an anechoic chamber in three measurement scenarios with the antennas transmitting each time different signals at the FM, VHF, UHF and GSM frequency bands. In each measurement scenario, the participants also used their measurements in order to calculate the relative exposure ratios. The results were evaluated in each test level calculating performance statistics (z-scores and E n numbers). Subsequently, possible sources of errors for each participating laboratory were discussed, and the overall evaluation of their performances was determined by using an aggregated performance statistic. A comparison between the two rounds proves the necessity of the scheme. (authors)

  2. Consensus building for interlaboratory studies, key comparisons, and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Amanda; Lafarge, Thomas; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza

    2017-06-01

    Interlaboratory studies in measurement science, including key comparisons, and meta-analyses in several fields, including medicine, serve to intercompare measurement results obtained independently, and typically produce a consensus value for the common measurand that blends the values measured by the participants. Since interlaboratory studies and meta-analyses reveal and quantify differences between measured values, regardless of the underlying causes for such differences, they also provide so-called ‘top-down’ evaluations of measurement uncertainty. Measured values are often substantially over-dispersed by comparison with their individual, stated uncertainties, thus suggesting the existence of yet unrecognized sources of uncertainty (dark uncertainty). We contrast two different approaches to take dark uncertainty into account both in the computation of consensus values and in the evaluation of the associated uncertainty, which have traditionally been preferred by different scientific communities. One inflates the stated uncertainties by a multiplicative factor. The other adds laboratory-specific ‘effects’ to the value of the measurand. After distinguishing what we call recipe-based and model-based approaches to data reductions in interlaboratory studies, we state six guiding principles that should inform such reductions. These principles favor model-based approaches that expose and facilitate the critical assessment of validating assumptions, and give preeminence to substantive criteria to determine which measurement results to include, and which to exclude, as opposed to purely statistical considerations, and also how to weigh them. Following an overview of maximum likelihood methods, three general purpose procedures for data reduction are described in detail, including explanations of how the consensus value and degrees of equivalence are computed, and the associated uncertainty evaluated: the DerSimonian-Laird procedure; a hierarchical Bayesian

  3. Interlaboratory comparison for the measurement of particle size and zeta potential of silica nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberty, Andrée; Franks, Katrin; Braun, Adelina; Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Linsinger, Thomas P. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements has organised an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) to allow the participating laboratories to demonstrate their proficiency in particle size and zeta potential measurements on monomodal aqueous suspensions of silica nanoparticles in the 10-100 nm size range. The main goal of this ILC was to identify competent collaborators for the production of certified nanoparticle reference materials. 38 laboratories from four different continents participated in the ILC with different methods for particle sizing and determination of zeta potential. Most of the laboratories submitted particle size results obtained with centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) or electron microscopy (EM), or zeta potential values obtained via electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). The results of the laboratories were evaluated using method-specific z scores, calculated on the basis of consensus values from the ILC. For CLS (13 results) and EM (13 results), all reported values were within the ±2 | z| interval. For DLS, 25 of the 27 results reported were within the ±2 | z| interval, the two other results were within the ±3 | z| interval. The standard deviations of the corresponding laboratory mean values varied between 3.7 and 6.5%, which demonstrates satisfactory interlaboratory comparability of CLS, DLS and EM particle size values. From the received test reports, a large discrepancy was observed in terms of the laboratory's quality assurance systems, which are equally important for the selection of collaborators in reference material certification projects. Only a minority of the participating laboratories is aware of all the items that are mandatory in test reports compliant to ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, 2005b). The absence of measurement uncertainty values in the reports, for

  4. REIMEP-22 U age dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample Inter-laboratory comparison, Report to participants

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; NICHOLL Adrian; KRAJKO JUDIT; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" was organised by JRC-IRMM as support to the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) This ILC was organised prior to the release of the candidate certified reference material IRMM-1000, produced in cooperation with JRC-ITU. The aim of REIMEP-22 was to determine the production date of the uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chem...

  5. Interlaboratory comparison and accreditation in quality control testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, K.; Vladimirov, A.; Servomaa, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Univ. of Tartu provides a quality control service to the majority of diagnostic X-ray departments in Estonia. Its methodology has been adopted from the IEC and other relevant standards. Recently the Testing Centre of the Univ. of Tartu was accredited on this methodology by ISO/IEC 17025. Besides the implementation of the quality management system, participation in interlaboratory comparison (ILC) was one of the prerequisites for the accreditation. Tests for estimating reproducibility of tube voltage and dose rate, accuracy of the voltage and accuracy of exposure time were carried out on a diagnostic X-ray unit in the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Helsinki. The measurement performance was judged by calculating deviation En normalised with respect to the stated uncertainties. En values for all tests were less than unity and by the common ILC criteria the testing performance could be considered as acceptable. (authors)

  6. Participation in the 2001 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on geothermal water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Jeon, Young Shin; Choi, Ke Chun; Pyo, Hyung Yul; Kim, Yong Bok; Kim, Jong Gu; Kim, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Analytical laboratory participated in the 2001 IAEA Interlaboratory Comparison on chemical analysis of Geothermal Water containing high salinity organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(INT/0/060). 14 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, F, SO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute laboratory was ranked within 15% range from top level. Major analytical methods were applied for this activity such as ICP-AES, AAS, IC, pH meter, conductometer and acid titration. 8 refs., 48 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  7. CIRP Interlaboratory Comparison of Coordinate Measuring Machines using an Optomechanical Hole Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renata Erica

    An interlaboratory comparison on mechanical and optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) has been organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within Collège...... plate [1], designed and manufactured by DTU. A measurement procedure was sent to each participant together with the hole plate to be measured. The procedure consists mainly of two parts [2]: 1) four reversal measurements, by which the systematic errors in the measuring plane (X,Y) on the CMM...... are eliminated, except the positioning errors; 2) transfer of traceability by comparator measurement using a length reference chosen by the participant, by which the positioning errors are eliminated. Furthermore, a third optional part could be carried out by the participant, using a different measurement...

  8. Final report on fourth interlaboratory comparison exercise for δ2H and δ18O analysis of water samples (WICO2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Aggarwal, P.; Duren, M. van; Poltenstein, L.; Araguas, L.; Kurttas, T.; Wassenaar, L.I.

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Isotope Hydrology Laboratory organized the fourth interlaboratory comparison exercise for laboratories engaged in routine analysis of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition of water samples in 2011. Three similar exercises were carried out in 1995, in 1999 and in 2002. However, the tradition of IAEA water stable isotope inter-laboratory comparison is much older. Two interlaboratory comparison trials for isotope hydrology laboratories were carried out in the sixties and seventies, which revealed problems with use of the NBS-1 international standard; these data were used to calibrate the newly produced primary reference materials VSMOW and SLAP. The WICO2011 exercise was announced in February 2011 on the internet, via the ISOGEOCHEM news group of Isogeochemistry and by email to all participants of the former intercomparisons. Altogether 174 laboratories expressed interest to participate in the exercise. Four water samples prepared and calibrated at the IAEA Isotope Hydrology Laboratory were labelled IAEA-OH-13 to IAEA-OH-16, which are referred to in this report as OH-13 to OH-16. By the end of the reporting deadline (the end of August 2011) altogether 137 laboratories from 53 countries had submitted 172 datasets back to the IAEA on the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of these water samples. The four water samples cover the range of δ18O and δ2H values typical for the majority of natural waters. The samples were bottled from 30 L stainless steel storage barrels into 30 mL securely-capped brown glass bottles, serially numbered at the time of filling. Each laboratory received a set of four samples with a corresponding code. This code (assigned randomly) forms the Identification (ID) code used throughout the exercise and in the tables and graphs of this report for each laboratory. The ID code is not related to the order of the list of participating laboratories. The identity of participating laboratories will not be revealed unless each

  9. Inter-laboratory comparisons of hexenuronic acid measurements in kraft eucalyptus pulps using a UV-Vis spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; H.F Zhou; Chai X.S.; Donna Johannes; Richard Pope; Cristina Valls; M. Blanca Roncero

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of a UV-Vis spectroscopic method (TAPPI T 282 om-13 “Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp”) for hexeneuronic acid measurements was conducted using three eucalyptus kraft pulps. The pulp samples were produced in a laboratory at kappa numbers of approximately 14, 20, and 35. The hexeneuronic acid contents of the three pulps were...

  10. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenderka, K V [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Durando, G [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Karaboece, B [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: kvjend@ieee.org [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  11. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  12. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenderka, K V; Durando, G; Karaboece, B; Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  13. Evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of the chemical assay of U, Th, oxide coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamberg, T.; Thiele, D.; Brodda, B.G.

    1981-09-01

    The prototype reactor THTR in Schmehausen (Germany, F.R.) burns a (Th,U)O 2 nuclear fuel using 93% enriched uranium. This material is particularly Safeguards sensitive. It was therefore desirable for the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) and other laboratories of the Agency Network to collect experience and test their performance in the analysis of such materials. Support was requested from the ''Joint Programme between the IAEA and the Federal Republic of Germany for the Development of Safeguards Techniques'' to perform, as a first step, an interlaboratory comparison of the chemical assay of U and Th in pyrocarbon-coated BISO-type fuel particles. Such an intercomparison was organized under the auspices of the Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (KFA). SAL prepared a statistical evaluation of the results which was discussed in Vienna in June 1980. The objective of the project was to define the state of the art in the chemical assay of U-Th fuels and the analytical requirements for the sampling of materials of major interest to Agency Safeguards at present

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Merta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable measurements of radioisotope concentrations are of primary importance for the laboratories dealing with radioactivity determinations. According to the Polish regulations, since 2002 it is obligatory to organize every two years national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of various radionuclides in food and environmental samples. First such ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil was organized by the National Atomic Energy Agency of Poland in 2004 with the participation of fourteen laboratories from Polish research institutes and universities. The ILC was conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Two types of water (surface and potable; six samples), wheat flour and soil (four samples) were spiked with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. From the results obtained in all participating laboratories it can be concluded that the procedures of assigning value and preparation of homogeneous material have been done properly and the majority of the determinations remain in good agreement with the assigned values and with the results obtained by other laboratories. Such agreement means that the performance of the laboratories is good and also that the samples are equivalent

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of fig (Ficus carica L. microsatellite genotyping data and determination of reference alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž HLADNIK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been identified as the marker of choice in plant genotyping projects. However, due to length discrepancies obtained between different laboratories for the same allele, interlaboratory comparison of fingerprinting results is often a difficult task. The objectives of this study were to compare genotyping results of two laboratories, to evaluate genetic parameters of microsatellite markers and to determine reference allele sizes for fig cultivars from the Istrian peninsula.Genotyping results of ninety fig (Ficus carica L. accessions were comparable between the laboratories despite differences observed when comparing electropherograms of different capillary electrophoresis systems. Differences in lengths of the same alleles were detected due to different PCR methods and laboratory equipment, but the distances between alleles of the same locus were preserved. However, locus FSYC01 exhibited one allele dropout which led to misidentification of 28 heterozygotes as homozygote individuals suggesting this locus as unreliable. Allele dropout was assigned to the tail PCR technology or to a touchdown PCR protocol.Genotypes of twenty-four reference cultivars from the Istrian peninsula were confirmed by both laboratories. These results will contribute to the usage of markers with greater reliability, discrimination power and consequently, to more reliable standardization with other fig genotyping projects.

  16. Verification of Electromagnetic Field Measurements via Inter-laboratory Comparison Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-laboratory comparison of field strength measurements was conducted in order to verify the comparability of high-frequency electromagnetic field measurements. For this purpose, 17 participating teams hosted by the working group "procedures of exposure determination" of the LAI (Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz, state committee on immission control determined the field strength at given stations around a hospital situation. At those stations very different signals were generated, such as sine wave signals at 27MHz and 433MHz, signals from a diathermy device in Continuous-Wave (CW and Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM mode, from a GSM base station at 900MHz and 1800MHz, from a UMTS base station, from a babyphone device and from a DECT cordless phone. This contribution describes the evaluation of the measured values and the approach to the computation of a reference value. Considering various sources of electromagnetic fields in the areas of personal safety at work and of immission control, the most important results are presented and the conclusions drawn are discussed.

  17. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  18. (60)Co in cast steel matrix: A European interlaboratory comparison for the characterisation of new activity standards for calibration of gamma-ray spectrometers in metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, Faidra; Burda, Oleksiy; Hult, Mikael; Arnold, Dirk; Marroyo, Belén Caro; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Ferreux, Laurent; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Javornik, Andrej; Klemola, Seppo; Luca, Aurelian; Moser, Hannah; Nečemer, Marijan; Peyrés, Virginia; Reis, Mario; Silva, Lidia; Šolc, Jaroslav; Svec, Anton; Tyminski, Zbigniew; Vodenik, Branko; Wätjen, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Two series of activity standards of (60)Co in cast steel matrix, developed for the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometry systems in the metallurgical sector, were characterised using a European interlaboratory comparison among twelve National Metrology Institutes and one international organisation. The first standard, consisting of 14 disc shaped samples, was cast from steel contaminated during production ("originally"), and the second, consisting of 15 similar discs, from artificially-contaminated ("spiked") steel. The reference activity concentrations of (60)Co in the cast steel standards were (1.077±0.019) Bqg(-1) on 1 January 2013 12h00 UT and (1.483±0.022) Bqg(-1) on 1 June 2013 12h00 UT, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  20. WEFTA interlaboratory comparison on total lipid determination in fishery products using the Smedes method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Karl; Oehlenschaeger, J.; Bakaert, K.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid determination by the Smedes method was tested in an interlaboratory trial performed by 9 laboratories from 7 countries belonging to the West European Fish Technologists Association Analytical Methods Working Group. 5 samples of fish and fishery products with different lipid contents, includ...

  1. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  2. An Inter-Laboratory Comparison for the Urinary Acrolein Biomarker 3-Hydroxypropyl-Mercapturic Acid (3-HPMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-laboratory comparison study on the acrolein biomarker of exposure 3-hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acid (3-HPMA with 12 laboratories from 7 globally distributed countries was performed. The laboratories received coded triplicates of 4 spiked and lyophilized urine samples (LU, 12 samples as well as 5 authentic urine pool samples (PU, 15 samples covering the 3-HPMA concentration range from background (non-smoking to heavy smoking levels for analysis by using their own (in-house analytical method. All laboratories applied liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, with most of them (10 of 12 using solid phase extraction (SPE as sample work-up procedure. The intra-laboratory variation (indicating repeatability was determined by calculating the standard deviation (sr and the coefficient of variation (CVr of the triplicates, whereas the inter-laboratory variation (indicating reproducibility was determined by calculating the standard deviation between laboratories (sR and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CVR. After removal of outlier samples or laboratories, the mean CVr values for LU and PU test samples ranged from 2.1–3.6% (mean: 2.8% and 2.4–3.7% (mean: 3.3%, respectively, indicating good repeatability for the determination of 3-HPMA in both sample types. CVR for LU and PU test samples ranged from 9.1–31.9% (mean: 18.8% and 13.9–27.0% (mean: 18.5%, respectively, indicating limited reproducibility in 3-HPMA analysis for both sample types. Re-calculation of the PU results by applying an embedded calibration (EC, derived from the reported peak areas for the LU test samples, somewhat improved the CVR values (range: 9.6–28.8%, mean: 16.7%.

  3. Interlaboratory comparison of environmental relevant nuclides with spinach powder as sample medium; Vergleichspruefung mit Spinatpulver als Probenart fuer umweltrelevante Nuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Tait, D. [Max Rubner-Institut, Kiel (Germany). Leitstelle fuer Boden, Bewuchs, Futtermittel und Nahrungsmittel pflanzlicher und tierischer Herkunft

    2014-01-20

    Spinach is cited as a representative medium for leafy vegetables in the Integrated Measurement and Information System for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS) in Germany. Fresh spinach, however, is not suitable in interlaboratory comparisons on the determination of spiked radionuclides because of the difficulties in homogeneously distributing the radionuclides and attaining a known specific activity in the samples. In contrast, spinach powder is finely milled, so that homogeneous distribution and known specific activities of the nuclides are more readily achievable. For this interlaboratory comparison spinach powder was mixed with the pure beta emitter Sr-90 and the gamma-emitting nuclides I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. After homogenization samples were dispatched to 77 laboratories from Germany and other European countries (59 in Germany, 5 in Switzerland, 4 each in the UK and Austria, and one each in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Ireland and Luxembourg). In addition to the added nuclides participants had to determine the natural radionuclide K-40. The participants were instructed to use a fast method for the determination of dry matter (DM). To check the homogeneity of the nuclide distribution 14 samples of the labeled spinach powder were randomly selected and analyzed in the Coordinating Laboratory for the Surveillance of Radioactivity in the Environment of the Max Rubner-Institute (MRI). According to DIN 13528:2005 the samples showed sufficient homogeneity of the added nuclides. For the evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) determined reference values for the the specific activities (Bq per kg DM) of the gamma emitters. The values with the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were as follows: I-131: 181 ± 6 Bq/kg; Cs-134: 34.4 ± 1.1 Bq/kg; Cs-137: 11.1 ± 0.4 Bq/kg; K-40: 1240 ± 40 Bq/kg. Since a reference value of the PTB for the specific activity of Sr-90 was not available the general average

  4. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Chu, M. C.; Guardado, J. A.; Salas, A.; Capannelli, G.; Costa, C.; Bostrom, T.; Jämting, Å. K.; Lawn, M. A.; Adlem, L.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.

    2013-10-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—"Properties of Nanoparticle Populations" of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 "Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles". Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  5. Size characterization of airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motzkus, C., E-mail: charles.motzkus@lne.fr; Mace, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE) (France); Dirscherl, K. [Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM) (Denmark); Hodoroaba, V.-D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Popov, I. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unit for Nanocharacterization (Israel); Popov, O.; Kuselman, I. [National Physical Laboratory of Israel (INPL) (Israel); Takahata, K.; Ehara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Japan); Ausset, P.; Maille, M. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil et Universite Paris-Diderot, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA (France); Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M. [Queensland University of Technology (QUT), International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) (Australia); and others

    2013-10-15

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO{sub 2} airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34-'Properties of Nanoparticle Populations' of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 'Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles'. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  6. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO 2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—“Properties of Nanoparticle Populations” of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 “Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles”. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2–46.6 nm and 80.2–89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO 2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed

  7. An inter-laboratory comparison study on transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA from cable ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Kristy; Ansell, Ricky; Clarisse, Lindy; Connolly, Edward; Kloosterman, Ate D; McKenna, Louise G; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Szkuta, Bianca; Kokshoorn, Bas

    2017-11-01

    To address questions on the activity that led to the deposition of biological traces in a particular case, general information on the probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of cellular material in relevant scenarios is necessary. These figures may be derived from experimental data described in forensic literature when conditions relevant to the case were included. The experimental methodology regarding sampling, DNA extraction, DNA typing and profile interpretation that were used to generate these published data may differ from those applied in the case and thus the applicability of the literature data may be questioned. To assess the level of variability that different laboratories obtain when similar exhibits are analysed, we performed an inter-laboratory study between four partner laboratories. Five sets of 20 cable ties bound by different volunteers were distributed to the participating laboratories and sampled and processed according to the in-house protocols. Differences were found for the amount of retrieved DNA, as well as for the reportability and composition of the DNA profiles. These differences also resulted in different probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery for each laboratory. Nevertheless, when applied to a case example, these differences resulted in similar assignments of weight of evidence given activity-level propositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparison Performed in 2010-2015 for Neutron Activation Analysis and Other Analytical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    The IAEA supports its Member States to increase the utilization of their research reactors. Small and medium sized reactors are mostly used for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Although the markets for NAA laboratories have been identified, demonstration of valid analytical results and organizational quality of the work process are preconditions for expanding the stakeholder community, particularly in commercial routine application of this powerful technique. The IAEA has implemented a new mechanism for supporting NAA laboratories in demonstrating their analytical performance by participation in proficiency testing schemes by interlaboratory comparison. This activity makes possible the identification of deviations and non-conformities, their causes and the process to implement effective approaches to eliminate them. Over 30 laboratories participated between 2010 and 2015 in consecutive proficiency tests organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) to assess their analytical performances. This publication reports the findings and includes lessons learned of this activity. An attached CD-ROM contains many individual participating laboratory papers sharing their individual results and experience gained through this participation.

  9. An interlaboratory comparison of the performance of ethanol-producing micro-organisms in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Jeppsson, H. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Olsson, L. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Mohagheghi, A. (Bioprocess and Fuels Engineering Research Branch, National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    A xylose-rich, dilute-acid-pretreated corn-cob hydrolysate was fermented by Escherichia coli ATCC 11303, recombinant (rec) E. coli B (pLOI 297 and KO11), Pichia stipitis (CBS 5773, 6054 and R), Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate 3 in combination with xylose isomerase, rec S. cerevisiae (TJ1, H550 and H477) and Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134 in an interlaboratory comparison. The micro-organisms were studied according to three different options: (A) fermentation under consistent conditions. (B) fermentation under optimal conditions for the organism, and (C) fermentation under optimal conditions for the organism with detoxification of the hydrolysate. The highest yields of ethanol, 0.24 g/g (A), 0.36 g/g (B) and 0.54 g/g (C), were obtained from rec E. coli B, KO11. P. stipitis and F. oxysporum were sensitive to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate and produced a maximum yield of 0.34 g/g (C) and 0.04 g/g (B), respectively. The analysis of the corn-cob hydrolysate and aspects of process economy of the different fermentation options (pH, sterilization, nutrient supplementation, adaptation, detoxification) are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Interlaboratory Comparison of a physical and a virtual assembly measured by CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    In a comparison including 20 laboratories, a physical as well as a virtual assembly provided as two data sets were used to investigate measuring and post-processing approaches in Computed Tomography, CT. Different procedures were used in the comparison including one simulating in-line measurement....... The comparison demonstrated that: (i) a tangible improvement in the use of CT compared to previous comparisons; (ii) most of the participants were able to reduce their scanning time by more than 70% without increasing the length measurement errors; and (iii) most of the participants can further reduce...... their uncertainties, thereby reducing the tolerance size that can be inspected using CT in industry....

  11. Post hoc interlaboratory comparison of single particle ICP-MS size measurements of NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Petersen, Elijah J; Possolo, Antonio; Winchester, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that enables simultaneous measurement of nanoparticle size and number quantification of metal-containing nanoparticles at realistic environmental exposure concentrations. Such measurements are needed to understand the potential environmental and human health risks of nanoparticles. Before spICP-MS can be considered a mature methodology, additional work is needed to standardize this technique including an assessment of the reliability and variability of size distribution measurements and the transferability of the technique among laboratories. This paper presents the first post hoc interlaboratory comparison study of the spICP-MS technique. Measurement results provided by six expert laboratories for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) gold nanoparticle reference materials (RM 8012 and RM 8013) were employed. The general agreement in particle size between spICP-MS measurements and measurements by six reference techniques demonstrates the reliability of spICP-MS and validates its sizing capability. However, the precision of the spICP-MS measurement was better for the larger 60 nm gold nanoparticles and evaluation of spICP-MS precision indicates substantial variability among laboratories, with lower variability between operators within laboratories. Global particle number concentration and Au mass concentration recovery were quantitative for RM 8013 but significantly lower and with a greater variability for RM 8012. Statistical analysis did not suggest an optimal dwell time, because this parameter did not significantly affect either the measured mean particle size or the ability to count nanoparticles. Finally, the spICP-MS data were often best fit with several single non-Gaussian distributions or mixtures of Gaussian distributions, rather than the more frequently used normal or log-normal distributions.

  12. Inter-laboratory and inter-assay comparison on two real-time PCR techniques for quantification of PCV2 nucleic acid extracted from field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, L.; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several real-time PCR assays for quantification of PCV2 DNA (qPCR) have been described in the literature. and different in-house assays are being used by laboratories around the world. A general threshold of it copies of PCV2 per millilitre serum for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS......) diagnosis has been suggested. However, neither inter-laboratory nor inter-assay comparisons have been published so far. In the present study two different qPCR probe assays Used routinely in two laboratories were compared on DNA extracted From serum, nasal and rectal swabs. Results showed a significant...

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil: preparation and characterization of test materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    Only reliable analytical results can serve as a basis of meaningful evaluation and protection of the environment against radioactive contaminants. So, laboratories dealing with the environmental radioactivity determinations should regularly demonstrate their ability to produce acceptable results. Since 2002, every two years organization of national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of different radionuclides in food and environmental samples is required by the Polish law. The aim of the paper is presentation how test materials applied in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT, Warsaw, Poland) for the 2004 ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil were prepared. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of nitrogen isotope ratio determination in marine and lacustrine sediments: An inter-laboratory comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahlmann, E.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Bouillon, S.; Houtekamer, M.J.; Korntheuer, M.; Langenberg, F.; Mayr, C.; Metzke, M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Nagel, B.; Struck, U.; Voß, M.; Emeis, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen isotopes of organic matter are increasingly studied in marine biogeochemistry and geology, plant and animal ecology, and paleoceanography. Here, we present results of an inter-laboratory test on determination of nitrogen isotope ratios in marine and lacustrine sediments. Six different

  15. Multielement trace determination in SiC powders: assessment of interlaboratory comparisons aimed at the validation and standardization of analytical procedures with direct solid sampling based on ETV ICP OES and DC arc OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschat, Ralf; Hassler, Jürgen; Traub, Heike; Dette, Angelika

    2005-12-01

    The members of the committee NMP 264 "Chemical analysis of non-oxidic raw and basic materials" of the German Standards Institute (DIN) have organized two interlaboratory comparisons for multielement determination of trace elements in silicon carbide (SiC) powders via direct solid sampling methods. One of the interlaboratory comparisons was based on the application of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with electrothermal vaporization (ETV ICP OES), and the other on the application of optical emission spectrometry with direct current arc (DC arc OES). The interlaboratory comparisons were organized and performed in the framework of the development of two standards related to "the determination of mass fractions of metallic impurities in powders and grain sizes of ceramic raw and basic materials" by both methods. SiC powders were used as typical examples of this category of material. The aim of the interlaboratory comparisons was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of both analytical methods to be standardized. This was an important contribution to the practical applicability of both draft standards. Eight laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison with ETV ICP OES and nine in the interlaboratory comparison with DC arc OES. Ten analytes were investigated by ETV ICP OES and eleven by DC arc OES. Six different SiC powders were used for the calibration. The mass fractions of their relevant trace elements were determined after wet chemical digestion. All participants followed the analytical requirements described in the draft standards. In the calculation process, three of the calibration materials were used successively as analytical samples. This was managed in the following manner: the material that had just been used as the analytical sample was excluded from the calibration, so the five other materials were used to establish the calibration plot. The results from the interlaboratory comparisons were summarized and

  16. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of various procedures for the rejection of outlying results and assigning consensus values in interlaboratory programs involving determination of trace elements or radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.

    1980-01-01

    Rejection of outlying results is usually necessary in the evaluation of interlaboratory comparisons, especially those involving trace elements and low-level activity measurements. The performance of several criteria (Dixon's test, Grubbs' test, coefficient of skewness test, and coefficient of kurtosis test) is described; authentic data sets from intercomparison runs on trace element or radionuclide determinations in spiked samples are used. The existence of 'masking effects' in certain cases is demonstrated. It is shown that concurrent use of all four criteria at small (0.01) or moderate (0.05) significance levels gives better results than the use of any single test. The use of all four criteria at α = 0.05 followed by calculation of overall mean and pertinent confidence limits is suggested as a general method of data handling in interlaboratory comparison. This method normally ensures good selectivity of outlier rejection while avoiding excessive rejections, and results in generally good agreement between the 'true' value and the final overall mean. The use of this approach for the establishment of recommended values in candidate reference materials is demonstrated and its advantages and limitations are discussed. The results are further compared with those obtained by other methods of data evaluation (Student's test, dominant cluster mode and gamma transformation). (Auth.)

  18. Reproducibility of oligonucleotide microarray transcriptome analyses - An interlaboratory comparison using chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piper, M.D.W.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Bro, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    . In each of the laboratories, three independent replicate cultures were grown aerobically as well as anaerobically. Although variations introduced by in vitro handling steps were small and unbiased, greater variation from replicate cultures underscored that, to obtain reliable information, experimental...... replication is essential. Under aerobic conditions, 86% of the most highly expressed yeast genes showed an average intra-laboratory coefficient of variation of 0.23. This is significantly lower than previously reported for shake-flask-culture transcriptome analyses and probably reflects the strict control...... of growth conditions in chemostats. Using the triplicate data sets and appropriate statistical analysis, the change calls from anaerobic versus aerobic comparisons yielded an over 95% agreement between the laboratories for transcripts that changed by over 2-fold, leaving only a small fraction of genes...

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of SF6-determinations used within the framework of tracer releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborght, B.

    1985-01-01

    An international intercomparison exercise, for determination of trace amounts of SF 6 in air was set up, to make interchange of experimental results or common tracer experiments possible between European laboratories. SCK, Belgium made 6 SF 6 samples in the 10 ppt to 10 ppb range. Samples were analyzed by CEN (F), CERL (UK), JRC (I), KEMA (NL), LHW (NL), NILU (N), APL (DK), WDB (FRG) and SCK (B). Very good agreement was obtained between SCK, CERL, APL and NILU. LHW and KEMA obtained systematically lower results than those four laboratories; the problem might originate in manufacturing of mother samples under high pressure. CEN and WDB work in a higher concentration range and their analysis of trace amounts is less accurate. JRC samples were contaminated and accuracy of their analysis cannot be evaluated. SF 6 samples in PVC plastic bags are not stable enough over long periods, especially with ambient temperature higher than 30 0 C. Transport of samples in plastic bags over long distances is not advisable when transport conditions cannot be well controlled

  20. Rapid Analysis of Carbohydrates in Bioprocess Samples: An Evaluation of the CarboPac SA10 for HPAE-PAD Analysis by Interlaboratory Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcik, R. S.; Hyman, D. A.; Basumallich, L.; Scarlata, C. J.; Rohrer, J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    A technique for carbohydrate analysis for bioprocess samples has been developed, providing reduced analysis time compared to current practice in the biofuels R&D community. The Thermofisher CarboPac SA10 anion-exchange column enables isocratic separation of monosaccharides, sucrose and cellobiose in approximately 7 minutes. Additionally, use of a low-volume (0.2 mL) injection valve in combination with a high-volume detection cell minimizes the extent of sample dilution required to bring sugar concentrations into the linear range of the pulsed amperometric detector (PAD). Three laboratories, representing academia, industry, and government, participated in an interlaboratory study which analyzed twenty-one opportunistic samples representing biomass pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation samples. The technique's robustness, linearity, and interlaboratory reproducibility were evaluated and showed excellent-to-acceptable characteristics. Additionally, quantitation by the CarboPac SA10/PAD was compared with the current practice method utilizing a HPX-87P/RID. While these two methods showed good agreement a statistical comparison found significant quantitation difference between them, highlighting the difference between selective and universal detection modes.

  1. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, E., E-mail: ester.heath@ijs.s [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kosjek, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Andersen, H.R.; Holten Luetzhoft, H.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adolfson Erici, M. [Stockholm University, ITM SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Coquery, M. [Cemagref, U.R. QELY, F-69336 Lyon (France); Duering, R.-A. [Giessen University, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Giessen (Germany); Gans, O. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Unit Organic Analysis, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Guignard, C. [CRP Gabriel Lippmann, EVA, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Karlsson, P. [Lantmannen Analycen AB, Research and Development, Sjoehagsgatan 3 Box 905, 5319, Lidkoeping (Sweden); Manciot, F. [CAE VEOLIA ENVIRONMENT, 1 Place de Turenne, 94417 Saint Maurice Cedex (France); Moldovan, Z. [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Mass Spectrometry Department, Str. Donath 65-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Patureau, D. [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnemet (LBE), Avenue des etangs, F-11100 Narbonne (France); Cruceru, L. [Pollution Control Department, National Research Institute for Industrial Ecology (ECOIND), Sos.Panduri 90-92, sector 5, Bucharest (Romania); Sacher, F. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruher Strasse 84, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ledin, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: 'Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle'. The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds' (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens: 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices: tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones. - Herein are presented the results of the first international inter-laboratory study on determination of selected steroid hormones in environmental aqueous samples.

  2. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, E.; Kosjek, T.; Andersen, H.R.; Holten Luetzhoft, H.-C.; Adolfson Erici, M.; Coquery, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Gans, O.; Guignard, C.; Karlsson, P.; Manciot, F.; Moldovan, Z.; Patureau, D.; Cruceru, L.; Sacher, F.; Ledin, A.

    2010-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: 'Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle'. The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds' (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens: 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices: tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones. - Herein are presented the results of the first international inter-laboratory study on determination of selected steroid hormones in environmental aqueous samples.

  3. Continuous Analytical Performances Monitoring at the On-Site Laboratory through Proficiency, Inter-Laboratory Testing and Inter-Comparison Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Dashdondog, S.; Kim, C.-K.; Toervenyi, A.; Hara, S.; Kato, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, as one measure to strengthen its quality management system, the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, has increased its participation in domestic and international proficiency and inter-laboratory testing for the purpose of determining analytical method accuracy, precision and robustness but also to support method development and improvement. This paper provides a description of the testing and its scheduling. It presents the way the testing was optimized to cover most of the analytical methods at the OSL. The paper presents the methodology used for the evaluation of the obtained results based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results are discussed with respect to random, systematic and long term systematic error. (author)

  4. Analysis of a provider of proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons for dosimetry in function of guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Zaretzky, Alba; Stefanic, Amalia M.; Saravi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ionising Radiation Dosimetry Group (CNEA) has participated of the last intercomparison scheme organized by EUROMET. This intercomparison was held starting 2005 until 2008.The objective of this paper is to analyze this Association as a proficiency test provider according to the ISO/IEC Guide 43 (1997) 'Proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons' and ILAC G13 Guide (2007) 'Guidelines for the Requirements for the Competence of Providers of Proficiency Testing Schemes'. The analysis of EURAMET (so called since 2007) as the provider of this dosimetric comparison was made taking into account the following sections of the ILAC G13 Guide: Conduct of proficiency testing schemes; Statistical design, Communication with participants and Reports, taking them as essential parameters of the compliance of a proficiency test provider with the general requirements set by the Guides. This intercomparison had special characteristics coming from the participants and the primary objective of the scheme. It is remarkable the important degree of agreement of the organization with Guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13. (author)

  5. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, C Khanh; Herrera, H; Parrat, J; Wolf, R; Perret, V

    2009-01-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m -3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m -3 but a proposal to lower the standard ('intended changes') to 0.2 mg.m -3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m -3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350 deg. C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m -3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German 'Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitssicherheit' (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymphoproliferative disorders--interpretations based on morphologic criteria alone: results from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nancy A; Moriarty, Ann T; Haja, Jennifer C; Wilbur, David C

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most challenging tasks faced by the cytologist. The initial cytomorphologic evaluation of lymphoproliferative lesions directs the choice of ancillary studies that ultimately lead to a diagnosis based on the World Health Organization classification system using a composite of clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features. To evaluate the ability of participating laboratories in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology to appropriately categorize lymphoproliferative lesions based solely on cytomorphologic criteria. Laboratory responses for lymph node aspirates were examined. All responses were based on review of glass slides without ancillary immunologic or molecular data available. The benchmarking data provided for each specific diagnosis were analyzed, with a focus on the performance for evaluation of lymphoproliferative lesions. Based on morphology alone, responses for lymph node aspirates in the Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology program were correct to the exact reference diagnosis for 87.1% of Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in 69.5% of the large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases, of which 66.8% were correctly classified as large cell type. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in 68.1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, other than large cell cases, and of these, 94.7% were identified as other than large cell type. The spectrum of specific responses was consistent for lymphoproliferative lesions, with a reasonable differential diagnosis based on cytomorphology alone, which, in practice, facilitates the appropriate choice of immunophenotypic markers and other ancillary studies.

  7. Results of interlaboratory tests regarding TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bohlen, A. von

    2000-01-01

    Interlaboratory or intercomparison tests can be performed for proficiency testing of individual laboratories, for the certification of a special sample material and for the validation of a certain method. We participated in two interlaboratory tests in order to validate total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). We used our results to evaluate TXRF and to compare it with other competing methods, particularly with respect of precision and accuracy. The first interlaboratory test was organized by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria). As a candidate for reference material, a lichen (IAEA-336 Lichen) was distributed among 27 participants. In our laboratory, the powdered biogenic material was digested with nitric acid under high pressure and analyzed by TXRF. - The second interlaboratory test was organized by IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium). As a certified test sample with undisclosed values, a sediment (IMEP-14) was delivered to 220 laboratories. We digested the geogenic material again by nitric acid and additionally by hydrofluoric acid and analyzed it by TXRF. - In both test samples, six or eight different trace elements, respectively, were determined by TXRF with a content between 2 and 2000 mg/kg. Calibration was carried out by internal standardization. For that purpose, Ga or Se, respectively, was added as standard element. The measurement uncertainty of TXRF was estimated by the method of error propagation. In our paper we will report on the results of the two interlaboratory tests. It will be shown that TXRF is highly reliable for a correct determination of trace elements in biogenic and geogenic samples. It is competitive with the established methods of trace analyses which were involved in these tests and it is even superior to them in certain aspects. (author)

  8. An inter-laboratory comparison of PNH clone detection by high-sensitivity flow cytometry in a Russian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipol, Alexandra A; Babenko, Elena V; Borisov, Vyacheslav I; Naumova, Elena V; Boyakova, Elena V; Yakunin, Dimitry I; Glazanova, Tatyana V; Chubukina, Zhanna V; Pronkina, Natalya V; Popov, Alexander M; Saveliev, Leonid I; Lugovskaya, Svetlana A; Lisukov, Igor A; Kulagin, Alexander D; Illingworth, Andrea J

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal stem cell disorder characterized by partial or absolute deficiency of glycophosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor-linked surface proteins on blood cells. A lack of precise diagnostic standards for flow cytometry has hampered useful comparisons of data between laboratories. We report data from the first study evaluating the reproducibility of high-sensitivity flow cytometry for PNH in Russia. PNH clone sizes were determined at diagnosis in PNH patients at a central laboratory and compared with follow-up measurements in six laboratories across the country. Analyses in each laboratory were performed according to recommendations from the International Clinical Cytometry Society (ICCS) and the more recent 'practical guidelines'. Follow-up measurements were compared with each other and with the values determined at diagnosis. PNH clone size measurements were determined in seven diagnosed PNH patients (five females, two males: mean age 37 years); five had a history of aplastic anemia and three (one with and two without aplastic anemia) had severe hemolytic PNH and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase. PNH clone sizes at diagnosis were low in patients with less severe clinical symptoms (0.41-9.7% of granulocytes) and high in patients with severe symptoms (58-99%). There were only minimal differences in the follow-up clone size measurement for each patient between the six laboratories, particularly in those with high values at diagnosis. The ICCS-recommended high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocol was effective for detecting major and minor PNH clones in Russian PNH patients, and showed high reproducibility between laboratories.

  9. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison. ''U Age Dating - determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venchiarutti, Celia; Richter, Stephan; Jakopic, Rozle; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel (Belgium). Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM); Varga, Zsolt; Mayer, Klaus [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU)

    2015-07-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on ''U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample'' received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for a-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They were asked to report the isotope amount ratios n({sup 230}Th)/n({sup 234}U) for the 20 mg uranium sample and/or the activity ratios A({sup 230}Th)/A({sup 234}U) for the 50 mg uranium sample in addition to the calculated production date of the certified test samples with its uncertainty. Reporting of the {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratio and the respective calculated production date was optional. Eleven laboratories reported results in REIMEP-22. Two of them reported results for both the 20 mg and 50 mg uranium certified test samples. The measurement capability of the participants was assessed against the independent REIMEP-22 reference value by means of z- and zeta-scores in compliance with ISO 13528:2005. Furthermore a performance assessment criterion for acceptable uncertainty was applied to evaluate the participants' results. In general, the REIMEP-22 participants' results were satisfactory. This confirms the analytical capabilities of laboratories to determine accurately the age of uranium materials with low amount of ingrown thorium (young certified test sample). The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC) organised REIMEP-22 in parallel to the preparation and certification of a uranium reference material certified for the production date (IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b).

  10. Results from an interlaboratory exercise on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.

    1981-07-01

    Results form interlaboratory comparison measurements on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry, organized by the ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Nondestructive Analysis, are presented and discussed. Nine laboratories from nine countries or international organizations participated in the intercomparison exercise, which included both laboratories' own measurements on the plutonium isotopic reference materials NBS-SRM 946, 947, 948 and comparison analyses of gamma spectra from these materials distributed to the participating laboratories. Results from the intercomparison analyses have been used to reevaluate some gamma branching intensity ratios required for plutonium isotopic ratio measurements. (orig.) [de

  11. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-11-02

    Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4-102.1%; LGCS, 10.9-65.6%; CG, 1.8-20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays.

  12. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, E.; Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens......An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: "Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle" The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining "Endocrine Disrupting Compounds" (EDC) in various aqueous...

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  14. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 2: forensic inter-laboratory trial: bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in a range of chemical compounds (Australia and New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Neal, Ken; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hope, Janet; Walker, G Stewart; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Comparability of data over time and between laboratories is a key issue for consideration in the development of global databases, and more broadly for quality assurance in general. One mechanism that can be utilized for evaluating traceability is an inter-laboratory trial. This paper addresses an inter-laboratory trial conducted across a number of Australian and New Zealand isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) laboratories. The main objective of this trial was to determine whether IRMS laboratories in these countries would record comparable values for the distributed samples. Four carbon containing and four nitrogen containing compounds were distributed to seven laboratories in Australia and one in New Zealand. The laboratories were requested to analyze the samples using their standard procedures. The data from each laboratory was evaluated collectively using International Standard ISO 13528 (Statistical methods for use in proficiency testing by inter-laboratory comparisons). "Warning signals" were raised against one participant in this trial. "Action signals" requiring corrective action were raised against four participants. These participants reviewed the data and possible sources for the discrepancies. This inter-laboratory trial was successful in providing an initial snapshot of the potential for traceability between the participating laboratories. The statistical methods described in this article could be used as a model for others needing to evaluate stable isotope results derived from multiple laboratories, e.g., inter-laboratory trials/proficiency testing. Ongoing trials will be conducted to improve traceability across the Australian and New Zealand IRMS community.

  15. Centrally Determined Standardization of Flow Cytometry Methods Reduces Interlaboratory Variation in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Viegen, Tanja; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Azad, Azar; Bilsborough, Janine; van den Brink, Gijs R; Cremer, Jonathan; Danese, Silvio; D'Haens, Geert; Eckmann, Lars; Faubion, William; Filice, Melissa; Korf, Hannelie; McGovern, Dermot; Panes, Julian; Salas, Azucena; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Smith, Michelle I; Vermeire, Severine; Vetrano, Stefania; Shackelton, Lisa M; Stitt, Larry; Jairath, Vipul; Levesque, Barrett G; Spencer, David M; Feagan, Brian G; Vande Casteele, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories. Permeabilization and staining was performed in triplicate at each laboratory using a common protocol and centrally provided reagents. Gating was performed using local gating with a local strategy (LGLS), local gating with a central strategy (LGCS), and central gating (CG). Median cell percentages were calculated across triplicates and donors, and reported for each condition and strategy. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated across laboratories. Between-strategy comparisons were made using a two-way analysis of variance adjusting for donor. Results: Mean interlaboratory CV ranged from 1.8 to 102.1% depending on cell population and gating strategy (LGLS, 4.4–102.1% LGCS, 10.9–65.6% CG, 1.8–20.9%). Mean interlaboratory CV differed significantly across strategies and was consistently lower with CG. Conclusions: Central gating was the only strategy with mean CVs consistently lower than 25%, which is a proposed standard for pharmacodynamic and exploratory biomarker assays. PMID:29095427

  16. Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, Hans; Ark, Bart van

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and procedures of international comparisons of productivity levels for twelve manufacturing industries (producing food products, beer, soap and detergents, iron and steel, machine tools, various types of machinery, computers, audio and video equipment, industrial

  17. Detection by thermoluminescence of an irradiation treatment of five species of dehydrated fruit and vegetables. Report on a CTCPA/AIFLD international interlaboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Anklam, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report considers only four of the five sets of results (one, six, fifteen and twenty-four months after irradiation). From the 765 samples analysed, 73 were rejected, because not enough minerals had been isolated [thereby not fulfilling the requirement that Glow 2 should be higher than ten times the Minimum Detectable integrated TL-intensity Level (MDL), see the European Standard EN 1788:1996]. Among the 692 remaining samples (352 non-irradiated and 340 irradiated), a total of 625 (90%) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated. 59 samples were classified as in doubt. Only 8 samples (1%) apparently were not correctly identified. However, the glow curves revealed that these 8 wrong results were due to labelling errors. Regarding the samples classified as in doubt, it should be kept in mind that in practice analysis of these samples would be repeated until an unequivocal result is obtained. Due to lack of sample material in this interlaboratory test, repetitions were not possible. In practice, enough sample material is usually available, thus higher identification rates can be expected. The present collaborative study has shown that identification of radiation treatment of the five dehydrated fruit and vegetables studied using TL analysis is possible. It has been proposed to the CEN/TC 275/WG8 to extend the applicability of the TL method as described in the European Standard EN 1788:1996, with some minor modifications, to dried fruit and vegetables. (orig.)

  18. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  19. Aggregation Methods in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the nature of the various multilateral in- ternational comparison methods. Fifteen methods are discussed and subjected to a system of ten tests. In addition, attention is paid to recently developed

  20. High Interlaboratory Reprocucibility of DNA Sequence-based Typing of Bacteria in a Multicenter Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, MA de; Boye, Kit; Lencastre, H de

    2006-01-01

    Current DNA amplification-based typing methods for bacterial pathogens often lack interlaboratory reproducibility. In this international study, DNA sequence-based typing of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa, 110 to 422 bp) showed 100% intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility without...... extensive harmonization of protocols for 30 blind-coded S. aureus DNA samples sent to 10 laboratories. Specialized software for automated sequence analysis ensured a common typing nomenclature....

  1. An interlaboratory comparison of ITS2-PCR for the identification of yeasts, using the ABI Prism 310 and CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, most laboratories identify yeasts routinely on the basis of morphology and biochemical reactivity. This approach has quite often limited discriminatory power and may require long incubation periods. Due to the increase of fungal infections and due to specific antifungal resistence patterns for different species, accurate and rapid identification has become more important. Several molecular techniques have been described for fast and reliable identification of yeast isolates, but interlaboratory exchangeability of identification schemes of molecular techniques has hardly been studied. Here, we compared amplified ITS2 fragment length determination by an ABI Prism 310 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system with that obtained by a CEQ8000 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system. Results Although ITS2 size estimations on both systems differed and separate libraries had to be constructed for each system, both approaches had the same discriminatory power with regard to the 44 reference strains, identical identifications were obtained for 39/ 40 clinical isolates in both laboratories and strains from 51 samples were correctly identified using CEQ8000, when compared to phenotypic identification. Conclusion Identification of yeasts with ITS2-PCR followed by fragment analysis can be carried out on different capillary electrophoresis systems with comparable discriminatory power.

  2. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  3. Primary pulmonary non-small cell carcinomas: the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program confirms a significant trend toward subcategorization based upon fine-needle aspiration cytomorphology alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Sturgis, Charles D; Barkan, Guliz A; Souers, Rhona J; Fraig, Mostafa M; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Khalbuss, Walid E; Moriarty, Ann T

    2014-01-01

    Context.-Subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is necessary for optimal patient management with specific diagnoses triggering specific molecular tests and affecting therapy. Objective.-To assess the accuracy of the participants of the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in diagnosing and subtyping NSCLC fine-needle aspiration (FNA) slides, based on morphology alone, considering preparation and participant type and trends over time. Design.-The performance of program participants was reviewed for the 5-year period spanning 2007-2011. Lung FNA challenges with reference diagnoses of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were evaluated for diagnostic concordance by using a nonlinear mixed model analysis. Results.-There were 10 493 pathologist and 6378 cytotechnologist responses with concordance rates of 97.4% and 97.9% for malignancy, respectively. Overall concordance rates for subcategorization were 54.6% for adenocarcinoma and 74.9% for SCC. For the exact reference diagnoses, pathologists performed better for adenocarcinoma and cytotechnologists performed better for SCC. Accurate subcategorization of adenocarcinomas significantly increased over time with 31.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2007 and 25.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2011 (P alone. During the study period, a statistically significant trend was confirmed toward greater accuracy of subcategorization of adenocarcinomas, suggesting that participants are cognizant of the impact that more specific cytomorphologic interpretations have in directing molecular triage and therapy.

  4. GC-MS determination of creatinine in human biological fluids as pentafluorobenzyl derivative in clinical studies and biomonitoring: Inter-laboratory comparison in urine with Jaffé, HPLC and enzymatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Wolf, Alexander; Mitschke, Anja; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Will, Wolfgang; Bader, Michael

    2010-10-01

    In consideration of its relatively constant urinary excretion rate, creatinine in urine is a useful biochemical parameter to correct the urinary excretion rate of endogenous and exogenous biomolecules. Assays based on the reaction of creatinine and picric acid first reported by Jaffé in 1886 still belong to the most frequently used laboratory approaches for creatinine measurement in urine. Further analytical methods for creatinine include HPLC-UV, GC-MS, and LC-MS and LC-MS/MS approaches. In the present article we report on the development, validation and biomedical application of a new GC-MS method for the reliable quantitative determination of creatinine in human urine, plasma and serum. This method is based on the derivatization of creatinine (d(0)-Crea) and the internal standard [methyl-trideutero]creatinine (d(3)-Crea) with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide in the biological sample directly or after dilution with phosphate buffered saline, extraction of the reaction products with toluene and quantification in 1-μl aliquots of the toluene extract by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 112 for d(0)-Crea-PFB and m/z 115 for d(3)-Crea-PFB in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. The limit of detection of the method is 100 amol of creatinine. In an inter-laboratory study on urine samples from 100 healthy subjects, the GC-MS method was used to test the reliability of currently used Jaffé, enzymatic and HPLC assays in clinical and occupational studies. The results of the inter-laboratory study indicate that all three tested methods allow for satisfactory quantification of creatinine in human urine. The GC-MS method is suitable for use as a reference method for urinary creatinine in humans. In serum, creatine was found to contribute to creatinine up to 20% when measured by the present GC-MS method. The application of the GC-MS method can be extended to other biological samples such as saliva. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, David; Bertrand, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Discharge measurements performed by the French governmental hydrometer team feed a national database. This data is available for general river flows knowkedge, flood forecasting, low water survey, statistical calculations flow, control flow regulatory and many other uses. Regularly checking the measurements quality and better quantifying its accuracy is therefore an absolute need. The practice of inter-laboratory comparison in hydrometry particularly developed during the last decade. Indeed, discharge measurement can not easily be linked to a standard. Therefore, on-site measurement accuracy control is very difficult. Inter-laboratory comparison is thus a practical solution to this issue. However, it needs some regulations in order to ease its practice and legitimize its results. To do so, the French government hydrometrics teams produced a practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation in destination of hydrometers community in view of ensure the harmonization of inter-laboratory comparison practices for different materials (ADCP, current meter on wadind rod or gauging van, tracer dilution, surface speed) and flow range (flood, low water). Ensure the results formalization and banking. The realisation of this practice guide is grounded on the experience of the governmental teams & their partners (or fellows), following existing approaches (Doppler group especially). The guide is designated to validate compliance measures and identify outliers : Hardware, methodological, environmental, or human. Inter-laboratory comparison provides the means to verify the compliance of the instruments (devices + methods + operators) and provides methods to determine an experimental uncertainty of the tested measurement method which is valid only for the site and the measurement conditions but does not address the calibration or periodic monitoring of the few materials. After some conceptual definitions, the guide describes the different stages of an

  6. International Comparisons: Issues of Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova Irina A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodology and organization of statistical observation of the level of countries’ economic development. The theoretical basis of international comparisons is singled out and on its basis the comparative evaluation of inconsistency of theoretical positions and the reasons of differences of GDP growth is carried out. Based on the complexity of the formation of homogeneous data sets in order to obtain correct comparison results, a general scheme for the relationship between the theoretical base of international comparisons and PPP constraints is defined. The possibility of obtaining a single measurement of the indicators of national economies based on the existing sampling errors, measurement uncertainties and classification errors is considered. The emphasis is placed on combining the work using the ICP and CPI with the aim of achieving comparability of data in the territorial and temporal cross-section. Using the basic characteristics of sustainable economic growth, long-term prospects for changing the ranking positions of countries with different levels of income are determined. It is shown that the clarity and unambiguity of the theoretical provisions is the defining condition for the further process of data collection and formation of correct analytical conclusions.

  7. Interlaboratory Collaborations in the Undergraduate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megehee, Elise G.; Hyslop, Alison G.; Rosso, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach to cross-disciplinary and group learning, known as interlaboratory collaborations, was developed. The method mimics an industrial or research setting, fosters teamwork, and emphasizes the importance of good communication skills in the sciences.

  8. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert David G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections - such as inequality and inefficiency of learning - are perennial problems for education despite a diversity of foundations on which national systems are established, which range from the idealistic vision of fostering a utopian society to the utilitarian objective of producing skilled workers capable of engendering economic growth. Despite sharing many common conditions and fundamental values, educators rarely learn valuable lessons from the successes and failures of highly relevant initiatives in distant nations. This problem may be attributed to several factors, not the least of which includes the entrenchment of local traditions and ethnocentric assumptions, but surely the quality and relevance of international-comparative research - and the way its results are disseminated - are issues that must also be taken into careful consideration. What are the unique lessons to be learned from international comparisons, and what are the prospective risks for how such comparisons may be misinterpreted and misused in educational settings? How can international comparative research be made more relevant, with tangible applications that may be recognized and effectively used by school teachers? How can international comparative education meaningfully examine subjects beyond the reach of standardized testing, in such domains as the fostering of creativity, talent, and ethical sensibilities, for example? These themes will be presented through discussion of both research findings and anecdotes from the personal experience of working for universities on four continents. Specific topics will include the challenges of accounting for conceptual equivalency and representing cultural differences, sampling and generalizability, reconciling the diverging aims of economic, anthropological, sociological, and psychological research, as well as grappling with the ambivalent discourse of globalization, multiculturalism, post-colonialism, and other social

  9. Integration of new biological and physical retrospective dosimetry methods into EU emergency response plans - joint RENEB and EURADOS inter-laboratory comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Badie, Christophe; Barnard, Stephen; Manning, Grainne; Moquet, Jayne; Abend, Michael; Antunes, Ana Catarina; Barrios, Lleonard; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Bortolin, Emanuela; Bossin, Lily; Bricknell, Clare; Brzoska, Kamil; Buraczewska, Iwona; Castaño, Carlos Huertas; Čemusová, Zina; Christiansson, Maria; Cordero, Santiago Mateos; Cosler, Guillaume; Monaca, Sara Della; Desangles, François; Discher, Michael; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Eakins, Jon; Fattibene, Paola; Filippi, Silvia; Frenzel, Monika; Georgieva, Dimka; Gregoire, Eric; Guogyte, Kamile; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hadjiiska, Ljubomira; Hristova, Rositsa; Karakosta, Maria; Kis, Enikő; Kriehuber, Ralf; Lee, Jungil; Lloyd, David; Lumniczky, Katalin; Lyng, Fiona; Macaeva, Ellina; Majewski, Matthaeus; Vanda Martins, S; McKeever, Stephen W S; Meade, Aidan; Medipally, Dinesh; Meschini, Roberta; M'kacher, Radhia; Gil, Octávia Monteiro; Montero, Alegria; Moreno, Mercedes; Noditi, Mihaela; Oestreicher, Ursula; Oskamp, Dominik; Palitti, Fabrizio; Palma, Valentina; Pantelias, Gabriel; Pateux, Jerome; Patrono, Clarice; Pepe, Gaetano; Port, Matthias; Prieto, María Jesús; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Quintens, Roel; Ricoul, Michelle; Roy, Laurence; Sabatier, Laure; Sebastià, Natividad; Sholom, Sergey; Sommer, Sylwester; Staynova, Albena; Strunz, Sonja; Terzoudi, Georgia; Testa, Antonella; Trompier, Francois; Valente, Marco; Hoey, Olivier Van; Veronese, Ivan; Wojcik, Andrzej; Woda, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    RENEB, 'Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry and Physical Retrospective Dosimetry,' is a network for research and emergency response mutual assistance in biodosimetry within the EU. Within this extremely active network, a number of new dosimetry methods have recently been proposed or developed. There is a requirement to test and/or validate these candidate techniques and inter-comparison exercises are a well-established method for such validation. The authors present details of inter-comparisons of four such new methods: dicentric chromosome analysis including telomere and centromere staining; the gene expression assay carried out in whole blood; Raman spectroscopy on blood lymphocytes, and detection of radiation-induced thermoluminescent signals in glass screens taken from mobile phones. In general the results show good agreement between the laboratories and methods within the expected levels of uncertainty, and thus demonstrate that there is a lot of potential for each of the candidate techniques. Further work is required before the new methods can be included within the suite of reliable dosimetry methods for use by RENEB partners and others in routine and emergency response scenarios.

  10. The AS-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determination of Pu-238. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Spannagel, G.

    1979-12-01

    In cooperation with 26 laboratories of 11 countries or international organizations, the Safeguards Project of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center carried out the interlaboratory program AS-76. It focused on the alpha-spectrometric determination of the Pu-238 isotope. The performance of the program as well as the results obtained are described. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  11. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  12. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  13. ARN results in interlaboratory comparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo; Lewis, Cecilia; Fernandez, Jorge; Canoba, Analia; Gavini, Ricardo; Grinman, Ana; Palacios, Miguel; Sartori, Francisco; Giustina, Daniel; Gnoni, Gabriela; Czerniczyniec, Mariela; Cialella, Hugo; Acosta, Soledad; Diodati, Jorge; Bonino, Nestor; Campos, Juan; Mondini, Julia; Franco, Graciela

    2008-01-01

    For years, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has been involved in several laboratory intercomparison programmes. The objective of participating in these exercises is to assure the quality of the determinations that the radiochemical laboratories of ARN carries out as part of its regulatory activity. Most of these determinations are related to its environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities existing in the country, in operation or not. Other determinations are related with effluent samples and monitoring activities performed inside the facilities. On the other hand, these intercomparisons are part of the requirements for the laboratories under ISO 17025. ARN laboratories are in process to obtain or maintain ISO 17025 accreditation as a priority objective. During the development of the intercomparisons, different samples have been tested in several matrices containing alpha, beta and gamma emitters. These exercises were organized by different laboratories as the IAEA, the EML and NIST from United States, the NPL and the NRPB from England, the BFS from Germany, and so on. The results were very satisfactory not only in direct measurements (gamma spectrometry) but also in those that require a previous intensive laboratory processing (alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation), resulting in many cases better than the general average. This paper provides a summary of the results obtained in these exercises and the results are compared with the overall average of the participating laboratories. (author)

  14. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  15. Radiocarbon dating of interlaboratory check samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W.

    1983-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of interlaboratory age determinations in which the Geological Survey of Canada's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory has been involved. There is good agreement between laboratories, although there may be other problems related to the interpretation of individual samples

  16. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... concepts, definitions, and classifications to facilitate data comparisons between the United States and... referred to as sequestration) required by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended..., Room 2120, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC 20212 or by email to: [email protected] . FOR...

  17. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-2008 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Phosphogypsum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. L.; Barrera, M.; Valino, F.

    2010-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-2008 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC. Aphosphogypsum material was used as a test sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analyzing NORM (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials). The analysis required were: U-238, Th-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-232 and U-235, and also gross alpha and gross beta activities. Reference values have been established according to the method of consensus of expert laboratories, with four international laboratories of credited experience: IAEA Seibersdorf, IAEA MEL, IRSN-Orsay and Sta.Teresa ENEA. The results of the exercise were computed for 34 answering laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score. Robust statistics of the participants results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The exercise has shown an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the assigned Reference Values. Participant laboratories have demonstrated their ability to determine natural radionuclides in phosphogypsum samples (NORM material) with a satisfactory quality level. The scheme has also allowed examining the capability of laboratories to determine the activities of natural radionuclides at the equilibrium. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. International Comparisons on Internal Labor Markets and Corporate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.

  19. Youth delinquency in Slovenia in international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Dekleva, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the official statistics of youth delinquency in Slovenia over the last 30 years. It presents an overview of Slovenian studies of youth delinquency using the self-report surveying method, and describes the International Self-Reported Delinquency Study II, which Slovenia was also took part in. And finally, it analyzes the information, on the basis of which it is possible to formulate conclusions on the extent of youth delinquency in Slovenia compared...

  20. Youth delinquency in Slovenia in international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Dekleva, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the official statistics of youth delinquency in Slovenia over the last 30 years. It presents an overview of Slovenian studies of youth delinquency using the self-report surveying method, and describes the International Self-Reported Delinquency Study II, which Slovenia was also took part in. And finally, it analyzes the information, on the basis of which it is possible to formulate conclusions on the extent of youth delinquency in Slovenia compared...

  1. Safety of nuclear installations. An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Andrea; Diwes, Andreas; Reingardt, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding of nuclear power plants against disruptive actions or other external hazards is part of the plant design and presumption of an operation license. The general principle is defense in depth involving different security zones with separate barriers. The safeguards for nuclear installations are organized in three areas of responsibility: governmental measures (police, military), technical (detectors, scanners, illuminations, camera tracking, concrete barriers) and personnel measures (access control, security personnel, alarm) of the operating company. International responsibilities results from the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and several IAEA documents. The authors discuss the national regulations in Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. Older NPPs that are not in compliance with actual safety standards will be a topic of increasing importance.

  2. Exemption values and measurements in international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are developed worldwide to systematically derive exemption limits or exemption values (IAEA, ICRP, Radiation Protection Ordinance) for different applications according to uniform principles. An important step in this regard is the adoption of the new guideline of the EU Council on radiation protection. Also regarding a uniform definition of the exemption of material from nuclear installations, agreement should be reached soon in Europe. Due to different concepts of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes, in particular low level wastes, internationally there is no prospect of a uniform regulation concerning the exemption of very low level wastes, while in Germany a corresponding recommendation has already been made by the radiation protection commission. The exemption limits valid at present are mentioned. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nuclear waste governance. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Mez, Lutz; Schreurs, Miranda A. (eds.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.

  5. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  6. IAEA interlaboratory exercise for water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Jeon, Young Shin; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Yong Bok; Kim, Jong Gu; Kim, Won Ho

    2003-09-01

    KAERI Analytical laboratory participated in the IAEA Interlaboratory exercise for water chemistry of groundwater(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , SiO 2 , B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 3 were analyzed. The result of this exercise showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked on the top level of the participants. Major analytical methods applied for this activity were ICP-AES, AAS, IC, pH meter, conductometer and acid titration

  7. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  8. International comparison of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.; Stevens, G.H.; Wigley, K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the principal findings of successive studies of projected comparative generation costs for base-load electricity production conducted by Nuclear Energy Agency working groups, including a current study jointly sponsored by the International Energy Agency. It concludes that over the six years 1983-1989 nuclear generation costs have remained steady or slightly declined in the majority of OECD countries. This represents an excellent result in view of the difficulties that have arisen in many countries during the period. Nuclear power is projected to maintain a significant advantage in most OECD countries on an assessment basis reflecting utility experience and discount rates employed by the majority of participants. However, nuclear's projected advantage has declined due to a significant fall in projected coal prices which have decreased by 50% since 1983. This decline is only slightly offset by increased capital and operating costs for coal-fired plant. If rates of return sought by utilities were higher or if coal prices prove lower than utilities project then the economic balance between nuclear and coal-fired power would be further reduced and could in some instances be reversed. To improve on its competitiveness nuclear power will have to continue to control capital costs through replication and reduced construction schedules and to improve plant availability to maximise output

  9. On the Reliability of Unit Value Ratios in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper reliability indicators are developed for the Laspeyres and Paasche index type currency conversion factors used in the industry of origin approach to international comparisons of output. Given the fact that these conversion factors are calculated on basis of a sampling technique,

  10. Lupus anticoagulants: first French interlaboratory Etalonorme survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussi, J; Roisin, J P; Goguel, A

    1996-06-01

    In 1994, the, French National Quality Control Group for Hematology, Etalonorme, conducted a large-scale interlaboratory survey concerning the detection of lupus anticoagulants (LA) involving all the 4,500 French laboratories. Each laboratory received the same batch of a lyophilized citrated plasma (94B3) prepared from a patient with LA that had been confirmed by all the techniques used in the intralaboratory study. In the interlaboratory survey, the screening test was activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT); mean APTT calculated from the results reported by 4,029 labs was prolonged (clotting ratio = 1.44) with a large dispersion (coefficients of variation = 18.8%). APTT of the mixture 94B3 + normal plasma were performed by 2,698 laboratories. No correction of APTT was obtained (R = 1.36, Rosner index = 24) with a wide variation between reagents (17 kaolin. This survey allowed Etalonorme to inform French biologists and draft an educational program for the biologic detection of LA and the identification of its mechanism of action.

  11. Data processing of qualitative results from an interlaboratory comparison for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: How the use of statistics can improve the reliability of the method validation process in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabirand, Aude; Loiseau, Marianne; Renaudin, Isabelle; Poliakoff, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests. Different statistical approaches were applied to this collaborative study. Firstly, there was the standard statistical approach consisting in analyzing samples which are known to be positive and samples which are known to be negative and reporting the proportion of false-positive and false-negative results to respectively calculate diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This approach was supplemented by the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility for qualitative methods based on the notions of accordance and concordance. Other new approaches were also implemented, based, on the one hand, on the probability of detection model, and, on the other hand, on Bayes' theorem. These various statistical approaches are complementary and give consistent results. Their combination, and in particular, the introduction of new statistical approaches give overall information on the performance and limitations of the different methods, and are particularly useful for selecting the most appropriate detection scheme with regards to the prevalence of the pathogen. Three real-time PCR protocols (methods M4, M5 and M6 respectively developed by Hren (2007), Pelletier (2009) and under patent oligonucleotides) achieved the highest levels of performance for FD phytoplasma detection. This paper also addresses the issue of indeterminate results and the identification of outlier results. The statistical tools presented in this paper and their

  12. Data processing of qualitative results from an interlaboratory comparison for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: How the use of statistics can improve the reliability of the method validation process in plant pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Chabirand

    Full Text Available A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests. Different statistical approaches were applied to this collaborative study. Firstly, there was the standard statistical approach consisting in analyzing samples which are known to be positive and samples which are known to be negative and reporting the proportion of false-positive and false-negative results to respectively calculate diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This approach was supplemented by the calculation of repeatability and reproducibility for qualitative methods based on the notions of accordance and concordance. Other new approaches were also implemented, based, on the one hand, on the probability of detection model, and, on the other hand, on Bayes' theorem. These various statistical approaches are complementary and give consistent results. Their combination, and in particular, the introduction of new statistical approaches give overall information on the performance and limitations of the different methods, and are particularly useful for selecting the most appropriate detection scheme with regards to the prevalence of the pathogen. Three real-time PCR protocols (methods M4, M5 and M6 respectively developed by Hren (2007, Pelletier (2009 and under patent oligonucleotides achieved the highest levels of performance for FD phytoplasma detection. This paper also addresses the issue of indeterminate results and the identification of outlier results. The statistical tools presented in this paper

  13. [Pitfalls in international comparisons of health data and indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Shani, M

    1991-05-01

    Comparison of published data and health indices from different countries with different health systems is subject to many pitfalls. Comparison of national expenditure for health care based on purchasing power of the currency may be misleading if the purchasing power of the health services is ignored. Comparisons may also be misleading if they ignore national geographic and demographic structures. Government and health authorities often quote different sets of data and use different terminology and definitions. This article stresses the disparity in the definition of medical manpower and points out differences relating to ratios of manpower to population and to per capita spending. Also addressed is the importance of the qualitative and value aspects of health systems not usually involved in comparison of international health indices. In conclusion, safety measures and precautions such as choosing the right index for the right purpose, adjustment of indices to the purchasing power parity of health, demographics, etc., should be used when conducting health care analyses.

  14. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-05 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Vegetable Ash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.; Valino Garcia, F.

    2006-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-05 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the IUPAC I nternational harmonised protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories . The exercise has been designed to evaluate the capability of national laboratories to determine environmental levels of radionuclides in vegetable ash samples. The sample has been prepared by the Environmental Radiation Laboratory, from the University of Barcelona, and it contains the following radionuclides: Sr-90, Pu-238, Am-241, Th-230, Pb-210, U-238, Ra-226, K-40, Ra-228, TI-208, Cs- 137 and Co-60. Reference values have been established TROUGH the kind collaboration of three international laboratories of recognized experience: IAEA MEL and IRSN-Orsay. The results of the exercise were computed for 35 participating laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objetiva study of the laboratories' performance. Some difficulties encountered to dissolve the test sample caused a lower response of analyses involving radiochemical separation, thus some laboratories couldn't apply their routine methods and no conclusions on PU-238, Am-241 and Th-230 performances have been obtained. The exercise has revealed an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in vegetable ash samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  15. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolelli, G.F.; Franceschetti, F.; Mimmi, P.; Malvano, R.; Pilo, A.; Zucchelli; Rota, G.

    1986-01-01

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  16. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Round-Robin Studies on Roll-Processed ITO-free Organic Tandem Solar Cells Combined with Inter-Laboratory Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2015-01-01

    Roll-processed, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free, flexible, organic tandem solar cells and modules have been realized and used in round-robin studies as well as in parallel inter-laboratory stability studies. The tandem cells/modules show no significant difference in comparison to their single...

  18. Interlaboratory control among INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Vargas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Work Package 1 “ Development and standardization of effective analytical tools for mycotoxin (aflatoxins B1, B2  G1, G2  ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin B1, B2  and tricothecenes determination in wheat and maize”  aim to implement the interlaboratory control between the partners laboratories from Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina as part of the objectives of INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT 2003-2005  “The Development of a Food Quality Management System for the Control of Mycotoxins in cereal Production and Processing Chains in Latin America South Cone Countries”.  The ojectives of the interlaboratory control were: evaluate the performance of the laboratories and the main difficulties encountered in performing the analytical procedure for mycotoxins  determination in maize and wheat; contribute to the harmonization of analytical procedures of the partners laboratories and contribute to the laboratory’s proficiency in mycotoxin analysis.  Maize reference materials for aflatoxins and zearealenone were prepared and used to the implementation of the interlaboratory control.  In summary, the preparation of these samples involved: milling (<20 mesh, homogeneization, analysis to verify the homogeneity of the bulk material and packing (labelled vacuum “sachets” or plastic bottles and mycotoxin analysis.  The homogeneity of the material was investigated by the analysis of variance – ANOVA- according to International Harmonized Protocol for the Proficiency testing of (ChemicalAnalytical Laboratories as established by ISO 43-1 – Annex at 95% of confidence level by calculating an F-statistic ans Ss/ÿ (ÿ =15%. All batches of test material were stored under – 18ºC and protected from light prior to and after packaging.  Aflatoxins in the test materials were determinated by immunoaffinity with liquid chromatography (LC with pos-column derivatization and thin layer chromatography (TLC.  Zearalenone in the test materials

  19. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Inter-laboratory project q calibration of SANS instruments using silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, Abarrul; Gunawan; Edy Giri, Putra; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Knott, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The inter-laboratory project for q-calibration of SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using silver behenate was carried out among Indonesia National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The standard sample of silver behenate, [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 20 COOAg](AgBE), has been assessed as an international standard for the calibration of both x-ray and neutron scattering instruments. The results indicate excellent agreement for q calibration obtained among the three laboratories, BATAN, JAERI and ANSTO. (Y. Kazumata)

  1. International comparisons in critical care: a necessity and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Rowan, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C

    2007-12-01

    Understanding variation in critical care resources, and delivery of care between countries will allow for improved disaster planning, evaluation of research findings, and assessment of the utility of critical care itself. This review describes the available data for international comparisons and the many factors that need to be addressed for an appropriate interpretation of results. Recent studies on subgroups of critical care patients include data from many different countries. These new studies provide important information on the overall incidence of these disease states, but most of these international studies do not take into account the critical care resources of the countries being discussed. For an appropriate interpretation of findings the relevant baseline critical care resources, prevalence of diseases, and cultural practices, need to be quantified. The existence of these other factors prevents the use of a severity of illness scoring system alone to account for differences between countries. Many recent critical care studies include data from multiple countries. With continued movement towards international studies, and improvements in data collection systems, comparisons between countries are becoming easier. These findings need to be interpreted in the context of all the relevant country information.

  2. International comparison of AC-DC current transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G.; Garcocz, M.; Waldmann, W.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the international comparison of ac-dc current transfer standards identified as EURAMET.EM-K12 started in June 2012 and were completed in December 2014. Twenty NMIs in the EURAMET region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), PTB (Germany), METAS (Switzerland), JV (Norway), UME (Turkey), GUM (Poland), IPQ (Portugal), CEM (Spain), INRIM (Italy), SP (Sweden), DANIAmet-MI-Trescal (Denmark), BIM (Bulgaria), MKEH (Hungary), SIQ (Slovenia), LNE (France), NSAI NML (Ireland), VSL (The Netherlands), NPL (United Kingdom), Metrosert (Estonia), NIS (Egypt). The comparison was proposed to link the National Metrology Institutes organised in EURAMET to the key comparison CCEM-K12. The ac-dc current transfer difference of each travelling standard had been measured at its nominal current 10 mA and 5 A at the following frequencies: 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparison (CCEM-K12), through five NMIs participating in both EURAMET and CCEM key comparisons (PTB, JV, NPL, SP and BEV). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the EURAMET region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Wind power forecasting is essential for greater penetration of wind power into electricity systems. Because no wind forecasting system is perfect, a thorough understanding of the errors that may occur is a critical factor for system operation functions, such as the setting of operating reserve...... levels. This paper provides an international comparison of the distribution of wind power forecasting errors from operational systems, based on real forecast data. The paper concludes with an assessment of similarities and differences between the errors observed in different locations....

  4. [Surgical research in Germany--an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Rothmund, M

    2010-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany occupies a lower position in international ranking than expected. According to the size of the population, the economic impact, the gross domestic product and the research funding capacity, the impact of German surgical research should be much higher. Reasons are a more intensive commitment to patient care, structural differences and a changing lifestyle in younger doctors in comparison to many leading countries. If the situation is to be improved all factors have to be evaluated and, if possible, changed. Overall, German surgeons are underrepresented as readers and authors in the scientific market, which is mostly in the English language.

  5. Qualitative content analysis for international comparison of data usage agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haux

    2017-04-01

    Undertaking an overview of privacy conditions can be a valuable step in comparing privacy and security requirements in different national regulations. The qualitative content analysis was found a suitable approach for this purpose because it enables the detection of fine characteristics. By using an incremental design, it is possible to adapt the coding system to include additional partners. However, the current coding system has the limitation that heterogeneity between the agreements leads to a fine granularity of categories that hamper the comparability between partners. Despite these problems, the approach allows the comparison of data privacy and supports the development of a data integration process for international harmonisation.

  6. Inter-laboratory analysis of selected genetically modified plant reference materials with digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobnik, David; Demšar, Tina; Huber, Ingrid; Gerdes, Lars; Broeders, Sylvia; Roosens, Nancy; Debode, Frederic; Berben, Gilbert; Žel, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems. However, the determined absolute copy numbers for individual genes or events showed higher variability between laboratories in one third of the cases, most possibly due to variability in the technical work, droplet size variability, and analysis of the raw data. GMO quantification with dPCR and qPCR was comparable. As methods originally designed for qPCR performed well in dPCR systems, already validated qPCR assays can most generally be used for dPCR technology with the purpose of GMO detection. Graphical abstract The output of three different PCR-based platforms was assessed in an inter-laboratory comparison.

  7. How well can we measure U and Pu on an interlaboratory basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, P.; Mayer, K.

    1991-01-01

    In measurements in general, and nuclear measurements in particular, it is no more a secret that the real state-of-the-practice (SOP) is frequently different from what is said at Conferences, written in books or claimed in meetings. Frequently the latter refer to the state-of-the-art (SOA) in research laboratories or to the ultimate possible only achievable in a few highly specialized institutes. Since it is important to have an objective basis to determine where the authors stand in SOP, CBNM is running a program to regularly determine the SOP on an interlaboratory basis for U and Pu element and isotope assay: REIMEP (Regular European Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Program). Participation is open to non-European countries. Well characterized samples are distributed to participants with characteristics undisclosed until participants' measurements have been received. Subsequently pictures are provided displaying (a) the interlaboratory spread, (b) the deviation of each participant to the carefully characterized reference value, (c) the participant's own estimate of his uncertainty allowing comparison with other participant's uncertainties and the uncertainty of the reference value. Thus the pictures act as instant photographs (snapshots) of the real SOP. The choice of the analytical method is up to the participant (titrimetry, coulometry, α-spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, γ-spectrometry, thermionic mass spectrometry,...). The quoted uncertainty is also the participant's choice, but should be an accuracy defined as an uncertainty range claiming, for all practical purposes, to contain the true value. Up to now a number of rounds have been performed on various U and/or Pu containing materials such as pellets, powders, solutions, UF 6 . A number of graphs displaying the SOP will be shown

  8. Impact of Uniform Methods on Interlaboratory Antibody Titration Variability: Antibody Titration and Uniform Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Cheng, Yan H; Long, Thomas; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-01-01

    -Substantial variability between different antibody titration methods prompted development and introduction of uniform methods in 2008. -To determine whether uniform methods consistently decrease interlaboratory variation in proficiency testing. -Proficiency testing data for antibody titration between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the College of American Pathologists. Each laboratory was supplied plasma and red cells to determine anti-A and anti-D antibody titers by their standard method: gel or tube by uniform or other methods at different testing phases (immediate spin and/or room temperature [anti-A], and/or anti-human globulin [AHG: anti-A and anti-D]) with different additives. Interlaboratory variations were compared by analyzing the distribution of titer results by method and phase. -A median of 574 and 1100 responses were reported for anti-A and anti-D antibody titers, respectively, during a 5-year period. The 3 most frequent (median) methods performed for anti-A antibody were uniform tube room temperature (147.5; range, 119-159), uniform tube AHG (143.5; range, 134-150), and other tube AHG (97; range, 82-116); for anti-D antibody, the methods were other tube (451; range, 431-465), uniform tube (404; range, 382-462), and uniform gel (137; range, 121-153). Of the larger reported methods, uniform gel AHG phase for anti-A and anti-D antibodies had the most participants with the same result (mode). For anti-A antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube room temperature) and 1 of 8 (uniform versus other tube AHG), and for anti-D antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube) and 0 of 8 (uniform versus other gel) proficiency tests showed significant titer variability reduction. -Uniform methods harmonize laboratory techniques but rarely reduce interlaboratory titer variance in comparison with other methods.

  9. Recent activity of international comparison for nanoparticle size measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Takahata, Keiji; Misumi, Ichiko; Sugawara, Kentaro; Gonda, Satoshi; Ehara, Kensei

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticle sizing is the most fundamental measurement for producing nanomaterials, evaluation of nanostructure, and the risk assessment of nanomaterials for human health. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is widely used as a useful and convenient technique for determining nanoparticle size in liquid; however, the precision of this technique has been unclear. Some international comparisons are now in progress to verify the measurement accuracy of nanoparticle sizing, as a typical example of Asia Pacific Metrology Programme Supplementary Comparison. In this study, we evaluated the precision of DLS technique for nanoparticle sizing and estimated the uncertainty of the DLS data for polystyrene latex suspensions. The extrapolations of apparent diffusion coefficients to infinite dilution and to lower angles yielded more precise values than those obtained at one angle and one concentration. The extrapolated particle size measured by DLS was compared to the size determined by differential mobility analyzer (DMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before the comparison, the intensity-averaged size measured by DLS was recalculated to the number-averaged size, and the thickness of water layer attaching on the surface of particles were added into uncertainty of particle sizing by DLS. After the recalculation, the consistent values of mean particle diameter were obtained between those by DLS and by DMA, AFM, and SEM within the estimated uncertainties.

  10. International comparison of energy price using a purchasing power parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Hun; Jo, Sung Han [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The price control of government results in price distortion as well as lowering efficiency of energy market and distortion of allocating resources. Consequently, such a price policy leads to energy overconsumption and has negative influences on other policies trying to reduce environmental burden resulted from energy consumption. When the energy price does not reflect the market price properly, it results in inefficiency of energy industry and it makes very difficult to supply investment funds. Therefore, the government is planning to implement liberalization of energy price step by step. The purpose of this study is to provide basic materials for establishing a reasonable energy price policy through the international comparison among OECD countries on major products price focusing on petroleum products. To overcome problems of exchange rate, a purchasing power indicator from OECD was used for comparative analysis with OECD countries. 11 refs. 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  11. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, I.; Wagner, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60 Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of N x ) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via N x , this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  13. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-100 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-00 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. the exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. the test sample was a soil containing environmental levels of K-40, Ra-226, Ac-228, Sr-90, Cs-137, Cs-134, Pu (239-240) y Am-241. the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona prepared the material and reported adequate statistical studies of homogeneity. The results of the exercise were computed for 30 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the u-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The exercise has drawn that several laboratories have difficulties in the evaluation of combined uncertainty, mainly in analysis involving radiochemical steps. The study has shown an homogeneous inter-laboratory behaviour, and the improvement achieved through subsequent exercises in the quality of the data they are producing. (Author) 10 refs

  14. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  15. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  16. New preparation of fish material for interlaboratory study on PFCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Lohman, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Barneveld, van E.

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit (IVM) has requested Wageningen IMARES to prepare a new fish material for use in the interlaboratory performance study on analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) due to the low amount of contaminants in the previously prepared material.

  17. Interlaboratory variability of Ki67 staining in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, Cornelia M.; Bürger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J.; Finsterbusch, Kai; Gläser, Doreen; Korsching, Eberhard; Decker, Thomas; Anders, M.; Bollmann, R.; Eiting, Fr; Friedrich, K.; Habeck, J. O.; Haroske, G.; Hinrichs, B.; Behrens, A.; Krause, Lars Udo; Braun-Lang, U.; Lorenzen, J.; Minew, N.; Mlynek-Kersjes, M.; Nenning, H.; Packeisen, J.; Poche-de Vos, F.; Reyher-Klein, S.; Rothacker, D.; Schultz, M.; Sturm, U.; Tawfik, M.; Berghäuser, K. H.; Böcker, W; Cserni, G.; Habedank, S.; Lax, S.; Moinfar, F.; Regitnig, P.; Reiner-Concin, A.; Rüschoff, J.; Varga, Z.; Woziwodski, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Postanalytic issues of Ki67 assessment in breast cancers like counting method standardisation and interrater bias have been subject of various studies, but little is known about analytic variability of Ki67 staining between pathology labs. Our aim was to study interlaboratory variability

  18. International intercalibration as a method for control of radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, A.; Totseva, R.; Karaivanova, R.; Dandulova, Z.; Botsova, L.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of the Radioecology Section at the National Centre for Radiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) in the International Interlaboratory Comparison of radiochemical analyses organized by WHO is reported. The method of evaluating accuracy of the results from inter calibrations concerning radionuclide determination of environmental samples is outlined. The data from analysis of cesium 137, strontium 90 and radium 226 in milk, sediments, soil and seaweed made by 21 laboratories are presented. They show a good accuracy values of the results from NCRRP. 1 tab. 2 figs., 6 refs

  19. An international comparison of reimbursement for DIEAP flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A W N; Szpalski, C; Sheppard, N N; Morrison, C M; Blondeel, P N

    2015-11-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap is currently considered the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. With the current economic climate and health cutbacks, we decided to survey reimbursement for DIEAP flaps performed at the main international centres in order to assess whether they are funded consistently. Data were collected confidentially from the main international centres by an anonymous questionnaire. Our results illustrate the wide disparity in international DIEAP flap breast reconstruction reimbursement: a unilateral DIEAP flap performed in New York, USA, attracts €20,759, whereas the same operation in Madrid, Spain, will only be reimbursed for €300. Only 35.7% of the surgeons can set up their own fee. Moreover, 85.7% of the participants estimated that the current fees are insufficient, and most of them feel that we are evolving towards an even lower reimbursement rate. In 55.8% of the countries represented, there is no DIEAP-specific coding; in comparison, 74.4% of the represented countries have a specific coding for transverse rectus abdominis (TRAM) flaps. Finally, despite the fact that DIEAP flaps have become the gold standard for breast reconstruction, they comprise only a small percentage of all the total number of breast reconstruction procedures performed (7-15%), with the only exception being Belgium (40%). Our results demonstrate that DIEAP flap breast reconstruction is inconsistently funded. Unfortunately though, it appears that the current reimbursement offered by many countries may dissuade institutions and surgeons from offering this procedure. However, substantial evidence exists supporting the cost-effectiveness of perforator flaps for breast reconstruction, and, in our opinion, the long-term clinical benefits for our patients are so important that this investment of time and money is absolutely essential. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons

  20. The neural correlates of internal and external comparisons: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Xiang, Yanhui; Cant, Jonathan S; Wang, Tingting; Cupchik, Gerald; Huang, Ruiwang; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested that various comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the commonalities and differences between the internal comparison based on concepts or rules and the external comparison based on perception. In the present experiment, moral beauty comparison and facial beauty comparison were selected as the representatives of internal comparison and external comparison, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record brain activity while participants compared the level of moral beauty of two scene drawings containing moral acts or the level of facial beauty of two face photos. In addition, a physical size comparison task with the same stimuli as the beauty comparison was included. We observed that both the internal moral beauty comparison and external facial beauty comparison obeyed a typical distance effect and this behavioral effect recruited a common frontoparietal network involved in comparisons of simple physical magnitudes such as size. In addition, compared to external facial beauty comparison, internal moral beauty comparison induced greater activity in more advanced and complex cortical regions, such as the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, but weaker activity in the putamen, a subcortical region. Our results provide novel neural evidence for the comparative process and suggest that different comparisons may rely on both common cognitive processes as well as distinct and specific cognitive components.

  1. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  2. Cancer Drugs: An International Comparison of Postlicensing Price Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip; Mahmoud, Sarah; Patel, Yogin; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2017-06-01

    The cost of cancer drugs forms a rising proportion of health care budgets worldwide. A number of studies have examined international comparisons of initial cost, but there is little work on postlicensing price increases. To examine this, we compared cancer drug prices at initial sale and subsequent price inflation in the United States and United Kingdom and also reviewed relevant price control mechanisms. The 10 top-selling cancer drugs were selected, and their prices at initial launch and in 2015 were compared. Standard nondiscounted prices were obtained from the relevant annual copies of the RED BOOK and the British National Formulary. At initial marketing, prices were on average 42% higher in the United States than in the United Kingdom. After licensing in the United States, all 10 drugs had price rises averaging an overall annual 8.8% (range, 1.4% to 24.1%) increase. In comparison, in the United Kingdom, six drugs had unchanged prices, two had decreased prices, and two had modest price increases. The overall annual increase in the United Kingdom was 0.24%. Cancer drug prices are rising substantially, both at their initial marketing price and, in the United States, at postlicensing prices. In the United Kingdom, the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme, an agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical industry, controls health care costs while allowing a return on investment and funds for research. The increasing costs of cancer drugs are approaching the limits of sustainability, and a similar government-industry agreement may allow stability for both health care provision and the pharmaceutical industry in the United States.

  3. Domestic/family violence death reviews: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dawson, Myrna; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Walsh, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. TRENDS OF THE FACTORING TURNOVER IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva DARABOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The factoring scheme was developed by the competition between the market operators and the need for the most favourable conditions of sale. The seller is constrained to provide loans on a broad scale therefore the seller may have liquidity problems. In cases of this kind, the seller can apply to a factoring company in order to access sources, instead of a bank loan. The factoring service has a price. Decision of the financial managers can largely contribute to choosing the appropriate funding form to retain the continuous liquidity situation of an enterprise. Aim of the article is to present the main tendencies of the factoring turnover in international comparisons, highlighting the characteristics of the financial service by its direction, sectorial distribution and customer size in Hungary. It has been estimated that the factoring financing approaches 10% of the short-term loan stocks of SMEs required from banks which indicates that the factoring is now far beyond the marginal financial service but it is an essential element of the short-term financing toolkit.

  5. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  6. The Generalized Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.

    2016-01-01

    The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of internal, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the internal/external frame of reference model…

  7. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  8. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Pestle

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond, the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a sample preparation, and b analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite

  9. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Crowley, Brooke E; Weirauch, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values

  10. The interlaboratory experiment IDA-72 on mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Drosselmeyer, E.

    1975-07-01

    Volume II of the report on the IDA-72 experiment contains papers written by different authors on a number of special topics connected with the preparation, performance and evaluation of the interlaboratory test. In detail the sampling procedures for active samples of the reprocessing plant and the preparation of inactive reference and spike solution from standard material are described as well as new methods of sample conditioning by evaporation. An extra chapter is devoted to the chemical sample treatment as a preparation for mass spectrometric analysis of the U and Pu content of the solutions. Special topics are also methods for mass discrimination corrections, α-spectrometer measurements as a supplement for the determination of Pu-238 and the comparison of concentration determinations by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis with those performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The last part of this volume contains papers connected with the computerized statistical evaluation of the high number of data. (orig.) [de

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of dicentric chromosome assay using electronically transmitted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M. B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M. R.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Lamadrid, A. I.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Pantelias, G.; Terzoudi, G.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Oliveros, N.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomaso, M. V.; Mendez-Acuna, L.; Puig, R.; Roy, L.; Barquinero, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The bottleneck in data acquisition during biological dosimetry based on a dicentric assay is the need to score dicentrics in a large number of lymphocytes. One way to increase the capacity of a given laboratory is to use the ability of skilled operators from other laboratories. This can be done using image analysis systems and distributing images all around the world. Two exercises were conducted to test the efficiency of such an approach involving 10 laboratories. During the first exercise (E1), the participant laboratories analysed the same images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 and 3 Gy; 100 images were sent to all participants for both doses. Whatever the dose, only about half of the cells were complete with well-spread metaphases suitable for analysis. A coefficient of variation (CV) on the standard deviation of 15 % was obtained for both doses. The trueness was better for 3 Gy (0.6 %) than for 0.5 Gy (37.8 %). The number of estimated doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 3 at 0.5 Gy and 8 at 3 Gy for 10 dose estimations. In the second exercise, an emergency situation was tested, each laboratory was required to score a different set of 50 images in 2 d extracted from 500 downloaded images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 Gy. Then the remaining 450 images had to be scored within a week. Using 50 different images, the CV on the estimated doses (79.2 %) was not as good as in E1, probably associated to a lower number of cells analysed (50 vs. 100) or from the fact that laboratories analysed a different set of images. The trueness for the dose was better after scoring 500 cells (22.5 %) than after 50 cells (26.8 %). For the 10 dose estimations, the number of doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 9, for both 50 and 500 cells. Overall, the results obtained support the feasibility of networking using electronically transmitted images. However, before its implementation some issues should be elucidated, such as the number and resolution of the images to be sent, and the harmonisation of the scoring criteria. Additionally, a global web site able to be used for the different regional networks, like Share Points, will be desirable to facilitate worldwide communication. (authors)

  12. Interlaboratory computational comparisons of critical fast test reactor pin lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, J.F.; Kerr, H.T.; Durst, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    An objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program's (CFRP) nuclear engineering group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to ensure that chemical equipment components designed for the reprocessing of spent LMFBR fuel (among other fuel types) are safe from a criticality standpoint. As existing data are inadequate for the general validation of computational models describing mixed plutonium--uranium oxide systems with isotopic compositions typical of LMFBR fuel, a program of critical experiments has been initiated at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The first series of benchmark experiments consisted of five square-pitched lattices of unirradiated Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel moderated and reflected by light water. Calculations of these five experiments have been conducted by both ORNL/CFRP and PNL personnel with the purpose of exploring how accurately various computational models will predict k/sub eff/ values for such neutronic systems and if differences between k/sub eff/ values obtained with these different models are significant

  13. Second interlaboratory-comparison project on ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, M.; Walther, R.; Radtke, U.

    1993-01-01

    An intercomparison project on ESR dating in which 14 ESR groups participated was initiated. Each group was provided with two samples of a coral powder, one of which (Sample A) was a fossil coral with a mass spectrometric determined U/Th age. Sample B was a recent coral, irradiated with a definite γ-dose (checked by alanine dosimetry). In both cases the accumulated dose (AD) had to be determined (for sample A the U-content and age as well). Additionally, the chance of a calibration of γ-sources by alanine dosimeters was offered. The results show that the γ-source calibration is better then ± 5%, the mean value of the AD from sample A seems to agree with the expected AD but the mean AD value from sample B is overestimated, systematic errors occur due to the fitting procedure: the AD estimate depends on the maximum γ-dose used for the irradiation curve, the AD determination including the smallest systematic error gives correct values for sample B but too low values for sample A which may be caused by fading of the signal g = 2.0006. (author)

  14. Inter-laboratory comparison study of gamma cameras in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Mumtaz-ul-Haq

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of both instrument and the physician are important in any quality assurance programme in nuclear medicine imaging. The IAEA launched a similar program in 1984 under its Regional Cooperation Agreement program in South Asian Countries. The first part of the study consisted of the evaluation of imaging equipment by imaging IAEA-WHO Simulated Anatomic Liver Phantom (SALP) and its interpretation by the physician. From Pakistan, 8 gamma cameras from 7 laboratories were used for the study and 16 physician interpreted in the SALP images. This paper reports the results of SALP images from Pakistan and shows the efficacy of 80 to 100% as regards the quality of image obtained and the interpretation done by the physicians. (author)

  15. Standardization of reflectance measurements in dispersed organic matter: results of an exercise to improve interlaboratory agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Bouzinos, Antonis; Cardott, Brian; Cook, Alan C.; Eble, Cortland; Flores, Deolinda; Gentzis, Thomas; Gonçalves, Paula Alexandra; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Hámor-Vidó, Mária; Jelonek, Iwona; Kommeren, Kees; Knowles, Wayne; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Menezes, Taíssa Rêgo; Newman, Jane; Pawlewicz, Mark; Pickel, Walter; Potter, Judith; Ranasinghe, Paddy; Read, Harold; Reyes, Julito; Rodriguez, Genaro De La Rosa; de Souza, Igor Viegas Alves Fernandes; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sýkorová, Ivana; Valentine, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    the other components. Discussion among participants suggested this problem could not be easily corrected via kerogen concentration or solvent extraction and is related to operator training and background. No statistical difference in mean reflectance was identified between participants reporting bitumen reflectance vs. vitrinite reflectance vs. a mixture of bitumen and vitrinite reflectance values, suggesting empirical conversion schemes should be treated with caution. Analysis of reproducibility limits obtained during this exercise in comparison to reproducibility limits from historical interlaboratory exercises suggests use of a common methodology (D7708) improves interlaboratory precision. Future work will investigate opportunities to improve reproducibility in high maturity, organic-lean shale varieties.

  16. International comparisons of road safety using Singular Value Decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general interest in the comparison of road safety developments in different countries. Comparisons have been made, based on absolute levels of accident or fatality risk or on the rate of change of functions regarding risk, the number of accidents, fatalities or injuries over time. Such

  17. International Comparisons of Income Poverty and Extreme Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1993-01-01

    Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.

  18. Genebanks: a comparison of eight proposed international genetic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A; Harding, Sarah; McElroy, Courtney

    2003-01-01

    To identify and compare population-based genetic databases, or "genebanks", that have been proposed in eight international locations between 1998 and 2002. A genebank can be defined as a stored collection of genetic samples in the form of blood or tissue, that can be linked with medical and genealogical or lifestyle information from a specific population, gathered using a process of generalized consent. Genebanks were identified by searching Medline and internet search engines with key words such as "genetic database" and "biobank" and by reviewing literature on previously identified databases such as the deCode project. Collection of genebank characteristics was by an electronic and literature search, augmented by correspondence with informed individuals. The proposed genebanks are located in Iceland, the United Kingdom, Estonia, Latvia, Sweden, Singapore, the Kingdom of Tonga, and Quebec, Canada. Comparisons of the genebanks were based on the following criteria: genebank location and description of purpose, role of government, commercial involvement, consent and confidentiality procedures, opposition to the genebank, and current progress. All of the groups proposing the genebanks plan to search for susceptibility genes for complex diseases while attempting to improve public health and medical care in the region and, in some cases, stimulating the local economy through expansion of the biotechnology sector. While all of the identified plans share these purposes, they differ in many aspects, including funding, subject participation, and organization. The balance of government and commercial involvement in the development of each project varies. Genetic samples and health information will be collected from participants and coded in all of the genebanks, but consent procedures range from presumed consent of the entire eligible population to recruitment of volunteers with informed consent. Issues regarding confidentiality and consent have resulted in opposition to

  19. PROCORAD. An international network for quality control; PROCORAD. Ein internationales Netzwerk zur Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berard, Philippe [CEA/Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Fontenay-aux-Roses CEDEX (France). Unite PROSITON; Hill, Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kehagia, Konstantina [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2011-07-01

    Intercomparisons in the testing field of in-vitro monitoring are an essential tool of quality control. The international network PROCORAD provides its members with annual inter-laboratory comparisons on nine different kinds of samples. They include different matrices (urine, faeces) as well as different radionuclides (e.g. tritium, strontium, polonium, actinides..). In 2010 there were 71 participating laboratories from 21 countries. An annual meeting of the participants offers the opportunity to discuss the results as well as an opportunity to relate to other participants, which is important for both scientific exchange and cross-border emergency response. (orig.)

  20. International comparison of observation-specific spatial buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Fox, Eric H; Ulmer, Jared M

    2017-01-01

    the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using 'sausage,' 'detailed-trimmed,' and 'detailed,' network buffers at a distance of 1 km around participant household addresses (n = 5883). RESULTS: BEM values were...... significantly different (p trimmed buffer comparisons and 89% of sausage versus detailed network buffer comparisons. Results showed that BEM coefficients in physical activity models did not differ significantly across buffering methods, and in most cases BEM...

  1. An ECVAG inter-laboratory validation study of the comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersson, Clara; Møller, Peter; Forchhammer, Lykke

    2013-01-01

    of ionising radiation, inter-laboratory variation, intra-laboratory variation and residual variation contributed to 60.9, 19.4, 0.1 and 19.5%, respectively, of the total variation. In the coded PBMC samples, the inter-laboratory variation explained the largest fraction of the overall variation of DNA strand...

  2. An international comparison of nuclear plant training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, I visited four utility companies that own and operate pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants in different countries. The purpose of my visits and associated research was to compare nuclear power plant operator and technician training programs. The companies were: Duke Power Company (DUKE) in the United States, Electricite de France (EDF) in France, Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) in Japan, and RWE Energie AG (RWE) in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to highlight selected aspects of the comparison. First, comparisons of the four subject utilities and four typical nuclear power stations operated by each company, McGuire, Paluel, Ohi, and Biblis, are provided. Then comparisons of new employee demographics and training program specific content are provided. Finally, some general observations are drawn from the comparisons. The comparisons are based on information obtained from documents, interviews, and visits to stations and training centers. However, some interpretation of the information was necessary in order to enable a comparison. For example, categorization of training modules requires judgement, interpretation, and translation. In all cases, the information is intended to be representative or typical, rather than statistically precise

  3. [The role of international comparison in surveying divorce trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh-szombathy, L

    1982-04-01

    In this study, the main survey methods and approaches to analyzing data on divorce in different countries are described. Some problems concerning the international comparability of divorce statistics are examined, and the value of international comparative studies for identifying common factors affecting divorce is stressed. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  4. Trilateral interlaboratory with SSL (WLEDi) luminaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini Junior, E. C.; Santos, E. R.; Assaf, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    The IEE/USP laboratory and two others, all belonging to RBLE (Brazilian Network of Test Laboratories) participated in a trilateral comparison performed from measurement independently of participants interaction. The results from electric and photometric measurements carried out on samples of Solid State Lighting - SSL, Inorganic White Light Emitting Diode (WLEDi) luminaires by three accredited laboratories were considered in order to point out mutual deviations and to verify the confidence in a bilateral comparison. The first analysis revealed a maximum deviation of 4.2 % between the luminous intensity attributed by one laboratory and the arithmetic mean value from three laboratories. The largest standard uncertainty value of 1.9 % was estimated for Total Harmonic Distortion of electric current THDi and the lowest value, 0.4 %, to the luminous flux. The extreme deviation for one parameter results was 7.2 % at maximum luminous intensity and the lowest was 1.7 % for luminous flux.

  5. International comparison for RF power in the frequency range up to 18 GHz

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Vreede, JPM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A Euromet international laboratory comparison (Project 393) has been carried out between 14 national standards laboratories. Thermistor mounts were used, equipped with PC7 as well as Type N connectors. The comparison is carried out using the normal...

  6. Comparisons on International Approaches of Business and Project Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Carmen ENE

    2005-01-01

    In this article we intend to present a comparative approach between three recognized international methodologies for risk management: RISKMAN, Project Management Institute Methodology-PMBoK and Project Risk Analysis and Management Guide (produced by Association for Project Management).

  7. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  8. Determination of the acid value of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the method for determining the acid value of instant noodles, based on the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS), with extraction of lipid using petroleum ether at a volume of 100 mL to the test portion of 25 g. Thirteen laboratories participated and analyzed 5 test samples as blind duplicates. Statistical treatment revealed that the repeatability (RSDr) of acid value was noodles per unit weight, using the equation [acid value = percent free fatty acids (as oleic) x 1.99] and the extracted lipid contents. This method was shown to have acceptable precision by the present study.

  9. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  10. NVN 5694 intra laboratory validation. Feasibility study for interlaboratory- validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Baard, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Within the project NORMSTAR 2 a number of Dutch prenormative protocols have been defined for radioactivity measurements. Some of these protocols, e.g. the Dutch prenormative protocol NVN 5694, titled Methods for radiochemical determination of polonium-210 and lead-210, have not been validated, neither by intralaboratory nor interlaboratory studies. Validation studies are conducted within the framework of the programme 'Normalisatie and Validatie van Milieumethoden 1993-1997' (Standardization and Validation of test methods for environmental parameters) of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment (VROM). The aims of this study were (a) a critical evaluation of the protocol, (b) investigation on the feasibility of an interlaboratory study, and (c) the interlaboratory validation of NVN 5694. The evaluation of the protocol resulted in a list of deficiencies varying from missing references to incorrect formulae. From the survey by interview it appeared that for each type of material, there are 4 to 7 laboratories willing to participate in a interlaboratory validation study. This reflects the situation in 1997. Consequently, if 4 or 6 (the minimal number) laboratories are participating and each laboratory analyses 3 subsamples, the uncertainty in the repeatability standard deviation is 49 or 40 %, respectively. If the ratio of reproducibility standard deviation to the repeatability standard deviation is equal to 1 or 2, then the uncertainty in the reproducibility standard deviation increases from 42 to 67 % and from 34 to 52 % for 4 or 6 laboratories, respectively. The intralaboratory validation was established on four different types of materials. Three types of materials (milkpowder condensate and filter) were prepared in the laboratory using the raw material and certified Pb-210 solutions, and one (sediment) was obtained from the IAEA. The ECN-prepared reference materials were used after testing on homogeneity. The pre-normative protocol can

  11. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Iriko, Masanori; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  12. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  13. International comparisons of public sector performance: how to move ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring and comparing the overall performance of countries’ public sectors requires agreement on definitions and objectives of government. I argue that such an agreement is about finding a consensus rather about finding better definitions. Measuring government requires a number of leaps of faith, where certain definitions, assumptions and statistics are accepted as good enough for measurement and comparison. The political science and economic research community have a different ...

  14. Women Academics and Research Productivity: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiston, Sarah Jane; Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    In the prestige economy of higher education, research productivity is highly prized. Previous research indicates, however, a gender gap with respect to research output. This gap is often explained by reference to familial status and responsibilities. In this article, we examine the research productivity gender gap from an international perspective…

  15. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ark, Bart

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper

  16. Varying gestational age patterns in cesarean delivery: An international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnord, M.; Blondel, B.; Drewniak, N.; Klungsøyr, K.; Bolumar, F.; Mohangoo, A.; Gissler, M.; Szamotulska, K.; Lack, N.; Nijhuis, J.; Velebil, P.; Sakkeus, L.; Chalmers, J.; Zeitlin, J.; Haidinger, G.; XMartens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Wenzlaff, P.; Bonham, S.; Jaselioniene, J.; Gatt, M.; Klungsøyr, K.; Barros, H.; Novak, Z.; Gottvall, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While international variations in overall cesarean delivery rates are well documented, less information is available for clinical sub-groups. Cesarean data presented by subgroups can be used to evaluate uptake of cesarean reduction policies or to monitor delivery practices for high and

  17. Interlaboratory study of the ion source memory effect in {sup 36}Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan, E-mail: s.pavetich@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Akhmadaliev, Shavkat [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CEREGE CNRS-IRD, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Buchriegler, Josef [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01314 Dresden (Germany); University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Golser, Robin [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Keddadouche, Karim [Aix-Marseille Université, CEREGE CNRS-IRD, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Martschini, Martin [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Steier, Peter [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Long-term memory effect in negative ion sources investigated for chlorine isotopes. • Interlaboratory comparison of four up-to date negative ion sources. • Ion source improvement at DREAMS for minimization of long-term memory effect. • Long-term memory effect is the limitation for precise AMS data of volatile elements. • Findings to be considered for samples with highly variable ratios of {sup 36}Cl/Cl and {sup 129}I/I. - Abstract: Understanding and minimization of contaminations in the ion source due to cross-contamination and long-term memory effect is one of the key issues for accurate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of volatile elements. The focus of this work is on the investigation of the long-term memory effect for the volatile element chlorine, and the minimization of this effect in the ion source of the Dresden accelerator mass spectrometry facility (DREAMS). For this purpose, one of the two original HVE ion sources at the DREAMS facility was modified, allowing the use of larger sample holders having individual target apertures. Additionally, a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, an interlaboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect of the four Cs sputter ion sources at DREAMS (two sources: original and modified), ASTER (Accélérateur pour les Sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Risques) and VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) had been investigated by measuring samples of natural {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl-ratio and samples highly-enriched in {sup 35}Cl ({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl ∼ 999). Besides investigating and comparing the individual levels of long-term memory, recovery time constants could be calculated. The tests show that all four sources suffer from long-term memory, but the modified DREAMS ion source showed the lowest level of contamination. The recovery times of the four ion

  18. Interlaboratory study of the ion source memory effect in 36Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Martschini, Martin; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Steier, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term memory effect in negative ion sources investigated for chlorine isotopes. • Interlaboratory comparison of four up-to date negative ion sources. • Ion source improvement at DREAMS for minimization of long-term memory effect. • Long-term memory effect is the limitation for precise AMS data of volatile elements. • Findings to be considered for samples with highly variable ratios of 36 Cl/Cl and 129 I/I. - Abstract: Understanding and minimization of contaminations in the ion source due to cross-contamination and long-term memory effect is one of the key issues for accurate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of volatile elements. The focus of this work is on the investigation of the long-term memory effect for the volatile element chlorine, and the minimization of this effect in the ion source of the Dresden accelerator mass spectrometry facility (DREAMS). For this purpose, one of the two original HVE ion sources at the DREAMS facility was modified, allowing the use of larger sample holders having individual target apertures. Additionally, a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, an interlaboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect of the four Cs sputter ion sources at DREAMS (two sources: original and modified), ASTER (Accélérateur pour les Sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Risques) and VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) had been investigated by measuring samples of natural 35 Cl/ 37 Cl-ratio and samples highly-enriched in 35 Cl ( 35 Cl/ 37 Cl ∼ 999). Besides investigating and comparing the individual levels of long-term memory, recovery time constants could be calculated. The tests show that all four sources suffer from long-term memory, but the modified DREAMS ion source showed the lowest level of contamination. The recovery times of the four ion sources were widely spread between

  19. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet) involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays. Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4) at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (virus infectivity assays, VI assays), or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160) derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays) from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression. PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent. The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of neutralizing

  20. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Fenyö

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays.Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4 at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (virus infectivity assays, VI assays, or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160 derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression.PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent.The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of

  1. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  2. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  3. Comparison of advanced reactors program of different international vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, N.K.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. Proposal for presenting a paper on Advanced Reactor Program Given below is the abstract for Track 6 session on Advanced Reactor at the ninth International Conference on Nuclear Engineering being held in Nice, France from April 8. through 12. 2001. This paper will provide an update on Advanced Reactor Program of different vendors in the United States, Japan, and Europe. Specifically the paper will look at the history of different Advanced Reactor Programs, international experience, aspect of economy due to standardization, and the highlights of technical specifications. The paper will also review aspects of Economy due to standardization, public acceptance, required construction time, and the experience of different vendors. The objective of the presentation is to underscore the highlights of the Reactor Program of different vendors in order to keep the attendees of the conference up-to-date. The presentation will be an impartial overview from an outsider's (not part of the Nuclear Steam Supply System's staff). (author)

  4. The education and training of older workers – international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first analyse the role and meaning of the education and training of older workers in the workplace from the perspective of their effects. These manifest on different levels: on the one hand, they are recognisable as the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviour of individuals, but, on the other hand, their influences are also present on the organisational level. In this paper, we analyse data gathered via PIAAC research; analyses are based on the hypothesis that older workers, in comparison to younger age groups, are discriminated against as regards access to education and training related to employment or work. The analyses confirm our hypothesis.

  5. International Comparison of Methane-Stabilized He-Ne Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevskii, N. B.; Oboukhov, A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Titov, A. N.; Chartier, J.-M.; Felder, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two portable methane-stabilized lasers designed at BIPM have been compared with a type a stationary Soviet device developed in VNIIFTRI1. This comparison is one of a series aimed at establishing the coherence of laser wavelength and frequency measurements throughout the world and took place in June 1979. The VNIIFTRI and BIPM lasers using different methods of stabilization, have different optical and mechanical designs and laser tubes. The results of previous measurements, made in VNIIFTRI, of the most important frequency shifts for Soviet lasers together with a method of reproducing their frequency which leads to a precision of 1.10-12 are also presented.

  6. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  7. Results submitted to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) for international comparison on 134Cs activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, F.H.; Smith, L.V.; Rutledge, A.R.; Merritt, J.S.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the equipment used and the results obtained by the Radioisotope Standardization Group in its participation in the international comparison of activity measurements of a 134 Cs solution that was sponsored by Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The 4π(PC)-γ coincidence method was used with the γ-channel gate set narrowly around photopeaks of approximately 800 keV. The results are compared with those from three other γ-channel gates. An assessment of known and suspected sources of uncertainty is included. (author)

  8. Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukers, Sylvia; Wolsink, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand diverging achievements in wind power implementation, the Netherlands, England, and the German state of North Rhine Westphalia are compared in a multiple cases study. The comparison addresses the extent to which wind power, as a new energy technology, has become embedded in existing routines and practices of society. The concept of institutional capacity building is adopted to qualify the trajectories followed, taking into account the interdependent and changing political, economic, environmental and planning conditions. Moreover, attention is focused on the conditions that affect the local planning contexts, because that is the level at which conflicts are eventually played out and where a lack of social acceptance becomes manifest. This comparison partly clarifies diverging achievements in terms of implementation. Local social acceptance is problematic-to various degrees-in all three cases. Policymakers and wind project developers do not sufficiently recognise the nature of tensions at the local level. Facilitating local ownership and institutionalising participation in project planning can help to arrive at a better recognition and involvement of the multiple interests (environmental, economic and landscape) that are relevant at the local level of implementation

  9. International comparison CCQM-K119 liquefied petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. J.; Downey, M. L.; Atkins, E.; Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, A. S.; Zalewska, E. T.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Smeulders, D. E.; McCallum, J. B.; Satumba, R. T.; Kim, Y. D.; Kang, N.; Bae, H. K.; Woo, J. C.; Konopelko, L. A.; Popova, T. A.; Meshkov, A. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Kustikov, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures with traceable composition are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large industrial market. This comparison aims to assess the analytical capabilities of laboratories for measuring the composition of a Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) mixture when sampled in the liquid phase from a Constant Pressure Cylinder. Mixtures contained ethane, propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane, but-1-ene and i-pentane with nominal amount fractions of 2, 71, 9, 4, 10, 3 and 1 cmol mol-1 respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. An international comparison of the outcomes of environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldson, Andy; Carpenter, Angela; Afionis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Whilst there is much discussion about the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries, there are very few robust evaluations that allow meaningful comparisons to be made. This is partly because data scarcity restricts the ability to make ‘like for like’ comparisons across countries and over time. This paper combines data on benzene emissions from Pollution Release and Transfer Registers with data on industrial production from oil refineries to generate normalized measures of industrial environmental performance across eight Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and the EU-15. We find that normalized emissions levels are improving in nearly all countries, and that there is some convergence in emissions performance between countries, but that there are still very significant variations across countries. We find that average emissions levels are lower in Japan and Germany than in the USA and Australia, which in turn are lower than in Canada and the EU-15, but we note that average emissions in the EU-15 are significantly affected by particularly high emissions in the UK. These findings have significant implications for wider debates on the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries. (paper)

  11. Interlaboratory reproducibility of DiversiLab rep-PCR typing and clustering of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul G; Hujer, Andrea M; Hujer, Kristine M; Bonomo, Robert A; Seifert, Harald

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the reproducibility of DiversiLab rep-PCR fingerprints between two laboratories with the aim of determining if the fingerprints and clustering are laboratory-specific or portable. One-hundred non-duplicate Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were used in this study. DNA isolation and rep-PCR were each performed separately in two laboratories and rep-PCR patterns generated in laboratory A were compared with those from laboratory B. Twelve A. baumannii isolates processed in laboratory A showed ≥98 % pattern similarity with the corresponding 12 isolates tested in laboratory B and were considered identical. Sixty-four isolates showed 95-97.9 % similarity with their corresponding isolates. Twenty-three isolates showed 90-94 % similarity with the corresponding isolates, while one isolate showed only 87.4 % similarity. However, intra-laboratory clustering was conserved: isolates that clustered in laboratory A also clustered in laboratory B. While clustering was conserved and reproducible at two different laboratories, demonstrating the robustness of rep-PCR, interlaboratory comparison of individual isolate fingerprints showed more variability. This comparison allows conclusions regarding clonality to be reached independent of the laboratory where the analysis is performed.

  12. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-04 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Aqueous Solution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-04 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonised Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. Following the issue of the European Community Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC concerning the quality of water for human consumption, the last inter-comparison exercise was organised by using a water sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analysing the required radioactivity parameters (H-3, gross alpha and beta activity and residual beta). The sample (a synthetic drinking water), was prepared at the National Laboratory for Ionising Radiation's Standards (CIEMAT), and contained the following radionuclides ''241 Am, ''239+240 Pu, ''90Sr, ''137 Cs, ''3 H y ''40 K. The results of the exercise were computed for 38 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, including suspected outliers. The exercise has revealed and homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. A raised percentage os satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for gross alpha, gross beta and residual beta: 85, 97 and 87% respectively. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in drinking water samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 16 refs

  13. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  14. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  15. International Comparisons in Underserved Health: Issues, Policies, Needs and Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Morelli, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Health care globally has made great strides; for example, there are lower rates of infant and maternal mortality. Increased incomes have led to lower rates of diseases accompanying poverty and hunger. There has been a shift away from the infectious diseases so deadly in developing nations toward first-world conditions. This article presents health care statistics across age groups and geographic areas to help the primary care physician understand these changes. There is a special focus on underserved populations. New technologies in health and health care spending internationally are addressed, emphasizing universal health care. The article concludes with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical review: International comparisons in critical care - lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srinivas; Wunsch, Hannah

    2012-12-12

    Critical care medicine is a global specialty and epidemiologic research among countries provides important data on availability of critical care resources, best practices, and alternative options for delivery of care. Understanding the diversity across healthcare systems allows us to explore that rich variability and understand better the nature of delivery systems and their impact on outcomes. However, because the delivery of ICU services is complex (for example, interplay of bed availability, cultural norms and population case-mix), the diversity among countries also creates challenges when interpreting and applying data. This complexity has profound influences on reported outcomes, often obscuring true differences. Future research should emphasize determination of resource data worldwide in order to understand current practices in different countries; this will permit rational pandemic and disaster planning, allow comparisons of in-ICU processes of care, and facilitate addition of pre- and post-ICU patient data to better interpret outcomes.

  17. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  18. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, M [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany); Mertz, W [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  19. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Mertz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.) [de

  20. The anatomy of medical research: US and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; George, Benjamin P; Palisch, Chase; Dorsey, E Ray

    2015-01-13

    Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries. To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs). Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors. (1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2

  1. Energy use and carbon emissions: Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report examines international energy use patterns, trends, and energy-related carbon emissions since 1970. The main focus of this study is on the developed countries, represented by the members of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study is organized as follows: (1) the OECD is placed in a world context; (2) aggregate-level information is then presented for an important part of the OECD, namely the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries (the US, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany -- defined in this report as western Germany only, except where indicated); and (3) individual economic sectors within the G-7 countries are broken out for detailed review

  2. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as Frg, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  3. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as FRG, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  4. Colleagues and Competitors: How Internal Social Comparisons Shape Organizational Search and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Oliver; Eggers, JP; Stieglitz, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Intra-organizational comparisons—managers and units benchmarking their performance against each other—can turn colleagues into competitors. To better understand when organizations should allow or even encourage internal social comparisons, we study their implications for organizational adaptation....... We highlight empirical implications and discuss theoretical links to work on intra-organizational competition, social comparisons and aspiration-driven search, diversification and performance, and the adaptation of multi-business firms....

  5. True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Income

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Neary

    1997-01-01

    I consider the problem of choosing index numbers of purchasing power and real income for international comparisons. I show that the desirable properties of methods based on the Fisher "Ideal" index do not extend to multilateral comparisons, except when tastes are homothetic. By contrast, the Geary method, which underlies the Penn World Tables, provides an approximation to a set of "true" exchange rate indexes which have many desirable properties. In particular, if demands exhibit generalized ...

  6. Simplified hearing protector ratings—an international comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, R.

    1984-03-01

    A computer was programmed to model the distributions of dB(A) levels reaching the ears of an imaginary workforce wearing hearing protectors selected on the basis of either octave band attenuation values or various simplified ratings in use in Australia, Germany, Poland, Spain or the U.S.A. Both multi-valued and single-valued versions of dB(A) reduction and sound level conversion ratings were considered. Ratings were compared in terms of precision and protection rate and the comparisons were replicated for different samples of noise spectra ( N = 400) and hearing protectors ( N = 70) to establish the generality of the conclusions. Different countries adopt different approaches to the measurement of octave band attenuation values and the consequences of these differences were investigated. All rating systems have built-in correction factors to account for hearing protector performance variability and the merits of these were determined in the light of their ultimate effects on the distribution of dB(A) levels reaching wearers' ears. It was concluded that the optimum rating is one that enables the dB(A) level reaching wearers to be estimated by subtracting a single rating value from the dB(C) level of the noise environment, the rating value to be determined for a pink noise spectrum from mean minus one standard deviation octave band attenuation values with further protection rate adjustments being achieved by the use of a constant correction factor.

  7. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  8. An international comparison of grade 6 students' understanding of the equal sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Yetkiner, Z Ebrar; Ozel, Serkan; Kim, Hae Gyu; Küçük, Ali Riza

    2010-02-01

    This study extends the scope of international comparisons examining students' conceptions of the equal sign. Specifically, Korean (n = 193) and Turkish (n = 334) Grade 6 students were examined to assess whether their conceptions and responses were similar to prior findings published for Chinese and U.S. students and to hypothesize relationships about problem types and conceptual understanding of the equal sign. About 59.6% of the Korean participants correctly answered all items providing conceptually accurate solutions, as compared to 28.4% of the Turkish sample. Comparison with previous studies in China and the USA indicated that the Chinese sample outperformed those from other nations, followed by Korea, Turkey, and the USA. In large-scale international studies such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), students from China and Korea have been among the high achievers.

  9. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  10. Determination of maduramicin in feedingstuffs and premixtures by liquid chromatography : development, validation and interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.; Stoisser, B.; Wagner, K.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Hofman, P.; Putzka, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for determination of maduramicin in feedingstuffs and premixtures was developed, validated, and interlaboratory studied. The extraction solvent was methanol. Maduramicin was detected at 520 nm after postcolumn derivatization with vanillin. Recovery was

  11. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  12. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  13. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  14. Overview and comparison of international practices on funding mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, Flavien

    2006-01-01

    Although the Funding Mechanisms of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has recently gained a growing interest, this is not only a new but also an old issue. The issue is old because National Atomic Laws and/or other Nuclear Legislation recognized the mandatory character of D and D. Consequently accumulation of funds to cover the future D and D expenses is a legal requirement since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Industry, at least in countries with a market economy. The issue is new as well because many of the large commercial NPP may reach the end of their lifetime during the next twenty years. As a result, the growing interest on D and D Funding Mechanisms is justified since the funds accumulated should cover the related expenses if any. Despite this growing interest, there is however a lack, at least at the NEA level, of an updated survey of existing Funding Mechanisms. Because Electric utilities are experiencing deregulation movement, there is also a lack of a 'comparison framework' which takes into account this new context, and within which the effectiveness of current Funding Mechanisms could be assessed. In the field of NPP decommissioning, funding mechanisms refer to the overall process of financing future D and D operations. Therefore, one can expect a funding mechanism to organize some relevant functions regarding D and D financing. These functions are, 1) the recognition of the liabilities and the estimation of the related financial burden, 2) the collection of the corresponding financial resources 3) the management and disbursement of those resources when needed. In fact, the mandatory character of D and D suggest that an effective Funding Mechanism should provide availability of funds. This is to say the funds collected should be managed in a consistent way regarding their protection against financial insecurity. Since there is no investment without risk, availability of funds is properly a matter of degree

  15. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morken, N.H.; Vogel, I.; Kallen, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. METHODS: We studied all live births and stillbirths (>or= 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth...

  16. International comparison of 50/60 Hz power (1996-1999)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldham, N

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available An international comparison of 50/60 Hz power is described. The travelling standard was an electronic power transducer that was tested at 120 V, 5 A, 53 Hz, at five power factors (1.0, 0.5, and 0.0). Fifteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from...

  17. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  18. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  19. Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

  20. Can the Apgar Score be Used for International Comparisons of Newborn Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, A.; Cuttini, M.; Wood, R.; Velebil, P.; Delnord, M.; Zile, I.; Barros, H.; Gissler, M.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Blondel, B.; Zeitlin, J.; Euro-Peristat Scientific Committee; Haidinger, G.; Alexander, S.; Pavlou, P.; Mortensen, L.; Sakkeus, L.; Lack, N.; Antsaklis, A.; Berbik, I.; Ólafsdóttir, H.S.; Bonham, S.; Misins, J.; Jaselioniene, J.; Wagener, Y.; Gatt, M.; Nijhuis, J.; Klungsøyr, K.; Szamotulska, K.; Horga, M.; Cap, J.; Mandić, N.T.; Bolúmar, F.; Gottvall, K.; Berrut, S.; Macfarlane, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Apgar score has been shown to be predictive of neonatal mortality in clinical and population studies, but has not been used for international comparisons. We examined population-level distributions in Apgar scores and associations with neonatal mortality in Europe. Methods: Aggregate

  1. Experience of an inter-laboratory exercise for the determination of Carbon-14 in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rajaram, S.; D'Souza, Renita Shiny; Nayak, Rasmi; Karunakara, N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-14 is one of the naturally occurring cosmogenic nuclide with long half life of 5730 y and beta energy, E max : 156 keV produced continuously in the outer atmosphere. It is also produced by the anthropogenic activities like nuclear weapon test, nuclear power plant etc. contributing to the atmospheric inventory. The 14 CO 2 gets incorporated with the plant species during photosynthesis and ultimately reaches to man through food chain. It is important to accurately quantify the level of 14 C in different biological matrices for the computation of radiation dose due to ingestion. There are different methods available for the determination of 14 C in biological samples. The oxidation of the dried sample is one of the methods used for liberating the 14 CO 2 and which in turn re-absorbed using Carbo Sorb and subjected to Liquid scintillation analyses with Permaflour scintillator solution. The paper deals with the quality assurance programme initiated by ESL, Tarapur along with ESL, Kalpakkam and CARER, Mangalore University and share the experience of the inter-laboratory comparison exercise

  2. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  3. [Inter-laboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field electrophoresis for the study of 12 types of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissaud, V; Puyhardy, J M; Chapalain, J C; Salord, H; Depina, J J; Morillon, M; Nicolas, P; Perrier-Gros-Claude, J D

    1999-12-01

    The increasing hospital-to-hospital transmission of multiple drug-resistant bacteria is a major concern for bacteriology laboratories involved in nosocomial infection control. The interlaboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa typing was evaluated by asking four hospital laboratories (two in Lyon, one in Brest, and one in Marseille) to study 11 P. aeruginosa isolates, some of which were epidemiologically related, and the reference strain ATCC 27853. Two laboratories used the Genepath system, one the Chef DR II, system, and one the Chef Mapper system, Bio-Rad, restriction/Spe I. Profiles were read visually and by computerized comparison of restriction band molecular weights (Taxotron, software, PAD Grimont, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France). These two methods led to similar epidemiological conclusions. However, centralization of the data showed poor center-to-center reproducibility due to inadequate standardization of the procedure.

  4. Internal governance systems and R&D investment: An international comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari-Hadiji Rim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical framework of corporate governance, this article studies the efficiency of the control exerted by the ownership structure and the board of directors on managers for the purpose of privileging investment in R&D. This efficiency is sensitive to national systems of governance. Tests realized on a sample of 531 U.S., Japanese and French firms with the canonical method corroborate the existence of positive relationships between concentration of ownership, the internal administrator dominance and the non-dual structure on the one hand, and the investment in R&D, on the other.

  5. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Strength of Attachment: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-06-06

    Reduced strength of attachment of the encapsulant resulting from the outdoor environment, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, may decrease photovoltaic (PV) module lifetime by enabling widespread corrosion of internal components. To date, few studies exist showing how the adhesion of PV components varies with environmental stress. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide an understanding that will be used to develop climatic specific module tests. Factors examined in the study included the UV light source (lamp type), temperature, and humidity to be proposed for use in accelerated aging tests. A poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) formulation often used in veteran PV installations was studied using a compressive shear test - to quantify the strength of attachment at the EVA/glass interface. Replicate laminated glass/polymer/glass coupon specimens were weathered at 12 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers or field aging. Shear strength, shear strain, and toughness were measured using a mechanical load-frame for the compressive shear test, with subsequent optical imaging and electron microscopy of the separated surfaces.

  6. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-2008 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Phosphogypsum); Evaluacion de la Intercomparacion CSN/CIEMAT-2008 entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Fosfoyeso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M L; Barrera, M; Valino, F

    2010-05-27

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-2008 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC. Aphosphogypsum material was used as a test sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analyzing NORM (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials). The analysis required were: U-238, Th-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-232 and U-235, and also gross alpha and gross beta activities. Reference values have been established according to the method of consensus of expert laboratories, with four international laboratories of credited experience: IAEA Seibersdorf, IAEA MEL, IRSN-Orsay and Sta.Teresa ENEA. The results of the exercise were computed for 34 answering laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score. Robust statistics of the participants results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The exercise has shown an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the assigned Reference Values. Participant laboratories have demonstrated their ability to determine natural radionuclides in phosphogypsum samples (NORM material) with a satisfactory quality level. The scheme has also allowed examining the capability of laboratories to determine the activities of natural radionuclides at the equilibrium. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...

  8. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Trace Elements in IAEA-452 Biota Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Environment Laboratories (IAEA-NAEL) has the programmatic responsibility to provide assistance to Member States' laboratories in maintaining and improving the reliability of analytical measurement results, both in trace elements and organic pollutants. This is accomplished through the provision of reference materials of marine origin, validated analytical procedures, training in the implementation of internal quality control, and through the evaluation of measurement performance by the organization of worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparison exercises. For nearly thirty years, the MESL has conducted worldwide laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparison. The results have been used to evaluate laboratory performance with respect to a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants, including methyl mercury. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. The goal of interlaboratory comparison is to demonstrate the measurement capabilities of laboratories participating in interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) and proficiency tests (PTs). The results from ILCs or PTs are of crucial interest for laboratories as these provide clear information of its measurement capabilities. It should be pointed out that the participation is either voluntary or forced by external requirements (e.g. legal, accreditation, control bodies). NAEL's interlaboratory comparison (ILC) and proficiency test (PT) schemes involve comparison of participant's results with an assigned value, which usually is delivered as a consensus value from the overall population of test results. Those exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the participating laboratories, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. Continued membership has benefits in training and

  9. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  10. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  11. Reliability on intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory data of hair mineral analysis comparing with blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Sun; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2013-02-01

    Nowadays, although its clinical value remains controversial institutions utilize hair mineral analysis. Arguments about the reliability of hair mineral analysis persist, and there have been evaluations of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory data at three commercial laboratories conducting hair mineral analysis, compared to serum mineral analysis. Two divided hair samples taken from near the scalp were submitted for analysis at the same time, to all laboratories, from one healthy volunteer. Each laboratory sent a report consisting of quantitative results and their interpretation of health implications. Differences among intra-laboratory and interlaboratory data were analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). All the laboratories used identical methods for quantitative analysis, and they generated consistent numerical results according to Friedman analysis of variance. However, the normal reference ranges of each laboratory varied. As such, each laboratory interpreted the patient's health differently. On intra-laboratory data, Wilcoxon analysis suggested they generated relatively coherent data, but laboratory B could not in one element, so its reliability was doubtful. In comparison with the blood test, laboratory C generated identical results, but not laboratory A and B. Hair mineral analysis has its limitations, considering the reliability of inter and intra laboratory analysis comparing with blood analysis. As such, clinicians should be cautious when applying hair mineral analysis as an ancillary tool. Each laboratory included in this study requires continuous refinement from now on for inducing standardized normal reference levels.

  12. How do american students measure up? Making sense of international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In response to frequent news media reports about how poorly American students fare compared with their peers abroad, Daniel Koretz takes a close look at what these comparisons say, and do not say, about the achievement of U.S. high school students. He stresses that the comparisons do not provide what many observers of education would like: unambiguous information about the effectiveness of American high schools compared with those in other nations. Koretz begins by describing the. two principal international student comparisons-the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Both assessments, he stresses, reflect the performance of students several years before they complete high school. PISA, which targets fifteen-year-old students, measures students' abilities to apply what they have learned in school to real-world problems. By contrast, TIMSS tests fourth and eighth graders. Unlike PISA, TIMSS follows the school curriculum closely. Because the findings of the two tests are sometimes inconsistent, Koretz stresses the importance of considering data from both sources. He cautions against comparing U.S. students with an "international average," which varies widely from survey to survey depending on which countries participate, and recommends instead comparing them with students in other nations that are similar to the United States or that are particularly high-achieving. Many observers, says Koretz, speculate that the lackluster average performance of American students in international comparisons arises because many, especially minority and low-income U.S. students, attend low-performing schools. But both TIMSS and PISA, he says, show that the performance of American students on the exams is not much more variable than that of students in countries that are socially more homogeneous or that have more equitable educational systems. Koretz emphasizes that the international comparisons

  13. Once again on Interregional, International and Cross-age Comparison of Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gennadi Kazakevitch

    2003-01-01

    Any discussion on unemployment is never restricted with the data on unemployment only. Unemployment is linked to several key indicators such as number of employed, active population and participation rate. As we often see, increase in unemployment occurs simultaneously with increase in the number of jobs, if participation rate increases at the same time. This makes doubtful any simplistic interregional, international, inter-temporal or cross-age comparison of unemployment data taken in isolat...

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in PWR: International comparison of some global indicators between 1975 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the main results of an international comparative study of occupational radiation exposure in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The comparison is based on some synthetic indicators concerning both collective and mean individual exposures assessed for the following countries: Belgium, United-States, France, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. Information has been gained from the published literature and when it was possible, through direct correspondence with power station operators or national regulatory authorities. It concerns 120 reactors totalizing more than 900 reactor operating years. For the comparison, only reactors which were installed after 1974 have been considered, in order to have more homogeneous data representative of modern operating plants. Indicators calculated for the comparison are the collective and mean individual doses per reactor expressed either on a calendar year basis (from 1975 to 1985) or on a number of operating year basis (up to 11 years) [fr

  15. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  16. Evolution of deceased organ donation activity vs. efficiency over a 15 year period: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F

    2018-04-19

    The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.

  17. Longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: implications for the tripartite influence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-05-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Status Report of the Inter-Laboratory Task Force on Remote Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, Nan

    2001-12-13

    The next generation of particle accelerators will be major projects which may require a new mode of international and inter-laboratory collaboration. They are likely to be too costly to be funded by a single nation and too large to be built by a single laboratory. The tremendous technical challenge of a new facility requires a critical mass of highly qualified and experienced physicists and engineers. These experts are presently distributed among the major accelerator centers around the world and it is believed important to maintain and develop this broad base of expertise. The successful accelerator technology development of recent decades depended on extensive exchange of people with complementary technical skills. Therefore, it is desirable and probably necessary that several accelerator laboratories will participate in any future project. A consequence of a multi-laboratory project is that the accelerator will be located a considerable distance from most of the contributing institutions which design, build and operate it. These considerations led the International Committee for Future Accelerators to initiate a study on the general and technical implications of such a collaboration. Two task forces were formed in February 2000 to conduct this study and they were asked to prepare a report on a time scale of one year. The task force on Remote Operation included members from most of the major accelerator laboratories around the world with expertise on accelerator operation, controls software, communication technologies, hardware design and maintenance. The task force members gathered information from the experts at their own institutions and from available experience in other fields, particularly astronomy.

  19. Standardization and interlaboratory reproducibility assessment of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-generated fingerprints of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Harald; Dolzani, Lucilla; Bressan, Raffaela; van der Reijden, Tanny; van Strijen, Beppie; Stefanik, Danuta; Heersma, Herre; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2005-09-01

    A standard procedure for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments of Acinetobacter baumannii was set up and validated for its interlaboratory reproducibility and its potential for use in the construction of an Internet-based database for international monitoring of epidemic strains. The PFGE fingerprints of strains were generated at three different laboratories with ApaI as the restriction enzyme and by a rigorously standardized procedure. The results were analyzed at the respective laboratories and also centrally at a national reference institute. In the first phase of the study, 20 A. baumannii strains, including 3 isolates each from three well-characterized hospital outbreaks and 11 sporadic strains, were distributed blindly to the participating laboratories. The local groupings of the isolates in each participating laboratory were identical and allowed the identification of the epidemiologically related isolates as belonging to three clusters and identified all unrelated strains as distinct. Central pattern analysis by using the band-based Dice coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with mathematical averaging as the clustering algorithm showed 95% matching of the outbreak strains processed at each local laboratory and 87% matching of the corresponding strains if they were processed at different laboratories. In the second phase of the study, 30 A. baumannii isolates representing 10 hospital outbreaks from different parts of Europe (3 isolates per outbreak) were blindly distributed to the three laboratories, so that each laboratory investigated 10 epidemiologically independent outbreak isolates. Central computer-assisted cluster analysis correctly identified the isolates according to their corresponding outbreak at an 87% clustering threshold. In conclusion, the standard procedure enabled us to generate PFGE fingerprints of epidemiologically related A. baumannii strains at different locations with sufficient

  20. International comparison of methods to test the validity of dead-time and pile-up corrections for high-precision. gamma. -ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtermans, H.; Schaerf, K.; Reichel, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)); Debertin, K. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international comparison of methods applied in high-precision ..gamma..-ray spectrometry for the correction of dead-time and pile-up losses. Results of this comparison are reported and discussed.

  1. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast–cerophyll–trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca.

  2. Inter-laboratory validation of an inexpensive streamlined method to measure inorganic arsenic in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Rufus L; Green, Carrie E; Lehotay, Steven J

    2018-05-04

    With the establishment by CODEX of a 200 ng/g limit of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in polished rice grain, more analyses of iAs will be necessary to ensure compliance in regulatory and trade applications, to assess quality control in commercial rice production, and to conduct research involving iAs in rice crops. Although analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) have been demonstrated for full speciation of As, this expensive and time-consuming approach is excessive when regulations are based only on iAs. We report a streamlined sample preparation and analysis of iAs in powdered rice based on heated extraction with 0.28 M HNO 3 followed by hydride generation (HG) under control of acidity and other simple conditions. Analysis of iAs is then conducted using flow-injection HG and inexpensive ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) or other detection means. A key innovation compared with previous methods was to increase the acidity of the reagent solution with 4 M HCl (prior to reduction of As 5+ to As 3+ ), which minimized interferences from dimethylarsinic acid. An inter-laboratory method validation was conducted among 12 laboratories worldwide in the analysis of six shared blind duplicates and a NIST Standard Reference Material involving different types of rice and iAs levels. Also, four laboratories used the standard HPLC-ICP-MS method to analyze the samples. The results between the methods were not significantly different, and the Horwitz ratio averaged 0.52 for the new method, which meets official method validation criteria. Thus, the simpler, more versatile, and less expensive method may be used by laboratories for several purposes to accurately determine iAs in rice grain. Graphical abstract Comparison of iAs results from new and FDA methods.

  3. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  4. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1976-01-01

    Due to unprecise definitions, incomplete reports and the small number of plants in operation, an analysis of the availability of nuclear power stations by international standards meets some difficulties. Especially in the classification of causes of accidents, isolated cases gain too much importance due to the statistically small number of unscheduled shutdowns and thus often distort the picture. Still, the present comparison based on statements made by the ABE committee and the IAEA presents a good picture of availability tendencies and main types of failures and gives rise to the assumption that the initial difficulties with which every new technology has to cope will soon be overcome. (orig./AK) [de

  5. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  6. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-100 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Soil); Resultados del Ejercicio Interlaboratorios de Radiactividad Ambiental CSN/CIEMAT-00 (Suelo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-00 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. the exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. the test sample was a soil containing environmental levels of K-40, Ra-226, Ac-228, Sr-90, Cs-137, Cs-134, Pu (239-240) y Am-241. the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona prepared the material and reported adequate statistical studies of homogeneity. The results of the exercise were computed for 30 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the u-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The exercise has drawn that several laboratories have difficulties in the evaluation of combined uncertainty, mainly in analysis involving radiochemical steps. The study has shown an homogeneous inter-laboratory behaviour, and the improvement achieved through subsequent exercises in the quality of the data they are producing. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Standardization of the 192Ir within the framework of an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, T.A. da

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, six national metrology laboratories of several countries, including the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologias das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), participated of an international comparison of activity concentration measurements of a 1 92 I r solution. The measuring method used by LNMRI was the 4 ΠΒ-Γ absolute coincidence counting. Other indirect methods such as germanium detector spectroemtry and 4 ΠΓ ionization chamber used in order to check the absolute measurement. The reported results by the participant laboratories showed good agreeement and the metrological traceability to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures was established for the activity measurements of 1 92 I r. The half time was also determined following its decay by using the 4 4 ΠΓ ionization chambers

  8. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-05 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Vegetable Ash); Evaluacion de la Intercomparacion CSN/CIEMAT-2005 entre Laboratorios Nacionales Radiactividad Ambiental (Ceniza Vegetal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.; Valino Garcia, F.

    2006-07-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-05 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the IUPAC {sup I}nternational harmonised protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories{sup .} The exercise has been designed to evaluate the capability of national laboratories to determine environmental levels of radionuclides in vegetable ash samples. The sample has been prepared by the Environmental Radiation Laboratory, from the University of Barcelona, and it contains the following radionuclides: Sr-90, Pu-238, Am-241, Th-230, Pb-210, U-238, Ra-226, K-40, Ra-228, TI-208, Cs- 137 and Co-60. Reference values have been established TROUGH the kind collaboration of three international laboratories of recognized experience: IAEA MEL and IRSN-Orsay. The results of the exercise were computed for 35 participating laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objetiva study of the laboratories' performance. Some difficulties encountered to dissolve the test sample caused a lower response of analyses involving radiochemical separation, thus some laboratories couldn't apply their routine methods and no conclusions on PU-238, Am-241 and Th-230 performances have been obtained. The exercise has revealed an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in vegetable ash samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports From 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Gonçalves, Miguel; Guđmundsson, Halldór; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiené, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Bárbara César; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Plück, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, José; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3–12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0–198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies. PMID:21534056

  10. Interlaboratory quality assurance studies: Their use in certifying natural waters for major constituents and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkema, H.; Simser, J.; Hjelm, L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental programs throughout North America have demonstrated a strong awareness of the usefulness of interlaboratory studies for disclosing the quality of analytical results. The Ecosystem Interlaboratory Quality Assurance Program offered by the National Water Research Institute has a wide participation base of laboratories. Many of these laboratories are accredited and employ a number of recognized analytical methods. The interlaboratory study data archives contain a wealth of data for natural surface and rain waters from across the continent. These archives have proven to be a reliable means of characterizing a variety of constituents. Data assessments from these studies accurately identify the variability of data and the presence of any outliers. Repeated use of selected samples in a regular QA program confirms their stability. Time charts and statistical techniques are used to illustrate this stability and yield the precision of pooled analyses. The availability of archived data from interlaboratory studies has enabled the Institute to develop and certify natural water and trace element standards. The natural water CRM, ION-911, has been available for several years. Its historical aspects are discussed as well as the processes leading to the certification of TMRain-95, a soft water standard certifying 22 trace elements. This paper focuses on the use of select laboratories in round-robin evaluations to provide accurate values for constituent concentrations. Natural water and fortified trace element CRMs meet a recognized need in the generation of accurate data for environmental programs. (orig.)

  11. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1314 and Method 1315

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two leaching methods under review by the U.S. EPA’s OSWER for inclusion into the EPA’s SW-846: Method 1314: Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Liquid...

  12. N-nitrosodimethylamine in effluents and groundwater. Interlaboratory study No. 91-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cussion, S

    1992-01-01

    Interlaboratory study 91-2 was initiated as part of an on-going program of laboratory performance management studies to assess the performance of participating laboratories for the analysis of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in spiked effluents and in groundwater. Thirteen government, industry and commercial laboratories agreed to participate in the study and results were received from 11 participants.

  13. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at m...

  14. The As-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determination of Pu-238. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortels, G.; Spannagel, G.; Beyrich, W.

    1979-12-01

    The AS-76 interlaboratory program furnished 828 alpha spectra. A selection of these spectra was evaluated in more detail by use of information supplied by the laboratories and by application of a common procedure of evaluation. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  15. Detection of antigen in sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis : Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, PE; Erjavec, Z; Sluiters, W; Goessens, W; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Debets-Ossenkopp, YJ; Guiot, HFL; Meis, JFGM

    The intra-and interlaboratory reproducibilities of a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan in serum (Platelia Aspergillus; Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marnes-La-Coquette, France) were evaluated in six laboratories of university

  16. Toward an International Comparison of Economic and Educational Mobility: Recent Findings from the Japan Child Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Naoi, Michio; Shikishima, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, income inequality has risen in most developed countries. There is growing interest among economists in international comparisons of economic and educational mobility. This is aided by the availability of internationally comparable, large-scale data. The present paper aims to make three contributions. First, we introduce the…

  17. Comparison and Evaluation of Learning Outcomes from an International Perspective: Development of a Best-Practice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Maja; Ho, Felix; Åkesson, Eva; Schmid, Siegbert; Towns, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry education focused on learning outcomes is increasingly practiced, providing new opportunities for international comparisons. The interest in intended learning outcomes and constructive alignment has grown in many parts of the world due to both research in higher education and political decisions. In an International Union of Pure and…

  18. [The quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison - a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerer, M; Emmert, M; Schöffski, O

    2013-08-01

    Studies assessing the quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison come to different results. Therefore, this review aims to investigate how the German health-care system is evaluated in comparison to other health-care systems by reviewing international publications. Results show starting points for ways to improve the German health-care system, to maintain and expand its strengths as well as to derive strategies for solving identified problems. A systematic review searching different databases [library catalogues, WorldCat (including MEDLINE and OAIster-search), German National Library, Google Scholar and others]. Search requests were addressed to English or German language publications for the time period 2000-2010 (an informal search was conducted in October 2011 for an update). Results of the identified studies were aggregated and main statements derived. In total, 13 publications assessing the German health-care system in an international comparison were identified. These comparisons are based on 377 measures. After aggregation, 244 substantially different indicators remained, which were dedicated to 14 categories. It became apparent that the German health-care system can be characterised by a high level of expenses, a well-developed health-care infrastructure as well as a high availability of personal and material resources. Outcome measures demonstrate heterogeneous results. It can be stated that, particularly in this field, there is potential for further improvement. The utilisation of health-care services is high, the access is mostly not regulated and out of pocket payments can pose a barrier for patients. Waiting times are not regarded as a major weakness. Although civic satisfaction seems to be acceptable, a large portion of the citizens calls for elementary modifications. Especially, more patient-centred health-care delivery should be addressed as well as management of information and the adoption of meaningful electronic

  19. Datasets collected in general practice: an international comparison using the example of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgiss, Elizabeth; van Boven, Kees

    2018-06-04

    International datasets from general practice enable the comparison of how conditions are managed within consultations in different primary healthcare settings. The Australian Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) and TransHIS from the Netherlands collect in-consultation general practice data that have been used extensively to inform local policy and practice. Obesity is a global health issue with different countries applying varying approaches to management. The objective of the present paper is to compare the primary care management of obesity in Australia and the Netherlands using data collected from consultations. Despite the different prevalence in obesity in the two countries, the number of patients per 1000 patient-years seen with obesity is similar. Patients in Australia with obesity are referred to allied health practitioners more often than Dutch patients. Without quality general practice data, primary care researchers will not have data about the management of conditions within consultations. We use obesity to highlight the strengths of these general practice data sources and to compare their differences. What is known about the topic? Australia had one of the longest-running consecutive datasets about general practice activity in the world, but it has recently lost government funding. The Netherlands has a longitudinal general practice dataset of information collected within consultations since 1985. What does this paper add? We discuss the benefits of general practice-collected data in two countries. Using obesity as a case example, we compare management in general practice between Australia and the Netherlands. This type of analysis should start all international collaborations of primary care management of any health condition. Having a national general practice dataset allows international comparisons of the management of conditions with primary care. Without a current, quality general practice dataset, primary care researchers will not

  20. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions

  1. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  2. Looking beyond general metrics for model comparison - lessons from an international model intercomparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Bouaziz, Laurène; De Niel, Jan; Brauer, Claudia; Dewals, Benjamin; Drogue, Gilles; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Grelier, Benjamin; Nossent, Jiri; Pereira, Fernando; Savenije, Hubert; Thirel, Guillaume; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although model comparison studies are very valuable for international cooperation, they do often not lead to very clear new insights regarding the relevance of the modelled processes. We hypothesise that this is partly caused by model complexity and the comparison methods used, which focus too much on a good overall performance instead of focusing on a variety of specific events. In this study, we use an approach that focuses on the evaluation of specific events and characteristics. Eight international research groups calibrated their hourly model on the Ourthe catchment in Belgium and carried out a validation in time for the Ourthe catchment and a validation in space for nested and neighbouring catchments. The same protocol was followed for each model and an ensemble of best-performing parameter sets was selected. Although the models showed similar performances based on general metrics (i.e. the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency), clear differences could be observed for specific events. We analysed the hydrographs of these specific events and conducted three types of statistical analyses on the entire time series: cumulative discharges, empirical extreme value distribution of the peak flows and flow duration curves for low flows. The results illustrate the relevance of including a very quick flow reservoir preceding the root zone storage to model peaks during low flows and including a slow reservoir in parallel with the fast reservoir to model the recession for the studied catchments. This intercomparison enhanced the understanding of the hydrological functioning of the catchment, in particular for low flows, and enabled to identify present knowledge gaps for other parts of the hydrograph. Above all, it helped to evaluate each model against a set of alternative models.

  3. University Competencies Quality Management: from Self-Assessment to International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a methodological summary of the main levels, tools, approaches and subjects of the use of assessment in educational activity with an emphasis on the university-based dimension. It has been revealed that the use of assessment as one of the tools for quality management has both internal (self-assessment and external dimensions (variety of tools, which is widespread in universities in the field of implementation of educational programs that have a competency-based dimension. The deep integration of assessment components into a competency-based model for the US labour force development system, as well as the disposition of assessment in the system of competencies in the national qualifications framework in higher education, which are characteristic for the European countries, have been identified. It has been demonstrated that the educational trajectory of personality training throughout life and career development is encountered at various stages with a variety of assessment tools. The comparative characteristics of pre-university assessment, certification programs of global assessment, external assessment of applicants and graduates, and persons aged 30+, functioning of accreditation agencies and agencies of professional accreditation, international rating, international comparisons of education quality, are given. It is proved that the necessity to bear costs for conducting international comparisons, national and international ratings is conditioned not only by the impact of the internationalization of educational activities and the globalization of the world economy, but primarily by the desire to ensure the highest quality of educational services, provided by leaders, and their high average level within the national educational systems. The results are broadly illustrated by evidence and examples from the developed countries (mainly the United States and Ukraine. Based on the research of the attitude of students and

  4. A comparison of international criteria for the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.

    1985-01-01

    In countries other than the Federal Republic of Germany and internationally there are no comprehensive codes referring to criteria and safety requirements except those of the IAEA and USA. In other countries there exist safety goals for the ultimate storage or for purely geological criteria. The degree of detailing regulations differs widely abroad and internationally. Safety goals abroad and internationally as well as measures for their realisation in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are in line with the German safety goals. The IAEA refers to general aspects of geological, waste technology and ultimate storage technology criteria. In the USA, ultimate storage technology criteria have been quantified in part. The quantitative geological criteria existing in Great Britain and in the Netherlands are only relevant in as much as safety analyses must be performed for a specific site to provide evidence for the safety of this site. The comparison shows that most requirements pronounced abroad are also made for the Federal Republic of Germany. Some requirements are more specified in the Federal Republic of Germany, some are more detailed abroad. (orig./HP) [de

  5. International comparison of the chemical assay of uranium and thorium in THTR fuel for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, D.; Brodda, B.G.; Mainka, E.; Goergenyi, T.; Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Thorium High Temperature Prototype Reactor (THTR) at Schmehausen (Fed. Rep. Germany) burns a (Th, U)O 2 nuclear fuel using 93% enriched uranium. This material is particularly safeguards sensitive. An interlaboratory test has been completed on the heavy metal determination in BISO type (Th, U)O 2 particles. The laboratories involved were BAM, KFA, KfK, NUKEM and SAL (IAEA). The modified Davies and Gray titration was applied for uranium, oxalate precipitation followed by ignition to ThO 2 and gravimetry for thorium. The exercise allowed an estimate to be made of the various error components: the results indicate that the sampling techniques applied in this experiment ensure a representativity of the sample of 0.05% or better. The precision of the measurements (1sigma) is better than or equal to 0.15%. Assuming the overall means are the true values, the accuracy of the methods is better than or equal to 0.1%. This fulfills safeguards requirements. (orig.)

  6. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  7. Profit, productivity, and price differential: an international performance comparison of the natural gas transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Dong Lee; Sung-Bae Park; Tai-Yoo Kim

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of natural gas transportation utilities, focusing on the three-key strategic performance measures of profit, productivity, and price differential. We propose a methodology that expresses the three performance measures in a unified single equation using the Edgeworth index. The proposed methodology is applied to an international comparison of the performance of 28 natural gas transportation utilities operating in eight countries in which the business environments differ greatly. The empirical results show the possible causes of performance differences and may shed some light on the direction of regulatory policy, especially for developing countries that have relatively short histories in the natural gas industry, such as Korea. (author)

  8. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    in the surface mechanism, which leads to a substantial (by similar to 5 times) increase of the internal photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle compared to the case when such a discontinuity is absent. For a plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of the two photoeffect mechanisms was undertaken...... for the first time which showed that the surface photoeffect can in the general case be larger than the volume one, which agrees with the results obtained for a flat metal surface first formulated by Tamm and Schubin in their pioneering development of a quantum-mechanical theory of photoeffect in 1931....... In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism...

  9. Rockets and feathers revisited: an international comparison on European gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, Marzio; Lanza, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    This paper re-examines the issue of asymmetries in the transmission of shocks to crude oil prices onto the retail price of gasoline. The distinguishing features are: (i) use of updated and comparable data to carry out an international comparison of gasoline markets; (ii) two-stage modeling of the transmission mechanism, in order to assess possible asymmetries at either the refinery stage, the distribution stage or both; (iii) use of asymmetric error correction models to distinguish between short-run and long-run asymmetries; (iv) explicit, possibly asymmetric, role of the exchange rate; (v) bootstrapping of F-tests of asymmetries, in order to overcome the low-power problem of conventional testing procedures. In contrast to several previous findings, the results generally point to widespread differences in both adjustment speeds and short-run responses when input prices rise or fall. (Author)

  10. The National Strategy of Ecological Transition towards Sustainable Development - International comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiber, Florence; Vey, Frederic; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2017-05-01

    The National Strategy of Ecological Transition towards Sustainable Development (SNTEDD) 2015-2020 follows on from the 2010-2013 National Strategy for Sustainable Development. Adopted at the Council of Ministers meeting of 4 February 2015, the SNTEDD identifies four major ecological challenges and nine strategic areas of action. The SNTEDD is monitored by 72 indicators developed via a collaborative process of selection implemented by a special commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) responsible for the indicators. This 'indicators' commission has sought to obtain a perspective on outcomes by means of international comparisons. This study presents initial elements of an analysis of France's situation compared with that of other countries (mostly EU or OECD members) with regard to each of the challenges and areas of action identified in the SNTEDD

  11. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  12. International Medical Graduates in Radiation Oncology: Historical Trends and Comparison With Other Medical Specialties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek, E-mail: vivek333@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lautenschlaeger, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Lin, Chi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Zhen, Weining [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami Cancer Institute, Coral Gables, Florida (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This is the first National Resident Matching Program analysis evaluating historical patterns of international medical graduates (IMGs) in radiation oncology (RO) and providing comparison with American (MD) medical graduates (AMGs), osteopathic students (DOs), unfilled positions, and other specialties. Methods and Materials: National Resident Matching Program data for IMGs were available from 2003 to 2015, with limited data for other specialty matches. The following RO-specific figures were obtained per year: total positions available; total matched positions; number of unfilled positions; and number of IMG, AMG, and DO matches. In addition, the number of IMG matches and total matched positions were obtained for 19 other specialties. Fisher exact tests and χ{sup 2} tests were considered significant at α <.05. Results: From 2010 to 2015, 0.8% of RO matches were IMGs, a decline from 2.4% in 2003 to 2009 (P=.006). Proportions of DO matches during these intervals increased by 40% (from 1.0% to 1.4%), significantly lower than IMGs for 2003 to 2009 (P=.03) but not 2010 to 2015 (P=.26). From 2003 to 2015, the percentage of IMG matches, at 1.5%, was significantly lower than the percentage of unfilled seats, at 3.5% (P<.001). In comparison with other specialties (2003-2015), RO had the fewest IMG matches (1.5%), followed by otolaryngology (1.9%) and orthopedics (2.2%); specialties with the highest IMG proportions were internal medicine (37.1%), family medicine (35.7%), and neurology (31.1%). Conclusions: Presently, IMGs represent <1% of RO matches, the lowest among major specialties. There are several speculative factors associated with this low proportion. There are significantly more unfilled positions than those filled by IMGs; programs at risk of not matching could weigh the advantages and disadvantages of interviewing IMGs.

  13. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F Carvalho

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that

  14. Comparison of psychotic bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia: an international, multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondo, L; Vázquez, G H; Baethge, C; Baronessa, C; Bolzani, L; Koukopoulos, A; Mazzarini, L; Murru, A; Pacchiarotti, I; Pinna, M; Salvatore, P; Sani, G; Selle, V; Spalletta, G; Girardi, P; Tohen, M; Vieta, E; Baldessarini, R J

    2016-01-01

    Nosological distinctions among schizoaffective disorder (SA), bipolar I disorder with psychotic features (BDp), and schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. We compared 2269 subjects with psychotic features in DSM-IV-TR diagnoses (1435 BDp, 463 SZ, 371 SA) from 8 collaborating international sites, by 12 sociodemographic and clinical measures, all between diagnostic pairs. In bivariate comparisons, SA was consistently intermediate between BDp and SZ for 11/12 features (except onset stressors), and SZ vs. BDp differed in all 12 factors. SA differed from both BDp and SZ in 9/12 factors: SA and BDp were similar in education and suicidal ideation or acts; SA and SZ were similar in education, onset stressors, and substance abuse. Meta-analytic comparisons of diagnostic pairs for 10 categorical factors indicated similar differences of SA from both SZ and BDp. Multivariate modeling indicated significantly independent differences between BDp and SZ (8 factors), SA vs. SZ (5), and BDp vs. SA (3). Measurement variance was similar for all diagnoses. SA was consistently intermediate between BDp and SZ. The three diagnostic groups ranked: BDp > SA > SZ related to lesser morbidity or disability. The findings are not consistent with a dyadic Kraepelinian categorization, although the considerable overlap among the three DSM-IV diagnostic groups indicates uncertain boundaries if they represent distinct disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker; Floegel, Thomas; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r s = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  16. 25 Years of DECOVALEX - Research Advances and Lessons Learned from an International Model Comparison Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of an international research and model comparison collaboration (DECOVALEX) for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems. Prediction of these coupled effects is an essential part of the performance and safety assessment of geologic disposal systems for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and is also relevant for a range of other sub-surface engineering activities. DECOVALEX research activities have been supported by a large number of radioactive-waste-management organizations and regulatory authorities. Research teams from more than a dozen international partner organizations have participated in the comparative modeling evaluation of complex field and laboratory experiments in the UK, Switzerland, Japan, France and Sweden. Together, these tasks (1) have addressed a wide range of relevant issues related to engineered and natural system behavior in argillaceous, crystalline and other host rocks, (2) have yielded in-depth knowledge of coupled THM and THMC processes associated with nuclear waste repositories and wider geo-engineering applications, and (3) have advanced the capability, as well as demonstrated the suitability, of numerical simulation models for quantitative analysis.

  17. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Floegel, Thomas [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Kitzler, Hagen H. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Alexandrov, Andrei V. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r{sub s} = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  18. International comparisons of health system performance among OECD countries: opportunities and data privacy protection challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, Jillian; Ronchi, Elettra; Klazinga, Niek

    2013-09-01

    Health data constitute a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve health system performance. Well-intended policies to allay concerns about breaches of confidentiality and to reduce potential misuse of personal health information may be limiting data use. A survey of 20 OECD countries explored the extent to which countries have developed and use personal health data and the reasons why data use may be problematic in some. Countries are divided, with one-half engaged regularly in national data linkage studies to monitor health care quality. Country variation is linked to risk management in granting an exemption to patient consent requirements; in sharing identifiable data among government authorities; and in project approvals and granting access to data. The resources required to comply with data protection requirements is a secondary problem. The sharing of person-level data across borders for international comparisons is rarely reported and there were few examples of studies of health system performance. Laws and policies enabling data sharing and data linkage are needed to strengthen national information infrastructure. To develop international studies comparing health care quality and health system performance, actions are needed to address heterogeneity in data protection practices. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Assess of the Status of the Karaj Operating Rooms in Comparison with International Standards in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Naseri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of making money, the operating room (OR is known as the beating heart of any clinical & health center. The effective and regular activity of the operating room guarantees a sustainable income for the hospital. So, in order to provide high quality treatment and care services, and to save the health and safety of OR staff, exploiting standard equipments and spaces as well as employing professional and skilled personnel is necessary. This study was aimed to assess the status of the Karaj operating rooms from physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment aspects in comparison to the International Standards. Methods: This sectional descriptive study was conducted in Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Samples were 10 operating room wards from 10 surgical hospitals. Data were collected by a 70 items check-list at 5 fields of physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment conditions and then compared to the international standards. The data were recorded in SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The results showed that compared to the international standards, the physical aspect was 60.5%, safety aspect 66%, sterilization aspect 68%, staffing aspect 63%, and equipment aspect was 80% close to the standard criteria. On the whole, in 10 assessed hospitals, equipment aspect with 80% had the best and the physical aspect with 60.5% had the worst conditions respectively. Conclusion: Due to admission in different medical and paramedical programs in Alborz University of Medical Sciences, renovation of the ORs is essential for training skilled students. Considering the results of this study could help the University authorities to improve the current condition.

  20. Inter-laboratory agreement on embryo classification and clinical decision: Conventional morphological assessment vs. time lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Granados, Luis; Serrano, María; González-Utor, Antonio; Ortíz, Nereyda; Badajoz, Vicente; Olaya, Enrique; Prados, Nicolás; Boada, Montse; Castilla, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine inter-laboratory variability on embryo assessment using time-lapse platform and conventional morphological assessment. This study compares the data obtained from a pilot study of external quality control (EQC) of time lapse, performed in 2014, with the classical EQC of the Spanish Society for the Study of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR) performed in 2013 and 2014. In total, 24 laboratories (8 using EmbryoScope™, 15 using Primo Vision™ and one with both platforms) took part in the pilot study. The clinics that used EmbryoScope™ analysed 31 embryos and those using Primo Vision™ analysed 35. The classical EQC was implemented by 39 clinics, based on an analysis of 25 embryos per year. Both groups were required to evaluate various qualitative morphological variables (cell fragmentation, the presence of vacuoles, blastomere asymmetry and multinucleation), to classify the embryos in accordance with ASEBIR criteria and to stipulate the clinical decision taken. In the EQC time-lapse pilot study, the groups were asked to determine, as well as the above characteristics, the embryo development times, the number, opposition and size of pronuclei, the direct division of 1 into 3 cells and/or of 3 into 5 cells and false divisions. The degree of agreement was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients and the coefficient of variation for the quantitative variables and the Gwet index for the qualitative variables. For both EmbryoScope™ and Primo Vision™, two periods of greater inter-laboratory variability were observed in the times of embryo development events. One peak of variability was recorded among the laboratories addressing the first embryo events (extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of pronuclei); the second peak took place between the times corresponding to the 8-cell and morula stages. In most of the qualitative variables analysed regarding embryo development, there was almost

  1. Inter-laboratory agreement on embryo classification and clinical decision: Conventional morphological assessment vs. time lapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martínez-Granados

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine inter-laboratory variability on embryo assessment using time-lapse platform and conventional morphological assessment. This study compares the data obtained from a pilot study of external quality control (EQC of time lapse, performed in 2014, with the classical EQC of the Spanish Society for the Study of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR performed in 2013 and 2014. In total, 24 laboratories (8 using EmbryoScope™, 15 using Primo Vision™ and one with both platforms took part in the pilot study. The clinics that used EmbryoScope™ analysed 31 embryos and those using Primo Vision™ analysed 35. The classical EQC was implemented by 39 clinics, based on an analysis of 25 embryos per year. Both groups were required to evaluate various qualitative morphological variables (cell fragmentation, the presence of vacuoles, blastomere asymmetry and multinucleation, to classify the embryos in accordance with ASEBIR criteria and to stipulate the clinical decision taken. In the EQC time-lapse pilot study, the groups were asked to determine, as well as the above characteristics, the embryo development times, the number, opposition and size of pronuclei, the direct division of 1 into 3 cells and/or of 3 into 5 cells and false divisions. The degree of agreement was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients and the coefficient of variation for the quantitative variables and the Gwet index for the qualitative variables. For both EmbryoScope™ and Primo Vision™, two periods of greater inter-laboratory variability were observed in the times of embryo development events. One peak of variability was recorded among the laboratories addressing the first embryo events (extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of pronuclei; the second peak took place between the times corresponding to the 8-cell and morula stages. In most of the qualitative variables analysed regarding embryo development, there

  2. Evaluation of the analytic performance of laboratories: inter-laboratorial study of the spectroscopy of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Wong, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The author made an inter-laboratorial study, with the participation of 18 national laboratories, that have spectrophotometer of atomic absorption. To evaluate the methods of analysis of lead, sodium, potasium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in the ambit of mg/l. The samples, distributed in four rounds to the laboratories, were prepared from primary patterns, deionized and distilled water. The study evaluated the homogeneity and stability, and verified its concentration, using as a reference method, the spectrometry method of Inductively Coupled Plasma emission (1CP). To obtain the characteristics of analytic performance, it applied the norm ASTM E 691. To evaluated the analytic performance, it used harmonized protocol of the International Union of Pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC). The study obtained the 29% of the laboratories had a satisfactory analytic performance, 9% had a questionable performance and 62% made an unsatisfactory analytic performance, according to the IUPAC norm. The results of the values of the characteristic performance method, show that there is no intercomparability between the laboratories, which is attributed to the different methodologies of analysis. (S. Grainger)

  3. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  4. Interlaboratory study of a liquid chromatography method for erythromycin: determination of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, P; Vander Heyden, Y; Smeyers-Verbeke, J; Massart, D L; Marini, R D; Chiap, P; Hubert, Ph; Crommen, J; Van de Wauw, W; De Beer, J; Cox, R; Mathieu, G; Reepmeyer, J C; Voigt, B; Estevenon, O; Nicolas, A; Van Schepdael, A; Adams, E; Hoogmartens, J

    2003-08-22

    Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been developed. It makes use of an Astec C18 polymeric column. After validation in one laboratory, the method was now validated in an interlaboratory study. Validation studies are commonly used to test the fitness of the analytical method prior to its use for routine quality testing. The data derived in the interlaboratory study can be used to make an uncertainty statement as well. The relationship between validation and uncertainty statement is not clear for many analysts and there is a need to show how the existing data, derived during validation, can be used in practice. Eight laboratories participated in this interlaboratory study. The set-up allowed the determination of the repeatability variance, s(2)r and the between-laboratory variance, s(2)L. Combination of s(2)r and s(2)L results in the reproducibility variance s(2)R. It has been shown how these data can be used in future by a single laboratory that wants to make an uncertainty statement concerning the same analysis.

  5. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  6. Comparison of fully internally and strongly contracted multireference configuration interaction procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Krupicka, Martin; Auer, Alexander A.; Neese, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Multireference (MR) methods occupy an important class of approaches in quantum chemistry. In many instances, for example, in studying complex magnetic properties of transition metal complexes, they are actually the only physically satisfactory choice. In traditional MR approaches, single and double excitations are performed with respect to all reference configurations (or configuration state functions, CSFs), which leads to an explosive increase of computational cost for larger reference spaces. This can be avoided by the internal contraction scheme proposed by Meyer and Siegbahn, which effectively reduces the number of wavefunction parameters to their single-reference counterpart. The "fully internally contracted" scheme (FIC) is well known from the popular CASPT2 approach. An even shorter expansion of the wavefunction is possible with the "strong contraction" (SC) scheme proposed by Angeli and Malrieu in their NEVPT2 approach. Promising multireference configuration interaction formulations (MRCI) employing internal contraction and strong contraction have been reported by several authors. In this work, we report on the implementation of the FIC-MRCI and SC-MRCI methodologies, using a computer assisted implementation strategy. The methods are benchmarked against the traditional uncontracted MRCI approach for ground and excited states of small molecules (N2, O2, CO, CO+, OH, CH, and CN). For ground states, the comparison includes the "partially internally contracted" MRCI based on the Celani-Werner ansatz (PC-MRCI). For the three contraction schemes, the average errors range from 2% to 6% of the uncontracted MRCI correlation energies. Excitation energies are reproduced with ˜0.2 eV accuracy. In most cases, the agreement is better than 0.2 eV, even in cases with very large differential correlation contributions as exemplified for the d-d and ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions of a Cu [NH 3 ] 4 2 + model complex. The benchmark is supplemented with the

  7. "I Am Chelsea Manning": Comparison of Gendered Representation of Private Manning in U.S. and International News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Andrea M; Becker, Amy B; Todd, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    On August 22, 2013, Bradley Manning released a statement requesting to be referred to as female. In the following days, the news media discussed whether language should shift toward a female representation. Using quantitative content analysis and qualitative contextual analysis, this study analyzed whether U.S. and international newspapers (N = 197) acknowledged Manning's request to be referred to as "Chelsea" in the two weeks after the statement. Results suggest that the mainstream press was hesitant in shifting toward a female representation. A comparison of international and U.S. newspapers suggests that the U.S. press lagged behind international coverage using a female depiction.

  8. Patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia: an international comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hush, Julia M; Yung, Vivian; Mackey, Martin; Adams, Roger; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To attain a quantitative estimate of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care for musculoskeletal conditions in Australia; (2) to compare the observed level of patient satisfaction with care in Australia with those from other countries; and (3) to compare factors contributing to patient satisfaction between Australia and the United States (US). Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 274 patients presenting for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal disorder in Australian clinics. Patient satisfaction was measured using the 20-item MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) and satisfaction scores were compared with those from Northern Europe, North America, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. To investigate factors contributing to patient satisfaction between Australia and the US, we compared 20-item MRPS data from Australian and Spanish-speaking US cohorts. Results: Mean Australian MRPS satisfaction score was 4.55 (95% confidence interval: 4.51–4.59) on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 indicates high dissatisfaction and 5 indicates high satisfaction. This high level of patient satisfaction is consistent with international data. Australian respondents specifically valued interpersonal aspects of care, including advice and information about their condition and an explanation about self-management. The correlation between treatment outcomes and global patient satisfaction was low (r = −0.22). A comparison of data collected from Australia and the US showed that MRPS items regarding interpersonal aspects of care, such as the therapists’ communication skills, correlated strongly with global satisfaction in both countries. However, there were other questionnaire items for which the correlation with global satisfaction was significantly different between Australia and the US. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia is high and comparable with

  9. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Heyndrickx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies provide markers for vaccine-induced protective immunity in many viral infections. By analogy, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization may well predict vaccine effectiveness. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies is therefore of primary importance, but is hampered by the fact that we do not know which assay(s can provide measures of protective immunity. An international collaboration (NeutNet involving 18 different laboratories previously compared different assays using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and soluble CD4 (Phase I study. METHODS: In the present study (Phase II, polyclonal reagents were evaluated by 13 laboratories. Each laboratory evaluated nine plasmas against an 8 virus panel representing different genetic subtypes and phenotypes. TriMab, a mixture of three mAbs, was used as a positive control allowing comparison of the results with Phase I in a total of nine different assays. The assays used either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (Virus Infectivity Assays, VIA, or Env (gp160-pseudotyped viruses (pseudoviruses, PSV produced in HEK293T cells from molecular clones or from uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically engineered cell lines in either single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs including extra- or intra-cellular p24 antigen detection, luciferase, beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene expression. FINDINGS: Using TriMab, results of Phase I and Phase II were generally in agreement for six of the eight viruses tested and confirmed that the PSV assay is more sensitive than PBMC (p = 0.014. Comparisons with the polyclonal reagents showed that sensitivities were dependent on both virus and plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Here we further demonstrate clear differences in assay sensitivities that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus

  10. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Heath, Alan; Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jansson, Marianne; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Sattentau, Quentin; Tolazzi, Monica; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Willems, Betty; Wrin, Terri; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies provide markers for vaccine-induced protective immunity in many viral infections. By analogy, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization may well predict vaccine effectiveness. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies is therefore of primary importance, but is hampered by the fact that we do not know which assay(s) can provide measures of protective immunity. An international collaboration (NeutNet) involving 18 different laboratories previously compared different assays using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and soluble CD4 (Phase I study). In the present study (Phase II), polyclonal reagents were evaluated by 13 laboratories. Each laboratory evaluated nine plasmas against an 8 virus panel representing different genetic subtypes and phenotypes. TriMab, a mixture of three mAbs, was used as a positive control allowing comparison of the results with Phase I in a total of nine different assays. The assays used either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Virus Infectivity Assays, VIA), or Env (gp160)-pseudotyped viruses (pseudoviruses, PSV) produced in HEK293T cells from molecular clones or from uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically engineered cell lines in either single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs including extra- or intra-cellular p24 antigen detection, luciferase, beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression. Using TriMab, results of Phase I and Phase II were generally in agreement for six of the eight viruses tested and confirmed that the PSV assay is more sensitive than PBMC (p = 0.014). Comparisons with the polyclonal reagents showed that sensitivities were dependent on both virus and plasma. Here we further demonstrate clear differences in assay sensitivities that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. Consistent with the Phase I study, we recommend

  11. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  12. Internal audit function: a comparison between private and public sector in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Madawaki Abdulkadir; Ahmi Aidi; Nasibah Ahmad Halimah

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical r...

  13. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  14. International Standard Problem 40 - Aerosol Deposition and Resuspension. Final Comparison Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Reyes, Alfredo Castelo; Areia Capitao, Joaquim; De Santi, Giovanni

    1999-02-01

    -October 1997 and the deadline for submission of the results of this second phase was the end of January 1998. A first draft of this comparison report was produced in March 1998, followed by a workshop in Ispra in mid-March. Two errors in the supplied data had been detected and were communicated to the participants in this workshop, one concerning the steam flow rate in the deposition phase of the exercise and the other the size distribution of the resuspended aerosols in the resuspension phase. The decision whether or not to re-do their calculations was left to the each ISP participant and the deadline for the submission of new results, with these or other modifications relative to the previous ones, was the end of May 1998. These new calculations, having been performed in open conditions, are presented separately in this report. The final draft of the comparison report was distribute in June 1998, followed by a final workshop in Ispra the same month. This report is divided into six main sections, one concerning the experimental set-up and results, two each for the deposition and resuspension phases of the International Standard Problem (blind and open calculations), and one on general conclusions and recommendations. According to the opinion of the ISP participants, the results in the two sections on the deposition and resuspension exercises are listed by computer code and, for each code, by organisation. The calculations submitted by the Joint Research Centre are included together with the others. Although the JRC staff who performed the calculations did not have access to the experimental results before submitting their results, their knowledge of the facility puts their calculations in a separate class

  15. Comparison of internal radiation doses estimated by MIRD and voxel techniques for a ''family'' of phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a new system of realistic voxel phantoms, based on computed tomography scanning of humans, to assess its ability to specify the internal dosimetry of selected human examples in comparison with the well-established MIRD system of mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. Differences in specific absorbed fractions between the two systems were inferred by using organ dose estimates as the end point for comparison. A ''family'' of voxel phantoms, comprising an 8-week-old baby, a 7-year-old child and a 38-year-old adult, was used and a close match to these was made by interpolating between organ doses estimated for pairs of the series of six MIRD phantoms. Using both systems, doses were calculated for up to 22 organs for four radiopharmaceuticals with widely differing biodistribution and emission characteristics (technetium-99m pertechnetate, administered without thyroid blocking; iodine-123 iodide; indium-111 antimyosin; oxygen-15 water). Organ dose estimates under the MIRD system were derived using the software MIRDOSE 3, which incorporates specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for the MIRD phantom series. The voxel system uses software based on the same dose calculation formula in conjunction with SAF values determined by Monte Carlo analysis at the GSF of the three voxel phantoms. Effective doses were also compared. Substantial differences in organ weights were observed between the two systems, 18% differing by more than a factor of 2. Out of a total of 238 organ dose comparisons, 5% differed by more than a factor of 2 between the systems; these included some doses to walls of the GI tract, a significant result in relation to their high tissue weighting factors. Some of the largest differences in dose were associated with organs of lower significance in terms of radiosensitivity (e.g. thymus). In this small series, voxel organ doses tended to exceed MIRD values, on average, and a 10% difference was significant when all 238 organ doses

  16. Hemodialysis practice patterns in the Russia Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), with international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, Boris; Bieber, Brian; Andrusev, Anton; Tomilina, Natalia; Zemchenkov, Alexander; Zhao, Junhui; Port, Friedrich; Robinson, Bruce; Pisoni, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    There is little comparable information about hemodialysis (HD) practices in low- and middle income countries, including Russia. Evaluation of HD in Russia and its international comparisons could highlight factors providing opportunities for improvement. We examined treatment patterns for 481 prevalent HD patients in 20 Russian facilities, and compared them to contemporary data for 8512 patients from 311 facilities in seven European countries, Japan, and North America. Data were collected according to the uniform methodology of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, phase 5. Compared to other regions, Russian patients were younger (mean age 53.4 years), had a lower percent of males (52.5%), higher arteriovenous fistula use (89.7%), and longer treatment time (mean: 252 minutes, SD: 37 minutes). Mean single pool Kt/V was 1.49 (SD 0.58). Prescription of dialysate calcium 3.5 mEq/L and aluminum-based phosphate binders were high (15.2% and 17.6% of patients, respectively), while intravenous vitamin D and cinacalcet were low (3.3% and 2.2%, respectively). The percents with parathyroid hormone >600 pg/mL (30.9%) and serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L (37.7%) were high. Use of erythropoetin stimulating agents (78%) was lower, but hemoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were generally comparable to North America and Europe. These detailed data for hemodialysis in Russia demonstrate that many practice patterns contrasted sharply to those in Europe, Japan, and North America, while other features were similar. Our analysis revealed several positive and some less favorable treatment patterns in Russia that represent opportunities for improving patient care and outcomes. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, A; Chang, D; Mamidanna, R; Middleton, S; Joy, M; Penninckx, F; Darzi, A; Livingston, E; Faiz, O

    2014-07-01

    Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across administrative coding systems used in different countries. Administrative data were collected in a central database as part of the Global Comparators (GC) Project. In order to unify these data, a systematic translation of diagnostic and procedural codes was undertaken. Codes for colorectal diagnoses, resections, operative complications and reoperative interventions were mapped across the respective national healthcare administrative coding systems. Discharge data from January 2006 to June 2011 for patients who had undergone colorectal surgical resections were analysed to generate risk-adjusted models for mortality, length of stay, readmissions and reoperations. In all, 52 544 case records were collated from 31 institutions in five countries. Mapping of all the coding systems was achieved so that diagnosis and procedures from the participant countries could be compared. Using the aligned coding systems to develop risk-adjusted models, the 30-day mortality rate for colorectal surgery was 3.95% (95% CI 0.86-7.54), the 30-day readmission rate was 11.05% (5.67-17.61), the 28-day reoperation rate was 6.13% (3.68-9.66) and the mean length of stay was 14 (7.65-46.76) days. The linkage of international hospital administrative data that we developed enabled comparison of documented surgical outcomes between countries. This methodology may facilitate international benchmarking. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Comparison between Ultroid and Rubber Band Ligation in Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Azizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nHemorrhoid is one of the most common surgical diseases and different methods are available for its treatment. This study is a comparison between two methods of treatment of internal hemorrhoid, Monopolar low voltage instrument (Ultroid and Rubber Band Ligation. This method has been carried out prospectively in which 50 patients who were treated with rubber band ligation and 50 patients with Ultroid were compared according to the incidence of complications, post-operative pain and treatment response. According to this study complete success rate with Ultroid was 82% and partial success rate was 10% and no response to treatment was seen in 8%. In Rubber Band method the complete response rate was 94% (P=0.2. With Ultroid, 74% of patient reported no postoperative pain, 24% reported mild and moderate pain and 2% of patients complained of severe pain. With Rubber band ligation, 72% of patients reported no post-operative pain, 26% reported mild and moderate pain and 1% complained of severe pain (P=0.00. Rubber Band ligation and Ultroid are both considered as outpatient procedures for treatment of hemorrhoids. Both methods are mostly used for grade 1, 2 and sometime grade 3 hemorrhoids. In Ultroid method the operator is required to hold the probe for a period of time, and in most cases, the surgeon should spend between 20-25 minutes for the coagulation of three piles. Some surgeons do not have patience for this modality of internal hemorrhoid treatment. In this study we achieved acceptable results comparable with those of other techniques.

  19. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  20. Students' Preference for Science Careers: International comparisons based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærnsli, Marit; Lie, Svein

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with 15-year-old students' tendencies to consider a future science-related career. Two aspects have been the focus of our investigation. The first is based on the construct called 'future science orientation', an affective construct consisting of four Likert scale items that measure students' consideration of being involved in future education and careers in science-related areas. Due to the well-known evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased estimates, the aim has been to go beyond the comparison of simple country averages. In a series of regression and correlation analyses, we have investigated how well the variance of this construct in each of the participating countries can be accounted for by other Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) student data. The second aspect is based on a question about students' future jobs. By separating science-related jobs into what we have called 'soft' and 'hard' science-related types of jobs, we have calculated and compared country percentages within each category. In particular, gender differences are discussed, and interesting international patterns have been identified. The results in this article have been reported not only for individual countries, but also for groups of countries. These cluster analyses of countries are based on item-by-item patterns of (residual values of) national average values for the combination of cognitive and affective items. The emerging cluster structure of countries has turned out to contribute to the literature of similarities and differences between countries and the factors behind the country clustering both in science education and more generally.

  1. KEY COMPARISON: CCEM.RF-K9: International comparison of thermal noise standards between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz (GT-RF/99-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Djamel; Achkar, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An international comparison of thermal noise-power measurements has been carried out among five national metrology institutes between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz. Four transfer standards were measured. The following national institutes participated: BNM-LCIE (France), NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany), NIST (United States of America) and VNIIFTRI (Russia). The Bureau National de Métrologie-Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (France) acted as the pilot laboratory for the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  4. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, S.; Mostafavi, H.; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating

  5. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korreman, S. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mostafavi, H. [Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA (United States). Gintzon Technology Center; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating.

  6. International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachson Israel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable amendments designed to minimise participant harm in New Zealand. Assessment of minimal risk is a complex and unreliable estimation further compounded by insufficient information on probabilities of particular individuals suffering harm. Estimating potential benefits/ risks ratio and protecting participants' autonomy similarly are not straightforward exercises. Summary Safeguarding moral/humane principles should be balanced with promotion of ethical research which does not impede research posing minimal risk to participants. In ensuring that ethical standards are met and research has scientific merit, ethics committees have obligations to participants (to meet their rights and protect them from harm; to society (to ensure good quality research is conducted; and to researchers (to treat their proposals with just consideration and respect. To facilitate meeting all these obligations, the preferable focus should be promotion of ethical research, rather than the prevention of unethical research, which inevitably results in the impediment of researchers from doing their work. How the ethical principles should be applied and balanced requires further consideration.

  7. Second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rate for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1993-02-01

    An second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rates for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2) has been performed. The purpose is to evaluate the measurement accuracy of tritium production rates in the current measurement techniques. Two 14 MeV neutron source facilities, FNS at JAERI-Japan and LOTUS at EPFL-Switzerland, were used for this purpose. Nine groups out of seven countries participated in this program. A fusion simulated blanket assembly of simple-geometry was served as the test bed at each facility, in which Li-containing samples from the participants were irradiated in an uniform neutron field. The tritium production rates were determined by the participants using their own ways by using the liquid scintillation counting method. Tritiated water sample with unknown but the same concentration was also distributed and its concentration was measured to make a common reference. The standard deviation of measured tritium production rates among participants was about 10 % for both FNS and LOTUS irradiation levels: 4x10 -13 T-atoms/Li-atom and 1.6x10 -12 T-atoms/Li-atom at a sample, respectively. This standard deviation exceeds the expected deviation of 5 % in this program. It is presumed that the deviation of 10 % is caused mainly by the systematic and unknown errors in a process of tritium extraction from the irradiated samples depending on each organization. (author)

  8. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastoor Bekhradian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.

  9. Factors of Public Procurement: Evaluation of an Influence into the International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There was a tendency to expand the using of state regulation tools and increasing the scale of the public sector of economy In XX century. Statistically, it is characterized by increasing of indicators of public expenditures and procurement of products for public use. The amazing thing is that countries which are different from each other in terms of the formed institutional environment, reflect the same trends of maintaining the scale of public purchases market. Analysis of the factors influencing on purchases for public use, allows to identify the causes of the government’s interests in expanding of government intervention in the economy and the use of this tool in the development of economic policy. In the paper reviewed the impact of a number of institutional and technological factors such as The Corruption Perceptions Index, government debt, the percentage of water surface area, Gini coefficient, unemployment and Ease of Doing Business Index on public purchases. Assessment of the impact of these factors was carried out on the volume of public purchases in the framework of an international comparison of procurement practices. Justification of the results was suggested in terms of the existing approaches to macroeconomic policy.

  10. The 4th international comparison on EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, P., E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg D-85764 (Germany); Adolfsson, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Benevides, L.A. [Naval Dosimetry Center, Bethesda MD 20889-5600 (United States); Brai, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Callens, F. [Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chumak, V. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS, 04050 Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Regina Elena Institute, I-00144 Rome (Italy); Emerich, K. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland); Gustafsson, H. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hirai, Y. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732-0815 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Israelsson, A. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Kaminska, J. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Ke, Wu [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Lund, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Marrale, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the 4th International Comparison of in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, where the performance parameters of tooth enamel dosimetry methods were compared among sixteen laboratories from all over the world. The participating laboratories were asked to determine a calibration curve with a set of tooth enamel powder samples provided by the organizers. Nine molar teeth extracted following medical indication from German donors and collected between 1997 and 2007 were prepared and irradiated at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen. Five out of six samples were irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Gy air kerma; and one unirradiated sample was kept as control. The doses delivered to the individual samples were unknown to the participants, who were asked to measure each sample nine times, and to report the EPR signal response, the mass of aliquots measured, and the parameters of EPR signal acquisition and signal evaluation. Critical dose and detection limit were calculated by the organizers on the basis of the calibration-curve parameters obtained at every laboratory. For calibration curves obtained by measuring every calibration sample three times, the mean value of the detection limit was 205 mGy, ranging from 56 to 649 mGy. The participants were also invited to provide the signal response and the nominal dose of their current dose calibration curve (wherever available), the critical dose and detection limit of which were also calculated by the organizers.

  11. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.I.; Wiser, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which is turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. (author)

  12. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry

  13. An International Comparison of Tax Assistance for Research and Development: Estimates and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Business spending on research and development (R&D is generally recognized as a private activity providing broader economic benefits that justify government support. But subsidizing R&D has costs as well as benefits, and governments need to exercise judgement to ensure that subsidies are set at a level that results in a net economic benefit for society as a whole, not just for the recipients of the assistance. A key finding of the international comparison undertaken in this paper is that Canada and nine other of the 36 countries in the comparison group are providing R&D subsidies that are likely too high to generate a net economic benefit. Subsidy rates in this group of countries range from 25 to 45 per cent. The risk of excessive subsidization is confined to small firms in Canada, which receive a subsidy of almost 41 per cent through the tax system. Canada’s subsidy rate for small firms is the third highest, behind Chile and France. Other countries providing subsidy rates close to 40 per cent are Spain and India. This paper also assesses several design features of tax assistance measures, including enhanced benefits for small and young firms, refundability of benefits and incentives based on increases in R&D spending above a base level. While the best policy for R&D subsidies may be a uniform rate for all businesses regardless of age or size, the case for favouring young firms is somewhat stronger than for favouring all small firms. Focusing on young firms avoids providing benefits to small firms that are not growth-oriented; but, it is difficult to design a program that can be completely restricted to young firms since entrepreneurs would have an incentive to create new firms to avoid losing higher benefits. Even with this “leakage”, however, an age-dependent incentive could be more cost-effective than size-dependent enhanced benefits. There is a particularly strong case for providing refundability to young firms, which are unlikely to

  14. Status Report of the Inter-Laboratory Task Force on Remote Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, Nan

    2001-01-01

    The next generation of particle accelerators will be major projects which may require a new mode of international and inter-laboratory collaboration. They are likely to be too costly to be funded by a single nation and too large to be built by a single laboratory. The tremendous technical challenge of a new facility requires a critical mass of highly qualified and experienced physicists and engineers. These experts are presently distributed among the major accelerator centers around the world and it is believed important to maintain and develop this broad base of expertise. The successful accelerator technology development of recent decades depended on extensive exchange of people with complementary technical skills. Therefore, it is desirable and probably necessary that several accelerator laboratories will participate in any future project. A consequence of a multi-laboratory project is that the accelerator will be located a considerable distance from most of the contributing institutions which design, build and operate it. These considerations led the International Committee for Future Accelerators to initiate a study on the general and technical implications of such a collaboration. Two task forces were formed in February 2000 to conduct this study and they were asked to prepare a report on a time scale of one year. The task force on Remote Operation included members from most of the major accelerator laboratories around the world with expertise on accelerator operation, controls software, communication technologies, hardware design and maintenance. The task force members gathered information from the experts at their own institutions and from available experience in other fields, particularly astronomy. The task force on Remote Operations began by developing a model for an international multi-laboratory collaboration to construct and operate an accelerator facility. This model is described in section 3. While it is clear that there are numerous alternative

  15. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  16. On the equivalence of generalized least-squares approaches to the evaluation of measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, A.; Clare, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of CIPM international comparisons is increasingly being carried out using a model-based approach that leads naturally to a generalized least-squares (GLS) solution. While this method offers the advantages of being easier to audit and having general applicability to any form of comparison protocol, there is a lack of consensus over aspects of its implementation. Two significant results are presented that show the equivalence of three differing approaches discussed by or applied in comparisons run by Consultative Committees of the CIPM. Both results depend on a mathematical condition equivalent to the requirement that any two artefacts in the comparison are linked through a sequence of measurements of overlapping pairs of artefacts. The first result is that a GLS estimator excluding all sources of error common to all measurements of a participant is equal to the GLS estimator incorporating all sources of error, including those associated with any bias in the standards or procedures of the measuring laboratory. The second result identifies the component of uncertainty in the estimate of bias that arises from possible systematic effects in the participants' measurement standards and procedures. The expression so obtained is a generalization of an expression previously published for a one-artefact comparison with no inter-participant correlations, to one for a comparison comprising any number of repeat measurements of multiple artefacts and allowing for inter-laboratory correlations.

  17. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    the measurement capabilities of each NMI in the KCDB maintained by the BIPM. This database is available on the web at http://www.bipm.org/kcdb. The degrees of equivalence of each NMI holding national standards for a given quantity are determined from the key comparisons. These are entered into Appendix B of the MRA that is maintained as part of the KCDB. (Note that Appendix A is the list of signatories to the MRA). The results of the comparisons are analysed and presented in two ways. A graph is used to present the degree of equivalence of each NMI with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) and, secondly, a matrix is used to show the inter-laboratory degrees of equivalence taking inter-laboratory correlations into account. A CIPM key comparison is executed either by a Consultative Committee of the CIPM, such as the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI), or by the BIPM and leads to a KCRV. In certain fields, such as ionizing radiation, the BIPM maintains international standards against which NMIs (for example, the primary standards dosimetry laboratories, PSDLs that are affiliated members of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs) can compare their primary standards. These comparisons may be made at any mutually convenient time and these comparisons are identified as 'BIPM ongoing key comparisons'. However, although there are over 110 comparisons listed in the field of ionizing radiation, more than 77 of these comparisons are activity comparisons (rather than dosimetry comparisons) for the many different radionuclides, that are measured using the International Reference System (SIR). The BIPM currently operates four ongoing key comparisons for ionizing radiation dosimetry. These include dosimetry comparisons for air kerma in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams and for air kerma and absorbed dose to water in 60 Co gamma radiation. The comparison result is expressed as a ratio of the NMI value for the quantity to the BIPM value and the report of the comparison

  18. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  19. An international comparison of stakeholder motivation to implement liver cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P; Joy, Susan M; Blauvelt, Barri M; Yan, Weili; Marsteller, Jill A

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization offers clear guidance on the development of national cancer control programmes based on a country's level of resources, yet the motivation to implement such programmes may be driven by factors other than resources. To compare stakeholder motivation to implement a national liver cancer control programme and assess if variation in motivation was associated with stakeholder characteristics or with national indicators of need and resources. Relevant stakeholders were purposively selected from 13 countries (Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Nigeria, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and USA) to participate in a structured survey on liver cancer control. Respondents included 12 individuals working in clinical, 5 in policy and 3 in advocacy roles from each country. Stakeholders' motivation was measured using a scale grounded in expectancy theory and knowledge gained during previous qualitative interviews. Comparisons across countries and respondent characteristics were conducted using hierarchical regression. Country level motivation scores, holding constant individual level covariates, were correlated with indicators of need and resources and tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In total, 260 stakeholders, equally drawn from the study countries, completed the survey (45% response rate). At the national level, motivation was highest in Nigeria, Thailand and China (P motivation was observed among stakeholders working at the international level relative to the local level (P = 0.017). Motivation was positively associated with a country's relative burden of liver cancer (P = 0.015) and negatively associated with their level of resources (P = 0.018). This study provides the first empirical evidence on the motivation of stakeholders to implement national cancer control programmes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that motivation is more clearly associated with a country's cancer control needs rather than resources

  20. What can we learn from international comparisons of costs by DRG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, M; Schenker, L; Martins, D; Dung, Duong; Chalé, J J; Leclercq, P

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare costs data by diagnosis related group (DRG) between Belgium and Switzerland. Our hypotheses were that differences between countries can probably be explained by methodological differences in cost calculations, by differences in medical practices and by differences in cost structures within the two countries. Classifications of DRG used in the two countries differ (AP-DRGs version 1.7 in Switzerland and APR-DRGs version 15.0 in Belgium). The first step of this study was to transform Belgian summaries into Swiss AP-DRGs. Belgian and Swiss data were calculated with a clinical costing methodology (full costing). Belgian and Swiss costs were converted into US$ PPP (purchasing power parity) in order to neutralize differences in purchasing power between countries. The results of this study showed higher costs in Switzerland despite standardization of cost data according to PPP. The difference is not explained by the case-mix index because this was similar for inliers between the two countries. The length of stay (LOS) was also quite similar for inliers between the two countries. The case-mix index was, however, higher for high outliers in Belgium, as reflected in a higher LOS for these patients. Higher costs in Switzerland are thus probably explained mainly by the higher number of agency staff by service in this country or because of differences in medical practices. It is possible to make international comparisons but only if there is standardization of the case-mix between countries and only if comparable accountancy methodologies are used. Harmonization of DRGs groups, nomenclature and accountancy is thus required.

  1. Relative productivity levels, 1947-1973: an international comparison. [US and eight major trading partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, L.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Cummings, D.; Jorgenson, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    This paper provides an international comparison of levels of output, input, and productivity for the US and 8 of its major trading partners - Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It first compares levels of output per capita in 1970 and allocates differences in these levels among differences in levels of capital and labor input per capita and differences in total factor productivity. Output per capita relative to the US in 1970 varied from 0.101 for Korea to 0.811 for Canada. For the industrialized countries except Canada, the range was from 0.460 for Italy to 0.721 for Germany. Variations in capital input per capita relative to the US were greater than for output, running from 0.082 for Korea to 0.920 for Canada. Again, excluding Canada, the range for industrialized countries was from 0.325 for Japan to 0.709 for Germany. Differences between levels of total factor productivity in the US and the eight remaining countries in 1970 were much smaller than differences in output per capita. Secondly, relative levels of output, input, and productivity are compared among all 9 countries for the period 1947 to 1973. The time-series results show that relative levels of output per capita between the US and its 8 trading partners have narrowed substantially during the postwar period. Levels of capital per capita have also narrowed throughout the postwar period for all countries relative to the US. Finally, relative productivity levels between the US and its major trading partners have narrowed substantially over the postwar period. For the 7 industrialized countries relative productivity levels in 1973 fell within the narrow range of 0.775 for the United Kingdom to 0.907 for Canada. For Korea the productivity gap remained very substantial; its level relative to the United States was 0.348. 46 references, 14 tables.

  2. A Comparison of Internal Dispositions and Career Trajectories after Collaborative versus Apprenticed Research Experiences for Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Kyle J; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K; Britner, Shari L; Carruth, Laura L; Williams, Brian A; Pecore, John L; DeHaan, Robert L; Goode, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences confer benefits on students bound for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers, but the low number of research professionals available to serve as mentors often limits access to research. Within the context of our summer research program (BRAIN), we tested the hypothesis that a team-based collaborative learning model (CLM) produces student outcomes at least as positive as a traditional apprenticeship model (AM). Through stratified, random assignment to conditions, CLM students were designated to work together in a teaching laboratory to conduct research according to a defined curriculum led by several instructors, whereas AM students were paired with mentors in active research groups. We used pre-, mid-, and postprogram surveys to measure internal dispositions reported to predict progress toward STEM careers, such as scientific research self-efficacy, science identity, science anxiety, and commitment to a science career. We are also tracking long-term retention in science-related career paths. For both short- and longer-term outcomes, the two program formats produced similar benefits, supporting our hypothesis that the CLM provides positive outcomes while conserving resources, such as faculty mentors. We discuss this method in comparison with course-based undergraduate research and recommend its expansion to institutional settings in which mentor resources are scarce. © 2017 K. J. Frantz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryer, Colin; Miller, Ted R; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-01-01

    in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs...... diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems....

  4. T92-0045: Interlaboratory quality control on Tpot measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coucke, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/objective: To assess the reproducibility of Tpot measurement by comparison between three laboratories. Materials and methods: We will report on the intercomparison which contains two arms: a single set of data (disc analysis), stained, processed and analysed in Lab 1 has subsequently been analyzed by the team in the Lab 2 and in Lab 3. This kind of comparison reveals differences in interpretation and region setting. Pieces of the original tumor specimen have been processed, stained and analyzed separately in each centre (meat analysis). This latter reveals variation in dissociation, staining and running the sample, but also illustrates tumor heterogeneity. All three laboratories are equipped with a Becton Dickinson FACScan and are using PC-Lysis for analysis. The procedure for handling the sample has been standardized before starting the comparison; guidelines were elaborated for setting the gates. The mathematical algorithm modified from A. Begg has been used. The study consists of 102 specimens from 97 patients with following breakdown: 25 gynecological, 36 head and neck, 35 rectal and 6 pulmonary cancers. In order to compare Tpot-data the method of Bland and Altman has been used which yields limits of agreement. This method gives a better impression on the true correlation between centers as compared to the correlation coefficients. Moreover, it results in a closer estimate of the variation on an individual specimen. The analysis has been done on the 102 specimens but a second analysis has been performed on 89 biopsies, after having excluded outliers, with obvious aberrant values. Results: The Bland and Altman analysis of log Tpot for all 102 samples yields small mean differences (range of logdata 0.004 to 0.151), but large standard deviations (range 0.286 to 0.407 in logdata). Converting the logdata to days yields a mean difference of 1 - day and a standard deviation ranging from 1.9 to 2.6 days. Restricting the analysis to 89 samples (excluding obvious

  5. Results of an international comparison for the determination of radionuclide activity in bilberry material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Emteborg, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity found in wild food products has assumed greater importance when assessing the total exposure of the population. For this reason, IRMM has been developing a reference material for the activity concentration of three radionuclides in bilberry samples. In order to characterise this new material, a CCRI(II) supplementary comparison was organised. The difficulties encountered in this comparison are discussed, in particular the efficiency calibration for volume sources of gamma-ray emitters, and comparison reference values for 137 Cs and 40 K are calculated. - Highlights: ► CCRI(II) supplementary comparison for Cs-137 and K-40 in bilberry matrix completed. ► Fundamentally different methods used to establish link to SI traceable standards and SIR. ► Variation of results higher than in CCRI(II) key comparisons. ► Comparison reference values will be robust property values of IRMM reference material. ► Certified reference material for radioactivity in food developed.

  6. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Preston, C.C.

    1980-09-01

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup

  7. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol...... analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained...

  8. Reimiep 87. An interlaboratory U-235 enrichment determination by gamma measurement on solid UF6 sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Cresti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy technique, based on the measurement of U 235 186 KeV flux, is now currently used for the determination of Uranium enrichment in different material of nuclear fuel cycle, namely: Uranium metallic, UO 2 pellets, UF 6 liquid or solid. The present paper describes the use of such a technique and the obtained results in determining the U 235 /U atomic isotopic abundance on a certified UF 6 solid sample. The measurements have been carried out in the frame work of the partecipation to the ''UF 6 Interlaboratory Measurements Evaluation Programme'' organized by CBNM/Geel with the support of the ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association)

  9. Internal audit function: a comparison between private and public sector in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madawaki Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical rank of internal audit function in both sectors. While the results showed that differences exist in the reporting status between internal audit in the two sectors with private sector internal audit reporting to audit committee and chief executive officer and public sector internal audit reporting to chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Almost a similar amount of work is outsourced, and private sector entities are more likely to outsource than those in public sector. There is slight difference between internal audit activities and interaction with external auditor in the two sectors with private sector more likely to coordinate in the area of access to audit working papers.

  10. International Interlaboratory Digital PCR Study Demonstrating High Reproducibility for the Measurement of a Rare Sequence Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Alexandra S; Devonshire, Alison S; Karlin-Neumann, George; Regan, Jack; Javier, Leanne; Cowen, Simon; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Jones, Gerwyn M; Redshaw, Nicholas; Beck, Julia; Berger, Andreas W; Combaret, Valérie; Dahl Kjersgaard, Nina; Davis, Lisa; Fina, Frederic; Forshew, Tim; Fredslund Andersen, Rikke; Galbiati, Silvia; González Hernández, Álvaro; Haynes, Charles A; Janku, Filip; Lacave, Roger; Lee, Justin; Mistry, Vilas; Pender, Alexandra; Pradines, Anne; Proudhon, Charlotte; Saal, Lao H; Stieglitz, Elliot; Ulrich, Bryan; Foy, Carole A; Parkes, Helen; Tzonev, Svilen; Huggett, Jim F

    2017-02-07

    This study tested the claim that digital PCR (dPCR) can offer highly reproducible quantitative measurements in disparate laboratories. Twenty-one laboratories measured four blinded samples containing different quantities of a KRAS fragment encoding G12D, an important genetic marker for guiding therapy of certain cancers. This marker is challenging to quantify reproducibly using quantitative PCR (qPCR) or next generation sequencing (NGS) due to the presence of competing wild type sequences and the need for calibration. Using dPCR, 18 laboratories were able to quantify the G12D marker within 12% of each other in all samples. Three laboratories appeared to measure consistently outlying results; however, proper application of a follow-up analysis recommendation rectified their data. Our findings show that dPCR has demonstrable reproducibility across a large number of laboratories without calibration. This could enable the reproducible application of molecular stratification to guide therapy and, potentially, for molecular diagnostics.

  11. Performance of NAA methods in an International Interlaboratory Reference Material Characterization Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database of analytical results from a recent biological matrix Reference Material Characterization Campaign permitted an intercomparison of the performances of various methods among each other and with 'true' best estimate concentration values established for these materials. Six different variants of neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods were employed including: instrumental neutron activation analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis with acid digestion, neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis, epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis, and neutron activation analysis with preconcentration. The precision and accuracy performance of NAA-based analytical methods are compared with three other major techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and mass spectrometry (MS) for 28 elements in 10 natural matrix materials. (author)

  12. Comparison of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy and holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy in bulbar urethral strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Mustafa Gurkan; Sam, Emre; Colakoglu, Yunus; Atar, Feyzi Arda; Sahin, Selcuk; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Tugcu, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To compare the results of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and Holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy (HIU) in primary bulbar urethral strictures. Material and methods A total of 63 patients diagnosed with primary bulbar urethral stricture between August 2014 and September 2015 were assigned to the OIU (n = 29) and HIU (n = 34) groups. The demographic variables, biochemistry panels, and preoperative and postoperative uroflowmetry results including the maximum flow rate (Qmax) and mean flow rate (Qmean) values, retrograde urethrography, and diagnostic flexible urethroscopy findings were recorded prospectively. Demographic features and preoperative values were not statistically different between groups (p >0.05). Mean surgical times were 18.4 ±2.3 min for OIU and 21.9 ±3.8 min for HIU groups, which was statistically significant (p 0.05). There was no recurrence in the first 3 months in either group. The urethral stricture recurrence rate up to month 12 was not statistically significant for the OIU group (n = 6, 20.7%) as compared to the HIU group (n = 11, 32.4%; p = 0.299). At follow-up, the SFR and IFR was 96% and 88% at 3-months, and 82% and 71% at 12-months, respectively (p method to OIU, and it has similar success rates in the treatment of short segment bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:29732217

  13. Universal neonatal hearing screening program in Shanghai, China: An inter-regional and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xingang; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Jin; Sun, Mei; Chang, Fengshui; Lü, Jun; Chen, Gang

    2016-11-01

    By comparing the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) program as implemented in Shanghai and other regions in China and countries around the world, this study makes an assessment of the Shanghai model and summarizes the experiences implementing the UNHS program, so as to provide a valuable reference for other countries or regions to carry out UNHS more effectively. Since Shanghai is one of the most developed regions in China, we also examined the relationship between economic development and the UNHS starting year and coverage rate. The study conducted a systematic review of published studies in Chinese and English on the program status of neonatal hearing screening to compare and analyze the implementation of the UNHS program in 20 cities or provinces in China and 24 regions or countries around the world. The literature search in Chinese was conducted in the three most authoritative publication databases, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), WANFANGDATA, and CQVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/). We searched all publications in those databases with the keywords "neonatal hearing screening" (in Chinese) between 2005 and 2014. English literature was searched using the same keywords (in English). The publication database included Medline and Web of Science, and the search time period was 2000-2014. Shanghai was one of the first regions in China to implement UNHS, and its coverage rate was among the top regions by international comparison. The starting time of the UNHS program had no relationship with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the same year. Economic level serves as a threshold for carrying out UNHS but is not a linear contributor to the exact starting time of such a program. The screening coverage rate generally showed a rising trend with the increasing GDP per capita in China, but it had no relationship with the area's GDP per capita in selected regions and countries around the world. The system design of UNHS is the key factor

  14. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: international multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B

    2017-01-04

     To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  International multicentre prospective study.  Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.  3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined.  The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65.0-65.3%. No score was helpful at predicting rebleeding or length

  15. International comparison of comparative effectiveness research in five jurisdictions: insights for the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Mitton, Craig; Johnston, Karissa M; Harrigan, Brian; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    ' interests, in that the turn-around time for assessments must be minimized, transparency must be maximized, the process must be considered fair using universally agreed standards and the process must be modifiable based on stakeholders' requirements; (ii) the assessment of medical technologies other than drugs may present different challenges and is managed separately in other HTA organizations; (iii) because of the link between HTA and reimbursement decisions, completion of the HTA process following regulatory approval can delay market access to new technologies, thus closer integration between regulatory approval and HTA processes is being explored internationally; (iv) there is a direct or indirect link to reimbursement in the jurisdictions explored - without this link the role of CER in the US will remain advisory; (v) each jurisdiction reviewed benefits from a single payer that is informed by the process - given the diverse multipayer environment in the US, CER in the US may usefully focus on generating comparative effectiveness evidence; (vi) a common metric for assessing intended and unintended effects of treatment allows comparison across different technologies; and (vii) one stated focus of CER is on therapeutic benefit among 'high-priority populations', including specific demographic groups (the elderly and children, racial and ethnic minorities) and individuals with disabilities, multiple chronic conditions and specific genomic factors. This will be difficult to achieve because epidemiological evidence of differences in therapeutic benefit among subgroups is detected through effect modification, or more specifically, statistical evidence of effect measure modification, typically on relative measures of effect. Few randomized trials have enough power to detect effect modification and these have been uncommon in the scientific literature. As consideration is given to the development of a publicly funded CER body in the US, much can be learned from the international

  16. Sharing hydrological knowledge: an international comparison of hydrological models in the Meuse River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Drogue, Gilles; Brauer, Claudia; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    International collaboration between institutes and universities working and studying the same transboundary basin is needed for consensus building around possible effects of climate change and climate adaptation measures. Education, experience and expert knowledge of the hydrological community have resulted in the development of a great variety of model concepts, calibration and analysis techniques. Intercomparison could be a first step into consensus modeling or an ensemble based modeling strategy. Besides these practical objectives, such an intercomparison offers the opportunity to explore different ranges of models and learn from each other, hopefully increasing the insight into the hydrological processes that play a role in the transboundary basin. In this experiment, different international research groups applied their rainfall-runoff model in the Ourthe, a Belgium sub-catchment of the Meuse. Data preparation involved the interpolation of hourly precipitation station data collected and owned by the Service Public de Wallonie1 and the freely available E-OBS dataset for daily temperature (Haylock et al., 2008). Daily temperature was disaggregated to hourly values and potential evaporation was derived with the Hargreaves formula. The data was made available to the researchers through an FTP server. The protocol for the modeling involved a split-sample calibration and validation for pre-defined periods. Objective functions for calibration were fixed but the calibration algorithm was a free choice of the research groups. The selection of calibration algorithm was considered model dependent because lumped as well as computationally less efficient distributed models were used. For each model, an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected and several performance metrics enabled to assess the models' abilities to simulate discharge. The aim of this experiment is to identify those model components and structures that increase model performance and may best

  17. Summary findings of the fourth international radiocarbon intercomparison (FIRI) (1998–2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boaretto, Elisabetta; Bryant, Charlotte; Carmi, Israel; Cook, Gordon; Gulliksen, Steinar; Harkness, Doug; Heinemeier, Jan; McClure, John; McGee, Edward; Naysmith, Philip; Possnert, Goran; Scott, Marian; Plicht, Hans van der; Strydonck, Mark van

    2002-01-01

    Interlaboratory comparisons have been widely used in applied radiocarbon science. These are an important part of ongoing quality assurance (QA) programmes, which are vital to the appropriate interpretation of the evidence provided by the 14C record in Quaternary applications (including climate

  18. Interlaboratory analytical performance studies; a way to estimate measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El¿bieta £ysiak-Pastuszak

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparability of data collected within collaborative programmes became the key challenge of analytical chemistry in the 1990s, including monitoring of the marine environment. To obtain relevant and reliable data, the analytical process has to proceed under a well-established Quality Assurance (QA system with external analytical proficiency tests as an inherent component. A programme called Quality Assurance in Marine Monitoring in Europe (QUASIMEME was established in 1993 and evolved over the years as the major provider of QA proficiency tests for nutrients, trace metals and chlorinated organic compounds in marine environment studies. The article presents an evaluation of results obtained in QUASIMEME Laboratory Performance Studies by the monitoring laboratory of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (Gdynia, Poland in exercises on nutrient determination in seawater. The measurement uncertainty estimated from routine internal quality control measurements and from results of analytical performance exercises is also presented in the paper.

  19. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  20. An Interlaboratory Evaluation of Drift Tube Ion Mobility–Mass Spectrometry Collision Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stow, Sarah M. [Department; Causon, Tim J. [Division; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological; Kurulugama, Ruwan T. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States; Mairinger, Teresa [Division; May, Jody C. [Department; Rennie, Emma E. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States; Baker, Erin S. [Biological; Smith, Richard D. [Biological; McLean, John A. [Department; Hann, Stephan [Division; Fjeldsted, John C. [Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95051, United States

    2017-08-14

    Collision cross section (CCS) measurements resulting from ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) experiments provide a promising orthogonal dimension of structural information in MS-based analytical separations. As with any molecular identifier, interlaboratory standardization must precede broad range integration into analytical workflows. In this study, we present a reference drift tube ion mobility mass spectrometer (DTIM-MS) where improvements on the measurement accuracy of experimental parameters influencing IM separations provide standardized drift tube, nitrogen CCS values (DTCCSN2) for over 120 unique ion species with the lowest measurement uncertainty to date. The reproducibility of these DTCCSN2 values are evaluated across three additional laboratories on a commercially available DTIM-MS instrument. The traditional stepped field CCS method performs with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.29% for all ion species across the three additional laboratories. The calibrated single field CCS method, which is compatible with a wide range of chromatographic inlet systems, performs with an average, absolute bias of 0.54% to the standardized stepped field DTCCSN2 values on the reference system. The low RSD and biases observed in this interlaboratory study illustrate the potential of DTIM-MS for providing a molecular identifier for a broad range of discovery based analyses.

  1. Evaluation of interlaboratory round robin study (2000-2003) in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiozaki, T. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno Research (Japan); Iwaki, K. [Ebara Research (Japan); Mochizuki, T. [Kokan Keisoku (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Nittech Research (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Toray Research Center (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Inter-laboratory round robin is available for maintaining dioxin analytical quality/skills by testing or certified laboratories. There are over 150 dioxin testing laboratories available in Japan consequently, Ministry of Environment (MOE) and Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) have began to investigate quality of dioxin testing laboratory and to upgrade their skills with in 4 years. On the other hands, Research Group for Dioxin Analysis which have technical experts from 33 private dioxin testing laboratories had carried out inter-laboratory round robin 4 times since 1998. These studies has been transferred to new research group namely, Research Group on Ultra trace Analyses (UTA) which is accompanied organization of Japan Environmental Measurement and Chemical Analysis Association (JEMCA) in 2003. The UTA consists 83 private dioxin testing laboratories and has been subjected to grow up the technical potential for not only dioxins but other trace level analysis of well known persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Former research group had run final round (4{sup th}) and new UTA carried out first round studies in 2001 And 2003, respectively. Percentage relative standard deviations (RSD) for each polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) have become smaller than past studies.

  2. [Interlaboratory Study on Evaporation Residue Test for Food Contact Products (Report 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Amano, Homare; Ishihara, Kinuyo; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Takasaka, Noriko; Takenaka, Yu; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Yamada, Kyohei; Watanabe, Kazunari; Sato, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using heptane as a food-simulating solvent for oily or fatty foods, based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. In the official method, heating for evaporation was done with a water bath. In the modified method, a hot plate was used for evaporation, and/or a vacuum concentration procedure was skipped. In most laboratories, the test solutions were heated until just prior to dryness, and then allowed to dry under residual heat. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods. Accordingly, the modified method provides performance equal to the official method, and is available as an alternative method. Furthermore, an interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate and compare two leaching solutions (95% ethanol and isooctane) used as food-simulating solvents for oily or fatty foods in the EU. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between heptane and these two leaching solutions.

  3. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  4. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  5. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author)

  6. Quantifying multiple trace elements in uranium ore concentrates. An interlaboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, S.; Boulyga, S.F.; Penkin, M.V.; Jovanovic, S.; Lindvall, R.; Rasmussen, G.; Riciputi, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intercomparison was organized, with six laboratories tasked to quantify sixty-nine impurities in two uranium materials. The main technique employed for analysis was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with matrix-matched external calibration. The results presented highlight the current state-of-the-practice; lessons learned include previously unaccounted polyatomic interferences, issues related to sample dissolution, blank correction and calibration, and the challenge of estimating measurement uncertainties. The exercise yielded consensus values for the two analysed materials, suitable for use as laboratory standards to partially fill a gap in the availability of uranium reference materials characterized for impurities. (author)

  7. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program......Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest...

  8. Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Vinggaard, Anne; Terouanne, B.

    2004-01-01

    steroidal androgens, two antiandrogens, an androgenic control, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and an antiandrogenic control, bicalutamide (ICI 176,334). All laboratories correctly detected the androgenic activity of 4-androsten-3,17-dione and 17alpha-methyl-testosterone. For both compounds...

  9. Minimum analytical quality specifications of inter-laboratory comparisons: agreement among Spanish EQAP organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricós, Carmen; Ramón, Francisco; Salas, Angel; Buño, Antonio; Calafell, Rafael; Morancho, Jorge; Gutiérrez-Bassini, Gabriella; Jou, Josep M

    2011-11-18

    Four Spanish scientific societies organizing external quality assessment programs (EQAP) formed a working group to promote the use of common minimum quality specifications for clinical tests. Laboratories that do not meet the minimum specifications are encouraged to make immediate review of the analytical procedure affected and to implement corrective actions if necessary. The philosophy was to use the 95th percentile of results sent to EQAP (expressed in terms of percentage deviation from the target value) obtained for all results (except the outliers) during a cycle of 1 year. The target value for a number of analytes of the basic biochemistry program was established as the overall mean. However, because of the substantial discrepancies between routine methods for basic hematology, hormones, proteins, therapeutic drugs and tumor markers, the target in these cases was the peer group mean. The resulting specifications were quite similar to those established in the US (CLIA), and Germany (Richtlinie). The proposed specifications stand for the minimum level of quality to be attained for laboratories, to assure harmonized service performance. They have nothing to do with satisfying clinical requirements, which are the final level of quality to be reached, and that is strongly recommended in our organizations by means of documents, courses, symposiums and all types of educational activities.

  10. Interlaboratory comparison of tooth enamel dosimetry on Semipalatinsk region: Part 1, general view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Toyoda, S. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: alexander-ivannikov@yandex.ru; Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukumura, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Apsalikov, K. [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Hygiene, Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh.S. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy, Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Bayankin, S. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chumak, V. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); De Coste, V. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Endo, S. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Fattibene, P. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mitchell, C.A. [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda (United States); Onori, S. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Penkowski, M. [Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); Pivovarov, S.P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Romanyukha, A. [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda (United States); Rukhin, A.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    For intercomparison of methods of dose determination using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of tooth enamel, the same sets of enamel samples were analyzed in different laboratories using similar recording parameters. The sets of samples included calibration samples irradiated in known doses, test samples irradiated to doses unknown to the participants and accidental dose samples prepared from teeth of humans affected by radioactive fallout from nuclear tests in the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan. The test samples were analyzed to determine the differences in the resulting doses using different spectrometers and different spectra processing methods. The accidental dose samples were analyzed in order to test the precision of doses determined by EPR spectroscopy and to obtain more accurate values by averaging the results from different laboratories.

  11. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-II Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2008-01-01

    Van de 30 Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) waren er 29 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in rundergehakt aan te tonen. Vijf laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Een laboratorium kon ook tijdens deze herkansing niet voldoende presteren. Momenteel wordt

  12. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie

  13. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-I Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    De Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella hebben in een ringonderzoek hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella aangetoond in rundergehakt. Hiermee hebben ze laten zien dat ze voldoen aan de gestelde eisen. De Modified Semi-solid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV), een

  14. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XI : Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    Alle 32 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) waren in 2008 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Hiervan behaalden 28 laboratoria direct het gewenste niveau. Twee laboratoria hadden een herkansing nodig. Bij een NRL was het CRL-Salmonella aanwezig tijdens

  15. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  16. Interlaboratory comparison of {sup 10}Be concentrations in two ice cores from Central West Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Thomas E., E-mail: woodruft@purdue.edu [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Welten, Kees C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Caffee, Marc W. [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Nishiizumi, Kunihiko [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    To improve sample processing efficiency for cosmogenic radionuclide measurements in samples from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide core, two chemical lines, one at Purdue University and one at University of California, Berkeley, are being used. Sections from two shallow ice cores from West Antarctica were processed at each lab, while all {sup 10}Be accelerator mass spectrometry measurements were performed at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Duplicate samples gave {sup 10}Be results that are identical to within the AMS measurement uncertainties of 2-3%.

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of red-cell ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and haemolysis measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J R; Kagen, L R; van der Meer, P F; Simon, T; Cardigan, R; Greenwalt, T J; AuBuchon, J P; Brand, A; Lockwood, W; Zanella, A; Adamson, J; Snyder, E; Taylor, H L; Moroff, G; Hogman, C

    2005-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) storage systems are licensed based on their ability to prevent haemolysis and maintain RBC 24-h in vivo recovery. Preclinical testing includes measurement of RBC ATP as a surrogate for recovery, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) as a surrogate for oxygen affinity, and free haemoglobin, which is indicative of red cell lysis. The reproducibility of RBC ATP, DPG and haemolysis measurements between centres was investigated. Five, 4-day-old leucoreduced AS-1 RBC units were pooled, aliquotted and shipped on ice to 14 laboratories in the USA and European Union (EU). Each laboratory was to sample the bag twice on day 7 and measure RBC ATP, DPG, haemoglobin and haemolysis levels in triplicate on each sample. The variability of results was assessed by using coefficients of variation (CV) and analysis of variance. Measurements were highly reproducible at the individual sites. Between sites, the CV was 16% for ATP, 35% for DPG, 2% for total haemoglobin and 54% for haemolysis. For ATP and total haemoglobin, 94 and 80% of the variance in measurements was contributed by differences between sites, and more than 80% of the variance for DPG and haemolysis measurements came from markedly discordant results from three sites and one site, respectively. In descending order, mathematical errors, unvalidated analytical methods, a lack of shared standards and fluid handling errors contributed to the variability in measurements from different sites. While the methods used by laboratories engaged in RBC storage system clinical trials demonstrated good precision, differences in results between laboratories may hinder comparative analysis. Efforts to improve performance should focus on developing robust methods, especially for measuring RBC ATP.

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Inter-laboratory comparison of medical computed tomography (CT) scanners for industrial applications in the slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Bager; Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch

    2013-01-01

    differences in CT performance. The presented Round Robin scheme has demonstrated its potential as such a method. The benefit of the phantom set is that it provides a convenient way of comparing volume determination between different CT scanners. The suggested phantoms are mimicking important carcass features...

  20. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XII . Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 heeft een vergelijkende studie onder 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) uitgewezen dat alle NRL's in staat waren hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Van deze laboratoria lieten er 33 direct zien dat zij het onderzoek met succes en volgens de

  1. CIRP Interlaboratory Comparison of Coordinate Measuring Machines using an Optomechanical Hole Plate - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renata Erica

    2005-01-01

    be expected that the optomechanical hole plates can be calibrated using the DKD procedure with an uncertainty in the range between 0.5 µm and 2 µm. Using the hole plate, it is possible to compare the performance of measurements obtained using optical and mechanical CMMs. Optical CMM measurements can...... be divided in two groups. A group leading to deviations larger than 2 µm, and a group with deviations that are comparable to those using mechanical machines. All but one laboratory could perform reversal measurements. Transfer of traceability was established as follows: 8 using gauge blocks, 2 laser...... interferometers, 1 zerodur hole plate, 2 callipers, and 1 quartz standard. Out of the 23 measurement campaigns, 5 optical and 2 mechanical machines were not provided with establishment of traceability. The optomechanical hole plate is a suitable reference artefact providing traceability of CMMs, in particular...

  2. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven M; Wojtczak, Jacek A; Cattano, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly ( p internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more investigations are warranted.

  3. A comparison of internal versus external risk-adjustment for monitoring clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Antonie; de Keizer, Nicolette; Peek, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external prognostic models can be used to calculate severity of illness adjusted mortality risks. However, it is unclear what the consequences are of using an external model instead of an internal model when monitoring an institution's clinical performance. Theoretically, using an

  4. Absolute determination of 75Se for international comparison of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglicki, F.A.; Arenillas, P.A.; Furnari, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    An international intercomparison of absolute activity measurements of a solution of Se-75, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France, in 1992, has been carried out. The methodology and results are presented. Source preparation, experimental techniques and measurement system are described. (author). 2 refs

  5. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  6. International Students' Motivation and Learning Approach: A Comparison with Local Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Kah Loong; Nie, Youyan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors contribute to motivation and learning for international students as much as teaching strategies. 254 international students and 144 local students enrolled in a private education institute were surveyed regarding their perception of psychological needs support, their motivation and learning approach. The results from this…

  7. Comparison and Interpretation Report of the OECD International Standard Problem No. 45 - Exercise (QUENCH-06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, W.; Homann, Ch.; Lamy, J.S.; Miassoedov, A.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.; Steinbrueck, M.

    2002-10-01

    The International Standard Problem (ISP) No. 45 is part of the overall ISP program of the OECD/NEA and is dedicated to the behavior of heat-up and delayed reflood of fuel elements in nuclear reactors during a hypothetical accident. ISP-45 is related to the out-of-pile bundle quench experiment QUENCH-06, performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany, on December 13, 2000. Special attention was paid to hydrogen production. To assess the ability of severe accident codes to simulate processes during core heat-up and reflood at temperatures above 2000 K, the behavior of the bundle during the whole experiment should be calculated on the basis of the necessary experimental initial and boundary conditions, but without knowing further experimental details. In this so-called blind phase 21 participants from 15 nations contributed with 8 different code systems (ATHLET-CD, ICARE/CATHARE, IMPACT/SAMPSON, GENFLO, MAAP, MELCOR, SCDAPSIM, SCDAP-3D). Additionally, posttest calculations using the in-house version SCDAP/RELAP5 mod3.2.irs are used for comparison. After the end of the blind phase all measured data were made available and the participants were invited to deliver a second calculation, where this knowledge could be used (so-called open phase). In this report, results of the blind calculations are presented, analyzed, and compared to experimental data. During heat-up most results do not deviate significantly from one another, except as a consequence of some obvious user errors, so that a definition of a mainstream is justified. For the quench phase the lack of adequate hydraulic modeling becomes obvious: some participants could not match the observed cool-down rates, others had to use very fine meshes to compensate code deficiencies. To overcome this insufficiency some newly developed reflood models were used in MAAP and MELCOR. In QUENCH-06, oxide layers were thick enough to protect the cladding from melting and failure below 2200 K, so that no massive hydrogen

  8. Results of an interlaboratory method performance study for the size determination and quantification of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud; Loeschner, Katrin; Grombe, Ringo; Linsinger, Thomas P J

    2017-08-01

    Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) promises fast and selective determination of nanoparticle size and number concentrations. While several studies on practical applications have been published, data on formal, especially interlaboratory validation of sp-ICP-MS, is sparse. An international interlaboratory study was organized to determine repeatability and reproducibility of the determination of the median particle size and particle number concentration of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chicken meat. Ten laboratories from the European Union, the USA, and Canada determined particle size and particle number concentration of two chicken meat homogenates spiked with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs. For the determination of the median particle diameter, repeatability standard deviations of 2 and 5% were determined, and reproducibility standard deviations were 15 and 25%, respectively. The equivalent median diameter itself was approximately 60% larger than the diameter of the particles in the spiking solution. Determination of the particle number concentration was significantly less precise, with repeatability standard deviations of 7 and 18% and reproducibility standard deviations of 70 and 90%.

  9. Determination of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international comparison by using ID-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Wang Jun; Lu Hai; Zhao Motian

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international key comparison is determined by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). This test almost reach detect limit of the method because the content of lead in red wine was only 3 ng/g and the procedure blank was about 0.3 ng. The comparison results indicate that it is easy to achieve agreements using IDMS. In uncertainty analysis, all of the factors about IDMS method were considered. But, procedure blank took great inference to experiment precision and enlarged the total uncertainty. Therefore the controls of procedure blank were very important for the analysis of ultra-trace concentration of samples. (authors)

  10. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion

  11. Comparison of internal friction in high Tc superconductors and CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzowski, O.; Davoli, I.; Stizza, S.; Mancini, G.; Kusz, B.; Barczynski, R.; Gazda, M.; Sadowski, W.; Murawski, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the internal friction and shielding effect in CuO, superconducting yttrium and bismuth ceramics and yttrium monocrystal that have been measured. Several features, some of them common for all specimens, have been found

  12. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  13. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  14. International comparison on radioactive releases of PWR between 1975 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.; Tabare, M.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive releases from 135 PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data has been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities administrative staff or authorities in order to constitute a data base. As regards this comparison however, reactors, the commercial operation of which started prior to July 1974, have been excluded [fr

  15. Comparison of different chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion in an internal combustion engine configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Ennetta Ridha; Hamdi Mohamed; Said Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared using the internal combustion engine model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]: one-step global reaction mechanism, four-step mechanism, and the standard detailed scheme GRIMECH 3.0. This study shows good concordances, especially between the four-step and the detailed mechanisms in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict pollutant emissions in an internal combustion...

  16. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  17. The gender pay gap in Europe: an international comparison with matched employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the origin of the gender wage gap and of its cross-country heterogeneity using unique harmonized international matched employer-employee microdata for nine representative European countries. Evidence obtained uncovers that female segregation into low-paying workplaces is by and large an outstanding origin of both the gender pay gap in every European economy and of international differences in its magnitude. Empirical results also suggest that, in contrast with the findings...

  18. An international comparison of models and approaches for the estimation of the radiological exposure of non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Balonov, Mikhail; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Brown, Justin; Copplestone, David; Hingston, Joanne L.; Horyna, Jan; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J.; Kamboj, Sunita; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Olyslaegers, Geert; Sazykina, Tatiana; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Yankovich, Tamara L.; Yu, Charley

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a number of models and approaches have been developed for the estimation of the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiations. In some countries these are now being used in regulatory assessments. However, to date there has been no attempt to compare the outputs of the different models used. This paper presents the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS Biota Working Group which compares the predictions of a number of such models in model-model and model-data inter-comparisons

  19. International comparison of safety criteria applied to radwaste repositories. Safety aspects of the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.

    1994-01-01

    There is a generally accepted system of framework safety conditions governing the construction, operation, and post-operational monitoring of radwaste repositories. Although the development of these framework conditions may vary from country to country, the resulting criteria are based on the commonly accepted system of priciples and purposes established for ultimate radioactive waste disposal. The experience accumulated by GRS in the course of the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine site and the safety-relevant studies performed for the planned Morsleben repository clearly show demand for further development of the safety criteria. In Germany, it is especially the safety criteria and detailed requirements filling the framework safety conditions that need revision and in-depth definition, as well as comparison and harmonisation with internationally applied criteria. These activities will particularly consider the international convention on radioactive waste management currently in preparation under the auspieces of the IAEA. (orig.) [de

  20. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  1. Mind the gap! International Comparisons of Productivity in Services and Goods Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel; van Ark, Bart

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we make a comparison of industry output, inputs and productivity growth and levels between seven advanced economies (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, UK and U.S.). Our industry-level growth accounts make use of input data on labour quantity (hours) and composition

  2. A Comparison of Danish and International Findings on Intergenerational Earnings Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Azhar, Hussain; D. Munk, Martin

    a comparison with analyses on a Danish register data set. The earnings mobility between fathers/mothers and their sons/daughters is investigated, and shows that the father-son earnings persistence effect is found to be smaller in Denmark, Finland and Sweden than in the United States, but higher than in Norway....

  3. International comparison of economic and technical indexes of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Fialova, H.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of capital costs of the construction of nuclear power plants takes into consideration the following aspects: the delineation of the installation, the determination of costs and their break-down, the impact of the time factor, the conversion of the costs to a comparable unit. Power plants are always compared with roughly the same power capacity, this even when conditions for construction are not fully comparable. Construction costs may be divided into, e.g., pre-construction costs, direct capital costs, indirect capital costs, interest during construction. The time factor is manifest in the duration of construction and in the concrete year of construction for which the comparison is being made. The inflationary rise in prices and interests are increasing capital costs by roughly 5 - 8% per annum. The comparison of costs expressed in different currencies is made either by conversion using the rate of exchange or by comparing the time expended for the construction of the power plant. Various methods of comparison are discussed. (J.B.). 7 refs

  4. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K83: Halocarbons in dry whole air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin; Duewer, David; Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Seog Kim, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a key comparison for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2 trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and

  6. International comparison of systems to determine entitlements to medical specialist care: performance and organizational issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Jerak (Sonja); M. Stroet (Mary); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary Objective: CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations)

  7. Comparison of implant component fractures in external and internal type: A 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yuseung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Shin-Jae; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture of implant component behavior of external and internal type of implants to suggest directions for successful implant treatment. Data were collected from the clinical records of all patients who received WARANTEC implants at Seoul National University Dental Hospital from February 2002 to January 2014 for 12 years. Total number of implants was 1,289 and an average of 3.2 implants was installed per patient. Information about abutment connection type, implant locations, platform sizes was collected with presence of implant component fractures and their managements. SPSS statistics software (version 24.0, IBM) was used for the statistical analysis. Overall fracture was significantly more frequent in internal type. The most frequently fractured component was abutment in internal type implants, and screw fracture occurred most frequently in external type. Analyzing by fractured components, screw fracture was the most frequent in the maxillary anterior region and the most abutment fracture occurred in the maxillary posterior region and screw fractures occurred more frequently in NP (narrow platform) and abutment fractures occurred more frequently in RP (regular platform). In external type, screw fracture occurred most frequently, especially in the maxillary anterior region, and in internal type, abutment fracture occurred frequently in the posterior region. placement of an external type implant rather than an internal type is recommended for the posterior region where abutment fractures frequently occur.

  8. Comparison of Marginal Bone Loss Between Implants with Internal and External Connections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Garzón, Natalia; Mauri-Obradors, Elisabeth; Roselló-LLabrés, Xavier; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Jané-Salas, Enric; López-López, José

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the loss of marginal bone between implants with internal and external connections by analyzing results reported in studies published after 2010. A literature search in MEDLINE with the keywords "dental implant connections, external internal implant connection, bone loss implant designs, internal and external connection implant studies in humans" was conducted. Clinical trials on human beings, comparing both connections and published in English, from 2010 to 2016 were selected. Their methodologic quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. From the initial search, 415 articles were obtained; 32 were chosen as potentially relevant based on their titles and abstracts. Among them, only 10 finally met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1,523 patients with 3,965 implants were analyzed. Six out of 10 studies observed that internal connections showed significantly less bone loss compared with external connections. The remaining four articles did not find statistically significant differences between the two connections. According to this systematic review and considering its limitation due to the degree of heterogeneity between the included studies, both internal and external connections present high survival rates. To assess whether marginal bone loss differs significantly between the two connections, more homogenous clinical studies are needed with identical implant characteristics, larger samples, and longer follow-up periods. Studies included in this review and characterized by long-term follow-ups showed that the external connection is a reliable connection on a long-term basis.

  9. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  10. An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Medford, Andrew James; Bundgaard, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A large number of flexible polymer solar modules comprising 16 serially connected individual cells was prepared at the experimental workshop at Risø DTU. The photoactive layer was prepared from several varieties of P3HT (Merck, Plextronics, BASF and Risø DTU) and two varieties of ZnO (nanoparticu......A large number of flexible polymer solar modules comprising 16 serially connected individual cells was prepared at the experimental workshop at Risø DTU. The photoactive layer was prepared from several varieties of P3HT (Merck, Plextronics, BASF and Risø DTU) and two varieties of Zn......O (nanoparticulate, thin film) were employed as electron transport layers. The devices were all tested at Risø DTU and the functional devices were subjected to an inter-laboratory study involving the performance and the stability of modules over time in the dark, under light soaking and outdoor conditions. 24...

  11. Investigation of the Intra- and Interlaboratory Reproducibility of a Small Scale Standardized Supersaturation and Precipitation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Jakob; Madsen, Cecilie M; Teleki, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    order for the three model compounds using the SSPM (aprepitant > felodipine ≈ fenofibrate). The α-value is dependent on the experimental setup and can be used as a parameter to evaluate the uniformity of the data set. This study indicated that the SSPM was able to obtain the same rank order of the β...... compound available for absorption. However, due to the stochastic nature of nucleation, supersaturating drug delivery systems may lead to inter- and intrapersonal variability. The ability to define a feasible range with respect to the supersaturation level is a crucial factor for a successful formulation...... reproducibility study of felodipine was conducted, after which seven partners contributed with data for three model compounds; aprepitant, felodipine, and fenofibrate, to determine the interlaboratory reproducibility of the SSPM. The first part of the SSPM determines the apparent degrees of supersaturation (a...

  12. Interlaboratory determinations of isotopically enriched metals by field desorption mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Schulten, H.R.; Achenbach, C.; Ziskoven, R.

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic distribution of stable isotopes in six enriched metals (calcium, copper, barium, rubidium, strontium and thallium) has been determined by field desorption mass spectrometry. A first evaluation of the interlaboratory reproducibility of the application of this method for trace determination of metals was made using three different types of mass spectrometers in three different laboratories. The standard deviations for the most abundant isotopes of the metals investigated are between +-0.1 and +-0.5%. Within these standard deviations, the values obtained by the three mass spectrometry groups are the same. To support the accuracy of our quantification, thermal ionization mass spectrometry has been employed and confirms the results of the field desorption method. (orig.) [de

  13. [Interlaboratory Study on Evaporation Residue Test for Food Contact Products (Report 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Amano, Homare; Ishihara, Kinuyo; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Takasaka, Noriko; Takenaka, Yu; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Tonooka, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Watanabe, Kazunari; Sato, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using three food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid and 20% ethanol), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. For evaporation, a water bath was used in the official method, and a hot plate in the modified method. In most laboratories, the test solutions were heated until just prior to evaporation to dryness, and then allowed to dry under residual heat. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods, regardless of the heating equipment used. Accordingly, the modified method provides performance equal to the official method, and is available as an alternative method.

  14. Participation in the international comparison of probabilistic consequence assessment codes organized by OECD/NEA and CEC. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1994-02-01

    Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) methods are exploited not only in risk evaluation but also to study alternative design features, reactor siting recommendations and to obtain acceptable dose criteria by the radiation safety authorities. The models are programmed into computer codes for these kind of assessment. To investigate the quality and competence of different models, OECD/NEA and CEC organized the international code comparison exercise, which was participated by the organizations from 15 countries. There were seven codes participating in the exercise. The objectives of the code comparison exercise were to compare the results by the codes, to contribute to PCA code quality assurance, to harmonize the codes, to provide a forum for discussion on various approaches and to produce the report on the exercise. The project started in 1991 and the results of the calculations were completed in autumn 1992. The international report consists of two parts: the Overview Report for decision makers and the supporting detailed Technical Report. The results of the project are reviewed as an user of the ARANO-programme of VTT and trends of it's further development are indicated in this report. (orig.) (11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. Comparison of evaluated data for chromium-52, iron-56 and nickel-58 - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Larson, Duane C.; Hetrick, David M.; Vonach, Herbert; Maino, G.; Menapace, Enzo; Mengoni, I.; Asami, T.; Chiba, Satoshi; Shibata, Keiichi Kanagawa; Iijima, S.; Yamamuro, N.; Kopecky, J.

    1992-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report is issued by a Subgroup investigating discrepancies in different evaluations of the major structural materials. The isotopes selected are Chromium-52, Iron-56 and Nickel-58. Graphical overlay comparisons between cross-sections, and also energy-angle correlated particle distributions, in different evaluated libraries was performed. Benefits from these comparisons include information useful for improving structural material evaluations in individual data libraries, for assessing differences associated with present-day evaluation techniques and for development of techniques for graphical representation of the energy-angle correlated data

  16. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible

  17. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  18. International Comparisons of Income Inequality: Tests for Lorenz Dominance across Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, John; Smith, W. James; Formby, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality across nine countries using the Luxembourg Income Study data set. New statistical tests and comparability of data provide an exceptionally clear picture of relative income inequality. Only 4 comparisons out of a possible 108 cannot be ranked. In most cases, differences in the definition of the recipient unit make little difference in the rankings. Irrespective of recipient units, Sweden, Norway, and Germany come out at the top of the ordinal Lorenz rankin...

  19. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  20. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Curtis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate and reliable laboratory-based assays are needed for estimating HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional samples. We recently described the development of a customized, HIV-1-specific Bio-Plex assay that allows for the measurement of HIV-specific antibody levels and avidity to multiple analytes for improved HIV-1 incidence estimates. METHODS: To assess intra- and inter-laboratory assay performance, prototype multiplex kits were developed and evaluated by three distinct laboratories. Longitudinal seroconversion specimens were tested in parallel by each laboratory and kit performance was compared to that of an in-house assay. Additionally, the ability of the kit to distinguish recent from long-term HIV-1 infection, as compared to the in-house assay, was determined by comparing the reactivity of known recent (infected 12 months drug naïve specimens. RESULTS: Although the range of reactivity for each analyte varied between the prototype kit and in-house assay, a measurable distinction in reactivity between recent and long-term specimens was observed with both assays in all three laboratories. Additionally, kit performance was consistent between all three laboratories. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV, between sample replicates for all laboratories, ranged from 0.5% to 6.1%. The inter-laboratory CVs ranged from 8.5% to 21.3% for gp160-avidity index (a and gp120-normalized mean fluorescent intensity (MFI value (n, respectively. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of producing a multiplex kit for measuring HIV antibody levels and avidity, with the potential for improved incidence estimates based on multi-analyte algorithms. The availability of a commercial kit will facilitate the transfer of technology among diverse laboratories for widespread assay use.

  1. Performance of mycological media in enumerating desiccated food spoilage yeasts: an interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Frandberg, E; Deak, T; Alzamora, S M; Chen, J; Guerrero, A S; López-Malo, A; Ohlsson, I; Olsen, M; Peinado, J M; Schnurer, J; de Siloniz, M I; Tornai-Lehoczki, J

    2001-10-22

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18) was originally formulated to enumerate nonfastidious xerophilic moulds in foods containing rapidly growing Eurotium species. Some laboratories are now using DG18 as a general purpose medium for enumerating yeasts and moulds, although its performance in recovering yeasts from dry foods has not been evaluated. An interlaboratory study compared DG18 with dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC), plate count agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (PCAC), tryptone glucose yeast extract chloramphenicol agar (TGYC), acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), and orange serum agar (OSA) for their suitability to enumerate 14 species of lyophilized yeasts. The coefficient of variation for among-laboratories repeatability within yeast was 1.39% and reproducibility of counts among laboratories was 7.1%. The order of performance of media for recovering yeasts was TGYC > PCAC = OSA > APDA > DRBC > DG 18. A second study was done to determine the combined effects of storage time and temperature on viability of yeasts and suitability of media for recovery. Higher viability was retained at -18 degrees C than at 5 degrees C or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks, although the difference in mean counts of yeasts stored at -18 degrees C and 25 degrees C was only 0.78 log10 cfu/ml of rehydrated suspension. TGYC was equal to PCAC and superior to the other four media in recovering yeasts stored at -18 degrees C, 5 degrees C, or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks. Results from both the interlaboratory study and the storage study support the use of TGYC for enumerating desiccated yeasts. DG18 is not recommended as a general purpose medium for recovering yeasts from a desiccated condition.

  2. Interlaboratory validation of the modified murine local lymph node assay based on adenosine triphosphate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takashi; Idehara, Kenji; Kojima, Hajime; Sozu, Takashi; Arima, Kazunori; Goto, Hirohiko; Hanada, Tomohiko; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Inoda, Taketo; Kanazawa, Yukiko; Kosaka, Tadashi; Maki, Eiji; Morimoto, Takashi; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Shinoda, Naoki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Uratani, Mamoru; Usami, Masahito; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yoneda, Tomofumi; Yoshimura, Isao; Yuasa, Atsuko

    2008-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a well-established alternative to the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) or Buehler test (BT) for the assessment of the skin sensitizing ability of drugs and chemicals. Daicel Chemical Industries Ltd. has developed a modified LLNA based on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content (LLNA-DA). We conducted 2 interlaboratory validation studies to evaluate the reliability and relevance of LLNA-DA. The experiment involved 17 laboratories, wherein 14 chemicals were examined under blinded conditions. In the first study, 3 chemicals were examined in 10 laboratories and the remaining 9 were examined in 3 laboratories. In the second study, 1 chemical was examined in 7 laboratories and the remaining 4 chemicals were examined in 4 laboratories. The data were expressed as the ATP content for each chemical-treated group, and the stimulation index (SI) for each chemical-treated group was determined as the increase in the ATP content relative to the concurrent vehicle control group. An SI of 3 was set as the cut-off value for exhibiting skin sensitization activity. The results of the first study obtained in the experiments conducted for the 3 chemicals that were examined in all the 10 laboratories and for 5 of the remaining 9 chemicals were sufficiently consistent with small variations in their SI values. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LLNA-DA against those of GPMT/BT were 7/8 (87.5%), 3/3 (100%), and 10/11 (90.9%), respectively. In the second study, all the 5 chemicals studied demonstrated acceptably small interlaboratory variations. In the first study, a large variation was observed for 2 chemicals; in the second study, this variation was small. It was attributed to the application of dimethylsulfoxide as the solvent for the metallic salts. In conclusion, these 2 studies provide good evidence for the reliability of the LLNA-DA.

  3. Building a University Brand from within: A Comparison of Coaches' Perspectives of Internal Branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Kimberly M.; Gorchels, Linda; Aurand, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    Branding efforts have typically focused on external promotional strategies to develop brand image. Recently, the brand messages conveyed to employees of an organization have been recognized as being equally as important as the brand messages sent to external stakeholders. This study investigates the internal communication of the university brand…

  4. International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Irion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. These countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union (EU and the standards of the Council of Europe, among others. This article explores the nexus between the democratic transformation of the media and international media assistance (IMA as constrained by the local political conditions in the five countries of the Western Balkans. It aims to enhance the understanding of conditions and factors that influence media institution building in the region and evaluates the role of international assistance programs and conditionality mechanisms herein. The cross-national analysis concludes that the effects of IMA are highly constrained by the local context. A decade of IMA of varying intensity is not sufficient to construct media institutions when, in order to function properly, they have to outperform their local context. From today’s vantage point it becomes obvious, that in the short-term scaling-up IMA does not necessarily improve outcomes. The experiences in the region suggest that imported solutions have not been sufficiently cognitive of all aspects of local conditions and international strategies have tended to be rather schematic and have lacked strategic approaches to promote media policy stability, credible media reform and implementation. To a certain extent, the loss of IMA effectiveness is also self-inflicted.

  5. Student Success through Leadership Self-Efficacy: A Comparison of International and Domestic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David H. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce research that examines the leadership experiences of international students on campus. Leadership capacity and efficacy are important indicators of success in higher education and are linked to important academic, career, and life benefits, such as career and leadership aspirations, work performance, the ability to cope and…

  6. Comparison of characteristics of international and national databases for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdenović, E.; Koevoets, R.; Langenhoff, J.; Allaart, C. F.; Landewé, R. B. M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate current (inter)national registers and observational cohorts in Europe, and to compare inclusion criteria, aims, collected data, and participation in the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) repository. We performed a systematic search strategy in six literature databases for

  7. Verbal monitoring in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison between internal and external monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jolien; Mariën, Peter; Santens, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara A.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume. Performance of 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease was measured on two cognitive performance tasks and a battery of 11 linguistic tasks, including tasks that measured performance on internal and external monitoring. Results were compared with those of 16 age-matched healthy controls. PD patients and controls generally performed similarly on the linguistic and monitoring measures. However, we observed qualitative differences in the effects of noise masking on monitoring and disfluencies and in the extent to which the linguistic tasks predicted monitoring behavior. We suggest that the patients differ from healthy subjects in their recruitment of monitoring channels. PMID:28832595

  8. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part II International Comparisons of Suicide Prevention Services in Correctional Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, H.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Konrad, N.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Suicide Prevention created a Task Force on Suicide in Prisons to better disseminate the information in this domain. One of its objectives was to summarize suicide-prevention activities in the prison systems. This study of the Task Force uncovered many differences

  9. The standardization of 133Ba: international comparison of results (June 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Participation in an international intercomparison of measurements of the activity of a 133 Ba solution is described. The 4π (LS) -γ coincidence extrapolation method was used. Results for two different γ-channels were obtained. A graphical representation of the results obtained by the different participating laboratories is given

  10. International Network for Comparison of HIV Neutralization Assays: The NeutNet Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration

  11. Internal validation of risk models in clustered data: a comparison of bootstrap schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, W.; Moons, K.G.M.; Kappen, T.H.; van Klei, W.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Internal validity of a risk model can be studied efficiently with bootstrapping to assess possible optimism in model performance. Assumptions of the regular bootstrap are violated when the development data are clustered. We compared alternative resampling schemes in clustered data for the estimation

  12. High-Speed Measurement of the Internal Diameter of Tubes: A Comparison of Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Agerup, C.C.; Nielsen, N.

    1974-01-01

    The authors have compared various methods of tube measurement and have made the striking conclusion that the continuous measurement of the internal diameter of precision tubes with an air gauge is often useless in practice. The methods selected for experiment were all contactless and so included...

  13. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  14. The Luneburg Sustainable University Project in International Comparison: An Assessment against North American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Luneburg Sustainable University Project (the Project) in a non-European international context; to relate the project scholarly approach to selected scholarly and practice-oriented North American sustainability in higher education (SHE) methods; to analyze project innovations against North American initiatives.…

  15. A Comparison of Pedagogical Practices and Beliefs in International and Domestic Mathematics Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu

    2014-01-01

    International and domestic mathematics teaching assistants (MTAs) are a critical part of mathematics education because they teach a substantial portion of low-level mathematics courses at research institutions. Even if there are several factors to build on MTAs' pedagogical practices, MTAs' beliefs significantly influence the MTAs' practices. The…

  16. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  17. Comparison of Edge and Internal Transport Barriers in Drift Wave Predictive Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, J.; Crombe, K.; Mantica, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only p...... for the internal barrier. For the edge barrier the edge density was varied and it turned out that a lower edge density gave a stronger barrier. Electromagnetic and nonlocal effects were important for both types of barriers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]......We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only...... polodal momentum and the temperatures were simulated. The internal barrier included an anomalous spinup of poloidal momentum similar to that in the experiment. Also the edge barrier was accompanied by a spinup of poloidal momentum. The experimental density (with no barrier) was used and kept fixed...

  18. Engagement in Learning: A Comparison between Asian and European International University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yusuke; Parpala, Anna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on research on both engagement in learning and approaches to learning, we examine the associations between international students' approaches to learning, factors in the teaching/learning environment and self-assessed academic outcomes. A total of 307 students responded to our survey. Their experience of the purposefulness of their course…

  19. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  20. International Comparisons through Simultaneous and Conjunct Analysis: A Search for General Relationships across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Petra

    1996-01-01

    The six chapters of this theme issue explore data collected by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement to investigate crucial issues in reading comprehension. Simultaneous analysis and conjunct analysis are used to examine models as structured combinations of factors in the search for relationships among…

  1. Direct Signal-to-Noise Quality Comparison between an Electronic and Conventional Stethoscope aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Ebert, Doug; Bauer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of heart, lung, and bowel sounds is routinely performed with the use of a stethoscope to help detect a broad range of medical conditions. Stethoscope acquired information is even more valuable in a resource limited environments such as the International Space Station (ISS) where additional testing is not available. The high ambient noise level aboard the ISS poses a specific challenge to auscultation by stethoscope. An electronic stethoscope's ambient noise-reduction, greater sound amplification, recording capabilities, and sound visualization software may be an advantage to a conventional stethoscope in this environment. Methods: A single operator rated signal-to-noise quality from a conventional stethoscope (Littman 2218BE) and an electronic stethoscope (Litmann 3200). Borborygmi, pulmonic, and cardiac sound quality was ranked with both stethoscopes. Signal-to-noise rankings were preformed on a 1 to 10 subjective scale with 1 being inaudible, 6 the expected quality in an emergency department, 8 the expected quality in a clinic, and 10 the clearest possible quality. Testing took place in the Japanese Pressurized Module (JPM), Unity (Node 2), Destiny (US Lab), Tranquility (Node 3), and the Cupola of the International Space Station. All examinations were conducted at a single point in time. Results: The electronic stethoscope's performance ranked higher than the conventional stethoscope for each body sound in all modules tested. The electronic stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 7 and 10 in all modules tested. In comparison, the traditional stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 4 and 7. The signal to noise ratio of borborygmi showed the biggest difference between stethoscopes. In the modules tested, the auscultation of borborygmi was rated between 5 and 7 by the conventional stethoscope and consistently 10 by the electronic stethoscope. Discussion: This stethoscope comparison was limited to a single operator. However, we

  2. Comparison of German and international clearance regulations - chances and limits for harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Schartmann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulations on clearance in the German nuclear regulatory framework (especially sect. 29 and Annexes III and IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) are comprehensive and well founded. Germany has developed some of its clearance levels in advance of recommendations issued by the EC. Therefore, there are differences between the German and international clearance regulations. That has been investigated by a working group on clearance of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) which has performed an analysis of differences and their reasons for clearance levels in Germany and other countries (UK, The Netherlands, Sweden, USA and others). Differences can mainly be explained by country specific approaches in scenarios. Differences especially for the most relevant nuclides are not significant from a radiological point of view. The level of radiological protection (trivial dose range, a few 10 μSv/a) is guaranteed in all countries. The international discussion on the international harmonisation of clearance levels (mainly within the scope of the OECD/NEA and IAEA) can be enlightened on the basis of these results. This discussion concentrates on the question how far a harmonisation of clearance level values is actually necessary and possible. The IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7 'Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance' is of particular importance, because it proposes a set of values which might in the long-term take the role of international unconditional clearance levels. International harmonisation is only relevant for unconditional clearance of those materials, which are traded in large quantities among countries, in particular metal scrap. Harmonisation of the values to the same order of magnitude is sufficient. (orig.)

  3. Prevalence of obesity among Arab school children in Nazareth, Israel: comparison with national (Jewish) and international data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E; Marcus, O; Joubran, S; Abdo, B; Asal, N R

    2013-12-01

    Lack of published data. Absence of Ethnic specific data. Lack of focus on obesity prevention in Arab schools. First set of data on obesity for Arab children. Data will be used as reference data. Alert health/school official for intervention. Objective The objective is to produce the first set of obesity prevalence data and use the data as reference values of body mass index (BMI) trends for Arab children in Israel and compare with Jewish and international data. Methods A prevalence study was carried out in 2009 in which 4130 children aged 6-12, were selected from eight Arab sector schools representing the Nazareth Municipality. Height, weight and BMI measurements were obtained and presented by age, mean age, size, weight, gender and percentile. Appropriate epidemiological and statistical methods used for comparison. Results The obesity and overweight prevalence rates in Arab children by age ranges from 0% to 2.6% and 0% to 11.2%, respectively. Comparison with international and Jewish data revealed differences in almost all age groups but higher rates in Arabs, especially boys. Discussion The higher rates/trends in Arab children may be explained by more Arab women entering the workforce, increase in single-parent families and changes in food and physical activity environments. Conclusion Based on our data, we recommend either an ethnic-specific BMI reference curves and/or inclusion of Arab data in the Israeli data system. Research need to focus on reasons for the increase and interventions to reverse/slow the trend. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  5. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish); Resultados del Ejercicio Interlaboratorios de Radiactividad Ambiental CSN/CIEMAT-02 (Fauna Marina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero gonzalez, M. L.

    2003-07-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. The work of the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is only during the past three decades that international interest has focused on the need to manage and nurture one of our most valued resources - the oceans. In spite of this growing recognition, however, it is only during the past ten years that international agreement has been reached on the control of dumping of wastes (including nuclear wastes) at sea. The International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity was established in 1961 well before the international agreement came into force. Indeed the Laboratory came into existence as a result of the foresight and appreciation by the International Atomic Energy Agency of the need to attack the problem of the behaviour of radioactive substances in the oceans - a subject about which little was known prior to the 1950s. With the co-operation of the Government of Monaco and the Institut Oceanographique, the Laboratory was established in 1961 in the Musee Oceanographique, Monaco. It is appropriate that the Laboratory was established in a building created by one of the most prominent pioneers in oceanography - Prince Albert 1sup(er) of Monaco. Since 1961 the programme and activities of the Monaco Laboratory have expanded and changed with the changing emphasis in pollution problems in the oceans. Throughout the many changes in emphasis which have occurred during the past 20 years, however, it is probably fair to say that the broad objectives have remained the same. The Laboratory exists therefore: to perform research on the occurrence and behaviour of radioactive substances and other forms of pollution in the marine environment; to ensure the quality of the performance and comparability of studies of radioactive substances and other forms of pollution in the marine environment by national laboratories through inter-laboratory comparisons, calibration and standardization of methodology; to assist Member States with regard to marine radioactivity and environmental problems by training personnel, establishing co

  7. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  8. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlkvik Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, “outside in liquid” (OIL, configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR, internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  9. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlkvik, Marek; Zaremba, Matous; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s) by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, "outside in liquid" (OIL), configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa) and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%). The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR), internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We) and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  10. Verification of the Danish emission inventory data by national and international data comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauser, P.; Thomsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Lyck, E.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2007-08-15

    Danish emission intensity values, activity values and implied emission factors for identified key source categories are compared with corresponding values for the EU-15 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The emission values for all countries are based on national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 1997 and 2003 provided by the UNFCCC. The comparison is based on a proposed verification procedure that is designed for identifying emission indicators and evaluating data consistency and reliability for the energy and industry sectors. For all sectors the method gives good possibility for checking emission levels and consistency in time trends. (au)

  11. A Comparison Among Plastic Deformation Capacities of RC Members According to International Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripepi, C.; Failla, G.; Santini, A.; Nucera, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to compare plastic deformation capacities of flexure-controlled reinforced concrete members, as predicted by the Italian Seismic Code, Eurocode 8 and FEMA356. For completeness, recent studies in the literature are also referred to. The comparison is pursued in context with a nonlinear static analysis run on 2D frame structures. This allows to assess whether and to which extent plastic deformation capacities may be affected by variations in those quantities, such as shear span and/or axial load, depending on which plastic deformation capacities are generally given

  12. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of German nuclear power stations is discussed in comparison with European and American light-water nuclear power stations. Furthermore, the availability or utilization is shown as a function of the year of operation and of the unit size (the latter only for the USA), and the trends observed during the last 4 years are made evident. The unscheduled shutdowns of light-water nuclear power stations during the past 4 years are analysed on the basis of publications of the IAEA in Vienna and the ABE-Committees of the German Atomforum with special emphasis on the affected systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Safety and risk, a comparison on an international scale with regard to society, law and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    More than 130 experts of different nations and different fields of science met to discuss the following subjects: Traffic and transport, labour and employment, products and commodities, energy and environment (safety concepts for fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, international harmonisation of nuclear technical standards, harmonisation of environmental law in a European context). All contributions are presented in their original language, with abstracts in German, English, and French. (HP) [de

  14. A comparison of possibilities of using methods of internal corporate education - coaching and mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmistrová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the application of two educational methods - coaching and mentoring - in an internal corporate education system. Attention is first drawn to the concept of corporate education, while terms such as education effectiveness and procedures of actual implementation are clarified. Thereafter, both examined methods are defined and goals to achieve through these methods are presented. Both methods are then compared, with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. The the...

  15. The international comparison of radioactivity measurements on a solution of cesium-139

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.; Botha, S.M.; Van Staden, J.C.

    1976-03-01

    The participation by the NPRL in an intercomparison of radioactivity measurements as organised by the BIPM is fully described. The radioisotope involved, cesium 139, was made available to the BIPM by the NPRL in carrier-free form. The NPRL used the 4π gamma coincidence counting method with an internal liquid scintillation counter as 4π detector. The preliminary results released by the BIPM show the presence of relatively large systematic errors [af

  16. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Biddle; Mandy Yap

    2010-01-01

    International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australia...

  17. "Intergovernmental Allocation of Value Added Tax in Japan: International comparison" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Mochida

    2001-01-01

    There seems to be broad consensus in the literature that comprehensive VATs are most appropriately assigned to the central level of government. Japan's Local Consumption Tax is unique in the sense that it combines origin-based piggy backing on the national VAT with a clearing system that is intended to reflect the destination principle indirectly. This paper seeks to assess LCT in the light of general criteria; equity, efficiency and administrative simplicity. Studying international experienc...

  18. [Feeling of Liberty and Internalized Stigma: Comparison of Inpatient and Outpatient Cases Receiving Psychiatric Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamışlı, Songül; Dil, Satı; Daştan, Leyla; Eni, Nurhayat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether liberty-restricting and other factors can predict internalized stigma among psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. The study sample comprised of 129 inpatients, admitted at least once to psychiatry ward, and 100 outpatients who have never been hospitalized, receiving psychiatric treatment. In addition to demographic and clinical features, patients were evaluated for perceived deprivation of liberty and internalized stigma levels. Patients stated that their liberty was restrained mostly due to involuntary treatment, communication problems, side effects of medical treatment and inability to choose their treatment team. Regression analysis showed that internalized stigma was predicted by perceived deprivation of liberty, marital status and number of admissions to ward. Stigma was related to marital status and admissions to the psychiatry ward. Perceived deprivation of liberty predicts stigma regardless of the disease severity CONCLUSION: Perception of stigma leads to self-isolation, behavioral avoidance and refusal of aid-seeking. Our study indicated that perceived deprivation of liberty is one of the most important factors that lead to increased stigma. Based on our findings, we can say that as patients experience less perceived deprivation of liberty, they would have less stigma and thus, their compliance would increase.

  19. Comparison of microscopic and endoscopic view of the internal acoustic meatus: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeller, Guilherme Ramina; Hendrix, Philipp; Fries, Fabian N; Becker, Kurt W; Oertel, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    The endoscope is thought to provide an improved exposure of the internal acoustic meatus after retrosigmoid craniotomy for microsurgical resection of intrameatal tumors. The aim of this study is to quantify the differences in internal acoustic meatus (IAM) exposure comparing microscopic and endoscopic visualization. A retrosigmoid approach was performed on 5 cadaver heads. A millimeter gauge was introduced into the internal acoustic meatus, and examinations with a surgical microscope and 0°, 30° and 70° rigid endoscopes were performed. The extent of IAM depth visualized with the microscope and the different angled endoscopes were analyzed. The microscopic view allowed an average IAM depth visualization of 2.8 mm. The endoscope allowed an improved exposure of IAM in all cases. The 0°, 30° and 70° endoscopes permitted an exposure that was respectively 96% (5.5 mm), 139% (6.7 mm) and 200% (8.4 mm) more lateral than the microscopic view. Angled optics, however, provided an image distortion, specifically the 70° endoscope. The endoscope provides a superior visualization of the IAM compared to the microscope when using a retrosigmoid approach. The 30° endoscope represented an ideal compromise of superior visualization with marginal image distortion. Additional implementation of the endoscope into microsurgery of intrameatal tumors likely facilitates complete tumor removal and might spare facial and vestibulocochlear function. Clin. Anat. 31:398-403, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  1. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  2. Comparison of Climate Preferences for Domestic and International Beach Holidays: A Case Study of Canadian Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rutty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However, these studies have not taken into consideration that different forms of holidays (e.g., daytrips, short trips, main annual holiday, “once-in-a-lifetime” trip may have varying degrees of resilience to climatic conditions. This is the first study to explore whether ideal and unacceptable climatic conditions vary between domestic and international tourists. Using an in situ survey, Canadian beach users traveling domestically (n = 359 and internationally (n = 120 were examined. Key findings include statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 between the two sample groups for every climate variable, with the international sample more resilient to a broader range of weather conditions, including a greater acceptance for warm temperatures, longer rainfall durations, higher wind speeds, and greater cloud cover. This study adds further insight into the complexities of evaluating climate for tourism, with implications for the demand response of tourists to climate change.

  3. Comparison of the internalization of targeted dendrimers and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles into cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Su He; Lee, Inhan; Shen, Mingwu; Baker, James R

    2009-11-01

    Dendrimer-based nanotechnology significantly advances the area of targeted cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, we compared the difference of surface acetylated fluorescein isocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) modified generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NHAc-FI-FA), and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles with similar modifications ([(Au(0))(51.2)-G5.NHAc-FI-FA]) in terms of their specific internalization to FA receptor (FAR)-overexpressing cancer cells. Confocal microscopic studies show that both G5.NHAc-FI-FA and [(Au(0))(51.2-)G5.NHAc-FI-FA] exhibit similar internalization kinetics regardless of the existence of Au nanoparticles (NPs). Molecular dynamics simulation of the two different nanostructures reveals that the surface area and the FA moiety distribution from the center of the geometry are slightly different. This slight difference may not be recognized by the FARs on the cell membrane, consequently leading to similar internalization kinetics. This study underlines the fact that metal or inorganic NPs entrapped within dendrimers interact with cells in a similar way to that of dendrimers lacking host NPs. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. COMMUNICATION TOPICS AND STRATEGIES IN E-MAIL CONSULTATION: COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in e-mail use between American and international students. In the present study, e-mail messages sent by American and international students enrolled in a teacher-preparation program to their professor were collected over the course of one semester. The messages were examined for three major communication topics (facilitative, substantive, relational and communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting. Results indicate quantitative and qualitative differences in American and international students' e-mail topics and strategies, suggesting, similar to findings for face-to-face academic advising sessions, that American students demonstrate greater initiative and ability to adapt to the spatial and temporal remoteness between interlocutors in e-mail interaction, especially when using e-mail to solicit face-to-face appointments and input on projects. Findings also show that messages from both groups of students contained substantial relational communication, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for the lack of visual and paralinguistic clues in the e-mail medium.

  5. Global Learning Communities: A Comparison of Online Domestic and International Science Class Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Steven C.; Carlsen, William S.; Kelly, Gregory J.; Goehring, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    The conception of Global Learning Communities (GLCs) was researched to discover potential benefits of the use of online technologies that facilitated communication and scientific data sharing outside of the normal classroom setting. 1,419 students in 635 student groups began the instructional unit. Students represented the classrooms of 33 teachers from the USA, 6 from Thailand, 7 from Australia, and 4 from Germany. Data from an international environmental education project were analyzed to describe grades 7-9 student scientific writing in domestic US versus international-US classroom online partnerships. The development of an argument analytic and a research model of exploratory data analysis followed by statistical testing were used to discover and highlight different ways students used evidence to support their scientific claims about temperature variation at school sites and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Findings show modest gains in the use of some evidentiary discourse components by US students in international online class partnerships compared to their US counterparts in domestic US partnerships. The analytic, research model, and online collaborative learning tools may be used in other large-scale studies and learning communities. Results provide insights about the benefits of using online technologies and promote the establishment of GLCs.

  6. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  7. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  8. Comparison of international guideline programs to evaluate and update the Dutch program for clinical guideline development in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wees, Philip J; Hendriks, Erik J M; Custers, Jan W H; Burgers, Jako S; Dekker, Joost; de Bie, Rob A

    2007-11-23

    Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. Since 1998 the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) produced evidence-based clinical guidelines, based on a standardized program. New developments in the field of guideline research raised the need to evaluate and update the KNGF guideline program. Purpose of this study is to compare different guideline development programs and review the KNGF guideline program for physical therapy in the Netherlands, in order to update the program. Six international guideline development programs were selected, and the 23 criteria of the AGREE Instrument were used to evaluate the guideline programs. Information about the programs was retrieved from published handbooks of the organizations. Also, the Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy was evaluated using the AGREE criteria. Further comparison the six guideline programs was carried out using the following elements of the guideline development processes: Structure and organization; Preparation and initiation; Development; Validation; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation and update. Compliance with the AGREE criteria of the guideline programs was high. Four programs addressed 22 AGREE criteria, and two programs addressed 20 AGREE criteria. The previous Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy lacked in compliance with the AGREE criteria, meeting only 13 criteria. Further comparison showed that all guideline programs perform systematic literature searches to identify the available evidence. Recommendations are formulated and graded, based on evidence and other relevant factors. It is not clear how decisions in the development process are made. In particular, the process of translating evidence into practice recommendations can be improved. As a result of international developments and consensus, the described processes for developing clinical practice guidelines have much in common

  9. Comparison of international guideline programs to evaluate and update the Dutch program for clinical guideline development in physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgers Jako S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. Since 1998 the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF produced evidence-based clinical guidelines, based on a standardized program. New developments in the field of guideline research raised the need to evaluate and update the KNGF guideline program. Purpose of this study is to compare different guideline development programs and review the KNGF guideline program for physical therapy in the Netherlands, in order to update the program. Method Six international guideline development programs were selected, and the 23 criteria of the AGREE Instrument were used to evaluate the guideline programs. Information about the programs was retrieved from published handbooks of the organizations. Also, the Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy was evaluated using the AGREE criteria. Further comparison the six guideline programs was carried out using the following elements of the guideline development processes: Structure and organization; Preparation and initiation; Development; Validation; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation and update. Results Compliance with the AGREE criteria of the guideline programs was high. Four programs addressed 22 AGREE criteria, and two programs addressed 20 AGREE criteria. The previous Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy lacked in compliance with the AGREE criteria, meeting only 13 criteria. Further comparison showed that all guideline programs perform systematic literature searches to identify the available evidence. Recommendations are formulated and graded, based on evidence and other relevant factors. It is not clear how decisions in the development process are made. In particular, the process of translating evidence into practice recommendations can be improved. Conclusion As a result of international developments and consensus, the described processes

  10. History and sensitivity comparison of the Spirodela polyrhiza microbiotest and Lemna toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudo R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of toxicity tests with duckweeds shows that these assays with free-floating aquatic angiosperms are gaining increasing attention in ecotoxicological research and applications. Standard tests have been published by national and international organizations, mainly with the test species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba. Besides the former two test species the great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is to date also regularly used in duckweed testing. Under unfavorable environmental conditions, the latter species produces dormant stages (turions and this has triggered the attention of two research groups from Belgium and Greece to jointly develop a “stock culture independent” microbiotest with S. polyrhiza. A 72 h new test has been worked out which besides its independence of stock culturing and maintenance of live stocks is very simple and practical to perform, and much less demanding in space and time than the conventional duckweed tests. Extensive International Interlaboratory Comparisons on the S. polyrhiza microbiotest showed its robustness and reliability and triggered the decision to propose this new assay to the ISO for endorsement and publication as a standard toxicity test for duckweeds. Sensitivity comparison of the 72 h S. polyrhiza microbiotest with the 7d L. minor assay for 22 compounds belonging to different groups of chemicals revealed that based on growth as the effect criterion both duckweed assays have a similar sensitivity. Taking into account its multiple advantages and assets, the S. polyrhiza microbiotest is a reliable and attractive alternative to the conventional duckweed tests.

  11. The dynamics in the international commercial changes in globalization terms-Comparison situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ion Gr. Ionescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The bigest weight of commercial changing of the country analysis have the manufactured products like: automobiles and industrial utilities, informatic products, ways of transportation,chimical products, thextile and footwear, this have 80% from total exports and 76% from total import. This fact is the consequence of recession of the working divizion , of speciality in industrial product, on branch and sub branch, on the type of products and subansanble of an morale abrasion for the product majority.The products of base have a low ponder in the exports and imports of this countries, they present a commercial balance and pasive for the raw metals and fuel, as the export of alimentary products, this country plais a role very important.So if it’s affected by the period of crisis, the international trade it has an important role in the sustain of economic growth of them. The sustain of this project are convinced that the introduction of the new coin will have positive feedback for the worldwide economy, confronted now with one of the most sedate crisis. And the european economy it will have, only to win from the project and the investitors can drop the unsure marketing from other continents for the investment in a stable region. With all of this the growth ot the european economy can be late, however, makes it doubt the succes of the „euro” project. The International Monetary Fond have seen that the eleven european countries that adopted euro at the 1st of January 2006, a growth of the Intern Brute Porduct (IBP of 2,4% (same as for European Union, 2,6% in spring with 0,4% less then 2005, the growth that classifies as „solid and continuous”.

  12. A comparison of medical litigation filed against obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tomoko; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-10-24

    The aim of this study was to review the typical factors related to physician's liability in obstetrics and gynecology departments, as compared to those in internal medicine and surgery, regarding a breach of the duty to explain. This study involved analyzing 366 medical litigation case reports from 1990 through 2008 where the duty to explain was disputed. We examined relationships between patients, physicians, variables related to physician's explanations, and physician's breach of the duty to explain by comparing mean values and percentages in obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgical departments with the t-test and χ(2) test. When we compared the reasons for decisions in cases where the patient won, we found that the percentage of cases in which the patient's claim was recognized was the highest for both physician negligence, including errors of judgment and procedural mistakes, and breach of the duty to explain, in obstetrics and gynecology departments; breach of the duty to explain alone in internal medicine departments; and mistakes in medical procedures alone in surgical departments (p = 0.008). When comparing patients, the rate of death was significantly higher than that of other outcomes in precedents where a breach of the duty to explain was acknowledged (p = 0.046). The proportion of cases involving obstetrics and gynecology departments, in which care was claimed to be substandard at the time of treatment, and that were not argued as breach of a duty to explain, was significantly higher than those of other evaluated departments (p duty to explain had been breached when seeking patient approval (or not) was significantly higher than in other departments (p = 0.002). It is important for physicians working in obstetrics and gynecology departments to carefully explain the risk of death associated with any planned procedure, and to obtain genuinely informed patient consent.

  13. Comparison of the thermodynamic and correlation criteria for internal standard selection in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Popov, Andrey M.; Seliverstova, Irina V.; Bozhenko, Sergey E.; Zorov, Nikita B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the reference line of an internal standard in LIBS is a usual way to eliminate or reduce the fluctuations of plasma parameters from pulse to pulse as well as from sample to sample. Thermodynamic criterion, i.e. closeness of excitation potentials of the analytical line and the reference one, is often used to select an appropriate reference line. In this work, we propose an alternative criterion based on searching the best correlated pairs of lines under the variations of laser energy. Two criteria were compared for high-alloy steels and soils of different origins. The discrepancy among the values of plasma temperature calculated from Fe I, Mn I and Cr I transitions was found under the conditions of slightly changed laser fluence on steel samples. On the other hand, the agreement between plasma temperatures, obtained for Fe I and Mn I transitions, was demonstrated in plasma on soil samples. Calibration results obtained for manganese in steels and lead in soils show that thermodynamic criterion can be an appropriate way for choosing an internal standard only under LTE conditions. Two lines of Mn I at 403.07 nm and 404.14 nm and Pb I at 405.78 nm were the analytical lines for the quantification of manganese in steels and lead in soils, respectively. The use of the correlative criterion seems to be suitable for internal standardization under LTE or non-LTE conditions. Probable limitations of the correlative criterion and its possibilities to identify weak lines are discussed in the article. - Highlights: • Novel criterion for internal standard selection, based on the correlation of analytical line and reference one • Comparison of correlation and thermodynamic criteria • Correlation analysis of the spectrum can be useful for atomic line identification. • Correlation approach can be used in LTE and non-LTE conditions

  14. Comparison of external and internal implant-abutment connections for implant supported prostheses. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Santiago Júnior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2018-03-01

    The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer the PICO question: "Do patients that received external connection implants show similar marginal bone loss, implant survival and complication rates as internal connection implants?". Meta-analyses of marginal bone loss, survival rates of implants and complications rates were performed for the included studies. Study eligibility criteria included (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or prospective, (2) studies with at least 10 patients, (3) direct comparison between connection types and (4) publications in English language. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality and risk of bias in RCTs, while Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for non-RCTs. A comprehensive search strategy was designed to identify published studies on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library databases up to October 2017. The search identified 661 references. Eleven studies (seven RCTs and four prospective studies) were included, with a total of 530 patients (mean age, 53.93 years), who had received a total of 1089 implants (461 external-connection and 628 internal-connection implants). The internal-connection implants exhibited lower marginal bone loss than external-connection implants (PInternal connections had lower marginal bone loss when compared to external connections. However, the implant-abutment connection had no influence on the implant's survival and complication rates. Based on the GRADE approach the evidence was classified as very low to moderate due to the study design, inconsistency, and publication bias. Thus, future research is highly encouraged. Internal connection implants should be preferred over external connection implants, especially when different risk factors that may contribute to increased marginal bone loss are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of two tools to screen potentially inappropriate medication in internal medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, A-L; Spasojevic, S; Leszek, A; Théodoloz, M; Bonnabry, P; Fumeaux, T; Schaad, N

    2018-04-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is an important issue for inpatient management; it has been associated with safety problems, such as increases in adverse drugs events, and with longer hospital stays and higher healthcare costs. To compare two PIM-screening tools-STOPP/START and PIM-Check-applied to internal medicine patients. A second objective was to compare the use of PIMs in readmitted and non-readmitted patients. A retrospective observational study, in the general internal medicine ward of a Swiss non-university hospital. We analysed a random sample of 50 patients, hospitalized in 2013, whose readmission within 30 days of discharge had been potentially preventable, and compared them to a sample of 50 sex- and age-matched patients who were not readmitted. PIMs were screened using the STOPP/START tool, developed for geriatric patients, and the PIM-Check tool, developed for internal medicine patients. The time needed to perform each patient's analysis was measured. A clinical pharmacist counted and evaluated each PIM detected, based on its clinical relevance to the individual patient's case. The rates of screened and validated PIMs involving readmitted and non-readmitted patients were compared. Across the whole population, PIM-Check and STOPP/START detected 1348 and 537 PIMs, respectively, representing 13.5 and 5.4 PIMs/patient. Screening time was substantially shorter with PIM-Check than with STOPP/START (4 vs 10 minutes, respectively). The clinical pharmacist judged that 45% and 42% of the PIMs detected using PIM-Check and STOPP/START, respectively, were clinically relevant to individual patients' cases. No significant differences in the rates of detected and clinically relevant PIM were found between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Internal medicine patients are frequently prescribed PIMs. PIM-Check's PIM detection rate was three times higher than STOPP/START's, and its screening time was shorter thanks to its electronic interface. Nearly

  16. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  17. [Planned home versus planned hospital births: adverse outcomes comparison by reviewing the international literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucon, C; Brillac, T

    2013-06-01

    To assess the safety of planned home birth compared to hospital birth, in low-risk pregnancies. An international literature review was conducted. Mortality, adverse outcomes and medical interventions were compared. Home birth was not associated with higher mortality rates, but with lower maternal adverse outcomes. Perinatal adverse outcomes are not significantly different at home and in hospital. Medical interventions are more frequent in hospital births. Home birth attended by a well-trained midwife is not associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates, but with less medical interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The AS-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determinaion of Pu-238. Part 3: Preparation and characterization of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortels, G.; Broothaerts, J.; Bievre, P. de

    1980-01-01

    Four plutonium samples containing 0.2, 0.8, 1.6 and 0.9 atom % of 238 Pu have been prepared for the Interlaboratory Experiment AS-76. Of these three were input solutions from a reprocessing plant. The fourth sample was from a plutonium product solution. These samples have been characterized by two alpha spectrometry laboratories and two mass spectrometry laboratories to certify the ratio of alpha activities 238 Pu/( 239 Pu + 240 Pu) and the isotopic composition, respectively

  19. Pasteurization: A reliable method for preservation of nutrient in seawater samples for inter-laboratory and field applications

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Anne; Kerouel, Roger; Aminot, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Following previous work, the production of reference material for nutrients in seawater, using pasteurization as a preservation method, was carried out seven times between 2006 and 2010 in the framework of inter-laboratory exercises. The preparation of samples from natural seawater allowed to become depleted in nutrients then spiked, bottled and pasteurized, is described. Five main nutrients are involved in this study: ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Bottles are in glass f...

  20. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years Committee 2 of ICRP has been responsible for preparing a series of publications giving dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by members of the public. The last report in this series covers doses to the offspring in mothers' milk and should be issued in 2005. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry is now concerned with occupational exposure. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. The first report of the series is expected to cover radionuclides of the elements addressed in the publications on dose coefficients for members of the public. It will also take into account new recommendations from the Commission. Subsequent publications will cover additional elements. A supporting Guidance Document is also being developed that will give more comprehensive advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. The need for this document was identified following recent interlaboratory comparisons that have shown wide variations in the way monitoring data can be interpreted in different laboratories. (authors)