WorldWideScience

Sample records for international initiative open

  1. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  2. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  3. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  4. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  5. The international surface temperature initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  6. International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative (IRCI) is a seven-year, CA$8 million research program that pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key ... The results of this joint effort: world-class discoveries and healthier, wealthier, fairer societies.

  7. Direct laser initiation of open secondary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assovskiy, I G; Melik-Gaikazov, G V; Kuznetsov, G P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is experimental study of the mechanism of initiation of secondary explosives (SE) by short laser pulse. Laser initiation of SE is much more difficult in comparison with initiation of primary explosives. Using of some special methods is typically requested to realize laser initiation of SE: using of porous SE, putting it in a closed envelope, and using some optically dense additives. In this paper we consider interaction of laser pulse with open surface of non-porous, optically uniform SE. Only pure chemical methods were used to control the light sensitivity of SE. Implementation of the method of laser initiation is reduced to the optimization of composition and molecular structure of the explosives, along with the optimization of the laser pulse (its duration, energy density and wavelength). (paper)

  8. Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschka, C; Hantsche, M; Dienemann, C; Burzinski, C; Plitzko, J; Cramer, P

    2016-05-19

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes begins with assembly of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II initiation complex and promoter DNA opening. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of yeast initiation complexes containing closed and open DNA at resolutions of 8.8 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. DNA is positioned and retained over the Pol II cleft by a network of interactions between the TATA-box-binding protein TBP and transcription factors TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF. DNA opening occurs around the tip of the Pol II clamp and the TFIIE 'extended winged helix' domain, and can occur in the absence of TFIIH. Loading of the DNA template strand into the active centre may be facilitated by movements of obstructing protein elements triggered by allosteric binding of the TFIIE 'E-ribbon' domain. The results suggest a unified model for transcription initiation with a key event, the trapping of open promoter DNA by extended protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts.

  9. [The Open Access Initiative (OAI) in the scientific literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Francisco M; Millán Rodríguez, Félix; Villavicencio Mavrich, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    According to the declaration of the Budapest Open Access Initiative (OAI) is defined as a editorial model in which access to scientific journal literature and his use are free. Free flow of information allowed by Internet has been the basis of this initiative. The Bethesda and the Berlin declarations, supported by some international agencies, proposes to require researchers to deposit copies of all articles published in a self-archive or an Open Access repository, and encourage researchers to publish their research papers in journals Open Access. This paper reviews the keys of the OAI, with their strengths and controversial aspects; and it discusses the position of databases, search engines and repositories of biomedical information, as well as the attitude of the scientists, publishers and journals. So far the journal Actas Urológicas Españolas (Act Urol Esp) offer their contents on Open Access as On Line in Spanish and English.

  10. Open Data for Development | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Open Data for Development (OD4D) program brings together a network of ... other open data initiatives to ensure they benefit people in developing countries. ... that benefits everyone, empowering women and achieving gender equality, ...

  11. Open Development : Networked Innovations in International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Development : Networked Innovations in International Development. Couverture du livre Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. Directeur(s):. Matthew L. Smith et Katherine M. A. Reilly. Maison(s) d'édition: The MIT Press, CRDI. 12 décembre 2013. ISBN : 9780262525411.

  12. OPM: The Open Porous Media Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, B.; Flornes, K. M.; Lie, K.; Rasmussen, A.

    2011-12-01

    The principal objective of the Open Porous Media (OPM) initiative is to develop a simulation suite that is capable of modeling industrially and scientifically relevant flow and transport processes in porous media and bridge the gap between the different application areas of porous media modeling, including reservoir mechanics, CO2 sequestration, biological systems, and product development of engineered media. The OPM initiative will provide a long-lasting, efficient, and well-maintained open-source software for flow and transport in porous media built on modern software principles. The suite is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Our motivation is to provide a means to unite industry and public research on simulation of flow and transport in porous media. For academic users, we seek to provide a software infrastructure that facilitates testing of new ideas on models with industry-standard complexity, while at the same time giving the researcher control over discretization and solvers. Similarly, we aim to accelerate the technology transfer from academic institutions to professional companies by making new research results available as free software of professional standard. The OPM initiative is currently supported by six research groups in Norway and Germany and funded by existing grants from public research agencies as well as from Statoil Petroleum and Total E&P Norge. However, a full-scale development of the OPM initiative requires substantially more funding and involvement of more research groups and potential end users. In this talk, we will provide an overview of the current activities in the OPM initiative. Special emphasis will be given to the demonstration of the synergies achieved by combining the strengths of individual open-source software components. In particular, a new fully implicit solver developed within the DUNE-based simulator DuMux could be enhanced by the ability to read industry-standard Eclipse input files and to run on

  13. Opening the Curriculum through Open Educational Practices: International experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ritchie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A successful international learning initiative focusing on student agency began with a link facilitating OE-enhanced teaching between a UK university and a US high school class. It became an international trip organised and funded by five UK students and their teacher who travelled to California, teaching and performing music across formal and informal learning settings. The project is now a credit-bearing class, retaining the original initiative’s openness within the university curriculum where final-year students collaborate with the teacher, self-organising to design and plan curricular details from travel logistics to musical interactions. Students engage in heutagogy, demonstrating the highest levels of autonomous, personal learning in this co-learning environment. Their assessment, a reflective journal, encourages engage with deeper learning processes. The original trip was documented as an eBook including 10,000 student-authored words telling their collaborative learning journey. The book was published without DRM an accessible model for other students and educators.

  14. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  15. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Open Data for Development program's global network will facilitate and scale innovative approaches to open data to ensure benefits reach citizens in developing countries. Combining research and action to address scaling and sustainability of open data for development initiatives is key to the network's success.

  16. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  17. Assessing Social Value in Open Data Initiatives: A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Viscusi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Open data initiatives are characterized, in several countries, by a great extension of the number of data sets made available for access by public administrations, constituencies, businesses and other actors, such as journalists, international institutions and academics, to mention a few. However, most of the open data sets rely on selection criteria, based on a technology-driven perspective, rather than a focus on the potential public and social value of data to be published. Several experiences and reports confirm this issue, such as those of the Open Data Census. However, there are also relevant best practices. The goal of this paper is to investigate the different dimensions of a framework suitable to support public administrations, as well as constituencies, in assessing and benchmarking the social value of open data initiatives. The framework is tested on three initiatives, referring to three different countries, Italy, the United Kingdom and Tunisia. The countries have been selected to provide a focus on European and Mediterranean countries, considering also the difference in legal frameworks (civic law vs. common law countries.

  18. Science overview and international initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of recent work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), complemented by results from journal articles, on current understanding of climatic change and international responses to this problem. Natural causes of climatic change are outlined along with changes observed in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and industrial gases. Other factors affecting the degree of climate change such as feedback processes in the ocean are also noted. Observations on climatic trends are summarized and their significance is discussed briefly. The prediction of climate change using various climate models is also discussed, with reference to some typical results and the current state of model development. Major impacts from climatic change are seen to include changes in agricultural production, water supply, rises in sea level, exposure of ecosystems to climatic stress, and the difficulty that developing countries will have in dealing with these impacts. International response to the global warming issue has existed since 1988, and includes activities by the World Climate Programme, the IPCC, and the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Climate Change Convention. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  20. Open science initiatives: challenges for public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeyer, Cheryl

    2018-03-07

    While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in innovation ecosystems that often perpetuate existing systemic biases toward commercial biomedicine. Currently, many open initiatives are more oriented toward biomedical research paradigms than paradigms associated with public health promotion, such as social determinants of health research. Moreover, open initiatives too often dovetail with, rather than challenge, neoliberal policy paradigms. Such initiatives are unlikely to transform existing health research landscapes and redress health inequities. In this context, attunement to social determinants of health research and community-based local knowledge is vital to orient open initiatives toward public health promotion and health equity. Such an approach calls for discourses, norms and innovation ecosystems that contest neoliberal policy frameworks and foster upstream interventions to promote health, beyond biomedical paradigms. This analysis highlights challenges and possibilities for leveraging open initiatives on behalf of a wider range of health research stakeholders, while emphasizing public health promotion, health equity and social justice as benchmarks of transformation.

  1. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many

  2. African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) is a 10-year Canadian International ... for strengthening African-led health systems and human resources for health. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  3. Think Tank Initiative | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The UK Department for International Development. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  4. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us · Subscribe · Unsubscribe · Site map. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter ...

  5. Open Source Initiative Powers Real-Time Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Under an SBIR contract with Dryden Flight Research Center, Creare Inc. developed a data collection tool called the Ring Buffered Network Bus. The technology has now been released under an open source license and is hosted by the Open Source DataTurbine Initiative. DataTurbine allows anyone to stream live data from sensors, labs, cameras, ocean buoys, cell phones, and more.

  6. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  7. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  8. Open Access Initiatives in Africa--Structure, Incentives and Disincentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagwu, Williams E.

    2013-01-01

    Building open access in Africa is imperative not only for African scholars and researchers doing scientific research but also for the expansion of the global science and technology knowledgebase. This paper examines the structure of homegrown initiatives, and observes very low level of awareness prevailing in the higher educational institutions…

  9. Open Development: Networked Innovations in International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-12-12

    Dec 12, 2013 ... Open development harnesses this power to create new organizational ... of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. ... research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  10. Freeing Crop Genetics through the Open Source Seed Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H Luby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For millennia, seeds have been freely available to use for farming and plant breeding without restriction. Within the past century, however, intellectual property rights (IPRs have threatened this tradition. In response, a movement has emerged to counter the trend toward increasing consolidation of control and ownership of plant germplasm. One effort, the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI, www.osseeds.org, aims to ensure access to crop genetic resources by embracing an open source mechanism that fosters exchange and innovation among farmers, plant breeders, and seed companies. Plant breeders across many sectors have taken the OSSI Pledge to create a protected commons of plant germplasm for future generations.

  11. Freeing Crop Genetics through the Open Source Seed Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Claire H; Goldman, Irwin L

    2016-04-01

    For millennia, seeds have been freely available to use for farming and plant breeding without restriction. Within the past century, however, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have threatened this tradition. In response, a movement has emerged to counter the trend toward increasing consolidation of control and ownership of plant germplasm. One effort, the Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI, www.osseeds.org), aims to ensure access to crop genetic resources by embracing an open source mechanism that fosters exchange and innovation among farmers, plant breeders, and seed companies. Plant breeders across many sectors have taken the OSSI Pledge to create a protected commons of plant germplasm for future generations.

  12. Open Development: Networked Innovations in International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Principles travel, the exact models don't—either between contexts or domains. ..... In Canada, an open data policy helped the government recover $3.2 billion in taxes, ... Growth of openness practices is arguably part of “a more widespread ...... Other developing nations and consortia of nations including India, Malaysia, the ...

  13. 12th International Symposium on Open Collaboration Companion

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of OpenSym 2016, the 12th international symposium on open collaboration! Open collaboration is collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to predefined processes).

  14. The Open Source DataTurbine Initiative: Streaming Data Middleware for Environmental Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain T.; Tilak, S.; Shin, P.; Hubbard, P.; Freudinger, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Open Source DataTurbine Initiative is an international community of scientists and engineers sharing a common interest in real-time streaming data middleware and applications. The technology base of the OSDT Initiative is the DataTurbine open source middleware. Key applications of DataTurbine include coral reef monitoring, lake monitoring and limnology, biodiversity and animal tracking, structural health monitoring and earthquake engineering, airborne environmental monitoring, and environmental sustainability. DataTurbine software emerged as a commercial product in the 1990 s from collaborations between NASA and private industry. In October 2007, a grant from the USA National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Cyberinfrastructure allowed us to transition DataTurbine from a proprietary software product into an open source software initiative. This paper describes the DataTurbine software and highlights key applications in environmental monitoring.

  15. Open data: An International comparison of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijboom, Noor; van den Broek, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ever more governments around the world are defining and implementing ``open data'' strategies in order to increase transparency, participation and/or government efficiency. The commonly accepted premise underlying these strategies is that the publishing of government data in a reusable format can

  16. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  17. Open access and knowledge sharing: reflections on the Pathfinder projects and Open Access Good Practice initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah DeGroff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article provides a selection of reflections from a number of higher education institutions and their staff about participation in the UK-wide Pathfinder project scheme. These nine projects (comprising 30 institutions form the core of the Jisc-funded Open Access Good Practice initiative. They have produced a wide range of outputs which endorse and encourage best practice when implementing open access across institutions. Each project has a blog where progress and outputs can be tracked. Details are listed at the end of this article.

  18. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  19. The International Ethics Conference: An Eye Opener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuma, Ellemes

    2010-01-01

    In this text, Ellemes Phuma, shares her experience and the benefits she derived from the International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana (UB). As a graduate student in nursing at that university, she provides her perspective on professional responsibility, compassionate healthcare, and the ethical role that healthcare…

  20. Open Standards in Practice: An OGC China Forum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Mingda; Taylor, Trevor; Xie, Jibo; Zhang, Hongping; Tong, Xiaochong; Yu, Jinsongdi; Huang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    Open standards like OGC standards can be used to improve interoperability and support machine-to-machine interaction over the Web. In the Big Data era, standard-based data and processing services from various vendors could be combined to automate the extraction of information and knowledge from heterogeneous and large volumes of geospatial data. This paper introduces an ongoing OGC China forum initiative, which will demonstrate how OGC standards can benefit the interaction among multiple organizations in China. The ability to share data and processing functions across organizations using standard services could change traditional manual interactions in their business processes, and provide on-demand decision support results by on-line service integration. In the initiative, six organizations are involved in two “MashUp” scenarios on disaster management. One “MashUp” is to derive flood maps in the Poyang Lake, Jiangxi. And the other one is to generate turbidity maps on demand in the East Lake, Wuhan, China. The two scenarios engage different organizations from the Chinese community by integrating sensor observations, data, and processing services from them, and improve the automation of data analysis process using open standards.

  1. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    View all initiatives. You are looking at projects supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Displaying 1 - 2 of 2. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women. Initiative. Women around the world increasingly participate in economic activities, but they continue to face significant challenges in pursuing better ...

  2. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies are collaborations that produce high-quality research to inform academic, public, and policy debates to contribute to create just, inclusive, and sustainable social and economic development.

  3. INSP: Initiatives and partnerships | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-10

    INSP) hosted the International EcoHealth Forum ... INSP sees an ecosystem approach as essential in responding to complex issues in public health. IEF 2008 provided a forum for ideas and partnerships that foster this agenda.

  4. Partners and initiatives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 1 - 10 of 20 ... A longstanding partner, Global Affairs Canada collaborates with us on maternal and ... Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia ... These investments in scientific breakthroughs will improve the health.

  5. Free, Fair and Efficient? Open Internal Job Advertising. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, W.; Pollard, E.; Tamkin, P.

    In the 1990s, many major employers in the United Kingdom have moved to more open internal job markets (OIJMs). OIJMs give the job of filling internal vacancies to line managers and employees who see the job advertised and apply for it. The development and operation of OIJMs at the following firms were studied: Rolls-Royce; British Gas Trading;…

  6. Arab Reform Initiative | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The conference will be devoted to an exchange between institutions conducting research on Islamist movements with support from IDRC and ARI. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions ...

  7. International Metadata Initiatives: Lessons in Bibliographic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Priscilla

    This paper looks at a subset of metadata schemes, including the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) header, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD), the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), and the Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core Categories for visual resources. It examines why they developed as they did, major point of difference from…

  8. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Initiative. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential for innovation among the region's smallholder farmers, the majority of whom are women. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us ...

  9. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Science Granting Councils Initiative in Sub-Saharan Africa is focused on strengthening the capacities of science granting councils in order to support research and evidence-based policies that will contribute to economic and social development in Sub-Saharan Africa. We fund researchers driving global change.

  10. Think Tank Initiative - Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation are collaborating on the Think Tank Initiative, a new program to strengthen independent think tanks and policy research centres in the developing world. These organizations provide critical input for the creation of effective public policy to promote growth and reduce ...

  11. International and national initiatives in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectors, N

    2011-01-01

    Translational research and biobanking are "in", also in Flanders and in Belgium. In Flanders the Advice report 120 from the Flemish Council for Science and innovation, entitled "Extension of translational research in Flanders" paved the way for the Center for Medical Innovation. The Center for Medical Innovation aims at promoting collaboration between Flemish Universities, university hospitals, pharma and biotech industry and the Flemish Government specifically in the domain of translational research. The Initiative # 27 of the Cancer plan from the Federal Government aims at financing a virtual interuniversity tumor bank in order to promote "cancer" translational research in a collaborative network between academic structures, general hospitals en different industrial partners (pharmacy, biotechnology, diagnostics, ...) active in research in Belgium. However, the scientific interest in the human tissues is not new, at all. This text aims at giving an overview of the development and evolutions of "biobanking" initiatives.

  12. Initiative Think tank - Fondation Hewlett | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI et la Fondation William et Flora Hewlett unissent leurs efforts dans le cadre d'une nouvelle initiative destinée à renforcer les groupes de réflexion et centres de recherche sur les politiques indépendants des pays en développement. Ces organismes sont des sources de données déterminantes pour les politiques ...

  13. Initial opening of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Berglar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the transition from the NE Yermak Plateau into the oceanic Eurasian Basin sheds light on the Paleocene formation of this Arctic basin. Newly acquired multichannel seismic data with a 3600 m long streamer shot during ice-free conditions enables the interpretation of crustal structures. Evidence is provided that no major compressional deformation affected the NE Yermak Plateau. The seismic data reveal that the margin is around 80 km wide and consists of rotated fault blocks, major listric normal faults, and half-grabens filled with syn-rift sediments. Taking into account published magnetic and gravimetric data, this setting is interpreted as a rifted continental margin, implying that the NE Yermak Plateau is of continental origin. The transition from the Yermak Plateau to the oceanic Eurasian Basin might be located at a prominent basement high, probably formed by exhumed mantle. In contrast to the Yermak Plateau margin, the North Barents Sea continental margin shows a steep continental slope with a relatively abrupt transition to the oceanic domain. Based on one composite seismic line, it is speculated that the initial opening direction of the Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Ocean was highly oblique to the present day seafloor spreading direction.

  14. China's Cyber Initiatives Counter International Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior to its historic 2015 “no hack” pact for commercial advantage with the United States, Beijing has been engaged drafting and passing legislation, most with specific cyber components, to enhance its security posture while protecting its economic interests. This approach is in stark contrast to United States efforts that have demonstrated a focus on “acting globally, thinking locally” philosophy wherein most of its cyber efforts have been outwardly facing and are distinct from other security considerations. This paper suggests that by strengthening its domestic front with a legal framework, Beijing is preparing itself to counter any foreign initiative contrary to Beijing’s plans (e.g., cyber norms of behavior, cyber sanctions, etc. by being able to exert legal measures against foreign interests in country, thereby preserving its cyber sovereignty.

  15. Indications and outcome of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a well-established surgical treatment of fractures worldwide. However, the indications and modes of stabilization of long bone fractures vary and are evolving .The general trend now is towards fixation with locked intramedullary nail (i.m nail) rather than plate and ...

  16. Empowering Learners with Mobile Open-Access Learning Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael, Ed.; Wake, Donna, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education has been progressing at a rapid pace ever since educators have been able to harness the power of mobile technology. Open-access learning techniques provide more students with the opportunity to engage in educational opportunities that may have been previously restricted. "Empowering Learners with Mobile Open-Access Learning…

  17. Surfing the Tsunami: Faculty Engagement with the Open Learning Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thille, Candace M.

    2013-01-01

    There are two major discussions emerging out of higher education. The first is the dual challenge of increasing completion rates and reducing the cost of instruction. The second is about the impact of technology on higher education, a topic brought to the fore in the past year by the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) phenomenon. The Open Learning…

  18. Pediatric Critical Care Nursing Research Priorities-Initiating International Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Coetzee, Minette; Dryden-Palmer, Karen; Hickey, Patricia A; Kinney, Sharon; Latour, Jos M; Pedreira, Mavilde L G; Sefton, Gerri R; Sorce, Lauren; Curley, Martha A Q

    2015-07-01

    To identify and prioritize research questions of concern to the practice of pediatric critical care nursing practice. One-day consensus conference. By using a conceptual framework by Benner et al describing domains of practice in critical care nursing, nine international nurse researchers presented state-of-the-art lectures. Each identified knowledge gaps in their assigned practice domain and then poised three research questions to fill that gap. Then, meeting participants prioritized the proposed research questions using an interactive multivoting process. Seventh World Congress on Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care in Istanbul, Turkey. Pediatric critical care nurses and nurse scientists attending the open consensus meeting. Systematic review, gap analysis, and interactive multivoting. The participants prioritized 27 nursing research questions in nine content domains. The top four research questions were 1) identifying nursing interventions that directly impact the child and family's experience during the withdrawal of life support, 2) evaluating the long-term psychosocial impact of a child's critical illness on family outcomes, 3) articulating core nursing competencies that prevent unstable situations from deteriorating into crises, and 4) describing the level of nursing education and experience in pediatric critical care that has a protective effect on the mortality and morbidity of critically ill children. The consensus meeting was effective in organizing pediatric critical care nursing knowledge, identifying knowledge gaps and in prioritizing nursing research initiatives that could be used to advance nursing science across world regions.

  19. An International Look at Women in Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Malmrose

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available When attending conferences, working with various open source teams, and generally interacting with people in the open source world, we see women as a small representative minority. The disparity leaves us wondering: "How to activate the other 50% of the population?". The question, "How do we include more women?" has been asked many times and answered in many ways. Cathy Malmrose, CEO of ZaReason, a Linux hardware company, stated, "possibly the most immediately effective solution is to showcase women internationally and their contributions. By simply talking about what women are doing all over the world, it creates an atmosphere of acceptance, encouraging more women to try contributing, no matter where they are located or what their situation is. Our goal is to normalize the experience of having women on open source projects". This issue of OSBR is a powerful effort to do just that. This article provides a glance at women in open source internationally. It is by no means comprehensive and is based solely on a random sampling of women who are currently contributing. The goal of this article is to give you a sense of the breadth and depth of women contributing to open source.

  20. Taking Leadership in Initiating a Comprehensive US International Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kaetlyn

    2008-01-01

    A first step to ensuring that emerging school leaders possess the dispositions and skills necessary to be successful in a global community is for educational leaders to take initiative in moving toward a comprehensive Us International Education Policy. This article introduces possible steps to initiate such a policy.

  1. How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Stracke, C. M. (2016, 14 April). How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative. Results from the Action Lab at the Open Education Global Conference 2016, Krakow, Poland. More about the Action Lab:

  2. Regional and international market integration of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Fossati; Fernando Lorenzo; Cesar M. Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between a set of commodity prices in a small open economy like Uruguay and the corresponding international and regional prices. The empirical methodology used is the multivariate cointegration procedure based on maximum likelihood methods introduced by Johansen (1988) as well as estimations of half-life persistence indicators. In the case of cereals, the evidence suggests strong market integration between domestic and regional markets and, to some extent, a...

  3. LHC data to be made public via Open Access initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2013-01-01

    CMS has collected around 64 petabytes of analysable proton-proton data so far. Along with published papers, these data constitute the scientific legacy of the CMS collaboration, and preserving the data for future generations is crucial.   High-school students analysing CMS data. Image: Marzena Lapka. “To preserve not only the data but also the information on how to use them, we intend to make available through open access our data that are no longer under active analysis,” says Kati Lassila-Perini, head of the CMS Data Preservation and Open Access project at the Helsinki Institute of Physics. Although providing open scientific data allows potentially everyone to perform their own analyses, doing so is very difficult. CMS scientists working in groups take many months or even years to perform a single analysis. Each analysis must be scrutinised by the whole collaboration before a scientific paper can be published. CMS therefore decided to launch a pilot project for its ope...

  4. Accountable and Responsible Disclosure of Financial Open Government Data: Open Spending Initiatives enhancing Civic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, A.W. (Bert); Hartog, M.W. (Martijn)

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action points in the Open Government Partnership Action plan of The Netherlands. In order to adequately communicate financial information towards citizens, 5 arrangement variables of accountability (transpare...

  5. Designers initiating open innovation with multi-stakeholder through co-reflection sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Lu, Y.; Baha, S.E.; Lehto, P.; Hivikoski, T.; Roozenburg, N.F.M.; Chen, L.; Stappers, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores a designerly approach to open innovation initiation as start of the PhD research of the third author. More specifically, it presents the application of co-reflection sessions by designers in a healthcare open innovation project to initiate multi-stakeholder participation.

  6. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative: Incentivising Open Research Practices through Peer Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Etchells, Peter J.; Harris, Christine R; Hoekstra, Rink; Lakens, Daniël; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Morey, Candice Coker; Newman, Daniel P.; Schönbrodt, Felix; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials, and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  7. The peer reviewers' openness initiative : incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.; Chambers, C.; Etchells, P.; Harris, C.; Hoekstra, R.; Lakens, D.; Lewandowsky, S.; Morey, C.; Newman, D.; Schönbrodt, F.; Vanpaemel, W.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Zwaan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  8. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative : incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Chambers, C.D.; Etchells, P.J.; Harris, C.R.; Hoekstra, R.; Lakens, D.; Lewandowsky, S.; Morey, C.C.; Newman, D.P.; Schönbrodt, F.D.; Vanpaemel, W.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis,

  9. The Peer Reviewers’ Openness Initiative: Incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Morey (Richard D.); C.D. Chambers (Christopher D.); P.J. Etchells (Peter J.); C.R. Harris (Christine R.); R. Hoekstra (Rink); D. Lakens (Daniël); S. Lewandowsky (Stephan); C.C. Morey (Candice Coker); D.P. Newman (Daniel P.); F.D. Schönbrodt (Felix D.); W. Vanpaemel (Wolf); E.J. Wagenmakers (Eric-Jan); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOpenness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and

  10. Accountable and Responsible Disclosure of Financial Open Government Data : Open Spending Initiatives enhancing Civic Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action

  11. Creation and Initial Validation of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Namasivayam-MacDonald, Ashwini M; Guida, Brittany T; Cichero, Julie A; Duivestein, Janice; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Riquelme, Luis F

    2018-05-01

    To assess consensual validity, interrater reliability, and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale, a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. Participants assigned International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel. Interrater reliability was measured overall and across quartile subsets of the dataset. Criterion validity was evaluated versus Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores assigned by survey respondents to the same case scenarios. Feedback was requested regarding ease and likelihood of use. Web-based survey. Respondents (N=170) from 29 countries. Not applicable. Consensual validity (percent agreement and Kendall τ), criterion validity (Spearman rank correlation), and interrater reliability (Kendall concordance and intraclass coefficients). The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed strong consensual validity, criterion validity, and interrater reliability. Scenarios involving liquid-only diets, transition from nonoral feeding, or trial diet advances in therapy showed the poorest consensus, indicating a need for clear instructions on how to score these situations. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale showed greater sensitivity than the FOIS to specific changes in diet. Most (>70%) respondents indicated enthusiasm for implementing the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale. This initial validation study suggests that the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale has strong consensual and criterion validity and can be used reliably by clinicians

  12. British Isles Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    The British Isles Field Experience (BIFE) program was initiated at Williamsport Area Community College (WACC) to provide a group of WACC faculty and staff members with individual and group activities of a personal, professional, and cultural nature in order to promote an international perspective that can be infused into student, collegiate, and…

  13. Breakfast in human nutrition: The international breakfast research initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibney, Michael J.; Barr, Susan I.; Bellisle, France

    2018-01-01

    to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain...

  14. The SCOAP3 initiative and the Open Access Article-Processing-Charge market: global partnership and competition improve value in the dissemination of science

    CERN Document Server

    Romeu, Clément; Kohls, Alexander; Mansuy, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Vesper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) initiative is an international partnership to convert to Open Access the published literature in the field of High-Energy Physics (HEP). It has been in operation since January 2014, and covers more than 4’000 articles/year. Originally initiated by CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, and now counting partners representing 41 countries and 3 intergovernmental organizations, SCOAP3 has successfully converted to Open Access all, or part of, 6 HEP journals previously restricted to subscribers. It is also supporting publication of articles in 4 existing Open Access journals. As a “Gold” Open Access initiative, SCOAP3 pays Article Processing Charges (APCs), as publishers’ source of revenue for the publication service. Differentiating itself from other Open Access initiatives, SCOAP3 set APCs through a tendering process, correlating quality and price, at consistent conditions across participating publishers. Th...

  15. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  16. Opening remarks: regulatory initiatives toward improved technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edison, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to deal with the numerous problems that have evolved over the years with nuclear power plant technical specifications, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken some initiatives for improvement: 1) new operating licenses, 2) change to existing operating reactor technical specifications, 3) a broad-scoped reconsideration of the content of technical specifications, and 4) rule changes. It is believed that reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used in conjunction with manufacturer's recommendations and engineering judgment to better define the appropriate scope and depth for technical specification resulting in focusing attention on high risk-worth systems and avoidance of plant shutdown transients both intentionally and unintentionally through provisions of technical specifications

  17. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available. Reference

  18. [effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule on tibial plateau fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yonghui; Cao, Xingbing; Meng, Chen; Cao, Xueshu; Wei, Changbao

    2014-12-01

    To introduce the surgery method to reset and fix tibial plateau fracture without opening joint capsule, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this method. Between July 2011 and July 2013, 51 patients with tibial plateau fracture accorded with the inclusion criteria were included. All of 51 patients, 17 cases underwent open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule in trial group, and 34 cases underwent traditional surgery method in control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, time from injury to admission, side of injury, and types of fracture between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, incision length, incision healing, and fracture healing were compared between 2 groups. The tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface were measured on X-ray film. At last follow-up, joint function was evaluated with Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee function scale. The intraoperative blood loss in trial group was significantly less than that in control group (P time and the rate of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The patients were followed up 12-30 months (mean, 20.4 months) in trial group and 12-31 months (mean, 18.2 months) in control group. X-ray films indicated that all cases in 2 groups obtained fracture healing; there was no significant difference in the fracture healing time between 2 groups (t=1.382, P=0.173). On X-ray films, difference was not significant in tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface between 2 groups (P > 0.05). HSS score of the knee in trial group was significantly higher than that of control group (t=3.161, P=0.003). It can reduce the intraoperative blood loss and shorten the incision length to use open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule for tibial plateau fracture. Traction of joint capsule is helpful in the reduction and good recovery of joint surface collapse. In addition, the surgery without

  19. Openness as cultural shift: How employees react to open innovation initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miebach, F.; Blazevic, V.; Piller, F.T.

    2015-01-01

    Business and academic scholars alike observe the increasing need for companies to collaborate with external stakeholders to pursue successful innovation (REF). Especially incumbents might have difficulties changing from closed to open, as it means to change entire working routines and the innovation

  20. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants in order to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants

  1. International Initiatives To Eliminate Corruption: Has Bribery Declined?

    OpenAIRE

    Claire R. La Roche; Mary A. Flanigan

    2011-01-01

    Bribery discriminates against honest companies by creating a barrier to entry in the form of a competitive disadvantage. An important legal issue with significant implications is whether recent international anti-corruption laws have leveled the playing field for firms doing business abroad. One of the first laws proscribing illicit payments to foreign public officials is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), initially enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1977. From its inception, the FCPA has...

  2. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  3. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  4. Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Jokela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Forests is well poised toward becoming a premier publication outlet in this diverse field of study. In its short tenure, Forests received its first Impact Factor in 2013 (1.094—Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE/Web of Science, which placed it 25th out of 62 Forestry journals. Notably, Forests ranked first among the open access journals in this category.

  5. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  6. 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Murat BARKAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This closing remarks prepared and presented by Prof. Dr. Murat BARKAN Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TURKEY DEAR GUESTS, As the 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL Symposium is now drawing to end, I would like to thank you all for your outstanding speeches, distinguished presentations, constructive roundtable and session discussions, and active participation during the last five days. I hope you all share my view that the whole symposium has been a very stimulating and successful experience. Also, on behalf of all the participants, I would like to take this opportunity to thank and congratulate the symposium organization committee for their excellent job in organizing and hosting our 2nd meeting. Throughout the symposium, five workshops, six keynote speeches and 66 papers, which were prepared by more than 150 academicians and practitioners from 23 different countries, reflected remarkable and various views and approaches about open and flexible learning. Besides, all these academic endeavors, 13 educational films were displayed during the symposium. The technology exhibition, hosted by seven companies, was very effective to showcase the current level of the technology and the success of applications of theory into practice. Now I would like to go over what our scholar workshop and keynote presenters shared with us: Prof. Marina McIsaac form Arizona State University dwelled on how to determine research topics worthwhile to be examined and how to choose appropriate research design and methods. She gave us clues on how to get articles published in professional journals. Prof. Colin Latchem from Australia and Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem Ozkul from Anadolu University pointed to the importance of strategic planning for distance and flexible learning. They highlighted the advantages of strategic planning for policy-makers, planners, managers and staff. Dr. Wolfram Laaser from Fern University of Hagen, presented different multimedia clips and

  7. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  8. Management of complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alan; Barnes, Esther S

    2009-01-01

    The management of complications resulting from the open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures is discussed in detail. The initial radiographic findings of the most common postsurgical complications of ankle fracture reduction are briefly discussed, namely lateral, medial, and posterior malleolar malunion or nonunion, syndesmotic widening, degenerative changes, and septic arthritis with or without concomitant osteomyelitis. Emphasis is placed on the management of these complications, with a review of the treatment options proposed in the literature, a detailed discussion of the authors' recommendations, and an inclusion of different case presentations.

  9. OpenCourseWare and Non-Institutional Online Education Initiatives: “The Open Academy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Apostolopoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of online learning tools as a detrimental component of the education of younger generations has yet to see an en masse standardized adoption by the public. The primary reason is the lack of an existing platform (or the inability to produce one that can perfectly replicate the classroom experience. However, the noticeable increase in offerings of such tools and materials over the past few years from both the institutional (universities and the non-institutional (private side could be a sign that the technology is being created so that the concept may well be proven and adopted during the current technological revolution. This paper introduces the most recent addition to the non-institutional part of the movement, an online education platform called The Open Academy. The website at its current state is an accumulation of online lecture videos, slides, exercises and practice exams covering various academic disciplines for college-level students. The paper covers the background and the development of the platform, its purposes and potential future benefits, further development projects currently underway and also potential problems and challenges that may lie ahead.

  10. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  11. The United States initiative for international radioactive source management (ISRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraine, N.; Karhnak, J.

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes seriously the potential problems from uncontrolled radioactive sources. To address these problems, the United States Department of State is leading the development of an initiative for International Radioactive Source Management (ISRM). The Department of State, through a number of Federal and state agencies, regulatory bodies and private industry, will endeavor to provide coordinated support to the international community, particularly through IAEA, to assist in the development and implementation of risk-based clearance levels to support import/export of radioactive contaminated metals and the tracking, management, identification, remediation, and disposition of 'lost sources' entering nation states and targeted industries. The United States believes that the international control of radioactive sources is critical in avoiding wide-spread contamination of the world metal supply. Thus the initiative has four objectives: (1) Protect sources from becoming lost (Tracking management); (2) Identify primary locations where sources have been lost (Stop future losses); (3) Locate lost sources (monitor and retrieve); and (4) Educate and train (deploy knowledge and technology). A number of efforts already underway in the United States support the overall initiative. The EPA has provided a grant to the Conference of Radiation Program Control Directors (CRCPD) to develop a nation-wide program for the disposition of orphaned radioactive sources. This program now has internet visibility and a toll-free telephone number to call for assistance in the disposal of sources. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and other government agencies as well as private companies are assisting CRCPD in this program. The NRC has begun a program to improve control of radioactive sources in the United States, and also intends to promulgate a regulation defining conditions for the release of materials from licensed facilities. The DOE is

  12. Building an Africa open data network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building an Africa open data network. Open data is data that is available online that can be freely used, re-used, and redistributed by anyone. When used effectively, open data drives accountability in governments, creates innovations in service delivery, and improves participation in key decisions. Committed to harnessing ...

  13. International consensus conference on open abdomen in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Biffl, Walter; Leppaniemi, Ari; Henry, Sharon; Scalea, Thomas M; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Chieregato, Arturo; de Blasio, Elvio; Gambale, Giorgio; Gordini, Giovanni; Nardi, Guiseppe; Paldalino, Pietro; Gossetti, Francesco; Dionigi, Paolo; Noschese, Giuseppe; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Sgardello, Sebastian; Magnone, Stefano; Rausei, Stefano; Mariani, Anna; Mengoli, Francesca; di Saverio, Salomone; Castriconi, Maurizio; Coccolini, Federico; Negreanu, Joseph; Razzi, Salvatore; Coniglio, Carlo; Morelli, Francesco; Buonanno, Maurizio; Lippi, Monica; Trotta, Liliana; Volpi, Annalisa; Fattori, Luca; Zago, Mauro; de Rai, Paolo; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Manfredi, Roberto; Cingolani, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A part of damage-control laparotomy is to leave the fascial edges and the skin open to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome and allow further explorations. This condition, known as open abdomen (OA), although effective, is associated with severe complications. Our aim was to develop evidence-based recommendations to define indications for OA, techniques for temporary abdominal closure, management of enteric fistulas, and methods of definitive wall closure. The literature from 1990 to 2014 was systematically screened according to PRISMA [Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses] protocol. Seventy-six articles were reviewed by a panel of experts to assign grade of recommendations (GoR) and level of evidence (LoE) using the GRADE [Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation] system, and an international consensus conference was held. OA in trauma is indicated at the end of damage-control laparotomy, in the presence of visceral swelling, for a second look in vascular injuries or gross contamination, in the case of abdominal wall loss, and if medical treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome has failed (GoR B, LoE II). Negative-pressure wound therapy is the recommended temporary abdominal closure technique to drain peritoneal fluid, improve nursing, and prevent fascial retraction (GoR B, LoE I). Lack of OA closure within 8 days (GoR C, LoE II), bowel injuries, high-volume replacement, and use of polypropylene mesh over the bowel (GoR C, LoE I) are risk factors for frozen abdomen and fistula formation. Negative-pressure wound therapy allows to isolate the fistula and protect the surrounding tissues from spillage until granulation (GoR C, LoE II). Correction of fistula is performed after 6 months to 12 months. Definitive closure of OA has to be obtained early (GoR C, LoE I) with direct suture, traction devices, component separation with or without mesh. Biologic meshes are an option for wall reinforcement if bacterial

  14. Impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic prophylaxis for open fractures in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Somer; Brad Hall, A; Wilson, Kayla

    2018-02-01

    Targeted antibiotic treatment reduces the infection risk of open fractures when soft tissue and bone are exposed to the environment. The risk of infection increases with higher degrees of injury. The Gustilo-Anderson system was developed to identify the degree of injury of open fractures and can be utilized to guide initial antibiotic therapy. Few studies have been published evaluating the potential impact of emergency medicine pharmacists in trauma, and currently no study has evaluated a pharmacist's influence on antibiotic selection and timing for open fractures. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic selection and timing in trauma patients with open fractures. This was a retrospective cohort study. Trauma alerts with open fractures from May 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was to determine if pharmacist participation during trauma resuscitation was associated with an increased proportion of initial antibiotic selection meeting guideline recommendations. The secondary outcome was the door-to-antibiotic administration time during resuscitation. Initial prophylactic antibiotic recommendations were met in 81% of trauma resuscitations when a pharmacist was present versus 47% without a pharmacist present (pfractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Open reduction and internal fixation: Screw injury - Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF is a standard surgical procedure in jaw trauma and in orthognathic surgery. Insertion of screws is a significant risk for accidental tooth root injury with varying outcomes. Contrary evidences are found in literature due to a variety of study designs. This study was undertaken to address the lacunae and possibly estimate the difference in occurrence of tooth damage during or after ORIF between trauma and planned osteotomies. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of ORIF in either trauma or orthognathic surgery fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected and analyzed. Results: There were 1632 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria and formed the study group, of which 663 were in orthognathic surgery, of whom 210 had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. In the trauma group, 358 patients had fractures involving both jaws whereas 272 had maxilla alone and 339 had mandibular fractures alone. On comparing the outcome, of the 9073 screws studied, 93.40% were not involved in any contact with the teeth, 6.3% were in category of potential hits (near apices or the root surfaces, and only 0.28% had evidence of root damage with the screws. It is observed that molar and premolar had a significant difference in terms of the type of surgery (P ≤ 0.05 whereas canine (P = 0.75 and incisor (P = 0.67 showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: ORIF when used as mentioned is a safe way for the management of fractures. The incidence of root injury is not uncommon but can be avoided with careful planning and execution.

  16. Do Transparency and Open Data Walk Together? An Analysis of Initiatives in Five Brazilian Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, Brazilian municipal governments have launched their open data web portals. These initiatives have been taking place as part of the implementation of the Transparency Act, which sets forth deadlines and punishments concerning the adoption and performance of steps that focus on government transparency, such as the presence of transparency portals. Accordingly, this paper aims to check whether municipalities that keep portals with higher a Digital Transparency Index (DTI will also prove to have the strongest open data initiatives. In order to achieve this goal we assess the official portals and open data initiatives in five Brazilian capitals by using the methodologies proposed by Paula Amorim (2012, and the prerequisites pointed out by the Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF, 2011, and Tim Berners-Lee (2010. The results indicate that there is no direct relationship between the Digital Transparency Index and the strength of open data actions in each municipality. The discussion of the results points to the absence of a concise public policy on digital democracy that is able to promote transparency and government data simultaneously.

  17. Amateur Hour: Culture, Capital, and the Royal Shakespeare Company's Open Stages Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Molly

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) began a series of collaborations with established amateur theatre groups from across the UK. The initiative now known as Open Stages became one of the most ambitious educational outreach programmes ever run by the RSC, engaging hundreds of amateur theatre practitioners in a process of skills sharing and…

  18. Open and endovascular aneurysm repair in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Emily L; Beck, Adam W

    2017-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative is a patient safety organization and a collection of procedure-based registries that can be utilized for quality improvement initiatives and clinical outcomes research. The Vascular Quality Initiative consists of voluntary participation by centers to collect data prospectively on all consecutive cases within specific registries which physicians and centers elect to participate. The data capture extends from preoperative demographics and risk factors (including indications for operation), through the perioperative period, to outcomes data at up to 1-year of follow-up. Additionally, longer-term follow-up can be achieved by matching with Medicare claims data, providing long-term longitudinal follow-up for a majority of patients within the Vascular Quality Initiative registries. We present the unique characteristics of the Vascular Quality Initiative registries and highlight important insights gained specific to open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gibney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast.

  20. International Capacity-Building Initiatives for National Bioethics Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefenas, Eugenijus; Lukaseviciene, Vilma

    2017-05-01

    During the last two decades, national bioethics committees have been established in many countries all over the world. They vary with respect to their structure, composition, and working methods, but the main functions are similar. They are supposed to facilitate public debate on controversial bioethical issues and produce opinions and recommendations that can help inform the public and policy-makers. The dialogue among national bioethics committees is also increasingly important in the globalized world, where biomedical technologies raise ethical dilemmas that traverse national borders. It is not surprising, therefore, that the committees are established and active in the technologically advanced countries. There have also been a few international capacity-building initiatives in bioethics that have had a dual task: networking among existing national bioethics committees and helping establish such committees in those countries that still lack them. The problem is that, due to a lack of information, it is not clear what problems and challenges committees face in the transitioning societies often characterized as low- and middle-income countries. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. New Initiatives for International Cooperation for Nuclear Education in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikhanov, M.

    2014-01-01

    Final remarks: Planned activities under the IAEA/MePhI cooperation - Assistance in implementing the IAEA initiative on Virtual Nuclear Management University; • Collecting and preserving information on peaceful use of nuclear science and technology through the Russian International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Center; • Assistance in implementing the educational laboratories of Virtual Nuclear laboratories for CLP4NET and T urbine-installation of NPP with VVER-1000 reactor“ simulator; • Develop and implement the selected courses using the CLP4NET or other suitable platform (3 Master’s degree programs on Nuclear Engineering, Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Nonproliferation); • Assistance in implementing the IAEA/ICTP School of NKM, August 2014 ; • A set of regional workshops on “The role of computer-based educational laboratories in Nuclear Engineering University Programmes”. New possible activities under the IAEA umbrella - • Cooperation with regional networks; • Establish a new network for Nuclear Education (CIS, EvrAzES, …) and develop together with other countries curricula, training programs and training materials on nuclear power and non-power applications; • Build public awareness of the benefits of nuclear technology and its applications; Support the IAEA in implementation of the selected courses in Member States. • Cooperation with foreign nuclear universities and training organizations for development of master and bachelor programs and postgraduate training

  2. Application of the principle of Open Initiatives in developing Trakai tourism infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Nazelskis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the principle of open initiatives, launched by Trakai resort municipality, which is focused on infrastructure development in order to open the way for widespread participation of natural and legal persons in infrastructure projects and to define the strategic directions in tourism development and infrastructure projects that apply this principle. In addition, it aims to assess the effectiveness of this principle as well as its practical benefits to the expansion of tourism infrastructure and the development of new tourism products.

  3. Theory and practice of auditor procedures for opening balances during initial audit engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bondar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased international capital flows requires the adaptation of the corporative relationships mechanisms in domestic entities to the international financial disclosure practices for increase of their investment attractiveness. The professional audit development, increases transparency and fair disclosure of complete and accurate information about the company helps make it. The study proved the importance of predecessor auditor’s working papers for detection of misstatements in opening balances and assessment of the client’s accounting and internal control systems. Consequently a program of opening balances inspecting and other working papers forms have been elaborate for the audit process documentary providing. This provides optimization of the audit resources for obtaining audit evidence and monitoring the quality control in completed audit engagement. Review of the working papers of the predecessor auditor should be used for understanding the managerial staff attitude to making adjustments in terms of financial reporting on the results of its audits. It helps to avoid threats to the auditor independence, reduce the risk of not detecting material misstatement and allow the auditor to determine its confidence in opening balances.

  4. The role of internal coupling activities in explaining the effectiveness of open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of internal contingencies in explaining performance implications of open innovation by addressing the questions: does openness drive innovation performance? And if so, what organizational activities impact the effectiveness of both the inbound and the outbound...... finds that the effect of openness is mediated by the use of internal coupling activities that give employees latitude, information and skills to work autonomously. A key result is that the benefits of open innovation are fully captured only when firms adopt a number of activities that provide employees...... with autonomy and empowerment to conduct their work. The paper concludes with implications to theory and practice....

  5. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics: the SCOAP3 Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S.

    2010-10-01

    Scholarly communication in High-Energy Physics (HEP) shows traits very similar to Astronomy and Astrophysics: pervasiveness of Open Access to preprints through community-based services; a culture of openness and sharing among its researchers; a compact number of yearly articles published by a relatively small number of journals which are dear to the community. These aspects have led HEP to spearhead an innovative model for the transition of its scholarly publishing to Open Access. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP) aims to be a central body to finance peer-review service rather than the purchase of access to information as in the traditional subscription model, with all articles in the discipline eventually available in Open Access. Sustainable funding to SCOAP would come from libraries, library consortia and HEP funding agencies, through a re-direction of funds currently spent for subscriptions to HEP journals. This paper presents the cultural and bibliometric factors at the roots of SCOAP and the current status of this worldwide initiative.

  6. Process-orientated psychoanalytic work in initial interviews and the importance of the opening scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Peter

    2014-06-01

    From the very first moment of the initial interview to the end of a long course of psychoanalysis, the unconscious exchange between analysand and analyst, and the analysis of the relationship between transference and countertransference, are at the heart of psychoanalytic work. Drawing on initial interviews with a psychosomatically and depressively ill student, a psychoanalytic understanding of initial encounters is worked out. The opening scene of the first interview already condenses the central psychopathology - a clinging to the primary object because it was never securely experienced as present by the patient. The author outlines the development of some psychoanalytic theories concerning the initial interview and demonstrates their specific importance as background knowledge for the clinical situation in the following domains: the 'diagnostic position', the 'therapeutic position', the 'opening scene', the 'countertransference' and the 'analyst's free-floating introspectiveness'. More recent investigations refer to 'process qualities' of the analytic relationship, such as 'synchronization' and 'self-efficacy'. The latter seeks to describe after how much time between the interview sessions constructive or destructive inner processes gain ground in the patient and what significance this may have for the decision about the treatment that follows. All these factors combined can lead to establishing a differential process-orientated indication that also takes account of the fact that being confronted with the fear of unconscious processes of exchange is specific to the psychoanalytic profession. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Field research opens new vistas in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Her research on understanding non-farm employment among ethnic minority groups threw Le Barbenchon's work a few initial curves. First, her permits were delayed, forcing her to consider different work. Then she discovered that national surveys had not properly captured migration of ethnic minorities and to find enough ...

  8. Small Open Economy Firms in International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we use a rich dataset disaggregating imports and exports decisions by product and origin/destination of all Danish companies for the period 1993-2003 to provide key elements in characterizing Danish firms in international trade. Most evidence to date emanates from the U.S. or devel......In this paper, we use a rich dataset disaggregating imports and exports decisions by product and origin/destination of all Danish companies for the period 1993-2003 to provide key elements in characterizing Danish firms in international trade. Most evidence to date emanates from the U...... in Denmark than in the U.S. There are few traces of the European Union's Single Market Program and the adoption the Euro in 1998. We observe no impact of these changes on the number of exporters, but some signs of impacts on the number of products and export destination countries. Finally, we find that trade...

  9. Forests: An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Eric J. Jokela

    2014-01-01

    Forests was established to provide comprehensive coverage on the ecology, conservation and management of forests, with the first issue published in March 2010. As an international and multi-disciplinary journal, Forests has provided a forum for publishing process–based and applied scholarly articles that span the technological, environmental, cultural, economic, and social realm associated with the management, use, conservation, and understanding of forested ecosystems. By all accounts, Fore...

  10. OpenGeoSys: An open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolditz, O.; Bauer, S.; Bilke, L.

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM...

  11. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic vein for varicocele through an open ended guide wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, G.; Oyen, R.; Casselman, J.; Baert, A.L.

    1987-08-01

    Percutaneous sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic vein through an open ended guide wire was performed in 50 patients with left sided variocele. The procedure was successful in 47 patients, without major complications. Percutaneous sclerotherapy through an open ended guide wire offers the advantage of very distal and superselective catheterization with complete embolization of the internal spermatic vein, its side branches and parallel collateral channels. Further follow-up hopefully will confirm the reduction of recurrence rate in our patients.

  12. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR), music imagery information retrieval (MIIR) aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition-such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stober

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR, music imagery information retrieval (MIIR aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition–such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  14. International developments in openEHR archetypes and templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Heather

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are a complex knowledge domain. The ability to design EHRs to cope with the changing nature of health knowledge, and to be shareable, has been elusive. A recent pilot study1 tested the applicability of the CEN 13606 as an electronic health record standard. Using openEHR archetypes and tools2, 650 clinical content specifi cations (archetypes) were created (e.g. for blood pressure) and re-used across all clinical specialties and contexts. Groups of archetypes were aggregated in templates to support clinical information gathering or viewing (e.g. 80 separate archetypes make up the routine antenatal visit record). Over 60 templates were created for use in the emergency department, antenatal care and delivery of an infant, and paediatric hearing loss assessment. The primary goal is to define a logical clinical record architecture for the NHS but potentially, with archetypes as the keystone, shareable EHRs will also be attainable. Archetype and template development work is ongoing, with associated evaluation occurring in parallel.

  15. Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination.

  16. 77 FR 65928 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. November 20, 2012, by... Council on Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to...

  17. 76 FR 81005 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. January 17, 2012, by either of... Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to (202) 632...

  18. Initial state fluctuations and final state correlations: status and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adare, Andrew; Luzum, Matthew; Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The recent appreciation of the importance of event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions has lead to a large amount of diverse theoretical and experimental activity. In particular, there is significant interest in understanding the fluctuations in the initial stage of a collision, how exactly these fluctuations are propagated through the system evolution, and how they are manifested in correlations between measured particles. In order to address these questions a workshop was organized on ‘initial state fluctuations and final state correlations’, held at ECT* in Trento, Italy during the week of 2–6 July 2012. The goal was to collect recent work in order to provide a coherent picture of the current status of our understanding, to identify important questions that remain open, and to set a course for future research. Here we report the outcome of the presentations and discussions, focusing on the most important conclusions. (comment)

  19. Using internal coupling activities to enhance the effectiveness of open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    This paper investigates the role of specific intra-organizational mechanisms in analyzing performance implications of openness by addressing two questions: does openness to innovation influence innovation performance? And if so, what organizational activities facilitate increased effectiveness...... of both inbound and outbound open innovation practices? The paper identifies a set of internal management mechanisms that allows the firm to couple the outside-in and inside-out knowledge flows in support of integrating external knowledge and internal competencies. The empirical basis of the study...... is a survey carried out in 321 Danish SMEs in manufacturing industries. The paper cannot substantiate the thus far, seemingly positive evidence of openness on innovation performance. Rather, the paper finds that inbound open innovation is related to the introduction of new products, whereas the adoption...

  20. Initial Perceptions of Open Higher Education Students with Learner Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asu ALTUNOGLU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Learner management systems (LMS are used in open education as a means of managing and recording e-learning facilities as well as improving student engagement. Students benefit from them to become active participants in the decision-making process of their own learning. This study aims to investigate the initial perceptions of students experiencing the LMS for the first time in the Open Education System of Anadolu University with the purpose of identifying the effective and ineffective aspects of it from their perspective and their demands and suggestions for how to improve their the engagement in the system. To do this, an interpretive qualitative case study research design was used in order to focus on individual contexts and perceptions formed within those contexts. According to the findings, students were found to have highly personalized and customized user habits and engagement levels with the LMS depending on their varying ages, occupational statuses, IT capacities, and educational backgrounds. In terms of their satisfaction with the LMS, the quality, quantity and variety of content in LMS was found to have a major influence on their initial perceptions of satisfaction.

  1. New initiatives in the Netherlands Open Air Museum: how an early open air museum keeps up with the times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem is one of the oldest open air museums of Europe. From the 1990s the staff has been engaged in an intense process of fundamentally changing the museum. The major step was to redefine the museum’s institutional identity. We believed that a good museum not only

  2. Importance of initial management of persons internally contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The first one to three hours following a radiation accident during which internal contamination occurs provide the best and perhaps the only opportunity for preventing uptake of radionuclides. By using chemical manipulation in the GI tract or by hastening the material through the body, absorption can be reduced. Once absorbed, uptake in specific tissues can often be prevented by blocking agents, isotopic dilution or chelating agents. In order to supply prompt treatment, the medical department must have a well-defined action plan based on knowledge of the plant of laboratory operations, the radionuclides used, and medications required. (U.S.)

  3. Recent initiative in information exchange throughout the international nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two key systems essential to the gathering and dissemination of operating experience, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and NUCLEAR NOTEPAD are described. The NPRDS is a collection of detailed engineering data on systems and components important to nuclear plant safety and productivity. NUCLEAR NOTEPAD is an international telecommunications network which provides a mechanism for the rapid, widespread dissemination of information pertinent to the design, licensing, safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants. Both systems have been managed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations since 1982 and are used extensively by 84 organizations in 14 countries. (U.K.)

  4. Phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone: Influence of solvents and initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema; Zhao, Junpeng; Pahovnik, David; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Phosphazene base (t-BuP2) catalysed metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) at room temperature with various protic initiators in different solvents was investigated. The polymerization proceeded, in most cases, in a controlled manner to afford poly(ε-caprolactone) with low dispersities and expected molecular weights. Kinetic studies showed that when a primary alcohol was used as an initiator the polymerization rate in different solvents followed the order of dichloromethane ≫ toluene > 1,4-dioxane ≈ tetrahydrofuran. Extremely fast polymerization of l-lactide (LLA), which was added as a second monomer, was observed in different solvents giving rise to poly(ε-caprolactone)-b- poly(l-lactide) diblock copolymers with neat PLLA blocks despite incomplete conversion of ε-CL. The dependence of polymerization rate on the concentrations of ε-CL and t-BuP2 was also revealed. In addition to primary alcohol, the feasibility of using other protic initiators, such as secondary alcohol (either on a small molecule or a polymer chain-end), (aliphatic/aromatic) amide, carboxylic acid, phenol and thiophenol, was also investigated. These studies provided important information for designing a metal-free route towards polyester-based (bio)materials. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  5. Open vs Laparoscopic Simple Prostatectomy: A Comparison of Initial Outcomes and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aslan; Günseren, Kadir Ömür; Kordan, Yakup; Yavaşçaoğlu, İsmet; Vuruşkan, Berna Aytaç; Vuruşkan, Hakan

    2016-08-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic simple prostatectomy (LSP) vs open prostatectomy (OP). A total of 73 men treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia were enrolled for OP and LSP in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The findings were recorded perioperative, including operation time (OT), blood lost, transfusion rate, conversion to the open surgery, and the complications according to the Clavien Classification. The postoperative findings, including catheterization and drainage time, the amount of analgesic used, hospitalization time, postoperative complications, international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, the extracted prostate weight, the uroflowmeter, as well as postvoiding residual (PVR) and quality of life (QoL) score at the postoperative third month, were analyzed. The cost of both techniques was also compared statistically. No statistical differences were found in the preoperative parameters, including age, IPSS and QoL score, maximum flow rate (Qmax), PVR, IIEF score, and prostate volumes, as measured by transabdominal ultrasonography. No statistical differences were established in terms of the OT and the weight of the extracted prostate. No differences were established with regard to complications according to Clavien's classification in groups. However, the bleeding rate was significantly lower in group 2. The drainage, catheterization, and hospitalization times and the amount of analgesics were significantly lower in the second group. The postoperative third month findings were not different statistically. Only the Qmax values were significantly greater in group 2. While there was only a $52 difference between groups with regard to operation cost, this difference was significantly different. The use of LSP for the prostates over 80 g is more effective than the OP in terms of OT, bleeding amount, transfusion rates, catheterization time, drain removal time, hospitalization time

  6. Crop improvement in the CGIAR as a global success story of open access and international collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Byerlee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available International agricultural research has historically been an example par excellence of open source approach to biological research. Beginning in the 1950s and especially in the 1960s, a looming global food crisis led to the development of a group of international agricultural research centers with a specific mandate to foster international exchange and crop improvement relevant to many countries. This formalization of a global biological commons in genetic resources was implemented through an elaborate system of international nurseries with a breeding hub, free sharing of germplasm, collaboration in information collection, the development of human resources, and an international collaborative network. This paper traces the history of the international wheat program with particular attention to how this truly open source system operated in practice and the impacts that it had on world poverty and hunger. The paper also highlights the challenges of maintaining and evolving such a system over the long term, both in terms of financing, as well the changing ‘rules of the game’ resulting from international agreements on intellectual property rights and biodiversity. Yet the open source approach is just as relevant today, as witnessed by current crises in food prices and looming crop diseases problem of global significance.

  7. Structures of RNA Polymerase Closed and Intermediate Complexes Reveal Mechanisms of DNA Opening and Transcription Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyde, Robert; Ye, Fuzhou; Darbari, Vidya Chandran; Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-07-06

    Gene transcription is carried out by RNA polymerases (RNAPs). For transcription to occur, the closed promoter complex (RPc), where DNA is double stranded, must isomerize into an open promoter complex (RPo), where the DNA is melted out into a transcription bubble and the single-stranded template DNA is delivered to the RNAP active site. Using a bacterial RNAP containing the alternative σ 54 factor and cryoelectron microscopy, we determined structures of RPc and the activator-bound intermediate complex en route to RPo at 3.8 and 5.8 Å. Our structures show how RNAP-σ 54 interacts with promoter DNA to initiate the DNA distortions required for transcription bubble formation, and how the activator interacts with RPc, leading to significant conformational changes in RNAP and σ 54 that promote RPo formation. We propose that DNA melting is an active process initiated in RPc and that the RNAP conformations of intermediates are significantly different from that of RPc and RPo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Community members’ initiatives in public open spaces: two case studies from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with public spaces as open, everyday arenas where people share experiences beyond their immediate circle of friends, family and age group. Public space is understood as a forum for social and personal change (Harvey, 2011; Lefebvre, 2013; Arendt, 1996; Habermas, 1989; 2001. Questions are analysed from the point of view of community members, who are strongly attached to the space and who are interested in belonging and in proactive changes in their living environment (Iecovich, 2014; Kohn 2004; Mean and Tims, 2005. The paper is based on the presumptions that public space has an important role in generating ideas and activities of community members and that it is an important venue for community members’ informal learning. Ethnomethodological research in two public spaces (the Tabor community in Ljubljana and a small community in the coastal town of Izola show that there are differences between both public spaces regarding top-down initiatives and bottom-up, self-organized activities. However, although the activity initiators were in one case different associations rooted in the community, and in the other the local people themselves, most of the activities were conducted by people living in the selected communities/public spaces themselves as is typical of grassroots activities. It was confirmed that learning was not often mentioned by members of either community and was mostly a hidden activity, resulting in tacit knowledge.

  9. Fractal analysis on a classical hard-wall billiard with openings using a two-dimensional set of initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Suhan

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis is performed to measure the chaoticity of a classical hard-wall billiard with openings. We use the circular billiard with a straight cut with two openings, and a two-dimensional (2D) set of initial conditions that produce all possible trajectories of a particle injected from one opening. We numerically compute the fractal dimension of singular points of the function that maps an initial condition to the number of collisions with the wall before the exit, using the box-counting algorithm that uses uniformly distributed points inside the 2D set of initial conditions. Finally, the classical chaotic properties are observed while the parameters of the billiard are varied, and the results are compared with those with the one-dimensional set of initial conditions

  10. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  11. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Subcommittee, the Economic Sanctions Subcommittee, and the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  12. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on... Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is...

  13. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on the U.S. National... Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  14. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The... Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the...://www.state.gov/e/eb/adcom/aciep/index.htm for updates. This meeting is open to public participation...

  15. Self-concept clarity across adolescence : Longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  16. Self-Concept Clarity Across Adolescence : Longitudinal Associations With Open Communication With Parents and Internalizing Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marloes; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  17. International symposium on marine pollution. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the speech given by the Director General of the IAEA at 5 October 1998 in Monaco, at the opening of the International Symposium on Marine pollution organized by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in co-operation with the International Commission for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of the conference was on the role of the IAEA, mainly through its Marine Environment Laboratory, in the protection of the oceans from the harmful effects of human activity

  18. Supporting open access to clinical trial data for researchers: The Duke Clinical Research Institute-Bristol-Myers Squibb Supporting Open Access to Researchers Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Michael J; Louzao, Darcy M; McCourt, Brian J; Adams, Monique R; Tayyabkhan, Rehbar H; Ronco, Peter; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-02-01

    There are growing calls for sponsors to increase transparency by providing access to clinical trial data. In response, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Duke Clinical Research Institute have collaborated on a new initiative, Supporting Open Access to Researchers. The aim is to facilitate open sharing of Bristol-Myers Squibb trial data with interested researchers. Key features of the Supporting Open Access to Researchers data sharing model include an independent review committee that ensures expert consideration of each proposal, stringent data deidentification/anonymization and protection of patient privacy, requirement of prespecified statistical analysis plans, and independent review of manuscripts before submission for publication. We believe that these approaches will promote open science by allowing investigators to verify trial results as well as to pursue interesting secondary uses of trial data without compromising scientific integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of the Open National Combustion Code (OpenNCC) and Initial Simulation of Energy Efficient Engine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Moder, Jeff; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the recent enhancement of the Open National Combustion Code (OpenNCC) and apply the OpenNCC to model a realistic combustor configuration (Energy Efficient Engine (E3)). First, we perform a series of validation tests for the newly-implemented advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) and the extended version of the AUSM-family schemes (AUSM+-up). Compared with the analytical/experimental data of the validation tests, we achieved good agreement. In the steady-state E3 cold flow results using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS), we find a noticeable difference in the flow fields calculated by the two different numerical schemes, the standard Jameson- Schmidt-Turkel (JST) scheme and the AUSM scheme. The main differences are that the AUSM scheme is less numerical dissipative and it predicts much stronger reverse flow in the recirculation zone. This study indicates that two schemes could show different flame-holding predictions and overall flame structures.

  20. The Opening of the Arctic-Atlantic Gateway: Tectonic, Oceanographic and Climatic Dynamics - an IODP Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Knies, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth's past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG's consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG's complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the

  1. USING THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTOMETRIC DATABASES OF OPEN ACCESS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Galchevska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of the use of international scientometric databases in research activities as web-oriented resources and services that are the means of publication and dissemination of research results is considered. Selection criteria of scientometric platforms of open access in conducting scientific researches (coverage Ukrainian scientific periodicals and publications, data accuracy, general characteristics of international scientometrics database, technical, functional characteristics and their indexes are emphasized. The review of the most popular scientometric databases of open access Google Scholar, Russian Scientific Citation Index (RSCI, Scholarometer, Index Copernicus (IC, Microsoft Academic Search is made. Advantages of usage of International Scientometrics database Google Scholar in conducting scientific researches and prospects of research that are in the separation of cloud information and analytical services of the system are determined.

  2. In situ crosslinking of surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization of polynorbornene for improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursule, Ishan A; Abtahi, Ashkan; Watkins, Charles B; Graham, Kenneth R; Berron, Brad J

    2018-01-15

    In situ crosslinking is expected to increase the solvent stability of coatings formed by surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization (SI ROMP). Solvent-associated degradation limits the utility of SI ROMP coatings. SI ROMP coatings have a unique capacity for post-functionalization through reaction of the unsaturated site on the polymer backbone. Any post-reaction scheme which requires a liquid solvent has the potential to degrade the coating and lower the thickness of the resulting film. We designed a macromolecular crosslinking group based on PEG dinorbornene. The PEG length is tailored to the expected mean chain to chain distance during surface-initiated polymerization. This crosslinking macromer is randomly copolymerized with norbornene through SI ROMP on a gold coated substrate. The solvent stability of polynorbornene coatings with and without PEG dinorbornene is quantitatively determined, and the mechanism of degradation is further supported through XPS and AFM analyses. The addition of the 0.25mol% PEG dinorbornene significantly increases the solvent stability of the SI ROMP coatings. The crosslinker presence in the more stable films is supported with observable PEG absorbances by FTIR and an increase in contact angle hysteresis when compared to non-crosslinked coatings. The oxidation of the SI ROMP coatings is supported by the observation of carbonyl oxygen in the polynorbornene coatings. The rapid loss of the non-crosslinked SI ROMP coating corresponds to nanoscale pitting across the surface and micron-scale regions of widespread film loss. The crosslinked coatings have uniform nanoscale pitting, but the crosslinked films show no evidence of micron-scale film damage. In all, the incorporation of minimal crosslinking content is a simple strategy for improving the solvent stability of SI ROMP coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivation, Induction, and Challenge: Examining the Initial Phase of International Students' Educational Sojourn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Paul; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the initial higher education experiences of first-year international students in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 new international students undertaking a business degree at a U.K. university. The students described the key motivating factors for studying abroad and the…

  4. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new…

  6. From Open Source Software to Open Source Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Viseur , Robert

    2012-01-01

    Part 2: Lightning Talks; International audience; The open source software principles progressively give rise to new initiatives for culture (free culture), data (open data) or hardware (open hardware). The open hardware is experiencing a significant growth but the business models and legal aspects are not well known. This paper is dedicated to the economics of open hardware. We define the open hardware concept and determine intellectual property tools we can apply to open hardware, with a str...

  7. Workload and prevalence of open wounds in the community: French Vulnus initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Kerihuel, J C; Fromantin, I; Téot, L

    2012-02-01

    To calculate the prevalence of open cutaneous wounds presented on a routine working day in community settings in metropolitan France, and to estimate the workload associated with the care of these wounds by nurses, GPs and specialists (dermatologists, diabetologists and phlebologists). A transversal epidemiological survey was conducted on a randomly selected sample of the above practitioners between June and July 2008. The percentage of patients presenting on a routine working day with open a cutaneous lesion of any origin, location, size and duration was assessed. All local and systemic care performed on the patient during that day because of the wound was also recorded. In total, 475 GPs, 453 specialists and 238 nurses participated (n=1166) and saw a total of 29 663 patients, of whom 3037 presented with one or more cutaneous wound. The overall non-weighted prevalence of patients with a wound was 10.2% (95%CI: 9.9%;10.6%). This prevalence was similar for GPs (6.0%) and for specialists (6.9%), but was higher for nurses (22.0%). Forty-three per cent of all wounds had a duration of over 6 weeks. These chronic wounds were predominantly leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers, but also included wounds of all aetiologies. For 33% of all patients with wounds, the impact on their health status was serious to severe. The overwhelming majority of wounds (95%) required local care, including in 65% of cases cleansing and debridement. Despite its limitations, this initiative, the first of its type in France, strongly suggests that wound care constitutes an important part of routine care given by health professionals in the community, and for a substantial number of these patients, wounds represent a serious morbidity. The non-profit organisation 'Association Vivre avec une Plaie' financially supported this study. This association received unrestricted grants from the French Wound Healing Society (SFFPC) and a consortium of private companies (main sponsors: Conva

  8. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    L?sser, Cecilia; Th?ry, Clotilde; Buz?s, Edit I.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; L?tvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field co...

  9. Global Threat Reduction Initiative International Partners' Conference. Summary of the proceedings and findings of the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) International Partners' Conference took place in Vienna, Austria, from September 18-19, 2004. More than 590 representatives from 100 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States attended the GTRI International Partners' Conference on September 18-19, 2004, in Vienna, Austria. Representatives from ten non-governmental and international organizations were also present during the conference. The Governments of the United States and the Russian Federation co-sponsored the International Partners Conference, with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The purpose of the International Partners' Conference was to build and broaden international support for efforts by national authorities to identify, secure, recover, and/or facilitate the disposition of high-risk nuclear and radioactive materials that pose a potential threat to the international community. One of the significant outcomes of the International Partners Conference was reaching agreement on the Findings of the Conference (enclosed in this document) by participating Member States that outlined a broadly shared opinion of participating Member States on efforts to reduce the potential threat posed by vulnerable, unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. It is hoped that this document can be used as a framework to consolidate, expand, and accelerate domestic, regional, and IAEA programs that address unsecured vulnerable nuclear and radioactive materials, as deemed necessary by Member States. As a first step, participating members states urged the international community to note additional opportunities to further build support for activities related to GTRI

  10. Evaluating Open Source Software for Use in Library Initiatives: A Case Study Involving Electronic Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Ruth Gallegos; Griffy, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses best practices for evaluating open source software for use in library projects, based on the authors' experience evaluating electronic publishing solutions. First, it presents a brief review of the literature, emphasizing the need to evaluate open source solutions carefully in order to minimize Total Cost of Ownership. Next,…

  11. Phosphazene-promoted metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide initiated by carboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng; Pahovnik, David; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of carboxylic acid as initiator for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide was investigated with a strong phosphazene base (t-BuP4) used as promoter. Kinetic study showed an induction period, i.e., transformation

  12. Lipase catalyzed HEMA initiated ring-opening polymerization: In situ formation of mixed polyester methacrylates by transesterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takwa, M.; Xiao, Y.; Simpson, N.; Malmstrom, E.; Hult, K.; Koning, C.E.; Heise, A.; Martinelle, M.

    2008-01-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was used as initiator for the enzymatic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ¿-pentadecalactone (PDL) and e-caprolactone (CL). The lipase B from Candida antarctica was found to catalyze the cleavage of the ester bond in the HEMA end group of the formed polyesters,

  13. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  14. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics: the SCOAP(3) Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly communication in High-Energy Physics (HEP) shows traits very similar to Astronomy and Astrophysics: pervasiveness of Open Access to preprints through community-based services; a culture of openness and sharing among its researchers; a compact number of yearly articles published by a relatively small number of journals which are dear to the community. These aspects have led HEP to spearhead an innovative model for the transition of its scholarly publishing to Open Access. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP(3)) aims to be a central body to finance peer-review service rather than the purchase of access to information as in the traditional subscription model, with all articles in the discipline eventually available in Open Access. Sustainable funding to SCOAP(3) would come from libraries, library consortia and HEP funding agencies, through a re-direction of funds currently spent for subscriptions to HEP journals. This paper presents the cultural and bibliomet...

  15. Reflections between CSR and international human rights in EU initiatives for a competitive inclusive society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    : The paper aims to contribute to our understanding of whether a shift is taking place in societal attitudes towards a perception that corporations have duties based on international law. This is assessed on the basis of EU initiatives on inclusiveness and responsible competitiveness, particularly...... the EU Multistakeholder Forum and the Lisbon Strategy, with a particular focus on goals or views related to the human rights of non-discrimination and rights to work, education and vocational training, and network governance in (soft) law creation. It is found that despite obvious links, international...... law does not serve as a clear source of inclusiveness or responsible competitiveness. It is also found that the initiatives assessed do not indicate a shift at EU institutional level towards a perception that business holds duties under international law. International law seems at the most to be seen...

  16. Learning from the innovative open practices of three international health projects: IACAPAP, VCPH and Physiopedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Coughlan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources and open educational practices are being increasingly used around the globe to train and support professionals in areas where funding and resources are scarce. This paper evaluates the open educational practices (OEP of three global health projects operating outside academia - the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP, the Virtual Campus of Public Health (VCPH, and Physiopedia. Each project aims to pool and share professional expertise, to the particular benefit of practitioners in low-income countries. This form of online knowledge-sharing appears to offer huge advantages to the health/public health sector, especially when conducted in the open, at a time when there is a huge global shortfall of healthcare workers and a need for cost-effective, high quality training.We evaluated the three projects using two frameworks –the OPAL open educational practices maturity matrix, and Vrieling’s OEP social configuration framework. We identified numerous innovative OEP from which academia, and indeed public health professionals around the world could learn, for example IACAPAP’s open textbook, VCPH’s trilingual OER repository, and Physiopedia’s wiki and use of open badges. However, some OEP –for example localisation of resources– are not accommodated by either of the frameworks we used.  We argue that an extended OEP evaluation and impact framework is needed in order to better encompass OEP outside formal education. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.7.2.188

  17. Internalizing, social competence, and substance initiation: influence of gender moderation and a preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Wickrama, K A S

    2004-05-01

    Using latent growth curve modeling, the current study investigated gender moderation of the longitudinal pathways from internalizing to both social competency (i.e., social assertiveness) and the initiation of substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), as well as the effect of a preventive intervention on that process. Rural Midwestern adolescents who were participating in a school-based preventive intervention study were an average of 12.3 years old at the pretest assessment conducted in 1998. A latent growth curve comparison analysis found that internalizing was related inversely to initial levels of social assertiveness skill among girls; further, internalizing was related positively to substance use initiation growth trajectories among girls. Girls who participated in the preventive intervention demonstrated a slower increase over time in substance use initiation and a faster increase in social assertiveness. Gender moderation of the impact of internalizing and social assertiveness on substance use initiation and response to the intervention, as well as the utility of latent growth curve modeling in the study of longitudinal change, are discussed.

  18. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  19. Self-concept clarity across adolescence: longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P A; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study examined linkages between self-concept clarity, adolescents' open communication with parents, and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Dutch youths (N = 323; 51.1 % girls; mean age Time 1 = 13.3 years) reported on these constructs over four consecutive annual measurements. Concurrent positive links between open communication and self-concept clarity were found at Time 1. Over time, higher levels of open communication with parents predicted higher self-concept clarity only in middle adolescence (mean age between 14 and 15 years). We also found concurrent associations between self-concept clarity and both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longitudinally, lower self-concept clarity predicted relatively higher levels of depressive symptoms across all waves, and also higher anxiety levels from Time 1 to Time 2. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety also predicted lower levels of self-concept clarity during the first three waves. Self-concept clarity did not mediate the longitudinal associations between open communication and internalizing symptoms. This study is one of the first to investigate self-concept clarity across adolescence. It highlights the possible importance of both anxiety symptoms and communication with parents in understanding the development of a clear self-concept, and demonstrates an association between lower self-concept clarity and higher levels of later depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  20. University students and faculty have positive perceptions of open/alternative resources and their utilization in a textbook replacement initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Delimont

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is contribution no. 16-114-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.The Kansas State University Open/Alternative Textbook Initiative provides grants to faculty members to replace textbooks with open/alternative educational resources (OAERs that are available at no cost to students. Open educational resources are available for anyone to access, while alternative educational resources are not open. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions towards OAERs and the initiative, of students enrolled in, and faculty members teaching, courses using OAERs. A survey was sent out to 2,074 students in 13 courses using the OAERs. A total of 524 (25.3% students completed the survey and a faculty member from each of the 13 courses using OAERs was interviewed. Students rated the OAERs as good quality, preferred using them instead of buying textbooks for their courses, and agreed that they would like OAERs used in other courses. Faculty felt that student learning was somewhat better and it was somewhat easier to teach using OAERs than when they used the traditional textbooks. Nearly all faculty members preferred teaching with OAERs and planned to continue to do so after the funding period. These results, combined with the tremendous savings to students, support the continued funding of the initiative and similar approaches at other institutions.

  1. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Westberg, Pharm.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic.Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation.Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting.

  2. International conference on security of nuclear material and radioactive sources opens in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA develops basic guidelines that have proven to be of significant importance in the development of national physical protection systems and international agreements. The IAEA has initiated a number of activities, including training, technology transfer and peer review, to support Member States in improving their nuclear material accountancy and physical protection systems at State and facility levels. The Agency also maintains a database of reported incidents. The Conference is organized by the IAEA, hosted by Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and held in co-operation with the World Customs Organization, the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the European Police Office

  3. Simulation analysis of the effects of an initial cone position and opening angle on a cone-guided implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Sakagami, H. [Fundamental Physics Simulation Division, National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nagatomo, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the implosion process is important in forming a high-density plasma core. In the case of a fast ignition scheme using a cone-guided target, the fuel target is imploded with a cone inserted. This scheme is advantageous for efficiently heating the imploded fuel core; however, asymmetric implosion is essentially inevitable. Moreover, the effect of cone position and opening angle on implosion also becomes critical. Focusing on these problems, the effect of the asymmetric implosion, the initial position, and the opening angle on the compression rate of the fuel is investigated using a three-dimensional pure hydrodynamic code.

  4. The SCEC/UseIT Intern Program: Creating Open-Source Visualization Software Using Diverse Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, H.; Callaghan, S.; Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center undergraduate IT intern program (SCEC UseIT) conducts IT research to benefit collaborative earth science research. Through this program, interns have developed real-time, interactive, 3D visualization software using open-source tools. Dubbed LA3D, a distribution of this software is now in use by the seismic community. LA3D enables the user to interactively view Southern California datasets and models of importance to earthquake scientists, such as faults, earthquakes, fault blocks, digital elevation models, and seismic hazard maps. LA3D is now being extended to support visualizations anywhere on the planet. The new software, called SCEC-VIDEO (Virtual Interactive Display of Earth Objects), makes use of a modular, plugin-based software architecture which supports easy development and integration of new data sets. Currently SCEC-VIDEO is in beta testing, with a full open-source release slated for the future. Both LA3D and SCEC-VIDEO were developed using a wide variety of software technologies. These, which included relational databases, web services, software management technologies, and 3-D graphics in Java, were necessary to integrate the heterogeneous array of data sources which comprise our software. Currently the interns are working to integrate new technologies and larger data sets to increase software functionality and value. In addition, both LA3D and SCEC-VIDEO allow the user to script and create movies. Thus program interns with computer science backgrounds have been writing software while interns with other interests, such as cinema, geology, and education, have been making movies that have proved of great use in scientific talks, media interviews, and education. Thus, SCEC UseIT incorporates a wide variety of scientific and human resources to create products of value to the scientific and outreach communities. The program plans to continue with its interdisciplinary approach, increasing the relevance of the

  5. INVASIVESNET towards an International Association for Open Knowledge on Invasive Alien Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Frances; Roy, Helen; Simpson, Annie; Carlton, James T.; Hanson, John Mark; Magellan, Kit; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costello, Mark J.; Pagad, Shyama; Hewitt, Chad L; McDonald, Justin; Cassey, Phillip; Thomaz, Sidinei M; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Zenetos, Argyro; Tricarico, Elena; Boggero, Angela; Groom, Quentin J.; Adriaens, Tim; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Torchin, Mark E.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Fuller, Pam; Carman, Mary R; Conn, David Bruce; Vitule, Jean R. S.; Canning-Clode, João; Galil, Bella S; Ojaveer, Henn; Bailey, Sarah A; Therriault, Thomas W; Claudi, Renata; Gazda, Anna; Dick, Jaimie T A; Caffrey, Joe; Witt, Arne; Kenis, Marc; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Helmisaari, Harry; Panov, Vadim E

    2016-01-01

    In a world where invasive alien species (IAS) are recognised as one of the major threats to biodiversity, leading scientists from five continents have come together to propose the concept of developing an international association for open knowledge and open data on IAS—termed “INVASIVESNET”. This new association will facilitate greater understanding and improved management of invasive alien species (IAS) and biological invasions globally, by developing a sustainable network of networks for effective knowledge exchange. In addition to their inclusion in the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, the increasing ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts associated with IAS have driven the development of multiple legal instruments and policies. This increases the need for greater co-ordination, co-operation, and information exchange among scientists, management, the community of practice and the public.

  6. Initiating a New Research Phase in the Field of International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coviello, Nicole; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing on t...... be of relevance for new technology firms aiming at an international or global engagement from their very inception.......In a recent publication, Nicole Coviello (2015) emphasized the need to re-think existing research on international entrepreneurship and, more specifically, research on born-global firms. She pointed out that the main value of a critical review lies in initiating a new research phase focusing...

  7. Proceedings of the international symposium on acceleration-driven transmutation systems and Asia ADS network initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-09-01

    An International Symposium on 'Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative' was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The objectives of this symposium are to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development (R and D) of ADS in the world and to enhance the initiation of an international collaborative network for ADS in Asia. This report records the papers and the materials of 15 presentations in the symposium. On the first day of the symposium, current activities for R and D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. On the second day, R and D activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were presented. After these presentations, a panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R and D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network. It was agreed to establish the international network for scientific information exchange among Asian countries including Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam in view of the future international collaboration in R and D of ADS. (author)

  8. Wakefield radiation from the open end of an internally coated metallic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivanyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of radiation from the open end of a semi-infinite circular metallic waveguide with perfectly conducting walls and a thin internal low-conducting metal coating is considered. Electromagnetic fields are generated by the ultrarelativistic point charge moving along the axis of the waveguide. The far fields of radiation are obtained using the near-field to far-field recovery technique. The technique is extended for the nonmonochromatic waves. It is shown that the radiation has a narrow-band and narrow-directional character.

  9. The Principle and the Pragmatist: On Conflict and Coalescence for Librarian Engagement with Open Access Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article considers Open Access (OA) training and the supports and structures in place in academic libraries in the United States from the perspective of a new librarian. OA programming is contextualized by the larger project of Scholarly Communication in academic libraries, and the two share a historical focus on journal literature and a…

  10. Development and initial validation of the internalization of Asian American stereotypes scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Frances C; Wang, Yu-Wei; Swanson, Jane L

    2011-07-01

    This research consists of four studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Internalization of Asian American Stereotypes Scale (IAASS), a self-report instrument that measures the degree Asian Americans have internalized racial stereotypes about their own group. The results from the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a stable four-factor structure of the IAASS: Difficulties with English Language Communication, Pursuit of Prestigious Careers, Emotional Reservation, and Expected Academic Success. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity is presented. High internal-consistency and test-retest reliability estimates are reported. A discussion of how this scale can contribute to research and practice regarding internalized stereotyping among Asian Americans is provided.

  11. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  12. Open versus closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy in the management of chronic anal fissures: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic fissures as it is effective, safe, less expensive, and associated with a lower rate of complications than the open sphincterotomy technique.

  13. Open Abdomen Therapy with Vacuum and Mesh Mediated Fascial Traction After Aortic Repair: an International Multicentre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Stefan; Seternes, Arne; Venermo, Maarit; Vikatmaa, Leena; Sörelius, Karl; Wanhainen, Anders; Svensson, Mats; Djavani, Khatereh; Björck, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Open abdomen therapy may be necessary to prevent or treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The aim of the study was to analyse the primary delayed fascial closure (PDFC) rate and complications after open abdomen therapy with vacuum and mesh mediated fascial traction (VACM) after aortic repair and to compare outcomes between those treated with open abdomen after primary versus secondary operation. This was a retrospective cohort, multicentre study in Sweden, Finland, and Norway, including consecutive patients treated with open abdomen and VACM after aortic repair at six vascular centres in 2006-2015. The primary endpoint was PDFC rate. Among 191 patients, 155 were men. The median age was 71 years (IQR 66-76). Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) occurred in 69.1%. Endovascular/hybrid and open repairs were performed in 49 and 142 patients, respectively. The indications for open abdomen were inability to close the abdomen (62%) at primary operation and ACS (80%) at secondary operation. Duration of open abdomen was 11 days (IQR 7-16) in 157 patients alive at open abdomen termination. The PDFC rate was 91.8%. Open abdomen initiated at primary (N=103), compared with secondary operation (N=88), was associated with less severe initial open abdomen status (p=.006), less intestinal ischaemia (p=.002), shorter duration of open abdomen (p=.007), and less renal replacement therapy (RRT, popen abdomen initiated at primary versus secondary operation. VACM was associated with a high PDFC rate after prolonged open abdomen therapy following aortic repair. Patient outcomes seemed better when open abdomen was initiated at primary, compared with secondary operation but a selection effect is possible. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0 mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group thymic initiative: a state-of-the-art study of thymic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterbeck, Frank; Korst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thymic malignancies are relatively rare tumors. A general lack of knowledge, misconceptions about benignancy, confusion about the definition of terms, and variability in reporting of outcomes have further hampered progress in these diseases. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has emerged to counter these challenges and has brought together a worldwide multidisciplinary community determined to improve outcomes for these patients. Although the organization is young (initiated in 2010), major early accomplishments have created a foundation and infrastructure for scientific research. These include consensus definitions of terms, an unprecedented global database, development of practical clinical resources and, together with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, development of proposals for the first formal stage classification of these malignant tumors. Many articles have been published or are under way, and a second phase of projects building on the early success is proceeding. The greatest accomplishment of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group lies in the establishment of an open culture of collaboration and the engagement of a broad group of individuals united by a common mission. It is a testament to what can be achieved, despite ongoing and inherent challenges, by determination and a collective effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal Short-Circuiting Phenomena In An Open-Cycle MHD Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y.; Ishibashi, E. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kasahara, T.; Kazawa, Y. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1968-11-15

    The influence of internal electrical leakage due to circulating currents flowing through velocity boundary layers and due to metallic elements in insulating walls (peg walls) is experimentally investigated. For this purpose a combustion-driven MHD generator is utilized. The active part of the generator test section is 60 cm in length with a constant cross-section of 3 x 12 cm{sup 2}. At typical operating conditions about 70 g/s of diesel light oil is burned with oxygen-enriched air, resulting in a thermal input of 3 MW, a fluid velocity of 500 to 700 m/s and a gas temperature of 2700 to 2900 Degree-Sign K at the channel inlet. KOH is used as the seed material. The magnetic field can be raised up to 1.95 Teslas. In the range of lower magnetic fields (B < 0.8T) it is shown that an observed open-circuit voltage agrees well with the theoretical value OBh which is defined in a one-dimensional MHD model. In other words, the circulating currents scarcely affect the open-circuit voltage. The theoretical basis for this fact is obtained by the use of a simple model. Experimental results obtained in several runs using three sets of insulating walls show that thermal boundary layers at water-cooled metals are more conductive than expected and that the open- circuit voltage decreases because of leakage currents flowing through metal pegs, when the internal resistance of the generator is relatively large. Also, it is shown that an alumina coating is effective in reducing the leakage currents. (author)

  17. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  18. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  19. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  20. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Westberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic. Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation. Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting. Type: Original Research

  1. Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S

    2015-06-01

    Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adewumi, O.; Aflatoonian, B.; Ahrlund-Richter, L.; Amit, M.; Andrews, P.W.; Beighton, G.; Bello, P.A.; Benvenisty, N.; Berry, L.S.; Bevan, S.; Blum, B.; Brooking, J.; Chen, K.G.; Choo, A.B.H.; Churchill, G.A.; Corbel, M.; Damjanov, I.; Draper, J.S.; Dvořák, Petr; Emanuelsson, K.; Fleck, R.A.; Ford, A.; Gertow, K.; Gertsenstein, M.; Gokhale, P.J.; Hamilton, R.S.; Hampl, Aleš; Healy, L.E.; Hovatta, O.; Hyllner, J.; Imreh, M.P.; Itskovitz-Eldor, J.; Jackson, J.; Johnson, J.L.; Jones, M.; Kee, K.; King, B.L.; Knowles, B.B.; Lako, M.; Lebrin, F.; Mallon, B.S.; Manning, D.; Mayshar, Y.; Mckay, D.G.; Michalska, A.E.; Mikkola, M.; Mileikovsky, M.; Minger, S.L.; Moore, H.D.; Mummery, Ch.L.; Nagy, A.; Nakutsuji, N.; O´Brien, C.M.; Oh, S.K.W.; Olsson, C.; Otonkoski, T.; Park, K.Y.; Passier, R.; Patel, H.; Patel, M.; Pedersen, R.; Pera, M.F.; Piekarczyk, M.S.; Pera, R.A.P.; Reubinoff, B.E.; Robins, A.J.; Rossant, J.; Rugg-Gunn, P.; Schulz, T.C.; Semb, H.; Sherrer, E.S.; Siemen, H.; Stacey, G.N.; Stojkovic, M.; Suemori, H.; Szatkiewicz, J.; Turetsky, T.; Tuuri, T.; Van den Brink, S.; Vintersten, K.; Vuoristo, S.; Ward, D.; Weaver, T.A.; Young, L.A.; Zhang, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2007), s. 803-816 ISSN 1087-0156 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA301/05/0463; GA ČR GA305/05/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : International Stem Cell Initiative Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 22.848, year: 2007

  3. Delimiting the Prospect of Openness: An Examination of Initial Student Approaches to E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Naughton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When converting from a paper-based distance mode to an online mode of teaching, certain expectations arise that students may engage not only in the development of extended research activity but that the quality of discussion and thinking will change. With access to open-ended discussion within the online forum the opportunity is afforded to students to share ideas and in turn develop their shared knowledge, a facility denied to them when in the paper distance mode. However, in a recent study conducted in New Zealand, it was shown that despite having access to online forums students moving to an online platform refrained from participation in this social exchange. A possible explanation for this indifference was thought to be the students realising that the online exchange made no impact on their assessment. Hence, the collaborative rhetoric of Web 2.0 made little impact when the summative evaluation remained unchanged from previous paper-based assessment. This paper reports on the introduction of online learning at a private tertiary college in New Zealand and describes the response of students who found difficulty in reconciling a community of learners and openness within what was perceived as an evaluation that remained individualistic and competitive in nature.

  4. MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression in open MRI: an initial clinical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Bucourt, Maximilian de; Freyhardt, Patrick; Maurer, Martin; Renz, Diane; Gebauer, Bernhard; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf K.M. [Charite, Humboldt-University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael; Strube, Patrick [Charite, Humboldt-University, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Bretschneider, Tina [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of real-time MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Twenty-four discs in 22 patients with chronic low-back and radicular pain were treated by PLDD using open 1.0-T magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). A fluoroscopic proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used to position the laser fibre. Non-spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences were employed for real-time thermal monitoring based on proton resonance frequency (PRF). Radicular pain was assessed over 6 months with a numerical rating scale (NRS). PLDD was technically successful in all cases, with adequate image quality for laser positioning. The PRF-based real-time temperature monitoring was found to be feasible in practice. After 6 months, 21 % reported complete remission of radicular pain, 63 % at least great pain relief and 74 % at least mild relief. We found a significant decrease in the NRS score between the pre-intervention and the 6-month follow-up assessment (P < 0.001). No major complications occurred; the single adverse event recorded, moderate motor impairment, resolved. Real-time MR guidance and PRF-based thermometry of PLDD in the lumbar spine under open 1.0-T MRI appears feasible, safe and effective and may pave the way to more precise operating procedures. (orig.)

  5. MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression in open MRI: an initial clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Bucourt, Maximilian de; Freyhardt, Patrick; Maurer, Martin; Renz, Diane; Gebauer, Bernhard; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf K.M.; Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael; Strube, Patrick; Bretschneider, Tina

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of real-time MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Twenty-four discs in 22 patients with chronic low-back and radicular pain were treated by PLDD using open 1.0-T magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). A fluoroscopic proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used to position the laser fibre. Non-spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences were employed for real-time thermal monitoring based on proton resonance frequency (PRF). Radicular pain was assessed over 6 months with a numerical rating scale (NRS). PLDD was technically successful in all cases, with adequate image quality for laser positioning. The PRF-based real-time temperature monitoring was found to be feasible in practice. After 6 months, 21 % reported complete remission of radicular pain, 63 % at least great pain relief and 74 % at least mild relief. We found a significant decrease in the NRS score between the pre-intervention and the 6-month follow-up assessment (P < 0.001). No major complications occurred; the single adverse event recorded, moderate motor impairment, resolved. Real-time MR guidance and PRF-based thermometry of PLDD in the lumbar spine under open 1.0-T MRI appears feasible, safe and effective and may pave the way to more precise operating procedures. (orig.)

  6. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  7. The functional outcome of surgically treated unstable pelvic ring fractures by open reduction, internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaykhosro Mardanpour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Unstable Pelvic fracture,a result of high energy antero-posterior compression injury, has been managed based on internal fixation and open reduction. The mode of fixation in Unstable Pelvic fracture has, however, been a subject of controversy and some authors have proposed a need to address the issue of partial breach of the pelvic ring elements in these injuries. This study was performed to evaluate the functional and radiological results of treatment of pelvic ring fractures by open reduction, internal fixation. Methods: Thirty eight patients with unstable pelvic fractures, treated from 2002 to2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients’ was 37 years old (range 20 to 67. Twenty six patients were men and 12 women. The most common cause was a road traffic accident (N=37, 97%. There were 11 type-C and 27 type-B fractures according to Tile’s classification. Thirty six patients sustained additional injuries. The most prevalent additional injuries were lower extremity fractures. Open reduction, internal fixation as a definite management was applied for all patients. Quality of reduction was graded according to the grades proposed by Matta and Majeed’s score was used to assess the clinical outcome. The mean period of follow-up was 25 months (ranged from 6 to 109 months. About 81.6% of patients had either good or excellent radiological reduction. Results: The functional outcome was excellent in 66%, good in 15%, fair in 11% and poor in 7% of the patients. There were 4 postoperative infections. No sexual function problem was reported. Nerve deficits recovered completely in 2 and partially in 3 of 11 patients with preoperative neurologic deficiency. There was no significant relation between functional outcome and the site of fracture Conclusion: Unstable pelvic ring fracture injuries should be managed surgically by rigid stabilization that must be carried out as soon as the general ndition of the patient permits, and

  8. FOREWORD: International Summer School for Advanced Studies 'Dynamics of open nuclear systems' (PREDEAL12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2013-02-01

    This proceedings volume contains the invited lectures and contributions presented at the International Summer School on Nuclear Physics held at Trei Brazi, a summer resort of the Bioterra University, near the city of Predeal, Romania, on 9-20 July 2012. The long tradition of International Summer Schools on Nuclear Physics in Romania dates as far back as 1964, with the event being scheduled every two years. During this period of almost 50 years, many outstanding nuclear scientists have lectured on various topics related to nuclear physics and particle physics. This year we celebrate the 80th birthday of Aureliu Sandulescu, one of the founders of the Romanian school of theoretical nuclear physics. He was Serban Titeica's PhD student, one of Werner Heisenberg's PhD students, and he organized the first edition of this event. Aureliu Sandulescu's major contributions to the field of theoretical nuclear physics are related in particular to the prediction of cluster radioactivity, the physics of open quantum systems and the innovative technique of detecting superheavy nuclei using the double magic projectile 48Ca (Calcium), nowadays a widely used method at the JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt laboratories. The title of the event, 'Dynamics of Open Nuclear Systems', is in recognition of Aureliu Sandulescu's great personality. The lectures were attended by Romanian and foreign Master and PhD students and young researchers in nuclear physics. About 25 reputable professors and researchers in nuclear physics delivered lectures during this period. According to a well-established tradition, an interval of two hours was allotted for each lecture (including discussions). Therefore we kept a balance between the school and conference format. Two lectures were held during the morning and afternoon sessions. After lecture sessions, three or four oral contributions were given by young scientists. This was a good opportunity for them to present the results of their research in front of

  9. Determination of the internal exposure hazard from plutonium work in an open front hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl Lynn

    Work with hazardous substances, such as radioactive material, can be done safely when engineered controls are used to maintain the worker effective dose below the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP 60 recommendation of 0.02 Sv/year and reduce the worker exposure to material to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A primary engineered control used at a Los Alamos National Laboratory facility is the open-front hood. An open-front hood, also known as an open-front box, is a laboratory containment box that is fully enclosed except for a 15-cm opening along the front of the box. This research involved collection of the aerosol escaping an open-front hood while PuO2 sample digestion was simulated. Sodium chloride was used as a surrogate to mimic the behavior of PuO2. The NaCl aerosol was binned as a function of median aerodynamic diameter using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, MSP Corporation, Shoreview, MN) cascade impactor. Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to measure the mass of material in each of the nine bins of the MOUDI, the mass median diameter of the escaping aerosol was determined. Using the mass median diameter and the total mass of the particle distribution, dose was calculated using ICRP 60 methodology. Experimental conditions mimicked a stationary worker and a worker moving her hands in and out of the open front hood. Measurements were also done in the hood for comparison. The effect of the hands moving in and out of the box was modeled. Information necessary for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is given, such as volumetric flow rates out of the open front hood and into the experimental room, detailed sketches of the experimental set-up, and energy provided by the hot plate and worker. This research is unique as it measures particle size distribution from routine working conditions. Current research uses tracer gases or describes non-routine conditions. It is important to have results that mimic

  10. A novel report on Eosin Y functionalized MWCNT as an initiator for ring opening polymerization of {epsilon}-caprolactone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hung-Hsia; Anbarasan, R.; Kuo, Long-Sheng [MEMS Thermal Control Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ping-Hei, E-mail: phchen@ntu.edu.tw [MEMS Thermal Control Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} In the present investigation, first, we functionalized the MWCNT with Eosin Y dye, for the ring opening polymerization. {yields} The dye functionalized MWCNT acted as an effective initiator which was further confirmed by various analytical techniques. {yields} By this methodology we saved the number of reaction steps, reaction time and also an economically cheaper one. - Abstract: This research conducted ring opening polymerization (ROP) of {epsilon}-caprolactone (C.L.) with a novel initiator, namely; Eosin Y functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) at 140 deg. C with nitrogen sparge under different concentrations. ROP of C.L. carried out at two different experimental conditions similar to variations in [M{sub 0}/I{sub 0}] and [C.L.]. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the structure of MWCNT-Eosin Y initiated ROP of C.L. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further characterized the structure. UV-visible spectroscopy determined the binding constant (K), for samples prepared under different [C.L.].

  11. A novel report on Eosin Y functionalized MWCNT as an initiator for ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Hsia; Anbarasan, R.; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In the present investigation, first, we functionalized the MWCNT with Eosin Y dye, for the ring opening polymerization. → The dye functionalized MWCNT acted as an effective initiator which was further confirmed by various analytical techniques. → By this methodology we saved the number of reaction steps, reaction time and also an economically cheaper one. - Abstract: This research conducted ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (C.L.) with a novel initiator, namely; Eosin Y functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) at 140 deg. C with nitrogen sparge under different concentrations. ROP of C.L. carried out at two different experimental conditions similar to variations in [M 0 /I 0 ] and [C.L.]. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the structure of MWCNT-Eosin Y initiated ROP of C.L. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further characterized the structure. UV-visible spectroscopy determined the binding constant (K), for samples prepared under different [C.L.].

  12. Simulation of international standard problem no. 44 open tests using Melcor computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.M.; Cho, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    MELCOR 1.8.4 code has been employed to simulate the KAEVER test series of K123/K148/K186/K188 that were proposed as open experiments of International Standard Problem No.44 by OECD-CSNI. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the MELCOR aerosol model which calculates the aerosol distribution and settlement in a containment. For this, thermal hydraulic conditions are simulated first for the whole test period and then the behavior of hygroscopic CsOH/CsI and unsoluble Ag aerosols, which are predominant activity carriers in a release into the containment, is compared between the experimental results and the code predictions. The calculation results of vessel atmospheric concentration show a good simulation for dry aerosol but show large difference for wet aerosol due to a data mismatch in vessel humidity and the hygroscopicity. (authors)

  13. [Treatment of open tile type C pelvic fractures by open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches at early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baichuan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches in treatment of open Tile type C pelvic fractures at early stage. Between January 2009 and April 2012, 12 patients with open Tile C pelvic fractures were treated. There were 7 males and 5 females, aged 6-53 years (median, 31 years). Of 12 cases, 4 were classified as Tile type C1, 6 as Tile type C2, and 2 as Tile type C3; 5 were rated as Gustilo type II and 7 as Gustilo type III. The injury severity score was 18-57 (mean, 37.2). The interval of injury and admission ranged from 15 minutes to 3 days (median, 50 minutes). The debridement and external fixation were performed at first stage; then open reduction and internal fixation were used through anterior approach (reconstruction plate) and posterior approach (cannulated lag screws). The vacuum sealing drainage was performed during treatment until the wounds healed. Delayed healing of incison was obtained in 12 cases because of wound infection. Anatomical reduction or approximate anatomical reduction was achieved in all 12 cases. The patients were followed up 3-39 months (median, 18 months). No loosening of internal fixation or fracture displacement was observed during follow-up. The fracture healing time was 7-13 weeks (mean, 9.7 weeks). At last follow-up, according to the Matta standard, the outcome was excellent in 10 cases and good in 2 cases; according to Majeed score, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1, and poor in 2. Early internal fixation operation of open Tile type C pelvic fractures can effectively restore the pelvic anatomical structure and stability, reduce the complication, and achieve satisfactory effectiveness.

  14. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässer, Cecilia; Théry, Clotilde; Buzás, Edit I; Mathivanan, Suresh; Zhao, Weian; Gho, Yong Song; Lötvall, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs). This course, "Basics of Extracellular Vesicles," uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC) on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform "Coursera" and is free of charge.

  15. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles launches the first massive open online course on extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lässer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV has organised its first educational online course for students and beginners in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs. This course, “Basics of Extracellular Vesicles,” uses recorded lectures from experts in the field and will be open for an unlimited number of participants. The course is divided into 5 modules and can be accessed at www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles. The first module is an introduction to the field covering the nomenclature and history of EVs. Module 2 focuses on the biogenesis and uptake mechanisms of EVs, as well as their RNA, protein and lipid cargo. Module 3 covers the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Modules 4 and 5 present different isolation methods and characterisation techniques utilised in the EV field. Here, differential ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, kit-based precipitation, electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle-tracking analysis are covered. This first massive open online course (MOOC on EVs was launched on 15 August 2016 at the platform “Coursera” and is free of charge.

  16. Synthesis and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Second-Generation Dendronized Poly(ether Monomers Initiated by Ruthenium Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Pablo E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP of second-generation dendronized monomers is described. Using the highly active and fast-initiating third-generation ruthenium complex [(H2IMes(pyr2Cl2RuCHPh], moderate to high molecular weight polymers (430-2230 kDa are efficiently synthesized with low dispersities (Ð = 1.01-1.17. This study highlights the power of the metathesis approach toward polymer synthesis in a context where monomer structure can significantly impede polymerization.

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.; Rosenthal, M.; Fishbone, L.; Occhiogrosso, D.; Carroll, C.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Rankhauser, J.

    2008-10-22

    In 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a yearlong review of the challenges facing the international safeguards system today and over the next 25 years. The study found that without new investment in international safeguards, the U.S. safeguards technology base, and our ability to support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, will continue to erode and soon may be at risk. To reverse this trend, the then U.S. Secretary of Energy, Samuel Bodman, announced at the 2007 IAEA General Conference that the Department of Energy (DOE) would launch the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). He stated 'IAEA safeguards must be robust and capable of addressing proliferation threats. Full confidence in IAEA safeguards is essential for nuclear power to grow safely and securely. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy will seek to ensure that modern technology, the best scientific expertise, and adequate resources are available to keep pace with expanding IAEA responsibilities.' To meet this goal, the NGSI objectives include the recruitment of international safeguards experts to work at the U.S. national laboratories and to serve at the IAEA's headquarters. Part of the latter effort will involve enhancing our existing efforts to place well-qualified Americans in a sufficient number of key safeguards positions within the IAEA's Department of Safeguards. Accordingly, the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards (ERIS) on October 22 and 23, 2008. The ISPO used a workshop format developed earlier with Sonalysts, Inc., that was followed at the U.S. Support Program's (USSP's) technology road-mapping sessions. ISPO invited participants from the U.S. DOE, the IAEA, the U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and

  18. Phosphazene-promoted metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide initiated by carboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-03-11

    The effectiveness of carboxylic acid as initiator for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide was investigated with a strong phosphazene base (t-BuP4) used as promoter. Kinetic study showed an induction period, i.e., transformation of carboxylic acid to hydroxyl ester, followed by slow chain growth together with simultaneous and fast end-group transesterification, which led to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) consisting of monoester (monohydroxyl), diester, and dihydroxyl species. An appropriate t-BuP4/acid ratio was proven to be essential to achieve better control over the polymerization and low dispersity of PEO. This work provides important information and enriches the toolbox for macromolecular and biomolecular engineering with protic initiating sites. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wiesemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  20. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture ( I 2 =8%, RR =0.77(95% CI 0.65-0.91, Z =3.10, P 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  1. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Bartlett, Susan J; Rose, Matthias; Aaronson, Neil K; Chaplin, John E; Efficace, Fabio; Leplège, Alain; Lu, Aiping; Tulsky, David S; Raat, Hein; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Revicki, Dennis; Terwee, Caroline B; Valderas, Jose M; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B

    2013-12-20

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMIS® network.PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making.The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item

  2. Interaction effects between internal governance mechanisms on the components of initial returns during the IPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediha Mezhoud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our work provides an analysis of the interaction effects between internal governance mechanisms on the components of initial returns during the listing period. The application of multivariate regressions on a sample of 110 IPO French companies during 2005-2010, has allowed us to conclude that the different interactions between these mechanisms significantly influence the level of under / overpricing. Indeed, the positive relationship between internal governance mechanisms and overpricing reflects a substitutability relationship. In contrast, the complementarity effect comes from the negative relationship characterizing the combination of governance mechanisms and the underpricing. Thus, the interactions effects between institutional ownership, board structure and under / overpricing are not conforming to the existence of a complementarity or substitutability relationship between these variables given the absence of a significant combination between these variables

  3. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  4. An Investigation of the Awareness and Use of Open Access Initiative at the Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa, A.O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the information environment of lecturers in Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria, in relation to their information seeking behavior, extent of use of the polytechnic library, perceptions of the resources and services of the library, level of awareness and extent of use of the open access model of scholarly communications, as well as the challenges of accessing and using information resources. It adopted the survey research method, using a questionnaire for data collection, while the descriptive statistics method was used to analyse the data, using tabular presentation and simple percentages. From a population of 280 lecturers for the study, a purposive sample of 164 was drawn. The findings showed that the lecturers' information needs are focused on online use; they hardly use the polytechnic library due to their perceptions of the resources and services of the library. They are, to a greater extent, aware of open access initiatives, but do not publish in open access outlets, while various challenges affect their access and use of information resources for teaching and research. A recommendation was made, among others, that the polytechnic management should pay more critical attention to the library especially in the areas of adequate, current and comprehensive collections on all the programmes of the institution, as well as the provision of wireless internet services on the campus through a public-private partnership arrangement.

  5. Initial behavior of a quantized scalar field and the associated pair-creation in several isotropic closed and open universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a positive frequency part near the initial epoch in a big-bang universe or its counterpart in other (say, de Sitter) one for a canonically quantized scalar field is important in discussing the associated pair-creation of those particles. Therefore, an attempt is made to define the positive frequency part in such isotropic closed and open universes that the scalar wave equation can be exactly solved. Except for some closed universe, the parts in question and, therefore, the Feynman propagators in the remaining universes are uniquely settled. Then it is shown that (1) the pair-creation in the Friedmann open universe (which is very interesting not only from observational, but also from theoretical viewpoints) is essentially equivalent to that in the Chitre-Hartle universe with flat 3-space and (2) the respective pair-creations in expanding metrics with open and flat 3-spaces of the de Sitter universe are different from each other, as insisted upon by Gibbons and Hawking basing on the original static metric. (author)

  6. Initial behavior of a quantized scalar field and the associated pair-creation in several isotropic closed and open universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu

    1982-01-01

    The concept of a positive frequency part near the initial epoch in a big-bang universe or its counterpart in other (say, de Sitter) one for a canonically quantized scalar field is important in discussing the associated pair-creation of those particles. Therefore, an attempt is made to define the positive frequency part in such isotropic closed and open universes that the scalar wave equation can be exactly solved. Except for some closed universe, the parts in question and, therefore, the Feynman propagators in the remaining universes are uniquely settled. Then it is shown that (1) the pair-creation in the Friedmann open universe (which is very interesting not only from observational, but also from theoretical viewpoints) is essentially equivalent to that in the Chitre-Hartle universe with flat 3-space and (2) the respective pair-creations in expanding metrics with open and flat 3-spaces of the de Sitter universe are different from each other, as insisted upon by Gibbons and Hawking basing on the original static metric. (author)

  7. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID

  8. Under the (legal radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammonds Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers

  9. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Vandenhole, Wouter

    2012-11-15

    Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on.

  10. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  11. International Society of Nephrology-Hydration and Kidney Health Initiative - Expanding Research and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moist, Louise M; Clark, William F; Segantini, Luca; Damster, Sandrine; Le Bellego, Laurent; Wong, Germaine; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a collaborative research initiative to explore the role of hydration in kidney health. Our understanding of the effects of hydration in health and disease is surprisingly limited, particularly when we consider the vital role of hydration in basic human physiology. Recent initiatives and research outcomes have challenged the global medical community to expand our knowledge about hydration, including the differences between water, sugared beverages and other consumables. Identification of the potential mechanisms contributing to the benefits of hydration has stimulated the global nephrology community to advance research regarding hydration for kidney health. Hydration and kidney health has been a focus of research for several research centers with a rapidly expanding world literature and knowledge. The International Society of Nephrology has collaborated with Danone Nutricia Research to promote development of kidney research initiatives, which focus on the role of hydration in kidney health and the global translation of this new information. This initiative supports the use of existing data in different regions and countries to expand dialogue among experts in the field of hydration and health, and to increase scientific interaction and productivity with the ultimate goal of improving kidney health. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  13. New International Initiatives on Enhancement of Biosafety and Biosecurity Regulations for Laboratories Handling Infectious Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netesov, S. V.; Drozdov, I. G.

    2007-01-01

    Before we entered the era of antibiotics, development of antiseptics rules and reliable water purification systems the infectious pathogens had played a major role in morbidity and mortality of global human population. The advances in revealing the nature of dangerous infections and studying their causative agents during the recent years have led not only to big progress in their control but also to the study of their potential as weapons. During the last fifty years, several attempts have been made to use them for criminal or terrorist purposes that demonstrated that even primitively organized terrorist attacks may lead to quite significant consequences. The October 2001 events showed that bioterrorism attacks may be prepared, probably, as a result of theft of the pathogen from a lab. All this led to the revision and radical improvement of current national rules and international recommendations in the field of handling, storage and transportation of infectious agents. As a result, during the past two years these rules have been significantly revised by both the World Health Organization and some countries. However, their harmonization of is still far from what is desired. Therefore, biosafety professionals in some countries, including those of the European Union, are establishing professional biosafety associations. In addition, new initiatives are being proposed to develop internationally harmonized biosecurity rules to govern dangerous pathogens handling and storage. The most important of them are as follows: 1. Development, under the auspices of WHO, of new recommendations concerning a set of requirements to provide physical security of both biological agents and laboratories involved in research on extremely hazardous infections; 2. Enhacement, under the auspices of WHO, of current international recommendations on inventory procedures and regulations, inventory monitoring, and transportation of specimens and strains of extremely hazardous infections; 3

  14. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper,S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Fankhauser, J.

    2009-07-12

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL’s International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  15. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Fankhauser, J.

    2009-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL's International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  16. First branchial cleft fistula presenting with internal opening on the Eustachian tube: Illustrated cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhe; Li, Tiancheng; Xue, Junfang; Jia, Jun; Xiao, Shuifang; Zhao, Enmin

    2012-05-01

    Two cases of first branchial cleft fistula with internal opening on the Eustachian tube are reported and the diagnosis, management and embryological hypothesis are discussed. Retrospective study and review of the literature. Both patients were young boys with first branchial cleft anomaly clearly identified by computed tomography fistulography scan and direct Methylene Blue dye injection. In both cases, surgical removal revealed a fistula with internal opening located on the Eustachian tube near the nasopharynx. The main embryological theories and classification are reviewed. A connection between the theories of first branchial apparatus development and the classification by Work might explain the reported clinical association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opening new horizons, building new synergies : 1998 annual report of Hydro-Quebec International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec International (HQI) was established in 1978 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. Its mission is to contribute to Hydro-Quebec's growth and profitability by investing in energy partnerships and by selling Hydro-Quebec expertise internationally. This annual report presents highlights of the company's operations, balance sheet, financial position, and investments. 1998 proved to be a year of market development and prospecting which yielded promising results. The expanded scope of the company that now includes investment and infrastructure construction was already generating $ 26 million in economic spinoff for Quebec. The report highlights HQI's involvement in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Great strides have been made also in ensuring the most rigorous practices possible to assess and manage risk and to bolster the company's ability to take unforeseen events in stride. On the investment side, in 1998, the first year of its involvement as an investor, HQI initiated investments amounting to $137 million. Plans are to double that figure in 1999. tabs., figs

  18. Thermodynamic and structural models compared with the initial dissolution rates of open-quotes SONclose quotes glass samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovena, I.; Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.; Larche, F.

    1994-01-01

    The experimentally determined initial dissolution rate R 0 of nuclear glass was correlated with thermodynamic parameters and structural parameters. The initial corrosion rates of six open-quotes R7T7close quotes glass samples measured at 100 degrees C in a Soxhlet device were correlated with the glass free hydration energy and the glass formation enthalpy. These correlations were then tested with a group of 26 SON glasses selected for their wide diversity of compositions. The thermodynamic models provided a satisfactory approximation of the initial dissolution rate determined under Soxhlet conditions for SON glass samples that include up to 15 wt% of boron and some alumina. Conversely, these models are inaccurate if the boron concentration exceeds 15 wt% and the glass contains no alumina. Possible correlations between R 0 and structural parameters, such as the boron coordination number and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms, were also investigated. The authors show that R 0 varies inversely with the number of 4-coordinate boron atoms; conversely, the results do not substantiate published reports of a correlation between R 0 and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms

  19. Operative treatment of early infection after internal fixation of limb fractures (exclusive of severe open fractures).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnevialle, P

    2017-02-01

    Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique. A turning point in the local microbial ecology occurs around the third or fourth week, when a biofilm develops around metallic implants. This biofilm protects the bacteria. The treatment relies on both non-operative and operative measures, which are selected based on the time to occurrence of the infection, condition of the soft tissues, and stage of bone healing. Both the surgical strategy and the antibiotic regimen should be determined during a multidisciplinary discussion. When treating superficial SSIs after ORIF, soft-tissue management is the main challenge. The treatment differs according to whether the hardware is covered or exposed. Defects in the skin and/or fascia can be managed using reliable reconstructive surgery techniques, either immediately or after a brief period of vacuum-assisted closure. In deep SSIs, deciding whether to leave or to remove the hardware is difficult. If the hardware is removed, the fracture site can be stabilised provisionally using either external fixation or a cement rod. Once infection control is achieved, several measures can be taken to stimulate bone healing before the end of the classical 6-month interval. If the hardware was removed, then internal fixation must be performed once the infection is eradicated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. The outcome of surgically treated traumatic unstable pelvic fractures by open reduction and internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykhosro Mardanpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate functional and radiological results of pelvic ring fractures treatment by open reduction and internal fixation. METHOD: Thirty eight patients with unstable pelvic fractures, treated from 2002 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean patients’ age was 37 years (range 20 to 67. Twenty six patients were men (4patients with type B and 22 patients with type C fracture and 12 women (7 patients with type B and 5 patients with type C fracture. The commonest cause was a road traffic accident (N=37, about 97%. Internal fixation was done by plaque with ilioinguinal and kocher-langenbeek approaches for anterior, posterior pelvic wall and acetabulum fracture respectively. Quality of reduction was graded according to Majeed score system. RESULTS: There were 11 type-C and 27 type-B pelvic fractures according to Tile’s classification. Thirty six patients sustained additional injuries. the commonest additional injury was lower extremity fracture. The mean follow-up was 45.6 months (range 16 to 84 months.The functional outcome was excellent in 66%, good in 15%, fair in 11% and poor in 7% of the patients with type B pelvic fractures and functional outcome was excellent in 46%, good in 27%, fair in 27% and poor in 0% of the patients with type C pelvic fractures. There were four postoperative infections. No sexual functional problem was reported. Neurologic problem like Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh injury recovered completely in 2 patients and partially in 2 patients. There was no significant relation between functional outcome and the site of fracture (P greater than 0.005. CONCLUSION: Unstable pelvic ring fracture injuries should be managed surgically by rigid stabilization. It must be carried out as soon as the general condition of the patient permits, and even up to two weeks

  1. Initiatives in national and international collaborations at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viyogi, Yogendra Pathak; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades VECC scientists, under the leadership of their director Bikash Sinha, have pursued experimental physics studies under international collaboration programmes, which would not have been possible with the existing facilities at home. The collaboration extended from RIKEN (Japan) in the east to CERN (Switzerland) in the west. It spanned the energy scales from a few tens of MeV per nucleon to several hundred GeV per nucleon and the physics topics on one extreme being the structure of exotic nuclei and their decay modes and on other extreme being the phase transition of hadronic matter and the formation of quark gluon plasma. The dynamic leadership of Dr. Sinha not only helped to shed the initial inhibitions towards such activities, going beyond the national frontiers, but also gave a new dimension to the experimental physics research in the country. It helped to organize an Indian team of scientists from various national institutes and universities. It paved way for full scale funding of the projects and set the trend that enabled many other Indian groups to join several international collaborations in various fields. Here we reflect on the evolution of these national and international collaboration programmes and the physics, technological and sociological benefits resulting from these activities. (author)

  2. Multiple Rib Nonunion: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation and Iliac Crest Bone Graft Aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel J; Begly, John; Tejwani, Nirmal

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are a common chest injury that can typically be treated nonoperatively. However, a percentage of these will go on to nonunion, either because of unique characteristics of the fracture itself or because of a variety of poor healing factors of the host. If a patient has continued symptomology beyond 3 months, surgeons may consider operative management. Although isolated resection of fibrous scar tissue from the nonunion site may be sufficient in some cases, it may also be necessary to provide additional structural integrity to the rib depending on the extent of the fracture pattern and resection. This goal can be achieved operatively with rib plating and bone grafting to promote healing. This video demonstrates the use of plating in the treatment of rib nonunion. It begins with relevant background information on rib fractures and nonunions, then details the approach, open reduction and internal fixation of 3 ribs using plates and bone graft aspirate. Pearls and pitfalls are included during the surgical technique aspect of the video to both help guide surgeons new to the procedure and provide potentially advantageous technical details to more experienced surgeons.

  3. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion treated with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee WXP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal treatment for thoracolumbar fractures (TLF without neurological deficit remains controversial. Majority of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated open operative approaches but have yet to compare the outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle fixation (MIPPF versus non-operative treatment. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between MIPPF and conservative groups for TLF AO Type A1 to Type B2 during a 2-year follow-up period. Pre-operative plain and CT films were evaluated and decision made for short segment (non-fusion MIPPF. Patients who refused operation were treated conservatively with three months of body cast, brace, or corset. MIPPF group showed earlier Visual Analog Score (VAS improvement at six months post-injury (0 vs 6.0- p0.050. MIPPF as a method of internal bracing can be pursued in the treatment of TLF, with larger future cohorts and RCTs being called for to support and explore new findings.

  4. Rate of Improvement following Volar Plate Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dillingham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine recovery timeline of unstable distal radius fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a locking volar plate. Methods. Data was collected prospectively on a consecutive series of twenty-seven patients during routine post-operative visits at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Range of motion measures and grip strength for both wrists were recorded. Results. Greatest gains were made within the first 3 months after surgery. Supination and pronation returned more quickly than flexion or extension, with supination and pronation both at 92% of the uninjured wrist at 3 months. Only flexion improved significantly between 3 and 6 months. All wrist motions showed some improvement until 1 year. Grip strength returned to 94% of the uninjured wrist by 12 months. Conclusions. Range of motion improvement will be greatest between 2 weeks and 3 months, with improvement continuing until 12 months. Grip strength should return to near normal by one year. Function and pain will improve, but not return to normal by the end of 12 months. Clinical Relevance. These results provide the surgeon with information that can be shared with patients on the anticipated timeline for normal recovery of function and strength.

  5. Surgical treatment for pilon fracture of the ankle-open reduction and internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y W; Huang, P J; Hsu, C Y; Kuo, C H; Cheng, Y M; Lin, S Y; Chen, L H; Chiang, H C

    1998-01-01

    From 1991 to 1994, 39 ankles of 38 patients underwent surgical open reduction and internal fixation for pilon fractures. These patients included 29 males and 9 females with an average age of 38.6 y/o (range 28 y/o-58 y/o). The follow up and evaluation period averaged 31.7 months (range 22Ms-44Ms), during which time a standing x-ray for arthrosis grading and functional scale was used for clinical evaluation. Complications included 1 case of infection, 1 case of loss reduction, 2 cases of partial skin necrosis and 2 cases of delayed union. Post-traumatic arthritis occurred in 23 ankles (59%) but only 4 ankles of grade 4 arthrosis resulted in poor functional scale and the overall satisfactory rate was 82%. It was found that anatomic reduction, rigid fixation and early motion exercise are important to successful treatment of ankle fractures. Regarding pilon fracture, specifically the severity of fracture pattern and delay of reduction are important problems to overcome to ensure successful results. Therefore, adequate surgical approach for entire view of ankle joint, reduction and fixation of fibula, sufficient bone graft for articular support, intraoperative x-ray check and postoperative immobilization are essential for the achievement of better clinical results.

  6. Update on open reduction and internal fixation of unstable pelvic fractures during pregnancy: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to report four cases of unstable pelvic fractures in pregnant women treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Cases report: The study included four cases of pregnant women with unstable pelvic fractures; their outcomes were analyzed and discussed. Data were obtained from two University Hospitals. The mean age of women was 23 years; most (3/4 were primiparous, with a mean pregnancy age of 23 weeks. Two women had Malgaigne-type fractures and the other two had symphyseal disjunction associated with acetabular fractures. All fractures were treated surgically. One foetus was dead on admission to hospital. The other three developed well, along with their mothers. Good evolution was only possible with careful pre-, peri-, and postoperative care for the mother, as well as foetal assessment by a multidisciplinary team. In complex cases such as those presented in the present study, pre-, peri-, and postoperative care are mandatory, as well as the presence of a multidisciplinary team. The mother's life always takes priority in acute clinical pictures, as it offers the best chance of survival to both mother and child.

  7. Using an open-source PACS virtual machine for a digital angiography unit: methods and initial impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Alexakos, Christos; Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

    2012-02-01

    The productivity gains, diagnostic benefit, and enhanced data availability to clinicians enabled by picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are no longer in doubt. However, commercial PACS offerings are often extremely expensive initially and require ongoing support contracts with vendors to maintain them. Recently, several open-source offerings have become available that put PACS within reach of more users. However, they can be resource-intensive to install and assure that they have room for future growth--both for computational and storage capacity. An alternate approach, which we describe herein, is to use PACS built on virtual machines which can be moved from smaller to larger hardware as needed in a just-in-time manner. This leverages the cost benefits of Moore's Law for both storage and compute costs. We describe the approach and current results in this paper.

  8. Access to Posthospitalization Acute Care Facilities is Associated with Payer Status for Open Abdominal Aortic Repair and Open Lower Extremity Revascularization in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Jesus G; Woo, Karen; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Rigberg, David

    2017-07-01

    Uninsured patients may not have access to postacute care facilities that play an important role in clinical recovery, and functional outcomes after vascular surgery. We sought to determine whether discharge disposition is associated with insurance status. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Vascular Quality Initiative ® for patients who underwent open abdominal aortic repair, infrainguinal bypass, or suprainguinal bypass (SB) between January 2012 and July 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with clustering at the surgeon and facility level was used to calculate 95% confidence intervals for discharge disposition to home, skilled nursing facility (SNF) or rehabilitation (Rehab) facility by payer status (Medicare, Medicaid, Commercial, Military/Veterans Affairs, Non-US Insurance, or Self-pay), with adjustment for patient, operative, and postoperative characteristics. The study cohort comprised 18,478 procedures (open abdominal aortic repair = 2,817; infrainguinal bypass = 11,572; suprainguinal bypass = 4,089) after we excluded procedures with missing data and in-hospital deaths. Twenty-four percent of the cohort was discharged to an SNF or Rehab site. On univariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) of discharge home was 4.38 (95% CI: 3.33-5.77) for self-pay as compared to Medicare. On mixed-effects analysis, the adjusted odds of discharge home for self-pay as compared to Medicare remained high (OR = 3.09; 95% CI: 2.23-4.26), after adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, preoperative ambulatory status, number of comorbidities, case urgency, total operative time, presence of a postoperative complication, procedure type, and length of stay. Adjusted odds for discharge to SNF (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.15-0.46) and Rehab (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.72) were lowest for self-pay status. Access to postacute care facilities is associated with insurance status. Self-pay (uninsured) patients are less likely to have access to discharge services that may

  9. Open reduction and internal fixation aided by intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging improved the articular reduction in 72 displaced acetabular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Henrik; Lind, Dennis; Toendevold, Erik

    2015-01-01

    was evaluated on reconstructed coronal and sagittal images of the acetabulum. Results - The fracture severity and patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. In the 3D group, 46 of 72 patients (0.6) had a perfect result after open reduction and internal fixation, and in the control group, 17 of 42 (0...

  10. Open-wedge osteotomy using an internal plate fixator in patients with medial-compartment gonarthritis and varus malalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Schmal, Hagen; Hauschild, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our purpose was to evaluate the 3-year clinical results of patients with medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee and varus malalignment who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with an internal plate fixator (TomoFix; Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland). Clinical results a...

  11. Open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgman, A. J.; Roolker, W.; Patt, T. W.; Raaymakers, E. L. F. B.; Marti, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy persists concerning the preferred treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and

  12. Outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneum without the use of bone grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendse Aniruddha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraarticular fractures of calcaneum are commenest type of calcaneal fractures. Lots of controversies exist about the ideal management for them. The focus is now shifting on operative management by open reduction and internal fixation for these fractures with or without the use of bone grafts. Method: Thirty intraarticular fractures classified by Essex Lopresti radiological classification, were treated by open reduction and fixation. The patients were followed over a mean period of 30 months (25-40 months. Results: All the fractures united at a mean duration of 14 weeks. 86% patients had excellent functional outcome with one patient having fair and one having poor functional outcome. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation with plate is a good method for treatment of intraarticular fractures of calcaneum to achieve anatomical restoration of articular surface under vision, stable fixation, early mobilization and an option for primary subtalar arthrodesis if deemed necessary.

  13. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirali Vora

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30 completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  14. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  15. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-02-15

    Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  16. A framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cadotte, David W; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An estimated two billion people worldwide lack adequate access to surgical care. To address this humanitarian emergency, an increasing number of international surgical partnerships are emerging between developed and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). At present, there are no clear indicators that may be used to assess the effectiveness of such initiatives. We conducted an international qualitative study of 31 surgeons from developed and LMICs involved in international partnerships across a variety of subspecialties. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were applied in order to develop a practical framework that may be applied to monitor and evaluate global surgical initiatives. Several themes emerged from the study: (i) there is a large unmet need to establish and maintain prospective databases in LMICs to inform the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical partnerships; (ii) assessment of initiatives must occur longitudinally over the span of several years; (ii) the domains of assessment are contextual and encompass cultural, institutional and regional factors; and (iv) evaluation strategies should explore broader impact within the community and country. Based on thematic analysis within the domains of inputs, outputs and outcomes, a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of international surgical initiatives, the Framework for the Assessment of InteRNational Surgical Success (FAIRNeSS) is proposed. In response to the increasing number of surgical partnerships between developed and LMICs, we propose a framework to monitor and evaluate international surgical initiatives.

  17. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  18. Synthesis of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(styrene) copolymers via a dual initiator route combining cationic ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becer, C.R.; Paulus, R.M.; ppener, S.; Hoogenboom, R.; Fustin, C.A.; Gohy, J.M.W.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Block copolymers of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) and styrene were synthesized by a combination of cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Initially, a detailed kinetic investigation for the ?-bromoisobutyrylbromide (BrEBBr) initiated CROP of EtOx

  19. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  20. Comparison of Early and Delayed Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Treating Closed Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Liu, Lei; Tu, Chong-qi; Li, Jian; Li, Qi; Pei, Fu-xing

    2014-07-01

    The timing of surgery for osteosynthesis of type C pilon (AO/OTA) fractures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of early and delayed open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating closed type C pilon fractures. Forty-six patients with closed type C pilon fractures matched according to age, gender, soft tissue conditions, and fracture pattern were divided into group A (early group: underwent surgery within 36 hours of the injury) or group B (delayed group: underwent surgery 10 days to 3 weeks postinjury after the soft tissue swelling subsided). In the delayed group, 9 patients were treated first by temporary external fixation. All the closed fractures were managed by ORIF with locking plates. At follow-up, the clinical and radiographic results were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 25.8 months (range, 14 to 48 months) in group A and 26.0 months (range, 15 to 44 months) in group B. There was no significant difference (P > .05) between the 2 groups regarding the rate of soft tissue complication, the rate of fracture union, and the final functional score. The patients in group A had a significantly shorter mean time to fracture union (21.5 ± 4.0 weeks vs 23.3 ± 3.7 weeks, P fractures can be safe and effective, with similar rates of wound complication, fracture union, and final good functional recovery but shorter operative time, union time, and hospital stay. These results favorably compare with delayed ORIF treatment. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Start-Up and Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni J.

    2001-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will describe the battery hardware configuration, operation, and role in providing power to the main power system of the ISS. We will also discuss initial battery start-up and performance data.

  2. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  3. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design . The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention

  4. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and

  5. Phosphorylation by PINK1 releases the UBL domain and initializes the conformational opening of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Caulfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin

  6. An Open-Book Modular Watershed Modeling Framework for Rapid Prototyping of GPM- based Flood Forecasting in International River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, N.; Hossain, F.

    2006-05-01

    Floods have always been disastrous for human life. It accounts for about 15 % of the total death related to natural disasters. There are around 263 transboundary river basins listed by UNESCO, wherein at least 30 countries have more than 95% of their territory locked in one or more such transboundary basins. For flood forecasting in the lower riparian nations of these International River Basins (IRBs), real-time rainfall data from upstream nations is naturally the most critical factor governing the forecasting effectiveness. However, many upstream nations fail to provide data to the lower riparian nations due to a lack of in-situ rainfall measurement infrastructure or a lack of a treaty for real-time sharing of rainfall data. A potential solution is therefore to use satellites that inherently measure rainfall across political boundaries. NASA's proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission appears very promising in providing this vital rainfall information under the data- limited scenario that will continue to prevail in most IRBs. However, satellite rainfall is associated with uncertainty and hence, proper characterization of the satellite rainfall error propagation in hydrologic models for flood forecasting is a critical priority that should be resolved in the coming years in anticipation of GPM. In this study, we assess an open book modular watershed modeling approach for estimating the expected error in flood forecasting related to GPM rainfall data. Our motivation stems from the critical challenge in identifying the specific IRBs that would benefit from a pre-programmed satellite-based forecasting system in anticipation of GPM. As the number of flood-prone IRBs is large, conventional data-intensive implementation of existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models on case-by-case IRBs is considered time-consuming for completing such a global assessment. A more parsimonious approach is justified at the expense of a tolerable loss of detail and

  7. The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds and the Open Grid Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds 20111 was held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan on 19th to 25th March 2011. A series of workshops and tutorials preceded the symposium. The aim of ISGC is to promote the use of grid and cloud computing in the Asia Pacific region. Over the 9 years that ISGC has been running, the programme has evolved to become more user community focused with subjects reaching out to a larger population. Research communities are making widespread use of distributed computing facilities. Linking together data centers, production grids, desktop systems or public clouds, many researchers are able to do more research and produce results more quickly. They could do much more if the computing infrastructures they use worked together more effectively. Changes in the way we approach distributed computing, and new services from commercial providers, mean that boundaries are starting to blur. This opens the way for hybrid solutions that make it easier for researchers to get their job done. Consequently the theme for ISGC2011 was the opportunities that better integrated computing infrastructures can bring, and the steps needed to achieve the vision of a seamless global research infrastructure. 2011 is a year of firsts for ISGC. First the title - while the acronym remains the same, its meaning has changed to reflect the evolution of computing: The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds. Secondly the programming - ISGC 2011 has always included topical workshops and tutorials. But 2011 is the first year that ISGC has been held in conjunction with the Open Grid Forum2 which held its 31st meeting with a series of working group sessions. The ISGC plenary session included keynote speakers from OGF that highlighted the relevance of standards for the research community. ISGC with its focus on applications and operational aspects complemented well with OGF's focus on standards development. ISGC brought to OGF real-life use cases and needs to be

  8. Opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Geometric Rifting and Asymmetric Initial Seafloor Spreading after Continental Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Funck, T.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Schnabel, M.; Reichert, C. J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Bronner, A.; Austin, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, the initial phases of the opening of an ocean and the formation of its associated sedimentary basins. The study of the deep structure of conjugate passive continental margins combined with precise plate kinematic reconstructions can provide constraints on the mechanisms of rifting and formation of initial oceanic crust. In this study the Central Atlantic conjugate margins are compared, based on compilation of wide-angle seismic profiles from the NW-Africa Nova Scotian and US passive margins. Plate cinematic reconstructions were used to place the profiles in the position at opening and at the M25 magnetic anomaly. The patterns of volcanism, crustal thickness, geometry, and seismic velocities in the transition zone. suggest symmetric rifting followed by asymmetric oceanic crustal accretion. Conjugate profiles in the southern Central Atlantic image differences in the continental crustal thickness. While profiles on the eastern US margin are characterized by thick layers of magmatic underplating, no such underplate was imaged along the NW-African continental margin. It has been proposed that these volcanic products form part of the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province). In the north, two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in exactly conjugate positions show that the crustal geometry of the unthinned continental crust and the necking zone are nearly symmetric. A region including seismic velocities too high to be explained by either continental or oceanic crust is imaged along the Nova Scotia margin off Eastern Canada, corresponding on the African side to an oceanic crust with slightly elevated velocities. These might result from asymmetric spreading creating seafloor by faulting the existing lithosphere on the Canadian side and the emplacement of magmatic oceanic crust including pockets of serpentinite on the Moroccan margin. A slightly elevated crustal thickness along the

  9. International survey of research university leadership views on supporting open access scholarly & educational materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This report looks closely at the attitudes on open access of a sample of 314 deans, chancellors, department chairmen, research institute directors, provosts, trustees, vice presidents and other upper level administrators from more than 50 research universities in the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland and Australia. The report gives detailed information on what they think of the cost of academic journal subscriptions, and how they understand the meaning of the term “open access.” The study also gives highly detailed data on what kind of policies the research university elite support or might support in the area of open access, including policies such as restricting purchases of very high-priced journals, paying publication fees for open access publications, mandating deposit of university scholarship into digital repositories, and developing open access educational materials from university resources. Just a few of the report’s many findings are that: • The lowest percentage of those interviewed considering...

  10. Initial-value problem for the Gardner equation applied to nonlinear internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2017-04-01

    The Gardner equation is a fundamental mathematical model for the description of weakly nonlinear weakly dispersive internal waves, when cubic nonlinearity cannot be neglected. Within this model coefficients of quadratic and cubic nonlinearity can both be positive as well as negative, depending on background conditions of the medium, where waves propagate (sea water density stratification, shear flow profile) [Rouvinskaya et al., 2014, Kurkina et al., 2011, 2015]. For the investigation of weakly dispersive behavior in the framework of nondimensional Gardner equation with fixed (positive) sign of quadratic nonlinearity and positive or negative cubic nonlinearity {eq1} partial η/partial t+6η( {1± η} )partial η/partial x+partial ^3η/partial x^3=0, } the series of numerical experiments of initial-value problem was carried out for evolution of a bell-shaped impulse of negative polarity (opposite to the sign of quadratic nonlinear coefficient): {eq2} η(x,t=0)=-asech2 ( {x/x0 } ), for which amplitude a and width x0 was varied. Similar initial-value problem was considered in the paper [Trillo et al., 2016] for the Korteweg - de Vries equation. For the Gardner equation with different signs of cubic nonlinearity the initial-value problem for piece-wise constant initial condition was considered in detail in [Grimshaw et al., 2002, 2010]. It is widely known, for example, [Pelinovsky et al., 2007], that the Gardner equation (1) with negative cubic nonlinearity has a family of classic solitary wave solutions with only positive polarity,and with limiting amplitude equal to 1. Therefore evolution of impulses (2) of negative polarity (whose amplitudes a were varied from 0.1 to 3, and widths at the level of a/2 were equal to triple width of solitons with the same amplitude for a 1) was going on a universal scenario with the generation of nonlinear Airy wave. For the Gardner equation (1) with the positive cubic nonlinearity coefficient there exist two one-parametric families of

  11. PREFACE: 2nd International School and Conference Saint-Petersburg OPEN on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures (SPbOPEN2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for

  12. The International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Thomas; Sculpher, Mark J; Claxton, Karl; Revill, Paul; Briggs, Andrew; Cairns, John A; Teerawattananon, Yot; Asfaw, Elias; Lopert, Ruth; Culyer, Anthony J; Walker, Damian G

    2016-12-01

    Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a major funder of economic evaluations of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), commissioned a "reference case" through the International Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) to guide future evaluations, and improve both the consistency and usefulness to decision makers. The iDSI Reference Case draws on previous insights from the World Health Organization, the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care, and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Comprising 11 key principles, each accompanied by methodological specifications and reporting standards, the iDSI Reference Case also serves as a means of identifying priorities for methods research, and can be used as a framework for capacity building and technical assistance in LMICs. The iDSI Reference Case is an aid to thought, not a substitute for it, and should not be followed slavishly without regard to context, culture, or history. This article presents the iDSI Reference Case and discusses the rationale, approach, components, and application in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An institutional repository initiative and issues concerning metadata

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAM, Özlem; ATILGAN, Doğan; ARSLANTEKİN, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    Ankara University has become one of the fist open access initiatives in Turkey. Ankara University Open Access Program (AUO) was formed as part of the Open Access project (http://acikarsiv.ankara.edu.tr ) and supported by the University with an example of an open access institutional repository. As for the further step, the system will require the metadata tools to enable international recognization. According to Budapest Open Access Initiative, as suggested two strategies for open access t...

  14. Strengthening the Evidence Base for Open Government in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will help improve open government data initiatives in the developing world, ... Open data can help governments, businesses, and organizations share huge ... The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development: ...

  15. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of internal transport barriers in the initial phase of Ohmic discharges in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Bulanin, V V; Vildjunas, M I; Golant, V E; Gorokhov, M V; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Petrov, A V; Rozhdestvensky, V V; Tukachinsky, A S; Zhubr, N A

    2004-01-01

    A regime with electron heat confinement improvement was recently found in the initial phase of discharges in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in this regime was confirmed by Thomson scattering measurements and by transport modelling. Two possible reasons for the ITB formation are discussed in the paper: by reduction of turbulent transport in the presence of low magnetic shear or by plasma sheared rotation. It is demonstrated that low magnetic shear formation is possible in the current ramp-up phase of the Ohmic discharge. The low magnetic shear does not seem to be the only reason for the transport reduction. Results of Doppler reflectometry measurements of poloidal rotation of density fluctuations are presented. It is found that core confinement improvement correlates with the appearance of sheared rotation of the density fluctuations and with a burst of the MHD activity. The ITB formation in the regime seems to be a result of a combined action of reduced magnetic shear and plasma sheared rotation

  17. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  18. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  19. Building an Open Data Portal for the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative based on an Iterative Development Methodology and Linked Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P.; Bennett, V. L.; Stephens, A.; Wilson, A.; Waterfall, A. M.; Petrie, R.; Iwi, A.; Donegan, S.; Juckes, M. N.; Parton, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme was initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2009 to address the GCOS Essential Climate Variable (ECV) requirements to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based data products to characterise the climate system and its changes. CEDA, working as part of a project consortium, were awarded the contract to build the Open Data Portal, consisting collectively of a central archive and single point of access for dissemination of the data to the international user community. Reflecting climate and earth observation community requirements, the system needed to support a range of access services in use by this domain and specifically, to integrate into existing infrastructure in the form of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). This range of requirements together with the heterogeneity of the ECV datasets presented significant challenges. However, the use of Linked Data technologies and an iterative approach to data model development and data publishing have been instrumental in meeting the objectives and building a cohesive system. The portal supports data discovery based on the OGC CSW specification and on ESGF's powerful faceted search. These services provide complementary content at different levels of granularity and it therefore became clear that a common data model was needed. Key terms are defined in vocabularies serialised in SKOS and OWL and are accessible from a central vocabulary server to provide a single authoritative source for applications consuming metadata content. Exploiting the vocabulary service therefore, it has been possible to develop an innovative solution tagging ISO 19115 records for the CSW with the equivalent vocabulary terms used for the ESGF faceted search system. In this way it has been possible to create a rich user interface for the portal combining search results from both search services and the ability to dynamically populate facet selection and context-based help information from the

  20. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on issues relating to the advent of cloud computing as a new business model in international trade, the implications of... (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA Patriot Act...

  1. Mapping a Nursing Terminology Subset to openEHR Archetypes. A Case Study of the International Classification for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J R M; Cook, T W; Cavalini, L T

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare information technologies have the potential to transform nursing care. However, healthcare information systems based on conventional software architecture are not semantically interoperable and have high maintenance costs. Health informatics standards, such as controlled terminologies, have been proposed to improve healthcare information systems, but their implementation in conventional software has not been enough to overcome the current challenge. Such obstacles could be removed by adopting a multilevel model-driven approach, such as the openEHR specifications, in nursing information systems. To create an openEHR archetype model for the Functional Status concepts as published in Nursing Outcome Indicators Catalog of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (NOIC-ICNP). Four methodological steps were followed: 1) extraction of terms from the NOIC-ICNP terminology; 2) identification of previously published openEHR archetypes; 3) assessment of the adequacy of those openEHR archetypes to represent the terms; and 4) development of new openEHR archetypes when required. The "Barthel Index" archetype was retrieved and mapped to the 68 NOIC-ICNP Functional Status terms. There were 19 exact matches between a term and the correspondent archetype node and 23 archetype nodes that matched to one or more NOIC-INCP. No matches were found between the archetype and 14 of the NOIC-ICNP terms, and nine archetype nodes did not match any of the NOIC-ICNP terms. The openEHR model was sufficient to represent the semantics of the Functional Status concept according to the NOIC-ICNP, but there were differences in data granularity between the terminology and the archetype, thus producing a significantly complex mapping, which could be difficult to implement in real healthcare information systems. However, despite the technological complexity, the present study demonstrated the feasibility of mapping nursing terminologies to openEHR archetypes, which emphasizes the

  2. International normalized ratio stabilization in newly initiated warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Desai, Sunita; Damaraju, C V; Lu, Lang; Fields, Larry E; Wildgoose, Peter; Schein, Jeff R

    2014-12-01

    Warfarin is effective for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but international normalized ratio (INR) levels fluctuate and frequent monitoring is necessary. This study used data from a large anticoagulation management service database to analyze the relationship between INR stabilization and warfarin utilization for >1 year in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF). Anticoagulation records from a large US electronic database collected from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Patients with NVAF and ≥ 3 INR values in the dataset were identified (n = 15,276). INR stabilization was defined as the first three consecutive INR values between 2.0 and 3.0 after warfarin initiation. One quarter of patients (n = 3809) failed to reach INR stabilization. After initial stabilization, 30% of subsequent INR values were out of range. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) follow-up time from stabilization to the end of study for these patients was 494.2 ± 418.1 days. Age ≥ 75 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.27), hypertension (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), or prior stroke (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.04-1.61) were positively associated with achieving stabilization; heart failure was negatively associated with stabilization (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.70-0.87). Male gender (p < 0.0001) and hypertension were associated with earlier stabilization (p = 0.0013); heart failure was associated with later stabilization (p = 0.0098). Patients who achieved INR stabilization within 1 year were 10 times more likely to remain on warfarin than patients who did not achieve it. Observational data may contain incomplete records. Data on adherence, concurrent medications, vitamin K intake, genotype, reasons for discontinuation of monitoring, and patient outcomes were not available in the dataset. The study findings were generalizable only to patients with AF who were managed by anticoagulation clinics. Given the importance of stroke prevention among

  3. osni.info-Using free/libre/open source software to build a virtual international community for open source nursing informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyri, Karl; Murray, Peter J

    2005-12-01

    Many health informatics organizations seem to be slow to take up the advantages of dynamic, web-based technologies for providing services to, and interaction with, their members; these are often the very technologies they promote for use within healthcare environments. This paper aims to introduce some of the many free/libre/open source (FLOSS) applications that are now available to develop interactive websites and dynamic online communities as part of the structure of health informatics organizations, and to show how the Open Source Nursing Informatics Working Group (OSNI) of the special interest group in nursing informatics of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA-NI) is using some of these tools to develop an online community of nurse informaticians through their website, at . Some background introduction to FLOSS applications is used for the benefit of those less familiar with such tools, and examples of some of the FLOSS content management systems (CMS) being used by OSNI are described. The experiences of the OSNI will facilitate a knowledgeable nursing contribution to the wider discussions on the applications of FLOSS within health and healthcare, and provides a model that many other groups could adopt.

  4. FY 2008 Next Generation Safeguards Initiative International Safeguards Education and Training Pilot Progerams Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G; Essner, J; Dougan, A; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokova, E; Wehling, F

    2008-10-17

    Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were

  5. FY 2008 Next Generation Safeguards Initiative International Safeguards Education and Training Pilot Programs Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Anzelon, G.; Essner, J.; Dougan, A.; Doyle, J.; Boyer, B.; Hypes, P.; Sokova, E.; Wehling, F.

    2008-01-01

    Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A and M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students

  6. Usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception: the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovics, Miklós; Virágh, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the survey was to gain understanding of women's usage patterns and attitudes towards emergency contraception (i.e., the 'morning after pill') and to gain insight into the role and attitudes of pharmacists as providers of emergency contraception. As part of the International Emergency Contraception Research Initiative, approximately 6500 women (15-49 years) and nearly 500 pharmacists from 14 countries in Western, Central and Eastern Europe, and Central Asia completed questionnaires via web-based interrogation or computer-assisted/paper-assisted personal interviews. Common to almost all countries and cultures was that, while awareness of emergency contraception was high (≥84% of respondents, except in Kazakhstan), usage was generally low (4-18%). In Austria, the Czech Republic, Spain, and the UK, better underlying protection with hormonal contraceptives or male condoms would have meant less need for emergency contraception. In Bulgaria, Lithuania, Romania, and Russia, greater dependence on less reliable contraceptive methods such as calendar + withdrawal was associated with higher use of the emergency contraceptive pill (11-18%) but also with higher abortion rates (19-21%). Overt rejection of emergency contraception in the event of an accident was low, except in countries (e.g., Austria, Poland) where the misperception that it acts as an abortifacient was common. Except for Bulgaria, pharmacists elsewhere tended to have limited knowledge and moralistic attitudes towards emergency contraception. Improved educational efforts, probably country-specific, are required to increase the use of highly effective methods of regular contraception and overcome barriers to acceptance of emergency contraception as a suitable postcoital solution to avoid unwanted pregnancy or abortion.

  7. Thirty Years of Reform and Opening Up: Teaching International Relations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Patrice C.; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    In 1978, Deng Xiaoping declared that China's future depended on "gaige kaifang" (reform and opening up to the West). By any standard, China has reformed its economic system and prospered handsomely by integrating into the world economy. With less fanfare, China has taken steps to restructure its political system and committed substantial…

  8. Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

  9. Influence of the International Academic and Labor Mobility on the Activity of Open Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madina, Tulegenova; Mansurova, Benazir

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the analysis of the new tendencies: openness of technologies, growth of the migration flows of the youth that are seeking for the quality education, and highly qualified professionals, who offer their unique abilities to large companies and research centers of the developed countries. The subjects of the world market…

  10. Intergenerational and international welfare leakages of a tariff in a small open economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J.H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    1999-01-01

    A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with imperfect competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces output and employment and leads to an appreciation of the real exchange rate both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff

  11. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... for U.S. business. A discussion of sectoral issues will focus on women and economic security..., Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted Kassinger. The ACIEP serves the U... Subcommittee. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  12. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahid M. Salih

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Open Access at Berkeley: Results from the 2015 Survey of Berkeley Research Impact Initiative (BRII) Funding Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitzky, Samantha; Phillips, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The Berkeley Research Impact Initiative (BRII) was one of the first campus-based open access (OA) funds to be established in North America and one of the most active, distributing more than $244,000 to support University of California (UC) Berkeley authors. In April 2015, we conducted a qualitative study of 138 individuals who had received BRII…

  14. Finding Common Ground: Use of a Geographically-Framed Landscape Template as an Integrating Platform for an International Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Gary; Li, Xilai; Qiao, Youming; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin

    2018-01-01

    This situated case study outlines how a place-based landscape template provided an integrative platform for the environmental arm of a cross-disciplinary international education initiative, the Three Brothers Project, wherein geographers at the University of Auckland worked alongside engineers at Tsinghua University in Beijing to support…

  15. Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle: our first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnaver, Ales

    2008-10-01

    Treatment of intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle head is conservative at most institutions dealing with facial fractures. Recently, reports had been published about benefits of surgical treatment in these fractures. From July 2004 until the end of June 2006, 13 patients with 16 displaced intra-articular fractures of the mandibular condyle were treated with open reduction and internal fixation at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Ljubljana, Slovenia, using the preauricular approach and the lag screw technique. Twelve of the 13 patients could open their mouths for 40 mm or more, and 10 had a deflection of the chin of less than 2 mm upon maximal opening. None of the patients experienced pain upon rest, palpation, or chewing. Occlusion was not noted as altered in any of the cases, neither subjectively, nor on examination. There were no cases of postoperative weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Surgical treatment of intra-articular condyle fractures using the preauricular approach achieves a good exposure and enables proper reduction. Stable fixation of fractured bony fragments can be achieved using the lag screw technique. Another benefit of open exposure is revision and repair of TMJ soft tissues. With the appropriate surgical technique, the surgical procedure is safe and leads to good results.

  16. Clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Chen Lin; Sun Qingrong; Shuai Jie; Zhou Zheng; Huang Lan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery. Methods: Forty two patients with stenosis of initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery underwent interventional treatment and MSCTA were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Forty two patients were diagnosed correctly through MSCTA. The percentages of stenotic area were measured from the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR)images of MSCTA, including mild stenosis( 70%)in 30, obstruction in 4 (>100%)and normal in 18. Plaques and endoscopic views of stenosis were delineated on MSCTA and CTVE. Conclusion: MSCTA is an accurate method for the assessment of the stenosis and plaques of the stenotic origin segment of internal carotid artery. MSCTA can be used as a convenient follow-up modality for instent restenosis. (authors)

  17. Archival standards, in archival open access software And offer appropriate software for internal archival centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Izadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is Study of Descriptive Metadata Standards in Archival open source software, to determine the most appropriate descriptive metadata standard (s and also Encoder Software support of these standards. The approach of present study is combination and library methods, Delphi and descriptive survey are used. Data gathering in library study is fiche, in the Delphi method is questionnaire and in descriptive survey is checklist. Statistical population contains 5 Archival open source software. The findings suggest that 5 metadata standards, consist of EAD, ISAD, EAC-CPF, ISAAR & ISDF, diagnosed appropriate by Delphi Panel members as the most appropriate descriptive metadata standards to use for archival software. Moreover, ICA-ATOM and Archivist toolkit in terms of support for standards that were suitable, diagnosed as the most appropriate archival software.

  18. Academic staff involvement and openness to diversity in international educational organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Joint work among academic staff is important for solving the ever-increasing number of complex tasks that are becoming part of everyday activities in higher education. At the same time, diversification and internationalisation may challenge collaboration processes and communication demands. Speak...... level types of diversity (linguistic and visible) but no effect on openness to deep-level types of diversity (informational and value).......Joint work among academic staff is important for solving the ever-increasing number of complex tasks that are becoming part of everyday activities in higher education. At the same time, diversification and internationalisation may challenge collaboration processes and communication demands....... Speaking a shared language consistently could be a way of overcoming problems. Hence, this study focuses on the effect of shared language among academic staff on the relation between academic staff involvement in work processes and openness to diversity. This study draws on data from 489 Danish academic...

  19. Surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shishui; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infections and to quantify the contribution of independent risk factors to the probability of developing infection after definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures in adult patients. A retrospective analysis was performed at a level I trauma center between January 2004 and December 2010. Data were collected from a review of the patient's electronic medical records. A total of 251 consecutive patients (256 cases) were divided into two groups, those with surgical site infections and those without surgical site infections. Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared between these groups, and risk factors were determined by univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Variables analyzed included age, gender, smoking history, diabetes, presence of an open fracture, presence of compartment syndrome, Schatzker classification, polytrauma status, ICU stay, time from injury to surgery, use of temporary external fixation, surgical approach, surgical fixation, operative time, and use of a drain. The overall rate of surgical site infection after ORIF of tibial plateau fractures during the 7 years of this study was 7.8% (20 of 256). The most common causative pathogens was Staphylococcus aureus (n=15, 75%). Independent predictors of surgical site infection identified by multivariate analyses were open tibial plateau fracture (odds ratio=3.9; 95% CI=1.3-11.6; p=0.015) and operative time (odds ratio=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.4; psite infection. Both open fracture and operative time are independent risks factors for postoperative infection.

  20. Open reduction and internal fixation of dislocated condylar fractures in children: long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Vecchione, Lisa; Martin, Brian; Jiang, Shao; Sotereanos, George

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes of treating dislocated condylar fractures sustained in childhood with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Six children 14 years or younger with a condylar neck or subcondylar fracture with dislocation of the condyle from the glenoid fossa were treated with ORIF. Patients were followed for 27 to 92 months post-ORIF (mean: 67.6 months) with routine clinical and radiologic examinations. On the dislocated side, all patients radiographically showed signs of remodeling of the condylar process and shortening of the ramus. Subsequent to their fractures, 3 patients were classified with Angle class II malocclusion, retrognathism, and deviation of the mandibular symphysis. Four patients had objective and/or subjective signs of temporomandibular (TMJ) dysfunction. Until open surgery demonstrates a consistent functional advantage, nonsurgical management should be considered the first treatment option for the dislocated pediatric condylar fracture.

  1. TMJ ARTICULAR DISC POSITION AND CONFIGURATION 30 YEARS AFTER INITIAL DIAGNOSIS OF INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, R; BOERING, G; STEGENGA, B; DEBONT, LGM

    Purpose: This study evaluates disc position and configuration on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with a long history of internal derangement. Patients and Methods: Sagittal T1-weighted MRIs of 55 TMJs that were diagnosed with internal derangement approximately 30

  2. Opening the black box: internal capital markets and managerial power in conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, M.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; Sautner, Z.

    2010-01-01

    How do firms allocate capital internally across units? Do more powerful and better connected managers inside a conglomerate get larger capital allocations? To answer these questions, we put together a unique five-year business-unit panel data set on planned and actual capital allocations inside a

  3. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine a New Focus on Investment: Attracting Inbound Foreign Direct Investment to the United States, and will highlight the U.S.-Turkey Economic Partnership Commission. Subcommittee reports will be led by the Investment Subcommittee, the...

  4. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Investment Subcommittee, the Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic... public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is controlled; to obtain pre...

  5. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...

  6. Opening our hearts and minds: the meaning of international clinical nursing electives in the personal and professional lives of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Cox, Amy Harmer

    2006-06-01

    Although international opportunities are the hallmark of nursing education at a large private university, the meaning of participating in such clinical nursing electives has not been described. The purpose of this phenomenological study of nurses was to examine the personal and professional meaning of participating in international clinical nursing electives during their undergraduate nursing studies. Audiotaped interviews were conducted with 20 former nursing students who had had this opportunity. "Opening our hearts and minds" was described by the study's participants, with the following themes: increasing understanding of other cultures and peoples, increasing understanding of global sociopolitical and health issues, increasing the commitment to make a difference, experiencing personal and professional growth, contributing to professional development in the host country, making interpersonal connexions, and developing cultural competence. This study makes an important contribution to the documentation of the meaning of participating in international nursing clinical experiences. Data are being used for long-term curricular planning in the development and refinement of future international clinical nursing electives and to provide outcomes data for professional accreditation. There are broader implications for the movement beyond individual cultural competence to increasing global consciousness and the improvement of global health care.

  7. Clinical efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures: A series of 10 cases and surgical guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Joshi; Rajesh Kshirsagar; Akshay Mishra; Rahul Shah

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in the management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures. Method: Ten patients with displaced mandibular fractures treated with 1.5 mm four holed titanium mini-plate and 4 mm screws which were removed within four month after surgery. Results: All cases showed satisfactory bone healing without any growth disturbance. Conclusion: Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) with 1.5 mm titanium mini- plate...

  8. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of displaced Supracondylar Fractures of Humerus with Crossed K-wires via Medial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the medial approach for open reduction and internal fixation of Gartland type 3 displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. A prospective, single centre study of on displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in 42 children was carried out at our institute. All fractures were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via medial approach. The mean follow-up was 12 months and patients were assessed according to Flynn’s criteria. No patients had post-operative ulnar nerve injury. Cubitus varus was not seen in any patient. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in three patients that subsided with anti-septic dressings and antibiotics. No deep infection occurred. 88.09 % patients showed satisfactory results as per Flynn’s criteria. The medial approach provides an excellent view of the supracondylar area. The approach is convenient due to a lower risk for ulnar nerve injury and better acceptability of the medial incisional scar.

  9. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  10. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors’ Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alfonso, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship -emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors’ Network of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Data sharing: A new editorial initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the editors’ network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship -emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors’ Network of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  13. Initiatives promoting seamless care in medication management: an international review of the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Coraline; Foulon, Veerle; de Winter, Sabrina; Spinewine, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Patients' transition between hospital and community is a high-risk period for the occurrence of medication-related problems. The objective was to review initiatives, implemented at national and regional levels in seven selected countries, aiming at improving continuity in medication management upon admission and hospital discharge. We performed a structured search of grey literature, mainly through relevant websites (scientific, professional and governmental organizations). Regional or national initiatives were selected. For each initiative data on the characteristics, impact, success factors and barriers were extracted. National experts were asked to validate the initiatives identified and the data extracted. Most initiatives have been implemented since the early 2000 and are still ongoing. The principal actions include: development and implementation of guidelines for healthcare professionals, national information campaigns, education of healthcare professionals and development of information technologies to share data across settings of care. Positive results have been partially reported in terms of intake into practice or process measures. Critical success factors identified included: leadership and commitment to convey national and local forces, tailoring to local settings, development of a regulatory framework and information technology support. Barriers identified included: lack of human and financial resources, questions relative to responsibility and accountability, lack of training and lack of agreement on privacy issues. Although not all initiatives are applicable as such to a particular healthcare setting, most of them convey very interesting data that should be used when drawing recommendations and implementing approaches to optimize continuity of care.

  14. Efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation with a miniplate and hollow screw in the treatment of Lisfranc injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baoliang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation with the miniplate and hollow screw in the treatment of Lisfranc injury. Methods: Ten cases of Lisfranc injury treated by open reduction, miniplate and hollow screw in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. There were 6 males and 4 females with age ranging from 25 to 45 years (mean 32 years. Among them, one case was classified as Type A, six Type B and three Type C. Injury mechanism included road traffic accidents (3 cases, fall from height (5 cases and hit by heavy object (2 cases. All injuries were closed without cerebral trauma or other complicated injuries. The time interval between injury and operation was 6e10 days (average 6.6 days. Postoperatively, the foot function was assessed using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS Scales. Healing time and complications were observed. Results: All patients were followed up for 18e24 months (average 20 months. Anatomic reduction was achieved in all patients on images. There was statistical significance between preoperative score (7.89 ± 0.34 and score at postoperative 8 weeks (0.67 ± 0.13. According to the AOFAS score, 5 cases were defined as excellent, 3 cases as good and 2 cases as fair. During follow-up, there was no wound infection or complications except for osteoarthritis in 2 cases. Healing time ranged from 3 to 6 months with an average of 3.6 months. Conclusion: Anatomical reduction of Lisfranc injury can be achieved by open reduction and internal fixation with the miniplate and hollow screw. Normal structure of Lisfranc joint is regained to a great extent; injured ligaments were also repaired. Therefore, this method offers excellent curative effect and can avoid postoperative complications and improve the patients' quality of life.

  15. Opening the Internal Hematoma Membrane Does Not Alter the Recurrence Rate of Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhofer, Claudia; Freyschlag, Christian F; Thomé, Claudius; Ortler, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Factors determining the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) are not clear. Whether opening the so-called internal hematoma membrane is useful has not been investigated. To investigate whether splitting the inner hematoma membrane influences the recurrence rate in patients undergoing burr-hole craniotomy for CSDH. Fifty-two awake patients undergoing surgery for 57 CSDHs were prospectively randomized to either partial opening of the inner hematoma membrane (group A) or not (group B) after enlarged burr-hole craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. Drainage was left in situ for several days postoperatively. Groups were comparable with regard to demographic, clinical, and imaging variables. Outcome was assessed after 3-6 weeks for the combined outcome variable of reoperation or residual hematoma of one third or more of the original hematoma thickness. Fourteen patients underwent reoperation for clinical deterioration or residual hematoma during follow-up (n = 6 in group A, 21%; n = 8 in group B, 28 %) (P = 0.537). Residual hematoma of ≥ one third not requiring surgery was present in 7 patients in group A (25%) and 10 patients in group B (36%) (P = 0.383). The overall cumulative failure rate (reoperation or hematoma thickness ≥ one third) was 13/28 (46%) in group A and 18/28 in group B (P = 0.178; relative risk, 0.722 [95% confidence interval, 0.445-1.172]; absolute risk reduction -16% [95% confidence interval, -38% to 8%]). Opening the internal hematoma membrane does not alter the rate of patients requiring revision surgery and the number of patients showing a marked residual hematoma 6 weeks after evacuation of a CSDH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Initiation of glucose-lowering treatment decreases international normalized ratio levels among users of vitamin K antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pottegård, Anton; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2016-01-01

    -lowering treatment affects international normalized ratio (INR) and dose requirements of the anticoagulant VKAs warfarin and phenprocoumon. PATIENTS/METHODS: We performed a self-controlled retrospective register-based study. A total of 118 patients initiating glucose-lowering treatment while being treated......-lowering treatment reduces the anticoagulant effect of VKA to an extent that is likely to be clinically relevant. This finding needs confirmation and mechanistic explanation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion treated with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation through the Burks and Schaffer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report functional outcome in Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL tibial avulsion fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation through Burks and Schaffer approach. The patient specific functional outcome measures like IKDC grading together with objective grading with stress radiographs have rarely been used to assess PCL tibial avulsion fractures. Material and Methods: Twenty seven patients (21 males and 6 females were included in the study. The mean follow up duration was 22.30±6.82 months. They were assessed using international knee documentation committee (IKDC grades, Lysholm scoring and stress radiography. The injury severity scores (ISS of the patients were also recorded. Results: The mean Lysholm scores at the time of last follow up was 90.85±5.58. The IKDC grades achieved were normal in 20 patients, near normal in five and abnormal in two. The PCL laxity determined on active hamstring contraction stress radiography was grade I in 20 cases and grade II in seven cases. All patients had achieved bony union of tibial avulsion fractures at the time of last follow up. Statistically significant association was found between higher ISS and lower Lysholm scores. (t=3.455, p=0.0019. Good IKDC grades were associated with higher Lysholm scores (analysis of variance, F=32.51, p<.0001.There was no correlation between PCL laxity and functional outcome (t=.857, p =0.399. Conclusion: PCL tibial avulsion fractures treated through Burk and Schaffer approach with open reduction and internal fixation produces good results. The early rehabilitation without cast immobilisation prevents arthrofibrosis.

  18. Materials with memory initial-boundary value problems for constitutive equations with internal variables

    CERN Document Server

    Alber, Hans-Dieter

    1998-01-01

    This book contributes to the mathematical theory of systems of differential equations consisting of the partial differential equations resulting from conservation of mass and momentum, and of constitutive equations with internal variables. The investigations are guided by the objective of proving existence and uniqueness, and are based on the idea of transforming the internal variables and the constitutive equations. A larger number of constitutive equations from the engineering sciences are presented. The book is therefore suitable not only for specialists, but also for mathematicians seeking for an introduction in the field, and for engineers with a sound mathematical background.

  19. An on-line communication system as an international catalysator for initiating storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.; Stephanblome, Th.

    1998-01-01

    The presented internet platform realizes an international contact stock of the companies and institutes being interested in storage technologies and cooperation and will take over the function of a catalysator for the planning of future storage use. In this regard the system creates an information and marketing device that will help, in the shape of an international, virtual exhibition hall, to find new markets, that are interesting for producers and suppliers of electrical energy storage technologies. In this virtual exhibition hall, need and offer regarding the electrical energy storage technologies are shown in order to support the main aim of the works regarding Annex IX, the starting of concrete projects. (author)

  20. Opening Session [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent Michel

    2013-01-01

    For this opening address, I would like to share with you some thoughts about the evolution of the key drivers during the last decades for the development of fast reactors from the very pioneering age till now, taking into account new concerns and major events occurred since the last international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles held in Kyoto, Japan (FR 2009). There are three major periods: • The pioneering age (1945-1980) with breeding as a main driver followed by a kind of “winter season“ (1980-2000) for the development of fast reactors worldwide; • The so-called “brainstorming” phase (2000-2010), back to physics and nuclear chemistry, with international rebirth of the research on fast reactors and advanced fuel cycle owing to the GENERATION IV initiative, revisiting various reactor concepts along with 4 main drivers: sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and costcompetitiveness. • A new era now (started in 2010) with very promising technological options and projects of prototypes with two main key drivers: → Innovation towards enhanced safety which is a major concern for public acceptance of nuclear power, especially after the FUKUSHIMA accident. → Higher flexibility in the management of fissile materials and nuclear waste in order to take into account various possible options for the contribution of nuclear power in the energy mix

  1. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors)

  2. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  3. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    , balanced, and adapted consensus, whilst meeting the specificities of problem-oriented or regional objectives. IUR has therefore decided to convene in June 2014 a first Workshop to initiate the co-construction process and identify a common agreed framework by means of which a worldwide coordination in radioecology could be achieved. The leaders and/or high-level representatives from the various networks, or similar entities, currently identified will be invited to present their network activity and organisation. On-going efforts invested in identifying priorities for the future will next be presented and discussed (European Radioecology Alliance, IUR, UNSCEAR, ICRP, Arctic Council, etc). Finally, conclusions will be drawn on the way forward with particular attention given to designing an international framework instrument for worldwide coordination in radioecology. The conclusions from this Workshop will be presented with especial reference to discussions related to establishing a new IUR Task Group in order to initiate the design of an international framework instrument for worldwide coordination in radioecology and to follow up this wide effort toward successful harmonization. (authors)

  4. Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review of current international guidelines and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Peter; Oliver, David; Stodart, James; van den Berg, Leonard; Simmons, Zachary; O Brannagáin, Doiminic; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Hardiman, Orla

    2011-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative condition. Optimal management requires a palliative approach from diagnosis with emphasis on patient autonomy, dignity and quality of life. To conduct a systematic analysis of the type, level and timing of specialist palliative care intervention in ALS. Despite an international consensus that ALS management should adopt a multidisciplinary approach, integration of palliative care into ALS management varies considerably across health care systems. Late referral to palliative services in ALS is not uncommon and may impact negatively on the quality of life of ALS patients and their caregivers. However, common themes and principles of engagement can be identified across different jurisdictions, and measurement systems have been established that can assess the impact of palliative care intervention. There is considerable evidence that palliative care intervention improves quality of life in patients and carers. International consensus guidelines would assist in the development of a framework for active palliative care engagement in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Comprehensive approach for probabilistic risk assessment (CAPRA): international initiative for disaster risk management effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Omar D.; Ordaz Schroder, Mario Gustavo; Reinoso, Eduardo; Yamín, Luis; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. This has been the reason why CAPRA, the risk evaluation model described in this paper, was developed with the technical and financial support of the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Strategy of United Nations for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). CAPRA is a techno-scientific metho...

  6. CAPRA - Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment: international initiative for risk management effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Omar Darío; Ordaz, Mario G.; Reinoso, Eduardo; Yamín, Luis; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. This has been the reason why CAPRA, the risk evaluation model described in this paper, was developed with the technical and financial support of the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Strategy of United Nations for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). CAPRA is a techno-scientific metho...

  7. National capacity mechanisms in the European internal energy market: Opening the doors to neighbours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastropietro, Paolo; Rodilla, Pablo; Batlle, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    After decades of strong opposition, several European countries are now in the process of implementing some kind of Capacity Remuneration Mechanism (CRM). Unfortunately, these national initiatives seem to aim at energy autarky rather than seeking a wider regional coordination. This situation can significantly affect the potential benefits of an integrated long-term expansion of the European power system. In this paper the regulatory basis for the effective participation of foreign agents in national CRMs is discussed. The authors support that two pillars are required: (1) stronger coordination among TSOs and respect for the Security of Supply Directive and (2) introduce a particular type of firm cross-border nominations associated to the CRMs commitments. These proposed nominations are to be considered only in situations of system stress. As discussed here, this allows not requiring any type of ex-ante cross-border capacity reservation, thus avoiding many of the inefficiencies associated to traditional physical bilateral contracts. -- Highlights: •We discuss the regulatory basis for the effective participation of foreign agents in national CRMs. •Stronger coordination among TSOs and respect for the Security of Supply Directive is required. •A new type of firm cross-border nominations linked to the CRMs commitments should be introduced. •These proposed nominations are to be considered only in situations of system stress. •No ex-ante cross-border capacity reservation would be needed

  8. Oil and gas in China: The door opens wider to international oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Wang

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews new incentives offered by the China National Petroleum Corporation to help develop China's oil and gas fields. The initial offer for bids by foreign investors is for exploration and joint development contracts for western China's Tarim basin. However, the expansion to other basins and areas of China is well underway. It also discusses a pipeline project which will be connect the western China oil and gas fields with the eastern markets, approximately 2,200 miles. A historical review of the oil and gas production and utilization of China is presented along with forecasts of future production. It also provides estimates of gas and oil reserves and information on enhanced recovery techniques used to maintain a stable production level. The second half of the paper is an interview with Dr. Wang Tao, a PhD graduate of Moscow's Petroleum Institute, and president of the China National Petroleum Corporation. He reviews the government policies with regards to foreign investment in his country

  9. Monteggia fracture dislocation equivalents - analysis of eighteen cases treated by open reduction and internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Monteggia fracture dislocation equivalent, though already described by Bado, is still an unclassified entity. We aimed to retrospectively analyze 18 cases of Monteggia variants and discuss the injury mechanisms, management, and outcome along with a review of the literature. Methods: A retrospective record of Monteggia fracture dislocation (2003-2008 was reviewed from medical record department of our institute. Classic Monteggia fracture dislocation, children below 12 years or adults over 50 years, as well as open grade II & III cases were excluded from this study. Monteggia variant inclusion criteria included fracture of the proximal ulna together with a fracture of the radial head or neck and skeletal maturity. Totally 26 patients were identified with Monteggia variants and 18 were available for follow-up, including 11 males and 7 females with the mean age of 35 years. The ulna fracture was treated by compression plating along with tension band wiring. Radial head/neck was reconstructed in 12 patients while excised in 6 patients. Results: Follow-up ranged from 1-4 years, mean 2.6 years. Patients were assessed clinicoradiologically. Mayo Elbow Performance Score was employed to assess the outcomes. At final follow-up, the results were excellent in 10 patients, good in 4, fair in 2 and poor in 2. Mean range of motion of the elbow was 20°, 116°, 50° and 55° for extension, flexion, pronation and supination, respectively. Two patients had complications in the form of heterotopic ossification and stiffness of the elbow. One nonunion ulna, primarily treated by tension band wiring, was managed by refixation with locking reconstruction plate and bone grafting. Bone grafting was only required in this patient for nonunion. Another patient had implants removed on his request. The results in our series closely correlated with extent of intraarticular damage, coronoid fracture and comminuted fractures. Conclusions: Monteggia

  10. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 43, December 2017. A global initiative for efficient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Aulas, Camille

    2017-12-01

    Content: - Focus: A global initiative for efficient solutions. On 14 November, during COP23, ADEME officially joined the World Alliance for Efficient Solutions, an initiative launched by the Solar Impulse Foundation. - Expertise: Energy: an industrial sector in transition. At a time when reducing energy consumption and improving energy efficiency seem to be essential to the development of a sustainable and competitive industry, electrical load management has emerged as a promising solution. - Worldwide: Ivory Coast: promoting sustainable construction. From 18 to 20 September, ADEME took part in two events held in Abidjan dedicated to sustainable construction in the Ivory Coast, a subject in which the Agency had a long-standing experience to share at the heart of the Global Alliance for Building and Construction (Global ABC)

  11. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  12. EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION OF DISTAL FEMUR FRACTURES BY LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lokanadha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the supra and intercondylar fractures of femur particularly with intra articular extension, patient may develop stiffness of knee, shortening, rotational deformities, internal derangement of knee with instability, varus and valgus deformities which affect patient’s routine lifestyle. If these cases were treated with locking compression plate, the results obtained were successful, superior, timesaving providing early ambulation and least disability improving the functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective interventional study. This study includes 25 supracondylar and intercondylar fractures of femur (both Muller’s Type ‘A’, Type B and Type ‘C’ fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by Locking Compression Plate in the Department of Orthopaedics, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam from September 2013 to September 2015. There are 16 males and 9 females with age ranging from 20 to 80 years with an average of 44.6 years. Average age for males is 28.9 years and average age for females is 25 years. 18 fractures were due to road traffic accidents and 6 cases are due to fall from significant heights, 1 case due to simple fall from standing (osteoporosis. 15 cases were in right femur (60% and 10 cases were in left femur (40%. RESULTS 25 cases were included in the study. There is an increase in the rate of union, decreased time taken for union, increased knee range of motion, decreased time for weight-bearing, postoperative complications and duration for hospital stay. CONCLUSION LCP proved to be a good implant which could take the challenges like poor bone stock, severe comminution both metaphyseal and articular and prove successful. The locking head screws distally have prevented varus collapse, even in cases of osteoporosis. The Condylar LCP can be used in either an open or a minimally invasive manner.

  13. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hansoti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open access (OA medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods: We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM. Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results: We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based. Of these 55, 25 (45% were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion: OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.

  14. A Test Set for stiff Initial Value Problem Solvers in the open source software R: Package deTestSet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzia, F.; Cash, J.R.; Soetaert, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the R package deTestSet that includes challenging test problems written as ordinary differential equations (ODEs), differential algebraic equations (DAEs) of index up to 3 and implicit differential equations (IDES). In addition it includes 6 new codes to solve initial value

  15. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moes Lorin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. Results To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical

  16. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Lorin; Wirth, Manfred

    2007-11-22

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV) pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical swine fever virus, a pestivirus, and the

  17. 25 Years of DECOVALEX - Research Advances and Lessons Learned from an International Model Comparison Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of an international research and model comparison collaboration (DECOVALEX) for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems. Prediction of these coupled effects is an essential part of the performance and safety assessment of geologic disposal systems for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and is also relevant for a range of other sub-surface engineering activities. DECOVALEX research activities have been supported by a large number of radioactive-waste-management organizations and regulatory authorities. Research teams from more than a dozen international partner organizations have participated in the comparative modeling evaluation of complex field and laboratory experiments in the UK, Switzerland, Japan, France and Sweden. Together, these tasks (1) have addressed a wide range of relevant issues related to engineered and natural system behavior in argillaceous, crystalline and other host rocks, (2) have yielded in-depth knowledge of coupled THM and THMC processes associated with nuclear waste repositories and wider geo-engineering applications, and (3) have advanced the capability, as well as demonstrated the suitability, of numerical simulation models for quantitative analysis.

  18. The Canadian initiative to bring the international thermonuclear experimental reactor to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the next step in fusion research. It is expected to be the last major experimental facility, before the construction of a prototype commercial reactor. The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of ITER are being funded by the USA, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with each of the major parties contributing about 25% of the cost. Canada participates as part of the European coalition. The EDA is due to be completed in 1998, and the major funding partners are preparing for the decision on the siting and construction of ITER. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) formed a Canadian ITER Siting Task Group to study siting ITER in Canada. The study indicated that hosting ITER would provide significant benefits, both technological and economic, to Canada. We have also confirmed that there would be substantial benefits to the ITER Project. CFFTP then formed a Canadian ITER Siting Board, with representation from a broad range of stakeholders, to champion, 'Canada as Host'. This paper briefly outlines the ITER Project, and the benefits to both Canada and the Project of a Canadian site. With this as background, the paper discusses the international scene and assesses Canada's prospects of being chosen to host ITER. (author)

  19. Internal Security Cooperation under Functional Expectations: Initial Law Enforcement Europeanization - Case of Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Loik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement cooperation as a central part of the EU internal security policy to combat cross-border organised crime and terrorism needs to be more effective by adopting specific provisions and tools. This paper argues that functional expectations require removal of barriers and construction of a common security area, but sometimes better cooperation in practice does not fit, as Europeanization of law enforcement still lacks understanding of objectives, values and principles for improving international trust, consensus, sincere cooperation and effective national coordination. The level of Europeanization of law enforcement could be evaluated as based on the level of implementation of the EU provisions on police cooperation related to practical enforcement, factors promoting or hindering law enforcement and changes in discursive practices due to EU provisions and professional socialisation processes. Some aspects of observed inertia characterizes the slow process of transition or tendencies for absorption in which resilience meets the necessary degree of flexibility allowing for some mutual learning and cooperation, but the result is expectedly a form of accommodation of needful policy requirements in the lack of substantial change perspective.

  20. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  1. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiashen; Chang, Hengrui; Zhu, Yanbin; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zhanle; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Medline, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database were searched for relevant original studies from database inception to October 2016. Eligible studies had to meet quality assessment criteria according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and had to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Stata 11.0 software was used for this meta-analysis. Eight studies involving 2214 cases of tibial plateau fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation and 219 cases of surgical site infection were included in this meta-analysis. The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture (p operative time (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.53-3.02), tobacco use (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.13-3.99), and external fixation (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.05-4.09). Other factors, including male sex, were not identified as risk factors for surgical site infection. Patients with the abovementioned medical conditions are at risk of surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risks and give relevant preoperative advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Openly Published Environmental Sensing (OPEnS) | Advancing Open-Source Research, Instrumentation, and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing availability and functionality of Open-Source software and hardware along with 3D printing, low-cost electronics, and proliferation of open-access resources for learning rapid prototyping are contributing to fundamental transformations and new technologies in environmental sensing. These tools invite reevaluation of time-tested methodologies and devices toward more efficient, reusable, and inexpensive alternatives. Building upon Open-Source design facilitates community engagement and invites a Do-It-Together (DIT) collaborative framework for research where solutions to complex problems may be crowd-sourced. However, barriers persist that prevent researchers from taking advantage of the capabilities afforded by open-source software, hardware, and rapid prototyping. Some of these include: requisite technical skillsets, knowledge of equipment capabilities, identifying inexpensive sources for materials, money, space, and time. A university MAKER space staffed by engineering students to assist researchers is one proposed solution to overcome many of these obstacles. This presentation investigates the unique capabilities the USDA-funded Openly Published Environmental Sensing (OPEnS) Lab affords researchers, within Oregon State and internationally, and the unique functions these types of initiatives support at the intersection of MAKER spaces, Open-Source academic research, and open-access dissemination.

  4. Annual report of the international nuclear energy research initiative OSMOSE project (FY06).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klann, R. T.; Hudelot, J. P.; Drin, N.; Zhong, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Commissariat a l Energie Atomique

    2007-08-29

    The goal of the OSMOSE program is to measure the reactivity effect of minor actinides in known neutron spectra of interest to the Generation-IV reactor program and other programs and to create a database of these results for use as an international benchmark for the minor actinides. The results are then compared to calculation models to verify and validate integral absorption cross-sections for the minor actinides. The OSMOSE program includes all aspects of the experimental program--including the fabrication of fuel pellets and samples, the oscillation of the samples in the MINERVE reactor for the measurement of the reactivity effect, reactor physics modeling of the MINERVE reactor, and the data analysis and interpretation of the experimental results.

  5. Annual report of the international nuclear research initiative OSMOSE project (FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klann, R. T.; Hudelot, J. P.; Perret, G.; Drin, N.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique

    2007-10-03

    The goal of the OSMOSE program is to measure the reactivity effect of minor actinides in known neutron spectra of interest to the Generation-IV reactor program and other programs and to create a database of these results for use as an international benchmark for the minor actinides. The results are then compared to calculational models to verify and validate integral absorption cross-sections for the minor actinides. The OSMOSE program includes all aspects of the experimental program -- including the fabrication of fuel pellets and samples, the oscillation of the samples in the MINERVE reactor for the measurement of the reactivity effect, reactor physics modeling of the MINERVE reactor, and the data analysis and interpretation of the experimental results.

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access

  7. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  8. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic determinants that regulate internal initiation of translation mediated by the FMR1 5' leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman Stephanie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulating synthesis of the Fragile X gene (FMR1 product, FMRP alters neural plasticity potentially through its role in the microRNA pathway. Cap-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA, a process requiring ribosomal scanning through the 5' leader, is likely impeded by the extensive secondary structure generated by the high guanosine/cytosine nucleotide content including the CGG triplet nucleotide repeats in the 5' leader. An alternative mechanism to initiate translation – internal initiation often utilizes secondary structure to recruit the translational machinery. Consequently, studies were undertaken to confirm and extend a previous observation that the FMR1 5' leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES. Results Cellular transfection of a dicistronic DNA construct containing the FMR1 5' leader inserted into the intercistronic region yielded significant translation of the second cistron, but the FMR1 5' leader was also found to contain a cryptic promoter possibly confounding interpretation of these results. However, transfection of dicistronic and monocistronic RNA ex vivo or in vitro confirmed that the FMR1 5' leader contains an IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo did not affect the expression level of endogenous FMRP indicating a role for IRES-dependent translation of FMR1 mRNA. Analysis of the FMR1 5' leader revealed that the CGG repeats and the 5' end of the leader were vital for internal initiation. Functionally, exposure to potassium chloride or intracellular acidification and addition of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid as mimics of neural activity and double stranded RNA, respectively, differentially affected FMR1 IRES activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that multiple stimuli influence IRES-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA and suggest a functional role for the CGG nucleotide repeats.

  10. Corporate responsibility reporting according to Global Reporting Initiative: an international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Corina CHERSAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is an organization that has managed to impose its reporting practices on corporate responsibility among large transnational companies. The model proposed by GRI is based on the supposed convergence between the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This convergence can be presumed at macroeconomic level, but at the level of enterprises, the three dimensions are often divergent. By analyzing the structure of reports included in the GRI database, our article aims to identify the factors that impact on company’s behavior in the corporate responsibility reporting process. In addition, our research invites to answer the following question: is it not possible that these reports attempt to exaggerate company environmental and social performance, rather than to cause a change in their conduct?

  11. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors' Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Adamyan, Karlen; Artigou, Jean-Yves; Aschermann, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Buendia, Alfonso; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Cohen, Ariel; Cas, Livio Dei; Dilic, Mirza; Doubell, Anton; Echeverri, Dario; Enç, Nuray; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Flammer, Andreas; Fleck, Eckart; Gatzov, Plamen; Ginghina, Carmen; Goncalves, Lino; Haouala, Habib; Hassanein, Mahmoud; Heusch, Gerd; Huber, Kurt; Hulín, Ivan; Ivanusa, Mario; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lau, Chu-Pak; Marinskis, Germanas; Mach, François; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Nieminen, Tuomo; Oukerraj, Latifa; Perings, Stefan; Pierard, Luc; Potpara, Tatjana; Reyes-Caorsi, Walter; Rim, Se-Joong; Rødevand, Olaf; Saade, Georges; Sander, Mikael; Shlyakhto, Evgeny; Timuralp, Bilgin; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Ural, Dilek; Piek, J J; Varga, Albert; Lüscher, Thomas F

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship - emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability -, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors' Network of the European Society of Cardiology. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  12. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in ...

  13. Initial Characterization of Internal Medicine Resident Resilience and Association with Stress and Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Nicole Bird

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burnout is prevalent in medical trainees. Little data exists on resident resilience. Methods. Anonymous surveys were provided to a convenience sample of internal medicine residents. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson resilience scale. Responses were categorized into low (<70, intermediate (70–79, and high (80–100 resilience. Results. 77 residents from six institutions completed surveys. 26% of residents had high resilience, 43% intermediate, and 31% low. The mean resilience score was 73.6±9.6 and lower than the general population (mean 80.4±12.5, p<0.001. Trainees with high resilience were more likely to never have stress interfere with their relationships outside of work (high: 40%; low: 0%; p<0.001. High resilience residents were more likely to have the skills to manage stress and burnout (high: 80%; low: 46%; p=0.02 and less likely to feel inferior to peers (high: 20.0%; low: 70.8%; p<0.001. There was a trend towards those with high resilience reporting less burnout (high: 40.0%; intermediate: 27%; low: 16.7%; p=0.08. Only 60% report a program outlet to discuss burnout. Conclusions. There is a wide range of resilience among IM residents and scores were lower than the general population. Low resilience is associated with more stress interfering with relationships, feeling inferior to peers, and fewer skills to manage stress and burnout.

  14. Approach to the open advanced facilities initiative for innovation (strategic use by industry) at the University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, K.; Tagishi, Y.; Naramoto, H.; Kudo, H.; Kita, E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC) possesses the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator and the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator for University's inter-department education research. We have actively advanced collaborative researches with other research institutes and industrial users. Since the Open Advanced Facilities Initiative for Innovation by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology started in 2007, 12 industrial experiments have been carried out at the UTTAC. This report describes efforts by University's accelerator facility to get industrial users. (author)

  15. Openness to Changing Religious Views Is Related to Radial Diffusivity in the Genu of the Corpus Callosum in an Initial Study of Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A quest orientation to religion is characterized by a search for answers to complex existential questions, a perception of religious doubt as positive, and an openness to change one’s religious views as one grows and changes. This orientation is inversely related to fundamentalism, authoritarianism, and prejudice and directly related to cognitive complexity, openness to experience, and prosociality. To date, the neural correlates of religious quest have not been investigated. This study assessed the relationships between measures linked to white-matter integrity and quest religious orientation among 24 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and the quest scale. A tract-based spatial statistical analysis whole-brain-corrected initially employing an accepted threshold (pTFCE < 0.05 and then applying a Bonferroni correction (pTFCE < 0.0042 identified a region of the genu of the corpus callosum as showing radial diffusivity measures being related to openness to change religious beliefs. When not employing a Bonferroni correction (pTFCE < 0.05, the openness-to-change subscale of the quest scale negatively correlated with radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity measures in extensive white-matter regions in both hemispheres that include the corpus callosum body, genu, and splenium, superior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps minor, external capsule, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. No relationships were found with the other subscales. These findings suggest that a greater openness to change one’s religious views is associated with better white-matter integrity specifically in the genu of the corpus callosum and likely in a more extensive set of white-matter structures interconnecting widespread cortical and subcortical regions in the brain across hemispheres. They, furthermore, suggest structural similarities that may link this tendency to associated positive psychological traits, including creative cognition and post

  16. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopyguided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of > or = 2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  17. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopy-guided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of ≥2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  18. Clinical efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures: A series of 10 cases and surgical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in the management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures. Method: Ten patients with displaced mandibular fractures treated with 1.5 mm four holed titanium mini-plate and 4 mm screws which were removed within four month after surgery. Results: All cases showed satisfactory bone healing without any growth disturbance. Conclusion: Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF with 1.5 mm titanium mini- plates and 4 mm screws is a reliable and safe method in treatment of displaced paediatric mandibular fractures.

  19. Clinical efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures: a series of 10 cases and surgical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Samir; Kshirsagar, Rajesh; Mishra, Akshay; Shah, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and semirigid internal fixation in the management of displaced pediatric mandibular fractures. Ten patients with displaced mandibular fractures treated with 1.5 mm four holed titanium mini-plate and 4 mm screws which were removed within four month after surgery. All cases showed satisfactory bone healing without any growth disturbance. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) with 1.5 mm titanium mini- plates and 4 mm screws is a reliable and safe method in treatment of displaced paediatric mandibular fractures.

  20. PREFACE: 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Dear Colleagues, 1st International School and Conference "Saint Petersburg OPEN 2014" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on March 25 - 27, 2014 at St. Petersburg Academic University - Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were: Mikhail Glazov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir Dubrovskii (Saint Petersburg Academic University RAS, Russia) Alexey Kavokin (University of Southampton, United Kingdom and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Vladimir Korenev (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Sergey Kukushkin (Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS, Russia) Nikita Pikhtin (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia and "Elfolum" Ltd., Russia) Dmitry Firsov (Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. Sufficiently large number of participants with more than 160 student attendees from all over the world allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for the fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for the valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year's School and Conference is supported by SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society), St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and

  1. 3rd International School and Conference “Saint Petersburg OPEN 2016” on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, 3rd International School and Conference “Saint Petersburg OPEN 2016” on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on March 28 - 30, 2016 at St. Petersburg Academic University of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim of introducing young scientists to the actual problems and major advances in modern physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mircea Guina (Tampere University of Technology, Finland) Evgeny I. Terukov (Ioffe Institute RAS, Russia) Victor M. Ustinov (Ioffe Institute RAS, Russia) Peter G. Kazansky (University of Southampton, UK) Alexander O. Golubok (ITMO University, Russia) Georgy E. Cirlin (St Petersburg Academic University RAS, Russia) Levon V. Asryan (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA) Andrey A. Lipovskii (Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A large number of participants with more than 280 student attendees from all over the world allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for the fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for the valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers based on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year “Saint Petersburg OPEN 2016” is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project N 16-32-10060) , Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics) and OSA (The

  2. [Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the Long-term efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Methods: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed. The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected. The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. The quality of included trials was evaluated. RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Results: Sixteen studies involving 1 268 patients were included. There were 618 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 650 with external fixation. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the complications postoperatively (infection( I (2)=0%, RR =0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45, Z =4.92, P internal fixation and external fixation are effective treatment for unstable distal radius fractures. Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation provides reduced complications postoperatively, lower DASH scores and better restoration of volar tilt for treatment of distal radius fractures.

  3. Tilt, Decentration, and Internal Higher-Order Aberrations of Sutured Posterior-Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Patients with Open Globe Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjia Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the tilt, decentration, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs of sutured posterior-chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs in patients with open globe injuries. Methods. 46 consecutive patients (47 eyes who underwent transsclerally sutured IOL implantation were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Nineteen eyes had a history of open globe injury. The tilt and decentration of the IOLs and the visual quality were measured 1 month after surgery. Results. The horizontal tilt and decentration of the IOLs in the open-globe-injury group were significantly higher than those in the control group (both P<0.05. In the open-globe-injury group, the horizontal decentration was significantly greater in the limbus-sclera-involved group (n=11 than in the only-cornea-involved group (n=8, P=0.040. The internal coma, 3rd-order, and total HOA values at pupil sizes of 4 mm (P=0.006 and 6 mm (P=0.013 were significantly higher in the open-globe-injury group than in the controls. Consequently, the optical quality data for the modulation transfer function and the Strehl ratio (all P<0.05 were significantly poorer in the open-globe-injury group. Conclusions. Open globe injuries damage the structural integrity of the eyeball, resulting in more-misaligned sutured IOLs and poorer visual quality.

  4. Case of possible multiple system atrophy with a characteristic imaging finding of open bladder neck during storage phase as an initial sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Haga, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Kanako; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Kataoka, Masao; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disease that affects autonomic and motor systems. Patients with multiple system atrophy usually experience lower urinary tract symptoms, which sometimes appear as an initial symptom before the emergence of the generalized symptoms. An open bladder neck during the filling phase on video urodynamic study is one characteristic imaging finding after the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, but has not previously been reported at an early phase of the disease. We report a case in which an open bladder neck was observed on several imaging modalities before generalized symptoms emerged. Because occult neurogenic bladder might exist in patients whose lower urinary tract symptoms are resistant to pharmacotherapy, we report this case to raise awareness of the importance of sufficient imaging evaluations. An open bladder neck might be an important imaging finding for diagnosing multiple system atrophy, irrespective of the presence of generalized symptoms. This finding could help avoid false diagnosis and unnecessary treatment. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Catherine Y.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724

  6. The temporomandibular opening index, report of headache and TMD, and implications for screening in general practice: an initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victor J; Karic, Vesna V; Ofec, Ronen; Nehete, Swati R; Smidt, Ami

    2014-01-01

    The cardinal signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) are pain in joints and/or muscles, joint sounds, and limitation of movement. They are also associated with other complaints, one of which is headache. Myogenous TMD patients can be divided into those with a high and low temporomandibular opening index (TOI). These two subgroups appear to vary in several ways, including symptom severity. The objective was to assess the relationship between reported headache and TMD patients and a control group with no TMD and to compare the report of headache in high- and low-TOI myogenous TMD patients. Sixty-six patients with TMD were included in the study. Fortythree were diagnosed with myogenous TMD, 23 with arthrogenous TMD, and 20 with no TMD were included as a control. Patients reported a history of headache using a four-point Verbal Rating Scale for both severity and frequency. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, after adjusting for confounders of sex and age. This helped investigate the association between the study groups and reported headache. Seventeen of the myogenous TMD patients were studied further. Seven were assigned to the high and 10 to the low-TOI group. Mean ages were 38.43 years and 33.00 years respectively. The Mann Whitney test was used to examine the difference in report of headache between these two groups. 76.7% of the myogenous group, 26.1% of the arthrogenous group, and 35% of the control group reported headache. Age and myogenous TMD were significantly associated with reported headache (P = .001 and .01, respectively). Myogenous TMD is a significant risk factor (OR = 5.20, P = .01) for reported headache while arthrogenous TMD is not (OR = 0.75, P = .69) A significant difference in report of headache between the two myogenous TMD groups was found (P = .0067). The risk for reported headache is 5.20-times greater for myogenous TMD patients compared to the control group, but no difference was noted between the arthrogenous

  7. The computed tomographic evaluation of patellofemoral joint in patellar fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benli, I.T.; Akalin, S.; Mumcu, E.F.; Citak, M.; Kilic, M.; Pasaoglu, E.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we examined 97 patella fractures in which open reduction and internal fixation had been performed at the 1st Orthopaedics and Trauma Clinic of Social Security Ankara Hospital between January 1983 and December 1988. After 24 to 96 months, on an average of 48.4 months follow-up period, the cases were evaluated clinically for knee function complaints and by CT and roentgenography for patellofemoral articulation. In 11 of the patients (11.5%) there was patellar displacement, 2 of the patients had patellar tilt (2.1%) and in 14 patients (14.5%) there was malalignment in which 1 patient (1.1%) had both patellar tilt and displacement. This data was obtained by measuring femoral trochlear angle (FTA) and patellar tilt angle (PTA) by CT at various degrees of knee flexion. Thirty three patients (34%) had slight and 19 patients (19.6%) had severe degenerative changes in the patellofemoral articulation. It is found that there is close relation between the variability of the pain complaints of the patients and the type of the fracture and the time of management and the postoperative rehabilitation. (author)

  8. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Barham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm–7 mm, SD 1.2 mm. The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure.

  9. The computed tomographic evaluation of patellofemoral joint in patellar fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benli, I.T.; Akalin, S.; Mumcu, E.F.; Citak, M.; Kilic, M.; Pasaoglu, E. (Ankara Social Security Hospital (Turkey))

    1992-08-01

    In this study, we examined 97 patella fractures in which open reduction and internal fixation had been performed at the 1st Orthopaedics and Trauma Clinic of Social Security Ankara Hospital between January 1983 and December 1988. After 24 to 96 months, on an average of 48.4 months follow-up period, the cases were evaluated clinically for knee function complaints and by CT and roentgenography for patellofemoral articulation. In 11 of the patients (11.5%) there was patellar displacement, 2 of the patients had patellar tilt (2.1%) and in 14 patients (14.5%) there was malalignment in which 1 patient (1.1%) had both patellar tilt and displacement. This data was obtained by measuring femoral trochlear angle (FTA) and patellar tilt angle (PTA) by CT at various degrees of knee flexion. Thirty three patients (34%) had slight and 19 patients (19.6%) had severe degenerative changes in the patellofemoral articulation. It is found that there is close relation between the variability of the pain complaints of the patients and the type of the fracture and the time of management and the postoperative rehabilitation. (author).

  10. Radiographic Evaluation of Ankle Joint Stability After Calcaneofibular Ligament Elevation During Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Calcaneus Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Shun; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chiang, Chao-Ching

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of sectioning the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) during an extensile lateral approach during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of calcaneal fractures on ankle joint stability. Forty-two patients with calcaneal fractures that received ORIF were included. Talar tilt stress and anterior drawer radiographs were performed on the operative and contralateral ankles 6 months postoperatively. The average degree of talar tilt on stress radiographs was 3.4 degrees (range, 0-12 degrees) on the operative side and 3.2 degrees (range, 0-14 degrees) on the contralateral side. The mean anterior drawer on stress radiographs of the CFL incised ankle was 6.1 mm (range, 2.4-11.8 mm) and on the contralateral ankle was 5.7 mm (range, 2.6-8.6 mm). There was no statistically significant difference of talar tilt and anterior drawer between the CFL incised side and the contralateral side (P = .658 and .302, respectively). The results suggest that sectioning of the CFL without any repair during ORIF of a calcaneal fracture does not have a negative effect on stability of the ankle. Repair of the CFL is, thus, probably not necessary following extended lateral approach for ORIF of calcaneal fractures. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Evaluation capacity development in Africa: Current landscape of international partners’ initiatives, lessons learned and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tarsilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the copious resources allocated by international development partners to enhance African countries’ capacity to evaluate the performance and impact of development programmes and policies, most evaluation capacity building (ECB efforts have not yielded the expected results. Time and energy have been focused on the measurement of short-term effects whilst long-term results have largely remained elusive. As a result, a variety of actors across the continent are calling for more innovative strategies. In particular, more efforts are currently being made to revitalise the evaluation function in international development at the global level and to enhance a shift from short-term training to more contextually relevant, systemic learning, equity and sustainability efforts. This article aims to provide a critical overview of ECB initiatives undertaken by international development partners in Africa over five years (2009–2014 that worked well and investigate how they could be improved. The common issues stress the need for harmonisation and collaboration between international partners and African institutions and more effective collaboration with in country institutions and organisations committed to evaluation capacity development (ECD. The analysis in this article is timely and relevant for both the strengthening of socalled made-in Africa evaluation methods and approaches and the roll-out of systemic and organic ECD strategies. The debate spurred by this article is likely to contribute to the current global debate on what strategies ought to be taken as part of the post-2015 agenda. This inturn will spur the debate on ECD to increase in importance and undoubtedly in intensity.

  12. Where is Research on Massive Open Online Courses Headed? A Data Analysis of the MOOC Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gašević1, 2,1, 2,1 and 3

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of an analysis of the research proposals submitted to the MOOC Research Initiative (MRI funded by the Gates Foundation and administered by Athabasca University. The goal of MRI was to mobilize researchers to engage into critical interrogation of MOOCs. The submissions – 266 in Phase 1, out of which 78 was recommended for resubmission in the extended form in Phase 2, and finally, 28 funded – were analyzed by applying conventional and automated content analysis methods as well as citation network analysis methods. The results revealed the main research themes that could form a framework of the future MOOC research: i student engagement and learning success, ii MOOC design and curriculum, iii self-regulated learning and social learning, iv social network analysis and networked learning, and v motivation, attitude and success criteria. The theme of social learning received the greatest interest and had the highest success in attracting funding. The submissions that planned on using learning analytics methods were more successful. The use of mixed methods was by far the most popular. Design-based research methods were also suggested commonly, but the questions about their applicability arose regarding the feasibility to perform multiple iterations in the MOOC context and rather a limited focus on technological support for interventions. The submissions were dominated by the researchers from the field of education (75% of the accepted proposals. Not only was this a possible cause of a complete lack of success of the educational technology innovation theme, but it could be a worrying sign of the fragmentation in the research community and the need to increased efforts towards enhancing interdisciplinarity.

  13. Opening remarks at the International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, Bordeaux, France, 27 June 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of radioactive sources are controlled properly. However, radiological accidents have occurred in all regions of the world - which indicates that there is not always sufficient control of sources throughout their life cycle. Even advanced countries with developed regulatory systems lose track of sources each year resulting in orphan sources with the potential to cause incidents or accidents. Actually, an increasing number of cases of uncontrolled movement of sources are reported the Agency's Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB). The International Conference on Security of Radioactive Sources, held in Vienna, Austria, in 2003, addressed these concerns and called for international initiatives, including the updating of the IAEA Action Plan for the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. As a direct result of the updated Action Plan the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources was revised and approved by the Board of Governors in 2003, its supporting Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources was developed and approved in 2004 and the Safety Guide on Categorization of Radioactive Sources was completed recently. All three documents were developed under the auspices of the IAEA to achieve international consensus and they play a central role in this Conference. It is worth noting that more than 70 countries have already expressed their intention to follow the guidance given in the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources - and I would like to encourage more countries to do so. The Agency has been promoting for some time now the idea of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. At the heart of this regime is a strong and effective national safety infrastructure where - as an overriding priority - safety issues are given the attention warranted by their significance. The need for sustainable regulatory infrastructure for the safety and security of radioactive sources was discussed at the

  14. Analysis of Turkey’s Institutional Open Repositories: An Example of Dokuz Eylül University Institutional Open Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the declaration of the Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2001, institutional open repositories are known as the most important tool of the self archiving, which is also known as green road. There are 26 institutional repositories, which are all compatible to international standards. All the institutional open repositories of Turkey mentioned before are listed in international open archive directories. In this study institutional open repository of Dokuz Eylül University is examined and institutional open repositories of Turkey are discussed.

  15. Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced

  16. Editorial: Open Source in Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru Lavigne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Last summer, the Center for Strategic and International Studies published the sixth update to their Open Source Policy survey. The survey "tracks governmental policies on the use of open source software as reported in the press or other media." The report lists 275 open source policy initiatives. It also breaks down by country and by government level whether the policy on the use of open source is considered to be advisory, preferential, or mandatory. The editorial theme for the May issue of the OSBR is "open source in government" and we are pleased that the authors have drawn upon their experiences to provide insight into public policy regarding open source for many parts of the world.

  17. Threats to Validity When Using Open-Ended Items in International Achievement Studies: Coding Responses to the PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Test in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arffman, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended (OE) items are widely used to gather data on student performance in international achievement studies. However, several factors may threaten validity when using such items. This study examined Finnish coders' opinions about threats to validity when coding responses to OE items in the PISA 2012 problem-solving test. A total of 6…

  18. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  19. The Ecology of the Open Practitioner: A Conceptual Framework for Open Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Open Educational Practices (OEP) have gained traction internationally over the last fifteen years, with individuals, institutions, and governments increasingly interested in the affordances of openness. Whilst initiatives, policies, and support mechanisms are evident, there is an ever-present danger of localised contexts being unintentionally…

  20. Lung Metastases in Neuroblastoma at Initial Diagnosis: A Report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Steven G.; London, Wendy B.; Zhang, Yang; Matthay, Katherine K.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew; Diller, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid cancer. Lung metastasis is rarely detected in children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database. Procedure The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis. Clinical and biological characteristics were compared between patients with and without lung metastasis. Survival for patients with and without lung metastasis was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis. Results Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis. Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p < 0.02 in each case). Five-year overall survival ± standard error for patients with lung metastasis was 34.5% ± 6.8% compared to 44.7% ± 1.3% for patients without lung metastasis (p=0.0002). However, in multivariable analysis, the presence of lung metastasis was not independently predictive of outcome. Conclusions Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels. Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome. PMID:18649370

  1. Direct and indirect land use changes issues in European sustainability initiatives: State-of-the-art, open issues and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Brose, Isabelle; Schenkel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Facing climate change and growing energy prices, the use of bioenergy is continuously increasing in order to diminish greenhouse gas emissions, secure energy supply and create employment in rural areas. Because the production of biomass or biofuels, wherever it takes place, comes along with externalities, positive or negative, the need for biomass and bioenergy sustainability criteria is more than ever felt. Research on sustainability criteria and certification systems has started through several national and international initiatives. Considering the benefits of an increased use of bioenergy but also the urge for limiting potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, the aim of these initiatives was to make the first move regarding bioenergy sustainability, while waiting for the European legislation to regulate this crucial issue. Land use changes, whether direct or indirect, are one of the most important consequences of bioenergy production. While direct land use changes are more easily assessed locally, indirect land use changes exceed the company level and need to be considered at a global scale. Methodologies for dealing with direct and indirect land use changes are proposed among others in the European, Dutch, British and German sustainability initiatives. This paper aims at presenting and comparing those four European initiatives, with a focus on their propositions for direct and indirect land use changes assessment. Key issues are discussed and recommendations are made for steps to overcome identified difficulties in accurately assessing the effects of indirect land use change due to bioenergy production.

  2. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... openings and constraints with regard to such policies at the local, national, and international levels? ... land policy initiatives in areas like titling, credit, taxation, and sustainable land use; and ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  3. Honoring the work and life of Leroy C. Stevens. A symposium as part of the International Stem Cell Initiative Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher F; Solter, Davor; Gearhart, John D; Nadeau, Joseph H; Knowles, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, a symposium was convened in Leroy C. Stevens' honor, in association with a meeting of the International Stem Cell Initiative (ISCI). ISCI, funded internationally, is composed of a group of ~100 scientists from many countries, under the leadership of Peter Andrews, who have worked together to characterize a significant number of human pluripotent stem cell lines, to monitor their genetic stability and their differentiation into mature cell types and tissues in vitro and in vivo. Those at the ISCI meeting puzzled through one of the thorniest problems in the therapeutic use of the differentiated derivatives of pluripotent stem cells for human therapy; namely, pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into any cell type in the adult organism, but they also have the capacity for unlimited self-renewal, hence if mutated they may have tumorigenic potential. The meeting considered how these cells might become genetically or epigenetically abnormal and how the safety of these cells for human therapeutic uses could be assessed and assured. The symposium was an opportunity to pay tribute to Leroy Stevens and to the basic science origins of this newest aspect of regenerative medicine. It was a time to reflect on the past and on how it can influence the future of our field.

  4. The Ultimate Big Data Enterprise Initiative: Defining Functional Capabilities for an International Information System (IIS) for Orbital Space Data (OSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raygan, R.

    Global collaboration in support of an International Information System (IIS) for Orbital Space Data (OSD) literally requires a global enterprise. As with many information technology enterprise initiatives attempting to coral the desires of business with the budgets and limitations of technology, Space Situational Awareness (SSA) includes many of the same challenges: 1) Adaptive / Intuitive Dash Board that facilitates User Experience Design for a variety of users. 2) Asset Management of hundreds of thousands of objects moving at thousands of miles per hour hundreds of miles in space. 3) Normalization and integration of diverse data in various languages, possibly hidden or protected from easy access. 4) Expectations of near real-time information availability coupled with predictive analysis to affect decisions before critical points of no return, such as Space Object Conjunction Assessment (CA). 5) Data Ownership, management, taxonomy, and accuracy. 6) Integrated metrics and easily modified algorithms for "what if" analysis. This paper proposes an approach to define the functional capabilities for an IIS for OSD. These functional capabilities not only address previously identified gaps in current systems but incorporate lessons learned from other big data, enterprise, and agile information technology initiatives that correlate to the space domain. Viewing the IIS as the "data service provider" allows adoption of existing information technology processes which strengthen governance and ensure service consumers certain levels of service dependability and accuracy.

  5. Core outcome sets in dermatology: report from the second meeting of the International Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, J; Jacobi, L; Hahnel, E; Alam, M; Balzer, K; Beeckman, D; Busard, C; Chalmers, J; Deckert, S; Eleftheriadou, V; Furlan, K; Horbach, S E R; Kirkham, J; Nast, A; Spuls, P; Thiboutot, D; Thorlacius, L; Weller, K; Williams, H C; Schmitt, J

    2018-04-01

    Results of clinical trials are the most important information source for generating external clinical evidence. The use of different outcomes across trials, which investigate similar interventions for similar patient groups, significantly limits the interpretation, comparability and clinical application of trial results. Core outcome sets (COSs) aim to overcome this limitation. A COS is an agreed standardized collection of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific clinical condition. The Core Outcome Set Initiative within the Cochrane Skin Group (CSG-COUSIN) supports the development of core outcomes in dermatology. In the second CSG-COUSIN meeting held in 2017, 11 COS development groups working on skin diseases presented their current work. The presentations and discussions identified the following overarching methodological challenges for COS development in dermatology: it is not always easy to define the disease focus of a COS; the optimal method for outcome domain identification and level of detail needed to specify such domains is challenging to many; decision rules within Delphi surveys need to be improved; appropriate ways of patient involvement are not always clear. In addition, there appear to be outcome domains that may be relevant as potential core outcome domains for the majority of skin diseases. The close collaboration between methodologists in the Core Outcome Set Initiative and the international Cochrane Skin Group has major advantages for trialists, systematic reviewers and COS developers. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Accelerated rehabilitation compared with a standard protocol after distal radial fractures treated with volar open reduction and internal fixation: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Jess L; Husband, Jeffrey B

    2014-10-01

    There are relatively few studies in the literature that specifically evaluate accelerated rehabilitation protocols for distal radial fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this study was to compare the early postoperative outcomes (at zero to twelve weeks postoperatively) of patients enrolled in an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with those of patients enrolled in a standard rehabilitation protocol following ORIF for a distal radial fracture. We hypothesized that patients with accelerated rehabilitation after volar ORIF for a distal radial fracture would have an earlier return to function compared with patients who followed a standard protocol. From November 2007 to November 2010, eighty-one patients with an unstable distal radial fracture were prospectively randomized to follow either an accelerated or a standard rehabilitation protocol after undergoing ORIF with a volar plate for a distal radial fracture. Both groups began with gentle active range of motion at three to five days postoperatively. At two weeks, the accelerated group initiated wrist/forearm passive range of motion and strengthening exercises, whereas the standard group initiated passive range of motion and strengthening at six weeks postoperatively. Patients were assessed at three to five days, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks, and six months postoperatively. Outcomes included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores (primary outcome) and measurements of wrist flexion/extension, supination, pronation, grip strength, and palmar pinch. The patients in the accelerated group had better mobility, strength, and DASH scores at the early postoperative time points (zero to eight weeks postoperatively) compared with the patients in the standard rehabilitation group. The difference between the groups was both clinically relevant and statistically significant. Patients who follow an accelerated rehabilitation

  7. Surgical site infection in orthopedic implants and its common bacteria with their sensitivities to antibiotics, in open reduction internal fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.Q.; Zardad, M.S.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Awan, A. S.; Mohammad, T.

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of non-union, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface. Antibiotics cannot cross this film to reach the bacteria's, causing infection. Method: This descriptive case series study includes 132 patients of both genders with ages between 13 years to 60 years conducted at Orthopaedic Unit, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from 1st October 2015 to 31st March 2016. Patients with close fractures of long bones were included in the study to determine the frequency of surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants and the type of bacteria involved and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. All implants were of stainless steel. The implants used were Dynamic hip screws, Dynamic compression screws, plates, k-wires, Interlocking nails, SIGN nails, Austin Moore prosthesis and tension band wires. Pre-op and post-op antibiotics used were combination of Sulbactum and Cefoperazone which was given 1 hour before surgery and continued for 72 hours after surgery. Patients were followed up to 4 weeks. Pus was taken on culture stick, from those who developed infection. Results were entered in the pro forma. Results: A total of 132 patients of long bone fractures, who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, were studied. Only 7 patients developed infection. Staphylococcus Aureus was isolated from all 7 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Linezolid, Fusidic Acid, and vancomycin. Cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, Gentamycin and Clindamycin were partially effective. Conclusion

  8. Evaluation of Outcomes of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Surgery in Patients with Type C Distal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhadi Nouraei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, functional state of patients with Type C distal humerus fractures undergone surgical plating was evaluated 6 and 12 months after the surgery in order to record postsurgical factors such as pain level and job/performance satisfaction. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 46 patients with humerus fractures were recruited and their ability to do daily tasks, presence of degenerative changes, stability of elbow joint, and range of motion was evaluated. For assessment of response to surgery, Mayo score was used. Results: Among 46 patients, 45 (97.8% of them had joint stability. Evaluation of postsurgical complications showed that six subjects (13% had no complications, but superficial infection was observed in 12 (26.1% subjects. Neuromuscular disorders in ulnar nerve were present in 11 subjects (23.9%, recurrent articular bursitis of elbow joint in 6 subjects (13%, stiffness of elbow joint in 29 subjects (63%, nonunion of fracture in 3 subjects (6.5%, and myositis ossification in 4 (8.7% subjects. Furthermore, 18 (39.1% patients presented with more than one (2–4 complications. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation surgery with dual plating is the method of choice for treatment of Type C distal humeral fractures. Evaluation of long-term outcomes of this surgery could be done via several different questionnaires as many studies suggest. This study demonstrated that the outcomes of this surgery in Isfahan, Iran, have been noticeably inferior compared to results of the studies in other parts of the world.

  9. Tuition fees and funding – barriers for non-traditional students? First results from the international research project Opening Universities for Lifelong Learning (OPULL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moissidis, Sonja; Schwarz, Jochen; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Project OPULL – Opening Universities for Lifelong Learning – is undertaking research into ways of opening up higher education to vocationally qualified and experienced target groups in four European countries. Open university models in Germany, Denmark, Finland and the United Kingdom are being...... investigated in three research phases between 2009 and 2012 with the aim of identifying critical success factors for building open universities for Europe. This paper presents the first phase, in which educational systems in the participant countries have been mapped and interviews with lifelong learning...... experts undertaken. The current situation and perspectives in each country together with critical issues on how fees and funding influence higher education access for non-traditional students in these countries are discussed and explored through the interview evidence. The initial findings of the first...

  10. Identification of minimal sequences of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian, plant and insect translation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Belsham, Graham; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2007-01-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is a member of the family Dicistroviridae. The genomes of viruses in this family contain two open reading frames, each preceded by distinct internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. The RhPV 5' IRES is functional in mammalian, insect and plant translation syste...

  11. The ecology of the open practitioner: a conceptual framework for open research

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Stagg

    2017-01-01

    Open Educational Practices (OEP) have gained traction internationally over the last fifteen years, with individuals, institutions, and governments increasingly interested in the affordances of openness. Whilst initiatives, policies, and support mechanisms are evident, there is an ever-present danger of localised contexts being unintentionally unrecognised, which has a negative effect on mainstreaming the practice sustainably. This paper presents a conceptual framework for open research based ...

  12. BOOK REVIEW OPEN EDUCATION: FROM OERs to MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific focus of this edited book is to point out the core policies, initiatives and international practices of Distance Education in connection with open and free accessed resources. The book aims to provide a roadmap for the existing and possible opportunities for new technologies and educational paradigms within the scope of lifelong learning. Concisely, the book addresses Open Education through the potential of Open Educational Resources (OER and the new trends of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs.

  13. Use of a Geriatric Quality Initiative to Educate Internal Medicine Residents about Delirium and Its Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveczky, Daniele; Mattison, Melissa L P; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2013-06-01

    Delirium is a common and debilitating complication of inpatient care for many older adults, yet internal medicine residents often do not recognize delirium or its risk factors. Integrating geriatric education (eg, delirium recognition) with inpatient quality improvement (QI) is not well tested. We developed an educational pilot program within an ongoing hospital-wide geriatric QI initiative (Global Risk Assessment and Careplan for the Elderly-Acute Care [GRACE-AC]). GRACE-AC modifies the inpatient computerized provider order entry system to meet the needs of vulnerable older adults and uses a bedside care checklist to identify patients with possible delirium and promote delirium prevention by checking on the need for "tethers" (intravenous fluids, Foley catheters, and telemetry). Residents were assessed before and after each inpatient rotation by using anonymous electronic surveys. A total of 167 eligible residents (91%) completed prerotation surveys, and 102 (56%) residents completed postrotation surveys. All but the first rotating resident group received a standardized 2-minute educational in-service orientation. In a comparison of postrotation responses before and after implementation of the in-service, the proportion of residents who reported improvement in their ability to recall which patients had tethers increased from 17% to 52% for intravenous fluids (P  =  .004), 28% to 75% for Foley catheters (P < .001), and 21% to 50% for telemetry (P  =  .02). Comparing pre- and postrotation surveys, the proportion of correct responses to questions on haloperidol dosing and the characteristics of delirium increased from 26% to 76% and 31% to 63%, respectively (both P < .001). Our pilot program demonstrated that inpatient geriatric QI initiatives can be successfully merged with a brief educational curriculum.

  14. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  15. MRP-227 Reactor vessel internals inspection planning and initial results at the Oconee nuclear station unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsaver, S.B.; Fyfitch, S.; Whitaker, D.E.; Doss, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. PWR industry has pro-actively developed generic inspection requirements and standards for reactor vessel (RV) internals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Materials Reliability Program (MRP) has issued MRP-227-A and MRP-228 with mandatory and needed requirements based on the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) document NEI 03-08. The inspection and evaluation guidelines contained in MRP-227-A consider eight age-related degradation mechanisms: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), wear, fatigue, thermal aging embrittlement, irradiation embrittlement, void swelling and irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation-enhanced stress relaxation or irradiation-enhanced creep. This paper will discuss the decision planning efforts required for implementing the MRP-227-A and MRP-228 requirements and the results of these initial inspections at the Oconee Nuclear power station (ONS) units. Duke Energy and AREVA overcame a significant technology and NDE challenge by successfully completing the first-of-a-kind MRP-227-A scope requirements at ONS-1 in one outage below the estimated dose and with zero safety issues or events. This performance was repeated at ONS-2 a year later. The remote NDE tooling and processes developed to examine the MRP-227-A scope for ONS-1 and ONS-2 are transferable to other PWRs

  16. Open reduction-internal fixation of a navicular body fracture with dorsal displacement of the first and second cuneiforms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert C; Neiderer, Katherine; Martin, Billy; Dancho, James

    2013-01-01

    Body fractures of the tarsal navicular are relatively uncommon. To date, there is little literature discussing a navicular body fracture with dorsal subluxation of the first and second cuneiforms over the navicular. This case study presents a 30-year-old patient with this injury. He underwent open reduction internal fixation of the navicular body fracture successfully but failed adequate reduction of the navicular cuneiform joint after ligamentous reconstruction. After revisional surgery, he also failed 6 weeks of percutanous pinning with Kirschner-wire fixation. When comparing the literature of a similar injury, the Lisfranc fracture disclocation, the same principles may apply. One should consider rigid open reduction internal fixation or even primary fusion to treat disclocation of the naviculocuneiform joint following a navicular body fracture.

  17. Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science: Proceedings of an International Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esanu, Julie

    2004-01-01

    .... On the one hand, the Internet provides valuable new opportunities for overcoming geographic limitations and the promise of unprecedented open access to public information for research on a global basis...

  18. The p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype may be associated with initial central visual field defects in caucasians with primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janey L Wiggs

    Full Text Available Loss of vision in glaucoma is due to apoptotic retinal ganglion cell loss. While p53 modulates apoptosis, gene association studies between p53 variants and glaucoma have been inconsistent. In this study we evaluate the association between a p53 variant functionally known to influence apoptosis (codon 72 Pro/Arg and the subset of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with early loss of central visual field.Genotypes for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism (Pro/Arg were obtained for 264 POAG patients and 400 controls from the U.S. and in replication studies for 308 POAG patients and 178 controls from Australia (GIST. The glaucoma patients were divided into two groups according to location of initial visual field defect (either paracentral or peripheral. All cases and controls were Caucasian with European ancestry.The p53-PRO/PRO genotype was more frequent in the U.S. POAG patients with early visual field defects in the paracentral regions compared with those in the peripheral regions or control group (p=2.7 × 10(-5. We replicated this finding in the GIST cohort (p  =7.3 × 10(-3, and in the pooled sample (p=6.6 × 10(-7 and in a meta-analysis of both the US and GIST datasets (1.3 × 10(-6, OR 2.17 (1.58-2.98 for the PRO allele.These results suggest that the p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype is potentially associated with early paracentral visual field defects in primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  19. Student perspectives about mobile learning initiatives at Open University of Brazil: the mobile phone issue - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v32i2.11545

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacilio Antunes Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this study were to verify if students of Open University of Brazil approve of mobile learning (m-learning initiatives, to identify the students' perspectives about m-learning, to develop a model of instructional design for m-learning environments, and to quantify student satisfaction with the presented model. 1,328 students agreed to participate in this study, all students of Open University of Brazil. They were questioned about their perspectives on m-learning at this university and if they agree with this educational model. The students agreed with the possible implementation of m-learning at this university, especially through mobiles phones. Collectively, the main ideas that the students offered to improve the efficiency of knowledge construction were classified into three groups: theory, practice, and interactivity. They also agreed with an instructional design model that was developed and shown to the three groups.  

  20. Search Results | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 31 - 40 of 1310 ... It discusses risks and challenges when implementing open data initiatives. ... Presentation at the 2014 International Food Security Dialogue held ... age, largely based on findings from the Fish on Farms baseline survey.

  1. Detection Method for Soft Internal Short Circuit in Lithium-Ion Battery Pack by Extracting Open Circuit Voltage of Faulted Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhwan Seo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of internal short circuit which is main cause of thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is necessary to ensure battery safety for users. As a promising fault index, internal short circuit resistance can directly represent degree of the fault because it describes self-discharge phenomenon caused by the internal short circuit clearly. However, when voltages of individual cells in a lithium-ion battery pack are not provided, the effect of internal short circuit in the battery pack is not readily observed in whole terminal voltage of the pack, leading to difficulty in estimating accurate internal short circuit resistance. In this paper, estimating the resistance with the whole terminal voltages and the load currents of the pack, a detection method for the soft internal short circuit in the pack is proposed. Open circuit voltage of a faulted cell in the pack is extracted to reflect the self-discharge phenomenon obviously; this process yields accurate estimates of the resistance. The proposed method is verified with various soft short conditions in both simulations and experiments. The error of estimated resistance does not exceed 31.2% in the experiment, thereby enabling the battery management system to detect the internal short circuit early.

  2. Evaluation of COSMO-ART in the Framework of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Lea; Brunner, Dominik; Im, Ulas; Galmarini, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) coordinated by the EC-JRC and US-EPA, promotes since 2008 research on regional air quality model evaluation across the atmospheric modelling communities of Europe and North America. AQMEII has now reached its Phase 2 that is dedicated to the evaluation of on-line coupled chemistry-meteorology models as opposed to Phase 1 where only off-line models were considered. At European level, AQMEII collaborates with the COST Action "European framework for on-line integrated air quality and meteorology modelling" (EuMetChem). All European groups participating in AQMEII performed simulations over the same spatial domain (Europe at a resolution of about 20 km) and using the same simulation strategy (e.g. no nudging allowed) and the same input data as much as possible. The initial and boundary conditions (IC/BC) were shared between all groups. Emissions were provided by the TNO-MACC database for anthropogenic emissions and the FMI database for biomass burning emissions. Chemical IC/BC data were taken from IFS-MOZART output, and meteorological IC/BC from the ECWMF global model. Evaluation data sets were collected by the Joint Research Center (JRC) and include measurements from surface in situ networks (AirBase and EMEP), vertical profiles from ozone sondes and aircraft (MOZAIC), and remote sensing (AERONET, satellites). Since Phase 2 focuses on on-line coupled models, a special effort is devoted to the detailed speciation of particulate matter components, with the goal of studying feedback processes. For the AQMEII exercise, COSMO-ART has been run with 40 levels of vertical resolution, and a chemical scheme that includes the SCAV module of Knote and Brunner (ACP 2013) for wet-phase chemistry and the SOA treatment according to VBS (volatility basis set) approach (Athanasopoulou et al., ACP 2013). The COSMO-ART evaluation shows that, next to a good performance in the meteorology, the gas phase chemistry is well

  3. Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to attach a tethered organic corona onto CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatansever, Fatma, E-mail: vatansever.fatma@mgh.harvard.edu; Hamblin, Michael R., E-mail: hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Core–shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are useful as tunable photostable fluorophores for multiple applications in industry, biology, and medicine. However, to achieve the optimum optical properties, the surface of the QDs must be passivated to remove charged sites that might bind extraneous substances and allow aggregation. Here we describe a method of growing an organic polymer corona onto the QD surface using the bottom-up approach of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) with Grubbs catalyst. CdSe/ZnS QDs were first coated with mercaptopropionic acid by displacing the original tri-octylphosphine oxide layer, and then reacted with 7-octenyl dimethyl chlorosilane. The resulting octenyl double bonds allowed the attachment of ruthenium alkylidene groups as a catalyst. A subsequent metathesis reaction with strained bicyclic monomers (norbornene-dicarbonyl chloride (NDC), and a mixture of NDC and norbornenylethylisobutyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (norbornoPOSS)) allowed the construction of tethered organic homo-polymer or co-polymer layers onto the QD. Compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed that the coated QDs were separate and non-aggregated with a range of diameter of 48–53 nm.

  4. Sensory characteristics of liquids thickened with commercial thickeners to levels specified in the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jane Jun-Xin; Steele, Catriona M; Duizer, Lisa M

    2018-06-01

    Sensory characteristics are important for the acceptance of thickened liquids, but those of liquids thickened to the new standards put forth by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) are unknown. This research sought to identify and rate the perception of important sensory properties of liquids thickened to levels specified in the IDDSI framework. Samples were made with water, with and without added barium sulfate, and were thickened with a cornstarch or xanthan gum based thickener. Samples were characterized using projective mapping/ultra-flash profiling to identify important sample attributes, and then with trained descriptive analysis panels to characterize those attributes in non-barium and barium thickened liquids. Three main groups of attributes were observed. Taste and flavor attributes decreased in intensity with increasing thickener. Thickener specific attributes included graininess and chalkiness for the cornstarch thickened samples, and slipperiness for the xanthan gum samples. Within the same type of thickener, ratings of thickness-related attributes (perceived viscosity, adhesiveness, manipulation, and swallowing) at different IDDSI levels were significantly different from each other. However, in non-barium samples, cornstarch samples were perceived as thicker than xanthan gum samples even though they had similar apparent viscosities at 50 s -1 . On the other hand, the two thickeners had similar perceived thickness in the barium samples even though the apparent viscosities of cornstarch samples were higher than those of the xanthan gum samples. In conclusion, IDDSI levels can be distinguished based on sensory properties, but these properties may be affected by the type of thickener and medium being thickened.

  5. Opening statement at the international conference on security of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Stockholm, 7 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The opening statement highlights activities of the IAEA in ensuring that nuclear technologies and materials are used only for peaceful purposes; in prevention of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive material; in assistance in development of security measures for these materials; in training of customs officers from Member States in radiation monitoring. It also briefly describes the IAEA safeguards programme

  6. Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project : open letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, A.L.; Bottema, C.D.; Brauning, R.; Burgess, S.C.; Burt, D.W.; Casas, E.; Cheng, H.H.; Clarke, L.; Couldrey, C.; Dalrymple, B.P.; Elsik, C.G.; Foissac, S.; Giuffra, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Hayes, B.J.; Huang, L.S.; Khatib, H.; Kijas, J.W.; Kim, H.; Lunney, J.K.; McCarthy, F.M.; McEwan, J.; Moore, S.; Nanduri, B.; Notredame, C.; Palti, Y.; Plastow, G.S.; Reecy, J.M.; Rohrer, G.; Sarropoulou, E.; Schmidt, C.J.; Silverstein, J.; Tellam, R.L.; Tixier-Boichard, M.; Tosser-klopp, G.; Tuggle, C.K.; Vilkki, J.; White, S.N.; Zhao, S.; Zhou, H.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the organization of a nascent international effort, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project, whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species.

  7. Which Triple Aim related measures are being used to evaluate population management initiatives? An international comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Roy J P; Drewes, Hanneke W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Ruwaard, Dirk; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A

    2016-05-01

    Population management (PM) initiatives are introduced in order to create sustainable health care systems. These initiatives should focus on the continuum of health and well-being of a population by introducing interventions that integrate various services. To be successful they should pursue the Triple Aim, i.e. simultaneously improve population health and quality of care while reducing costs per capita. This study explores how PM initiatives measure the Triple Aim in practice. An exploratory search was combined with expert consultations to identify relevant PM initiatives. These were analyzed based on general characteristics, utilized measures and related selection criteria. In total 865 measures were used by 20 PM initiatives. All quality of care domains were included by at least 11 PM initiatives, while most domains of population health and costs were included by less than 7 PM initiatives. Although their goals showed substantial overlap, the measures applied showed few similarities between PM initiatives and were predominantly selected based on local priority areas and data availability. Most PM initiatives do not measure the full scope of the Triple Aim. Additionally, variety between measures limits comparability between PM initiatives. Consensus on the coverage of Triple Aim domains and a set of standardized measures could further both the inclusion of the various domains as well as the comparability between PM initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the ...

  9. Communication dated 16 July 2008 received from the Resident Representative of Japan to the Agency concerning an International Initiative on 3S-Based Nuclear Energy Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 16 July 2008 from the Resident Representative of Japan attaching a document entitled 'International Initiative on 3S-based Nuclear Energy Infrastructure'. The communication, and as requested therein, its attachment, are circulated herewith for information

  10. SU-E-T-499: Initial Developments of An OpenCL-Based Cross-Platform Monte Carlo Dose Engine for Carbon Ion Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, N; Tian, Z; Pompos, A; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Pinto, M; Dedes, G; Parodi, K [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munchen, Garching B. Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Dose calculation is of critical importance for carbon ion therapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered to be the most accurate method for calculation of absorbed dose and of all the more fundamental physical quantities related to biological effects. The long computation time, however, limits its routine clinical applications. We have recently started developing a fast MC package, gCMC for carbon therapy on a parallel processing platform, e.g. GPU, aiming at achieving sufficient efficiency to enable MC in clinically important tasks. This abstract reports our progress. Methods gCMC was developed in OpenCL environment. Our initial developments focused on water material. gCMC supported carbon ion transport in the energy range of 1–450 MeV/u. A Class II condensed history algorithm was implemented for charged particle transport simulations with stopping power computed via Bethe-Bloch equation. Energy straggling and multiple scattering were modeled. Total cross section of nuclear interaction was extracted from Geant4. At present, nuclear interaction events were sampled but transports of secondary particles were not included. Results We tested cases with a homogeneous water phantom and a pencil carbon ion beam with energy of 200–400 MeV/u. When only electro-magnetic channel was included, dose/fluence difference between gCMC and Geant4 results averaged within 10% isodose line was <0.5% of the maximum dose/fluence. After enabling nuclear interactions without transporting secondary particles, dose and fluence agreed with the corresponding results computed by Geant4 with <1% difference. Due to the support for multiple platforms of OpenCL, gCMC was executable on NVidia and AMD GPUs, and Intel CPUs. It took ∼50 sec to transport 107 200MeV/u source carbon ions on an NVidia Titan GPU card. Conclusion Preliminary studies have demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of gCMC. With further developments in near future, gCMC will potentially achieve clinically

  11. SU-E-T-499: Initial Developments of An OpenCL-Based Cross-Platform Monte Carlo Dose Engine for Carbon Ion Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, N; Tian, Z; Pompos, A; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Pinto, M; Dedes, G; Parodi, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dose calculation is of critical importance for carbon ion therapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered to be the most accurate method for calculation of absorbed dose and of all the more fundamental physical quantities related to biological effects. The long computation time, however, limits its routine clinical applications. We have recently started developing a fast MC package, gCMC for carbon therapy on a parallel processing platform, e.g. GPU, aiming at achieving sufficient efficiency to enable MC in clinically important tasks. This abstract reports our progress. Methods gCMC was developed in OpenCL environment. Our initial developments focused on water material. gCMC supported carbon ion transport in the energy range of 1–450 MeV/u. A Class II condensed history algorithm was implemented for charged particle transport simulations with stopping power computed via Bethe-Bloch equation. Energy straggling and multiple scattering were modeled. Total cross section of nuclear interaction was extracted from Geant4. At present, nuclear interaction events were sampled but transports of secondary particles were not included. Results We tested cases with a homogeneous water phantom and a pencil carbon ion beam with energy of 200–400 MeV/u. When only electro-magnetic channel was included, dose/fluence difference between gCMC and Geant4 results averaged within 10% isodose line was <0.5% of the maximum dose/fluence. After enabling nuclear interactions without transporting secondary particles, dose and fluence agreed with the corresponding results computed by Geant4 with <1% difference. Due to the support for multiple platforms of OpenCL, gCMC was executable on NVidia and AMD GPUs, and Intel CPUs. It took ∼50 sec to transport 107 200MeV/u source carbon ions on an NVidia Titan GPU card. Conclusion Preliminary studies have demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of gCMC. With further developments in near future, gCMC will potentially achieve clinically

  12. Initial clinical experience with a quadrupole butterfly coil for spinal injection interventions in an open MRI system at 1.0 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Martin; Hamm, Bernd; Heinrich, Andreas; Thomas, Andreas; Rathke, Hendrik; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Güttler, Felix; Teichgräber, Ulf K M; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2014-02-01

    To report our initial clinical experience with a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quadrupole coil that allows interventions in prone position. Fifteen patients (seven women, eight men; average age, 42.8 years) were treated in the same 1.0-Tesla Panorama High Field Open (HFO) MRI system (Panorama HFO) using a quadrupole butterfly coil (Bfly) and compared with 15 patients matched for sex, age, and MR intervention using the MultiPurposeL coil (MPL), performed in conventional lateral decubitus position (all, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). All interventions were performed with a near-real-time proton density turbo spin echo (PD TSE) sequence (time to repeat/time to echo/flip angle/acquisition time, 600 ms/10 ms/90°/3 s/image). Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were performed, including signal intensity, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR, CNR), contrast, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) measurements. Contrast differed significantly between the needle and muscles (Bfly 0.27/MPL 0.17), as well as the needle and periradicular fat (0.13/0.24) during the intervention (both, p=0.029), as well as the CNR between muscles and the needle (10.61/5.23; p=0.010), although the FWHM values did not (2.4/2.2; p=0.754). The signal intensity of the needle in interventional imaging (1152.9/793.2; p=0.006) and the postinterventional SNR values of subcutaneous fat (15.3/28.6; p=0.007), muscles (6.6/11.8; p=0.011), and the CNR between these tissues (8.7/17.5; p=0.004) yielded significant differences. The new coil is a valid alternative for MR-guided interventions in an open MRI system at 1.0 tesla, especially if patients cannot (or prefer not to) be in a lateral decubitus position or if prone positioning yields better access to the target zone.

  13. Open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Everyone wants open data, but the road towards it can be both difficult and long. Implementation of data portals and ICT solutions for support of the data infrastructure can be initiated from the central government through legislation, regulation and public procurement. This is what you would call...

  14. Properties of internalization factors contributing to the uptake of extracellular DNA into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse Krebs-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Evgeniya V; Potter, Ekaterina A; Proskurina, Anastasiya S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Chernych, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-05-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that poorly differentiated cells of various origins, including tumor-initiating stem cells present in the ascites form of mouse cancer cell line Krebs-2, are capable of naturally internalizing both linear double-stranded DNA and circular plasmid DNA. The method of co-incubating Krebs-2 cells with extracellular plasmid DNA (pUC19) or TAMRA-5'-dUTP-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was used. It was found that internalized plasmid DNA isolated from Krebs-2 can be transformed into competent Escherichia coli cells. Thus, the internalization processes taking place in the Krebs-2 cell subpopulation have been analyzed and compared, as assayed by E. coli colony formation assay (plasmid DNA) and cytofluorescence (TAMRA-DNA). We showed that extracellular DNA both in the form of plasmid DNA and a PCR product is internalized by the same subpopulation of Krebs-2 cells. We found that the saturation threshold for Krebs-2 ascites cells is 0.5 μg DNA/10(6) cells. Supercoiled plasmid DNA, human high-molecular weight DNA, and 500 bp PCR fragments are internalized into the Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells via distinct, non-competing internalization pathways. Under our experimental conditions, each cell may harbor 340-2600 copies of intact plasmid material, or up to 3.097 ± 0.044×10(6) plasmid copies (intact or not), as detected by quantitative PCR. The internalization dynamics of extracellular DNA, copy number of the plasmids taken up by the cells, and competition between different types of double-stranded DNA upon internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse ascites Krebs-2 have been comprehensively analyzed. Investigation of the extracellular DNA internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells is an important part of understanding their properties and possible destruction mechanisms. For example, a TAMRA-labeled DNA probe may serve as an instrument to develop a target for the therapy of cancer, aiming at elimination of

  15. Review on international sediment initiative case studies%国际泥沙计划案例研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 刘桉

    2017-01-01

    Affected by the global changes and many other factors,many river basins in the world are experiencing serious sediment problems and the importance of integrated sediment management has been increasing highlighted.This paper presents an overview on the case studies on sediment management of river basins carried by the International Sediment Initiative (ISI)-IHP-UNESCO.It is concluded that geographical conditions,socio-economic conditions and constructions of hydraulic engineering have major impacts on sediment yield,sediment transportation and water utilization in the river basins.The main sediment problems faced by the world's major river basins at present includes acceleration of soil erosion,reservoir sedimentation,the reduction of downstream sediment load and the destruction of ecological balance.Measures of integrated sediment management for river basins are put forward by summarizing sediment management technologies raised in the ISI case studies,including technical measures such as reservoir sedimentation management,sediment bed load management,land management,soil and water conservation technologies,as well as organization and legal measures.%在全球变化等多种因素的影响下,许多流域的泥沙问题严重,泥沙管理的重要性日益突出.通过对联合国教科文组织国际泥沙计划所开展的案例研究进行综述,认识到自然地理特征、社会经济条件、水利工程建设对流域产沙、输沙和水资源利用有重要影响.土壤侵蚀加速、水库淤积、下游输沙量减少和生态平衡破坏是目前全球各大流域面临的主要问题.综合各项案例,研究泥沙管理技术,提出流域综合泥沙管理的策略,包括水库淤积管理、推移质泥沙管理、土地管理和水土保持等技术手段,以及法律、行政和组织措施.

  16. Clinical comparison between the retromandibular approach for reduction and fixation and endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yamashita, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Endoscope-assisted transoral open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) for mandibular condyle fractures has recently become popular because it is minimally invasive, provides excellent visibility without a large incision, and reduces surgical scarring and the risk of facial nerve injury. This report describes a retrospective clinical study that compared certain clinical parameters, including postoperative function, between the retromandibular (RM) approach and EAORIF. Fifteen patients were treated by the RM approach, whereas 15 underwent EAORIF between July 2006 and September 2011 at Kyushu Dental College, Japan. Clinical indices comprised fracture line, fracture type, number of plates used, surgical duration, bleeding amount, and functional items, including maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation on the opening pathway, malocclusion, facial paresthesia, and temporomandibular joint pain and clicking. The areas subjected to either approach included lower neck and subcondyle. The RM approach was used for mandibular condyle fractures with dislocation of a small bone segment. Both groups used 2 plates in all cases. Surgical duration, maximum interincisal opening, mandibular deviation, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint function at 6 months after surgery were comparable between groups. The average bleeding amount in the EAORIF group was greater than in the RM group. One patient from the RM group developed facial paresthesia that persisted for 6 months after surgery. It was concluded that surgical treatment was suitable for fractures of the lower neck and subcondylar. Both procedures showed good results in the functional items of this study.

  17. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetlefs, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  18. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the factors influencing the price premiums’ magnitudes related to different label information conditions, such as information about the farmer community, traditional cooking recipes, organic certification, and Fairtrade certification. A face-to-face survey was conducted with 200 international tourists at the airport in Cuzco, Peru. The data were analyzed using a probit and tobit models with sample selection. The results suggest that dried native chilies would have a relatively good acceptance among international tourists. About 62% of the respondents indicated they would buy dried native chilies, and of them, 62%–74% would pay an average price premium ranging from S/1.16–1.58 for different label information conditions. Nevertheless specific marketing campaigns should be designed for different types of international tourists in order to maximize the economic benefits for small-holder farmers.

  19. The Magellanic Bridge Cluster NGC 796: Deep Optical AO Imaging Reveals the Stellar Content and Initial Mass Function of a Massive Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Venu M.; Carraro, Giovanni; Evans, Christopher J.; Rubio, Monica

    2018-04-01

    NGC 796 is a massive young cluster located 59 kpc from us in the diffuse intergalactic medium of the 1/5–1/10 Z⊙ Magellanic Bridge, allowing us to probe variations in star formation and stellar evolution processes as a function of metallicity in a resolved fashion, and providing a link between resolved studies of nearby solar-metallicity and unresolved distant metal-poor clusters located in high-redshift galaxies. In this paper, we present adaptive optics griHα imaging of NGC 796 (at 0.″5, which is ∼0.14 pc at the cluster distance) along with optical spectroscopy of two bright members to quantify the cluster properties. Our aim is to explore whether star formation and stellar evolution vary as a function of metallicity by comparing the properties of NGC 796 to higher-metallicity clusters. We find an age of {20}-5+12 Myr from isochronal fitting of the cluster main sequence in the color–magnitude diagram. Based on the cluster luminosity function, we derive a top-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) with a slope α = 1.99 ± 0.2, hinting at a metallicity and/or environmental dependence of the IMF, which may lead to a top-heavy IMF in the early universe. Study of the Hα emission-line stars reveals that classical Be stars constitute a higher fraction of the total B-type stars when compared with similar clusters at greater metallicity, providing some support to the chemically homogeneous theory of stellar evolution. Overall, NGC 796 has a total estimated mass of 990 ± 200 M⊙, and a core radius of 1.4 ± 0.3 pc, which classifies it as a massive young open cluster, unique in the diffuse interstellar medium of the Magellanic Bridge.

  20. Managing search strategies for open innovation : the role of environmental munificence as well as internal and external R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Firms compete increasingly in an open innovation environment. Search strategies for external knowledge become therefore crucial for firm success. Existing research differentiates between the breadth (diversity) and depth (intensity) with which firms pursue external knowledge source. A consensus exists that resource constrains force firms to balance both dimensions. However, relatively little is known on how managers can selectively strengthen one of these dimensions. We argue conceptually tha...

  1. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  2. Evaluation of the condylar movement on MRI during maximal mouth opening in patients with internal derangement of TMJ; comparison with transcranial view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the condylar movement at maximal mouth opening on MRI in patients with internal derangement. MR images and transcranial views for 102 TMJs in 51 patients were taken in closed and maximal opening positions, and the amount of condylar movement was analyzed annotatively and qualitatively. For MR images, the mean condylar movements were 9.4 mm horizontally, 4.6 mm vertically and 10.9 mm totally, while those for transcranial views were 12.5 mm, 4.6 mm, and 13.7 mm respectively. The condyle moved forward beyond the summit of the articular eminence in 41 TMJs (40.2%) for MR images than in transcranial views

  3. WESTERN SAHARA AND THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM. Power relations in the open. What would be the role of the international right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ABEDRAPO ROJAS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-proclamation of independence of the Saharawi nation was recognized by 72 states, and after that, Western Sahara was admitted in the UAO during 1982. Nevertheless, the failed negotiations between Morocco and the Polisary Front have influenced the no application of the International Judicial Court’s resolution, keeping in status quo the self-determination of the recognized Saharawi nation. At the same time, the political support for the recognition of the Saharawi, since the withdrawal of the Spanish occupation in the seventies has reduced, because, nowadays several countries have retired its support to the state-building project. The Moroccan and American strategies as a warrant of the negotiation process have been one of stop and delay the making of a referendum that may allow the manifest of the will of the Saharawis in respect of their destiny as a nation. In fact, every day is more difficult to make such referendum, because the native population composition has been altered, situation that make unfeasible the creation of an electorate register system, and thus setting away the application of the international law, that through the International Court of Justice had recognized the existence of a nation, with a right of self-determination still kept on hold, and seeming that will still be kept in the future with no changes.

  4. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for HLA typing: bases for setting up an open international collaboration when PGD is not available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Marina; Von Der Weid, Nicolas; Peddes, Christina; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Liebaers, Inge; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Wunder-Galié, Dorothea; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    In severe forms of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-compatible embryos for enabling the next sibling in the family to be a stem-cell transplantation donor constitutes the sole lasting cure capable of terminating the enduring need for iterative transfusions. We report here an open collaboration between two renowned institutions to provide a family desiring this treatment even though they resided where the preimplantation genetic diagnosis procedure is banned. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Open Technology Development: Roadmap Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herz, J. C; Lucas, Mark; Scott, John

    2006-01-01

    .... Collaborative and distributed online tools; and 4. Technological Agility. Open standards and interfaces were initially established through ARPA and distributed via open source software reference implementations...

  7. The Jules Horowitz Reactor - A new High Performance European Material Testing Reactor open to International Users Present Status and Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Bignan, Gilles; Lindbaeck, Jan-Erik; Blomgren, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The development of sustainable nuclear energy requires R and D on fuel and material behaviour under irradiation with a high level of performance in order to meet the needs and challenges for the benefit of industry, research and public bodies. These stakes require a sustainable and secured access to an up-to-date high performance Material Testing Reactor. Following a broad survey within the European Research Area, the international community agreed that the need for Material Test Reactors in support of nuclear power plant safety and operation will continue in the context of sustainable nuclear energy. The Jules Horowitz Reactor project (JHR) copes with this context. JHR is designed as a user facility addressing the needs of the international community. This means: - flexibility with irradiation loops able to reproduce a large variation in operation conditions of different power reactor technologies, - high flux capacity to address Generations II, III, and IV needs. JHR is designed, built and operated as an international user facility because: - Given the maturity and globalization of the industry, domestic tools have no more the required level of economic and technical efficiency. Meanwhile, countries with nuclear energy need an access to high performance irradiation experimental capabilities to support technical skill and guarantee the competitiveness and safety of nuclear energy. - Many research items related to safety or public policy (waste management, etc.) require international cooperation to share costs and benefits of resulting consensus. JHR design is optimised for offering high performance material and fuel irradiation capability for the coming decades. This project is driven and funded by an international consortium gathering vendors, utilities and public stakeholders. This consortium has been set up in March 2007 when the construction began. The construction is in progress and the start of operation is scheduled for 2014. The JHR is a research

  8. Investigations of leak opening and outflow behaviour on straight pipes with circumferential cracks with internal pressure and bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.; Hoefler, A.; Hunger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments carried out so far on straight pipes with circumferential cracks and results of subsequent calculations from this experiment are introduced. The subsequent calculations are not yet completed at all points. From the experiments one can record that the selected crack sizes and stresses have guaranteed stable crack behaviour in all cases. The comparison of experimental and calculated crack openings shows satisfactory agreement (difference about 20% for experiment E22.03. The compared leak rates show differences of up to about 50% (in isolated cases even more). For small leak rates (0.01 to 0.1 kg/sec), one can expect a difference of about 100% between calculation and experiment. For medium leak rates, we regard a maximum difference of about 30% as achievable. For large leak rates, the achievable accuracy plays no part for the detectability. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Open access to natural gas pipeline transportation in North America: Lessons for the European internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The North American natural gas industry's experience with deregulation is described, with emphasis on the transition to competition and the conditions for viability under open access. Lessons learned from the North American experience are then examined for relevance to the European situation, which is emphasizing greater access to transmission systems. It is found likely that the European proposal will frequently operate only to facilitate negotiations among players already active in the gas market, and is less likely to introduce a large number of independent transactions or new merchants. Challenges for the system will include: government assurance of reliability to domestic gas users who have made arrangements with foreign suppliers; administration of pipeline grids; resolution of competing claims on available transmission services; planning for future suppliers; and impact on investment. 8 refs., 1 fig

  10. Publications | Page 33 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 321 - 330 of 6371 ... ​IDRC-supported researchers at Sri Lanka's International Centre for Ethnic Studies (ICES) are exploring the recovery and resettlement challenges communities face in a post-conflict environment. The impact of war spans individual,... Opening the Gates: Will Open Data Initiatives Make Local ...

  11. The Jules Horowitz reactor, a new high performance European material testing reactor open to international users: present status and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, D.; Bignan, G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of nuclear power as a sustainable and competitive energy source will continue to require research and development of fuel and material behaviour under irradiation. This necessitates a high performance material testing reactor (MTR). Facing the obsolescence of most of the existing MTR in Europe, France decided a few years ago the construction of the RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor). RJH is designed, built and will be operated as an international user facility. A first set of experimental hosting devices is being designed. For instance, there are the in-core CALIPSO Nak integrated loop for material studies and other loops for fuel studies under nominal or off-normal or accidental conditions. The RJH international program will focus on the following subjects: -) fuel reliability, assessed through power ramps tests and post-irradiation examination; -) Loss of coolant tests done out-of-pile in a first phase and in-pile in a possible second phase; and -) source term tests addressing fission products release. The paper reports also the point of view of VATTENFALL (a Swedish power utility), as a potential European RJH user. (A.C.)

  12. 16 CFR 2.1 - How initiated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How initiated. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commercial... General; upon referrals by the courts; upon complaint by members of the public; or by the Commission upon..., authority to open investigations in response to requests pursuant to an agreement under the International...

  13. Do Open Reduction and Internal Fixation With Articular Disc Anatomical Reduction and Rigid Anchorage Manifest a Promising Prospect in the Treatment of Intracapsular Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bo-Lei; Ren, Rong; Yu, Hong-Bo; Liu, Peng-Chao; Shen, Steve G F; Shi, Jun

    2018-05-01

    In response to the increased attention to soft tissue reduction in the treatment of intracapsular condylar fractures (ICFs), a modified open reduction technique is proposed and its functional and radiographic outcomes were evaluated in this study. This is a retrospective case series study of patients with all ICF types that were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with articular disc anatomic reduction and rigid anchorage. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly applied. Preoperative and postoperative clinical examinations of malocclusion, maximum incisor opening (MIO), laterotrusion, and temporomandibular disorder symptoms were recorded and analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to assess articular position and condylar morphology and position. Thirty-four patients with ICFs (47 sides) were treated with the modified ORIF technique. At 6 months of follow-up, no malocclusion was found and the MIO considerably expanded to 3.56 ± 0.13 cm. Only 4 patients (12%) had temporomandibular joint discomfort with mouth opening. Interestingly, for unilateral type B ICFs, the laterotrusion distance to the ORIF sides was notably longer than to the non-ORIF sides. Postoperative CT and MRI showed that all fragments were properly reduced and the condyles were in the normal position. Postoperative anterior disc displacement occurred in 4 sides and condylar morphologic abnormalities (slight surface roughening and articular cartilage absorption) occurred in 3 sides (6.4%). This modified ORIF technique, which achieved good outcomes after treatment of all ICF types, shows promise for the treatment of ICFs. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF HUMERUS SHAFT FRACTURES TREATED WITH OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATE AND SCREWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar S. Donimath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the humerus shaft accounts to 3% to 5% of all fractures. Majority of the fractures are unstable due to distraction force of the gravity in the upper limb and strong muscle contraction leading to displacement. Internal fixation and early mobilisation is more stressed on than splinting and prolonged immobilisation to allow earlier mobilisation and rapid return to work. The aim of the study was to study the union rates and the functional outcome and complications associated with shaft humerus fractures in KIMS Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study which was carried out from October 2015 to September 2017 in Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubballi, Karnataka State, India. In this study period, 25 cases of fracture shaft of the humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using DCP. Skeletally mature patients with fresh humerus diaphysis fractures were included in the study. Pathological fractures and Tscherne grade 2 and above, Gustilo Anderson type2 and above were excluded from the study. RESULTS In our series of 25 cases, there were 21 men and 4 women with average age of 42.5 years. Sixteen (64% cases were due to RTA and with predominance of right side. Transverse fractures were most common that is 15 (60% patients. Eleven (31% cases were having associated injuries. 92% of the fractures united with good to excellent outcome. There were 2 (8% cases of non-union due to infection and comminution. CONCLUSION Open reduction and internal fixation with dynamic compression plate is still the standard treatment of choice for fracture shaft of humerus achieving excellent to good functional outcome.

  15. International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa : viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, Aderanti; Naerssen, Ton van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    This book aims at achieving a better understanding of the implications of international migration for national development from the perspective of the sending countries, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, the volume explores (1) current perceptions of the links between

  16. The Challenge of Fostering Cross-Cultural Interactions: A Case Study of International Graduate Students' Perceptions of Diversity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Redwood, CindyAnn R.

    2010-01-01

    During the post-World War II era, most U.S. colleges and universities began to promote diversity and internationalization ideals. However, the extent to which U.S. higher education institutions have been successful in achieving diversity, especially in relation to stimulating diverse social interactions between the international and American…

  17. Open Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Paull

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old male was transported to the emergency department by emergency medical services after crashing his motorcycle into a guardrail. Upon presentation he was alert, normotensive, and tachypneic. Significant findings: A large chest wound was clinically obvious. A chest radiograph performed after intubation showed subcutaneous emphysema, an anterior rib fracture, and a right-sided pneumothorax. He was then taken to the operating room for further management. Discussion: Thoracic injuries are responsible for one-quarter of all trauma-related deaths. Following rib fracture, pneumothorax is the second most common thoracic injury, occurring in 30% of patients with thoracic trauma. An open pneumothorax occurs when a chest wall injury results in direct communication between the atmosphere and pleura.1-2 It is estimated that open pneumothorax occurs in 80% of all penetrating chest wounds, with stab wounds being more common than gunshot wounds or impalement. Open pneumothoraces can lead to ventilatory insufficiency and rapid respiratory decompensation.2 Advanced Trauma Life Support recommends that the initial management of an open pneumothorax is placement of an occlusive dressing taped on three sides to create a ‘flutter-valve’ mechanism. This should then be followed by tube thoracostomy and repair of the chest wall defect.3 The placement of an occlusive dressing or initial wound closure without subsequent tube thoracostomy may result in the development of a tension pneumothorax.2 The patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was initiated without complication. Due to the large size of the wound, an occlusive dressing was not placed in the emergency department and the patient was rapidly transported to the operating room for further management. In the operating room two chest tubes were placed. Operative findings included a right hemopneumothorax, multiple rib fractures, and a manubrial fracture. After

  18. The Privacy and Security Implications of Open Data in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kane, Thomas B; Paton, Chris

    2018-04-22

     The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Open Source Working Group (OSWG) initiated a group discussion to discuss current privacy and security issues in the open data movement in the healthcare domain from the perspective of the OSWG membership.  Working group members independently reviewed the recent academic and grey literature and sampled a number of current large-scale open data projects to inform the working group discussion.  This paper presents an overview of open data repositories and a series of short case reports to highlight relevant issues present in the recent literature concerning the adoption of open approaches to sharing healthcare datasets. Important themes that emerged included data standardisation, the inter-connected nature of the open source and open data movements, and how publishing open data can impact on the ethics, security, and privacy of informatics projects.  The open data and open source movements in healthcare share many common philosophies and approaches including developing international collaborations across multiple organisations and domains of expertise. Both movements aim to reduce the costs of advancing scientific research and improving healthcare provision for people around the world by adopting open intellectual property licence agreements and codes of practice. Implications of the increased adoption of open data in healthcare include the need to balance the security and privacy challenges of opening data sources with the potential benefits of open data for improving research and healthcare delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  19. The Virtual International Day of the Midwife: A Synchronous Open Online Conference for Continuing Professional Development and Learning for Midwives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidebotham, Mary; Dalsgaard, Annette; Davis, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the contribution of the Virtual International Day of the Midwife (VIDM) conference to midwives' continuing professional development (CPD). BACKGROUND: Knowledge and understanding of CPD for midwives as synchronous online learning is limited. Studies of e-learning programs for CPD...... to participants for 1 month after the conference via the wiki page in 2012 and 2013. FINDINGS: The survey was completed by 239 conference participants. Midwifery students and clinical midwives were the largest groups of attendees. The most common countries of residence were Australia, United Kingdom, and United...... States. Respondents believed that the conference contributed to their professional development by enabling professional growth, facilitating shared learning, and raising awareness of global issues. CONCLUSION: Offering synchronous events is important to facilitate deeper learning for those engaging...

  20. The International Glaciological Society: offering opportunity to publish in high quality, open access journals and to attend several targeted symposia and workshops every year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The International Glaciological Society (IGS) was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in practical and scientific aspects of snow and ice. At the start of 2016 all IGS publications, the Journal of Glaciology (impact factor 3.643) and topically oriented Annals of Glaciology (impact factor 2.349), became `Gold Open Access'. Author publication charges (APCs) are also competitive because the IGS partners with Cambridge University Press (CUP), and scientific editing and review is quick and in tune with what authors value. In addition to publishing, the IGS organizes and facilitates several International Symposia a year on trending topics proposed by the scientific community (often associated with topical issues of the Annals of Glaciology) as well as many branch meetings, workshops and summer training schools for students. The international symposia are located in diverse areas, recently including Nepal, France, Australia, New Zealand, Iceland and Beijing. Often our meetings coincide with opportunities for travel experience, such as visiting Tibet or hiking the Annapurna circuit in Nepal. Membership in the IGS offers good services and value, including: 10% discount on author processing charges (APCs), special registration rates for IGS symposia and workshops, belonging to an old and established learned society with worldwide membership and access to an extended peer group.

  1. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  2. International open trial of uniform multidrug therapy regimen for leprosy patients: Findings & implications for national leprosy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Ponnaiah; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Nagaraju, Bathyala; Katoch, Kiran; Jamesh, Abdul; Kutaiyan, Ramalingam; Jianping, Shen; Mugudalabetta, Shivakumar; Jadhav, Vitthal; Rajkumar, Prabu; Padma, Jayasree; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Pannikar, Vijayakumar; Krishnamurthy, Padabettu; Gupte, Mohan D

    2016-10-01

    Uniform therapy for all leprosy patients will simplify leprosy treatment. In this context, we evaluated six-month multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended for multibacillary (MB) patients as uniform MDT (U-MDT) in a single-arm open trial under programme conditions. Primary objective was to determine efficacy to prevent five-year cumulative five per cent relapse. Secondary objectives were to assess acceptability, safety and compliance. Newly detected, treatment-naive leprosy patients were enrolled in India (six sites) and P. R. China (two sites). Primary outcome was clinically confirmed relapse of occurrence of one or more new skin patches consistent with leprosy, without evidence of reactions post-treatment. Event rates per 100 person years as well as five-year cumulative risk of relapse, were calculated. A total of 2091 paucibacillary (PB) and 1298 MB leprosy patients were recruited from the 3437 patients screened. Among PB, two relapsed (rate=0.023; risk=0.11%), eight had suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (rate=0.79) and rate of new lesions due toreactions was 0.24 (n=23). Rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 0.39 (n=37), 0.54 (n=51) and 0.03 (n=3), respectively. Among MB, four relapsed (rate=0.07; risk=0.37%) and 16 had suspected ADR (rate=2.64). Rate of new lesions due to reactions among MB was 1.34 (n=76) and rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 1.37 (n=78), 2.01 (n=114) and 0.49 (n=28), respectively. Compliance to U-MDT was 99 per cent. Skin pigmentation due to clofazimine was of short duration and acceptable. We observed low relapse, minimal ADR and other adverse clinical events. Clofazimine-related pigmentation was acceptable. Evidence supports introduction of U-MDT in national leprosy programmes. [CTRI No: 2012/ 05/ 002696].

  3. Building the Open Elements of an Open Data Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Guy, Marieke; Herder, Eelco; Parodi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The European Union is increasingly committed to pushing forward open approaches as indicated by the G8 Open Data Charter, the Opening Up Education initiative, the launch of the Open Education Europa Portal for OER resources and other similar initiatives. The EU-funded LinkedUp Project (Linking Web

  4. DDG-NS statement at the opening of the international conference 'Chernobyl: Looking back to go forwards'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA, as a specialised nuclear-related technical UN agency, has been involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident consequences since early May 1986 when former Director General Hans Blix had visited Chernobyl in order to observe the physical damage and to discuss further actions. The IAEA took on many projects related to technical assistance, technical co-operation and research - with several immediate and longer term goals: first, to mitigate the accident's radiological, environmental and health consequences; second, to improve the overall safety of other RBMK reactors; and third, to understand and disseminate globally those lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl experience. The projects executed between 1986 and 2005 covered the full range of topics: radiation, waste and nuclear safety; monitoring human exposure; environmental restoration of contaminated land; treatment of people living in the affected areas; and development of special measures to reduce exposure levels. The largest project took place in 1990. Over a two year period, the Agency coordinated the efforts of some 200 international experts over a two year period to complete an independent assessment of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Many missions to the three most affected countries were conducted and many meetings were held. The Agency has also organized or supported numerous international meetings to foster information exchange and to promote further assessment of the accident's radiological consequences. The Agency continues its ongoing activities regarding the mitigation of the accident's radiological consequences as part of the UN strategy 'Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident - A Strategy for Recovery' launched in 2002. Further IAEA commitment in continued Chernobyl-related activities, mainly in nuclear and radiation safety fields, may involve the following areas: Safety of Shelter decommissioning, Safety of radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl

  5. Comparison of international initiative on corporate social responsibility in mining%矿业企业社会责任的国际倡议比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春强; 刘伯恩

    2014-01-01

    This paper classifies and makes comparative analysis of the important international corporate social responsibility initiatives in mining ,including the United Nations Global Compact ,the ILO Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy ,OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises ,Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Reporting Guidelines ,International Council on Mining and Metals Sustainable Development Principles , Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative .It also makes judgment of future trends ,and suggests that Chinese"going out"-mining companies should respond to corporate social responsibility and comply with the important international initiatives , participate in setting rules ,for good corporate image and the greatest benefits .%本文对包括联合国《全球契约》、国际劳工组织《关于跨国企业和社会政策的三方宣言》、经济合作与发展组织《跨国企业准则》、全球报告倡议组织可持续发展报告指南、国际采矿与金属理事会可持续发展准则以及《采掘业透明倡议》等在内的影响矿业企业社会责任的重要国际倡议进行了分类和比较分析,并对企业社会责任未来的发展趋势做出判断,建议我国“走出去”的矿业企业响应和遵守有重要影响力的社会责任国际倡议,参与规则的制定,从而树立良好的企业形象,争取最大的利益。

  6. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design has been to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. One possibility would be to enclose each experiment in a temporary structure that would provide weatherproofing and shielding; another possibility would be to erect a permanent building at a later time, when experience has made the needs clearer than they are at present. The secondary objective of the design of open areas has been to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective might be added, however, which we indicate by the term ''open access.'' This note will explore this idea and some design concepts based on it. In the ISABELLE 1977 summer workshop there was considerable discussion of the importance of techniques for inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Since enclosed halls have certain restrictions in this respect, open areas may be helpful in providing this feature. If the mechanical and electrical aspects could be handled quickly, one might even attempt to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures in order to expedite the introduction of new experiments and new ideas in these areas

  7. Triceps-sparing approach for open reduction and internal fixation of neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat

    2015-06-01

    Supracondylar humeral fractures are one of the most common skeletal injuries in children. In cases of displacement and instability, the standard procedure is early closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. However, between 10 and 20 % of patients present late. According to the literature, patients with neglected fractures are those patients who presented for treatment after 14 days of injury. The delay is either due to lack of medical facilities or social and financial constraints. The neglected cases are often closed injuries with no vascular compromise. However, the elbow may still be tense and swollen with abrasions or crusts. In neglected cases, especially after early appearance of callus, there is no place for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Traditionally, distal humeral fractures have been managed with surgical approaches that disrupt the extensor mechanism with less satisfactory functional outcome due to triceps weakness and elbow stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of delayed open reduction using the triceps-sparing approach and Kirschner wire fixation for treatment of neglected, displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children. This prospective study included 15 children who had neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures. All patients were completely evaluated clinically and radiologically before intervention, after surgery and during the follow-up. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 49 months, with a mean period of 17 months. Functional outcome was evaluated according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and Mark functional criteria. All fractures united in a mean duration of 7.2 weeks (range 5-10 weeks) with no secondary displacement or mal-union. Excellent results were found at the last follow-up in 13 of the 15 patients studied (86.66 %), while good results were found in two patients (13.33 %) according to the MEPI scale. According to the Mark

  8. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurria, Angel

    2009-01-01

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with

  9. Open reduction and internal fixation of osteoporotic acetabular fractures through the ilio-inguinal approach: use of buttress plates to control medial displacement of the quadrilateral surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Robin E

    2015-01-01

    The number of acetabular fractures in the geriatric population requiring open reduction and internal fixation is increasing. Fractures with medial or anterior displacement are the most frequent types, and via the ilio-inguinal approach buttress plates have proved helpful to maintain the quadrilateral surface or medial acetabular wall. Seven to ten hole 3.5 mm reconstruction plates may be used as buttress plates, placed underneath the usual pelvic brim plate. This retrospective study presents our results with this technique in 13 patients at a minimum follow-up of 12 months (average, 31 months). 85% of the patients had a good result. The early onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis necessitated total hip arthroplasty in two patients (15%) at 12 and 18 months follow-up, respectively. This treatment option should be considered in the surgeon's armamentarium when fixing these challenging cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes near back-filled and open-drift nuclear waste repositories in Task D of the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Oda, Y.; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Ponatinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia: an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey H; Chuah, Charles; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Rosti, Gianantonio; Simpson, David; Assouline, Sarit; Etienne, Gabriel; Nicolini, Franck E; le Coutre, Philipp; Clark, Richard E; Stenke, Leif; Andorsky, David; Oehler, Vivian; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M; Clackson, Timothy; Haluska, Frank G; Baccarani, Michele; Cortes, Jorge E; Guilhot, François; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Shah, Neil P; Talpaz, Moshe; Deininger, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    Ponatinib has shown potent activity against chronic myeloid leukaemia that is resistant to available treatment, although it is associated with arterial occlusion. We investigated whether this activity and safety profile would result in superior outcomes compared with imatinib in previously untreated patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. The Evaluation of Ponatinib versus Imatinib in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (EPIC) study was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ponatinib, compared with imatinib, in newly diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. Patients from 106 centres in 21 countries were randomly assigned (1:1, with stratification by Sokal score at diagnosis) using an interactive voice and web response system to receive oral ponatinib (45 mg) or imatinib (400 mg) once daily until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other criteria for withdrawal were met. Eligible patients were at least 18 years of age, within 6 months of diagnosis, and Philadelphia chromosome-positive by cytogenetic assessment, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had not previously been treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was major molecular response at 12 months. Patients who remained on study and had molecular assessments at specified timepoints were studied at those timepoints. Safety analyses included all treated patients, as per study protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01650805. Between Aug 14, 2012, and Oct 9, 2013, 307 patients were randomly assigned to receive ponatinib (n=155) or imatinib (n=152). The trial was terminated early, on Oct 17, 2013, following concerns about vascular adverse events observed in patients given ponatinib in other trials. Trial termination limited assessment of the primary endpoint of major molecular response at 12 months, as only 13 patients in the imatinib group and ten patients in the

  13. Differences in self-reported outcomes of open prostatectomy patients and robotic prostatectomy patients in an international web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter Kevin; Laws, Thomas A; Pinnock, Carol; Moul, Judd W; Esterman, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    To compare patient reported outcomes between robotic assisted surgery and non-robotic assisted surgery. This was an international web-based survey based on a qualitative research and literature review, an internet-based questionnaire was developed with approximately 70 items. The questionnaire included both closed and open-ended questions. Responses were received from 193 men of whom 86 had received either open (OP) or robotic (RALP) surgery. A statistically significant (p=0.027), ranked analysis of covariance was found demonstrating higher recent distress in the robotic (RALP) surgery group. Although not statistically significant, there was a pattern of men having robotic (RALP) surgery reporting fewer urinary and bowel problems, but having a greater rate of sexual dysfunction. Men who opt for robotic surgery may have higher expectations for robotic (RALP) surgery, when these expectations are not fully met they may be less likely to accept the consequences of this major cancer surgery. Information regarding surgical choice needs to be tailored to ensure that men diagnosed with prostate cancer are fully informed of not only short term surgical and physical outcomes such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence, but also of potential issues with regards to masculinity, lifestyle and sexual health. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Combined circular external fixation and open reduction internal fixation with pro-syndesmotic screws for repair of a diabetic ankle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia Facaros

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of ankle fractures among the diabetic population is associated with higher complication rates compared to the general population. Efforts toward development of better methods in prevention and treatment are continuously evolving for these injuries. The presence of peripheral neuropathy and the possible development of Charcot neuroarthropathy in this high risk patient population have stimulated much surgical interest to create more stable osseous constructs when open reduction of an ankle fracture/dislocation is required. The utilization of multiple syndesmotic screws (pro-syndesmotic screws to further stabilize the ankle mortise has been reported by many foot and ankle surgeons. In addition, transarticular Steinmann pins have been described as an adjunct to traditional open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF of the ankle to better stabilize the talus, thus minimizing risk of further displacement, malunion, and Charcot neuroarthropathy. The authors present a unique technique of ORIF with pro-syndesmotic screws and the application of a multi-plane circular external fixator for management of a neglected diabetic ankle fracture that prevented further deformity while allowing a weight-bearing status. This technique may be utilized for the management of complex diabetic ankle fractures that are prone to future complications and possible limb loss.

  15. Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Primmer, Craig R; Houston, Ross D; Nowak, Barbara F; Bernatchez, Louis; Bergseth, Steinar; Davidson, William S; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Goldammer, Tom; Guiguen, Yann; Iturra, Patricia; Kijas, James W; Koop, Ben F; Lien, Sigbjørn; Maass, Alejandro; Martin, Samuel A M; McGinnity, Philip; Montecino, Martin; Naish, Kerry A; Nichols, Krista M; Ólafsson, Kristinn; Omholt, Stig W; Palti, Yniv; Plastow, Graham S; Rexroad, Caird E; Rise, Matthew L; Ritchie, Rachael J; Sandve, Simen R; Schulte, Patricia M; Tello, Alfredo; Vidal, Rodrigo; Vik, Jon Olav; Wargelius, Anna; Yáñez, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    We describe an emerging initiative - the 'Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes' (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis of phenotypic variation. The outcomes of FAASG will have diverse applications, ranging from improved understanding of genome evolution, to improving the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production, supporting the future of fundamental and applied research in an iconic fish lineage of major societal importance.

  16. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF FEMUR MANAGED BY OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Incidence of distal femur fractures is approximately 37 per 1 , 00,000 person - years.¹Distal femoral fractures has two different injury mechanisms, high energy trauma and low energy trauma. In high - energy trauma, the problem of restoring the function in a destroyed knee joint persists. Complex knee ligament injuries frequently occur additionally to extensive cartilage injuries. In elderly patients, extreme osteoporosis represents a particular problem for anchoring the implant. 2 Supracondylar and inter condylar fractures often are unstable and comminuted and tend to occur in the elderly or those with multiple injuries. Treatment options are many with varied results. The final outcome would depend upon the type of fracture, stabilization of fixation and and perhaps patient general condition. 3 The options for operative treatment are traditional plating techniques that require compression of the implant to the femoral shaft (blade plate, Dynamic Condylar Screw, non - locking condylar buttress plate, antegrade nailing fixation, retrograde nailing, sub muscular locked internal fixation and external fixation. 4 However, as the complexity of fractures needing treatment has changed from simple extra - articular supra - condylar types to inter - condylar and metaphyseal comminuted types, these implants may not be ideal. Double plating, and more recently, locked plating techniques have been advocated 5 . However with double plating there is often extensive soft tissue stripping on both sides of the femur, resulting in reduced blood supply and potential non - union and failure of the implants 6 . The LCP is a single beam construct where the strength of its fixation is equal to the sum of all screw - bone interfaces rather than a single screw’s axial stiffness or pullout resistance as seen in unlocked plates 7,8 . Its unique biomechanical function is based on splinting rather than compression resulting in flexible stabilization

  17. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  18. Working Definitions of the Roles and an Organizational Structure in Health Professions Education Scholarship: Initiating an International Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Gruppen, Larry; Hu, Wendy; O'Brien, Bridget; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; van der Vleuten, Cees; Hamstra, Stanley J; Durning, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Health professions education scholarship (HPES) is an important and growing field of inquiry. Problematically, consistent use of terminology regarding the individual roles and organizational structures that are active in this field are lacking. This inconsistency impedes the transferability of current and future findings related to the roles and organizational structures of HPES. Based on data collected during interviews with HPES leaders in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the Netherlands, the authors constructed working definitions for some of the professional roles and an organizational structure that support HPES. All authors reviewed the definitions to ensure relevance across multiple countries. The authors define and offer illustrative examples of three professional roles in HPES (clinician educator, HPES research scientist, and HPES administrative leader) and an organizational structure that can support HPES participation (HPES unit). These working definitions are foundational and not all-encompassing and, thus, are offered as stimulus for international dialogue and understanding. With these working definitions, scholars and administrative leaders can examine HPES roles and organizational structures across and between national contexts to decide how lessons learned in other contexts can be applied to their local contexts. Although rigorously constructed, these definitions need to be vetted by the international HPES community. The authors argue that these definitions are sufficiently transferable to support such scholarly investigation and debate.

  19. Global faculty development: lessons learned from the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, William P

    2014-08-01

    Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) faculty development programs have operated since 2001 and are designed to overcome many of the challenges inherent in global health collaborations, including alignment with local needs, avoiding persistent dependency, and development of trust. FAIMER fellowship programs, developed for midcareer faculty members in all health professions from around the world, share goals of strengthening knowledge and skills in education leadership, education methods, and project management and evaluation. Building community is another explicit goal that allows participants to support and learn from each other.The author recommends several practices for successful international collaborations based on 13 years of experience with FAIMER fellowships. These include using authentic education projects to maintain alignment with local needs and apply newly acquired knowledge and skills, teaching leadership across cultures with careful communication and adaptation of concepts to local environments, cultivating a strong field of health professions education to promote diffusion of ideas and advocate for policy change, intentionally promoting field development and leadership to reduce dependency, giving generously of time and resources, learning from others as much as teaching others, and recognizing that effective partnerships revolve around personal relationships to build trust. These strategies have enabled the FAIMER fellowship programs to stay aligned with local needs, reduce dependency, and maintain trust.

  20. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  1. The use of international service learning initiatives for global health education: case studies from Rwanda and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Ellen; Roe, Kathleen; Plumb, James; Sepe, Priscilla; Soin, Komal; Ramirez, Aragon; Baganizi, Edmond; Simmons, Rob; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2013-05-01

    Global health education and health promotion have the potential to engage students, scholars, and practitioners in ways that go beyond the classroom teaching routine. This engagement in global communities, can range from reflection on continuing deep-seated questions about human rights and civic responsibility to the use of health education and promotion-related theoretical, intellectual, and practical skills. In the arena of global health education and promotion, these skills also range from leadership and advocacy to decision making, critical and creative thinking, teamwork, and problem solving. In recent times, there has been a growing interest in cross-cultural collaborations and educational initiatives to improve stakeholder's understanding of global health principles and practices, to enrich the experiences of health professionals, and to improve the lives of those who are disenfranchised and live across borders. In this article of Health Promotion Practice, we highlight two unique cases of cross-national collaborations and provide a glimpse of the various shapes and forms taken by cross-cultural educational initiatives for global health education and promotion. We summarize the history, philosophy, and current working practices relevant to these collaborations, keeping in view the global health domains, competencies, and activities. In addition, we also compare the key components and activities of these two case studies from Rwanda and Mexico, wherein communities in these two countries collaborated with academic institutions and health professionals in the United States.

  2. Open Source Business Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This analyses the Open source movement. Open source development process and management is seen different from the classical point of view. This focuses on characteristics and software market tendencies for the main Open source initiatives. It also points out the labor market future evolution for the software developers.

  3. Program of internal training of the ININ personnel participating in the PERE of the CLV (1998). I. Initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G.

    1999-01-01

    According to the document 'Program of Internal Training of the Personnel of the ININ participant in the PERE of the CLV (1998)' presented to the National Center of Disasters Prevention, it was included an action of previous evaluation to courses and practices with the purpose of knowing the state of knowledge regarding those activities that have to carry out. In this report the results of the evaluation are presented. Six questionnaires were elaborated: 1. The PERE and its procedures. 2. Control of the radiological exposure of the response personnel. 3. Control of water and foods. 4. Communications system of the PERE. 5. Monitoring, classification and decontamination of having evacuated. 6. Specialized medical attention. (Author)

  4. The international experience of using tax initiatives as the mechanism to stimulate employers to invest in employees’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Voinalovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the taxation instrument as the mechanism to encourage employers to participate in education and vocational training to facilitate the accumulation of human capital and Ukraine’s economy innovation development are defined. The international experiences in the use of tax incentives for encouraging employers’ investment in the education of employees and training staff are researched. The variety of tax incentives (tax allowance, tax exemption, tax credit, tax relief, tax deferral and the features of their applying in European countries are considered. The author defines the benefits and disadvantages of implementation of tax incentives that should be taken into account in determining the perspectives for their use in vocational education and training in Ukraine. It is determined that increasing the efficiency of taxation is provided by the combination of various tax incentives and economic instruments, aimed at enhancing both employers’ and individuals’ participation in lifelong learning.

  5. UN OPEN GIS CAPACITY BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albertella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UN Open GIS Initiative is to identify and develop, under UN guidance, an Open Source GIS bundle that meets the requirements of UN operations, taking full advantage of the expertise of mission partners (partner nations, technology contributing countries, international organizations, academia, NGO’s, private sector. The project, started in 2016, is composed by 4 working groups. One of the working group is specifically related to Capacity Building, given its importance for the success of the project. UN Open GIS will be based on some existing open source geospatial software (packages and libraries with many extensions specifically developed. The users of the platform will be the UN staff supporting with mapping and GIS the peacekeeping missions. Therefore, they are generally expert of this specific domain, even if they are currently using proprietary software. UN Open GIS Capacity Building is specifically thought for covering this gap, providing them the suitable background about open source geospatial software in general and the education tailored to the solution that has been being developed within the project itself.

  6. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  7. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  8. Quality of care in patients with psoriasis: an initial clinical study of an international disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, J; Van Onselen, J; Kownacki, S; Sprangers, M A G; Bos, J D

    2005-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have to cope with their disease for many years or even throughout their entire life. To provide optimal care, a disease management programme was developed. This programme consisted of disease education, disease management training, and psychological support, together with topical treatment. To test a disease management programme in dermatological practice, to assess patients' satisfaction with this programme, and adherence to topical treatment. Additionally, disease severity and quality of life were assessed. An initial clinical investigation was conducted in 10 European treatment centres. A total of 330 patients were included. Patient satisfaction, adherence, disease severity and quality of life were measured with study-specific and standardized self-report questionnaires. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with the programme, and a high degree of adherence to topical treatment. Disease severity and quality of life significantly improved. The programme was well received by the participating professionals. The disease management programme was found to be a useful tool in the management of psoriasis, providing patients with relief from the burden of psoriasis in everyday life. A full-scale evaluation is recommended.

  9. HFR1 Sequesters PIF1 to Govern the Transcriptional Network Underlying Light-Initiated Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D.; Deng, Xing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1–PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1–PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1–PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination. PMID:24179122

  10. Dicationic and zwitterionic catalysts for the amine-initiated, immortal ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide: facile synthesis of amine-terminated, highly heterotactic PLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Cushion, M.G.; Dyer, H.E.; Schwarz, A.D.; Duchateau, R.; Mountford, P.

    2010-01-01

    Dicationic, zwitterionic and conventional yttrium compounds act as catalysts for the primary or secondary amine-initiated immortal ROP of rac-lactide; amine-terminated, highly heterotactic poly(rac-lactides) with narrow polydispersities and well-controlled molecular weights are prepared in this

  11. Open Access. Chapter 6 of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In-depth overview of open access, covering definitions (open access publishing, open access archives, gratis and libre, open access works versus open access processes), major statements and declarations, types of open access, major initiatives, trends, advocacy and lobbying.

  12. 915 MHz microwave ablation with implanted internal cooled-shaft antenna: Initial experimental study in in vivo porcine livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhigang; Xiao Qiujin; Wang Yang; Sun Yuanyuan; Lu Tong; Liang Ping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore a preferred power output for further clinical application based on the ablated lesions induced by the four power outputs of 915 MHz microwave in experimental study of in vivo porcine livers. Materials and methods: A KY2000-915 microwave ablation system with an implanted 915 MHz internal cooled-shaft antenna was used in this study. A total of 24 ablations were performed in eight in vivo porcine livers. The energy was applied for 10 min at microwave output powers of 50 W, 60 W, 70 W, and 80 W. Long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were measured on all gross specimens. Results: The shapes of the 915 MHz microwave ablation lesions were elliptical commonly. As the power increased, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone had a tendency to rise. But the long-axis diameter of the ablated lesion at 50 W was not significantly smaller than that of the ablated lesion at 60 W (P > 0.05) and there were no statistical differences in short-axis diameters of the ablated lesion among the three power outputs of 60 W, 70 W and 80 W (P > 0.05). After 10 min irradiation of 60 W, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were 5.02 ± 0.60 cm and 3.65 ± 0.46 cm, respectively. Conclusions: For decreasing the undesired damages of liver tissues along the shaft and the number of antenna in further clinically percutaneous microwave ablation treatment, the power of 60 W may be a preferred setting among the four power outputs used in present study.

  13. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  14. β oscillations are linked to the initiation of sensory-cued movement sequences and the internal guidance of regular tapping in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Ramón; Merchant, Hugo

    2015-03-18

    β oscillations in the basal ganglia have been associated with interval timing. We recorded the putaminal local field potentials (LFPs) from monkeys performing a synchronization-continuation task (SCT) and a serial reaction-time task (RTT), where the animals produced regularly and irregularly paced tapping sequences, respectively. We compared the activation profile of β oscillations between tasks and found transient bursts of β activity in both the RTT and SCT. During the RTT, β power was higher at the beginning of the task, especially when LFPs were aligned to the stimuli. During the SCT, β was higher during the internally driven continuation phase, especially for tap-aligned LFPs. Interestingly, a set of LFPs showed an initial burst of β at the beginning of the SCT, similar to the RTT, followed by a decrease in β oscillations during the synchronization phase, to finally rebound during the continuation phase. The rebound during the continuation phase of the SCT suggests that the corticostriatal circuit is involved in the control of internally driven motor sequences. In turn, the transient bursts of β activity at the beginning of both tasks suggest that the basal ganglia produce a general initiation signal that engages the motor system in different sequential behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354635-06$15.00/0.

  15. Microspheres Prepared by Internal Gelation for Actinide Co-Conversion - Influence of Organic Precursors in Initial Solution on Structure during Thermal Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benay, G.; Modolo, G.; Robisson, A.C.; Grandjean, S.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of fuels or targets for transmutation of minor actinides requires a dust-free process. Such a requirement can be fulfilled by sol-gel methods, which allow the production of microsphere precursors. Internal gelation, one of these methods, was studied at Cea Marcoule and FZ (Forschungszentrum Juelich Germany). A study of the parameters involved in internal gelation (essentially the quantity of organic additives urea and hexa-methylene-tetramine (HMTA) present in the initial solution) was performed. Afterwards, the effects of these parameters on the structural evolution of the microspheres during thermal treatment were studied. It was observed that the structure and density of the microspheres are heavily dependant of the quantity of organic precursors present in the initial solution. Urea in particular has been found to bring porosity to the material, in addition to its catalytic effect on HMTA decomposition. The elimination of these organic compounds is however a major issue which causes the formation of cracks on the microspheres if no optimization is performed. (authors)

  16. Two-stage open reduction and internal fixation versus limited internal fixation combined with external fixation: a meta-analysis of postoperative complications in patients with severe Pilon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xueliang; Chen, Hui; Rui, Yunfeng; Niu, Yang; Li, He

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Two-stage open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) are two widely used methods to treat Pilon injury. However, which method is superior to the other remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively compare two-stage ORIF and LIFEF and clarify which method is better with respect to postoperative complications in the treatment of tibial Pilon fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between two-stage ORIF and LIFEF. Eight studies involving 360 fractures in 359 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Results The two-stage ORIF group had a significantly lower risk of superficial infection, nonunion, and bone healing problems than the LIFEF group. However, no significant differences in deep infection, delayed union, malunion, arthritis symptoms, or chronic osteomyelitis were found between the two groups. Conclusion Two-stage ORIF was associated with a lower risk of postoperative complications with respect to superficial infection, nonunion, and bone healing problems than LIFEF for tibial Pilon fractures. Level of evidence 2.

  17. OpenSIGLE, Home to GreyNet's Research Community and its Grey Literature Collections: Initial Results and a Project Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Farace , Dominic ,; Frantzen , Jerry; Stock , Christiane; Henrot , Nathalie; Schöpfel , Joachim

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In 1980, some major European scientific information centres established the “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. August 23, 2006, the Luxemburg Register of Commerce and Societies published the liquidation of the association EAGLE that produced the SIGLE database until 2005. Nevertheless, the former EAGLE member consented to preserve the European co-operation fo...

  18. Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Elizabeth Dipuo

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and

  19. Incidence of infection following internal fixation of open and closed tibia fractures in India (INFINITI): a multi-centre observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Prakash; Gopalan, Hitesh; Sprague, Sheila; Pradhan, Chetan; Kulkarni, Sunil; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-04-14

    Trauma is a major public health problem, particularly in India due to the country's rapid urbanization. Tibia fractures are a common and often complicated injury that is at risk of infection following surgical fixation. The primary objectives of this cohort study were to determine the incidence of infection within one year of surgery and to describe the distribution of infections by location and time of diagnosis for tibia fractures in India. We conducted a multi-center, prospective cohort study. Patients who presented with an open or closed tibia fracture treated with internal fixation to one of the participating hospitals in India were invited to participate in the study. Participants attended follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery, where they were assessed for infections, fracture healing, and health-related quality of life as measured by the EurQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). Seven hundred eighty-seven participants were included in the study and 768 participants completed the 12 month follow-up. The overall incidence of infection was 2.9% (23 infections). The incidence of infection was 1.6% (10 infections) in closed and 8.0% (13 infections) in open fractures. There were 7 deep and 16 superficial infections, with 5 being early, 7 being delayed, and 11 being late infections. Intra-operative antibiotics were given to 92.1% of participants and post-operative antibiotics were given to 96.8% of participants. Antibiotics were prescribed for an average of 8.3 days for closed fractures and 9.1 days for open fractures. Infected fractures took significantly longer to heal, and participants who had an infection had significantly lower EQ-5D scores. The incidence of infection within this cohort is similar to those seen in developed countries. The duration of prophylactic antibiotic use was longer than standard practice in North America, raising concern for the potential development of antibiotic resistant microbes within Indian orthopaedic settings. Future

  20. Design Of A Novel Open-Path Aerosol Extinction Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer And Initial Data From Deployment At NOAA's Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Wagner, N. L.; Richardson, M.; Law, D. C.; Wolfe, D. E.; Brock, C. A.; Erdesz, F.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to frame effective climate change policy depends strongly on reducing the uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing, which is currently nearly as great as best estimates of its magnitude. Achieving this goal will require significant progress in measuring aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo and the effect of relative humidity on these properties for both fine and coarse particles. However both ground- and space-based instruments fail or are highly biased in the presence of clouds, severely limiting quantitative estimates of the radiative effects of aerosols where they are advected over low-level clouds. Moreover, many in situ aerosol measurements exclude the coarse fraction, which can be very important in and downwind of desert regions. By measuring the decay rate of a pulsed laser in an optically resonant cavity, cavity ringdown spectrometers (CRDSs) have been employed successfully in measuring aerosol extinction for particles in relative humidities below 90%. At very high humidities (as found in and near clouds), however, existing CRDSs perform poorly, diverging significantly from theoretical extinction values as humidities approach 100%. The new open-path aerosol extinction CRDS described in this poster measures extinction as aerosol is drawn through the sample cavity directly without inlets or tubing for channeling the flow, which cause particle losses, condensation at high RH and other artifacts. This poster presents the key elements of the new open-path CRDS design as well as comparisons with an earlier generation closed-path CRDS and preliminary data obtained during a field study at the 300 meter tower at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Colorado.

  1. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  2. Evaluating the use of antibiotic prophylaxis during open reduction and internal fixation surgery in patients at low risk of surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng-Gen; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Liu, Bin-Sheng; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics contribute to increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogens and higher health care costs. It is not clear whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in low-risk patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. We designed a simple scorecard to grade SSI risk factors and determined whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis affects SSI occurrence during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) orthopaedic surgeries in trauma patients at low risk of developing SSI. The SSI risk scorecard (possible total points ranged from 5 to 25) was designed to take into account a patient's general health status, the primary cause of fractures, surgical site tissue condition or wound class, types of devices implanted, and surgical duration. Patients with a low SSI risk score (≤8 points) who were undergoing clean ORIF surgery were divided into control (routine antibiotic treatment, cefuroxime) and evaluation (no antibiotic treatment) groups and followed up for 13-17 months after surgery. The infection rate was much higher in patients with high SSI risk scores (≥9 points) than in patients with low risk scores assigned to the control group (10.7% vs. 2.2%, Prisk score. Implementation of this scoring system could guide the rational use of perioperative antibiotics and ultimately reduce antibiotic resistance, health care costs, and adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemodynamic vascular biomarkers for initiation of paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms using patient-specific computational fluid dynamic simulation based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoya; Isoda, Haruo; Takehara, Yasuo; Terada, Masaki; Naito, Takehiro; Kosugi, Takafumi; Onishi, Yuki; Tanoi, Chiharu; Izumi, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    We performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for patients with and without paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms to evaluate the distribution of vascular biomarkers at the aneurysm initiation sites of the paraclinoid ICA. This study included 35 patients who were followed up for aneurysms using 3D time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 3D cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Fifteen affected ICAs were included in group A with the 15 unaffected contralateral ICAs in group B. Thirty-three out of 40 paraclinoid ICAs free of aneurysms and arteriosclerotic lesions were included in group C. We deleted the aneurysms in group A based on the 3D TOF MRA dataset. We performed CFD based on MR data set and obtained wall shear stress (WSS), its derivatives, and streamlines. We qualitatively evaluated their distributions at and near the intracranial aneurysm initiation site among three groups. We also calculated and compared the normalized highest (nh-) WSS and nh-spatial WSS gradient (SWSSG) around the paraclinoid ICA among three groups. High WSS and SWSSG distribution were observed at and near the aneurysm initiation site in group A. High WSS and SWSSG were also observed at similar locations in group B and group C. However, nh-WSS and nh-SWSSG were significantly higher in group A than in group C, and nh-SWSSG was significantly higher in group A than in group B. Our findings indicated that nh-WSS and nh-SWSSG were good biomarkers for aneurysm initiation in the paraclinoid ICA.

  4. Medgrid: a major industrial initiative for Mediterranean power grids - Opening new electricity paths for a sustainable energy development of the Union for the Mediterranean area countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre; Pouliquen, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The development of new electricity networks in the Mediterranean region has given rise to a lot of new hope. Electricity is truly at the heart of economic and social development, but also represents an appropriate solution for improving the energy efficiency of many end use applications and for increasing the environmental protection where it is produced from renewable forms of energy. Launched under the framework of Union for the Mediterranean, a key project of the Mediterranean Solar Plan, Medgrid was set up at the instigation of the French government; it now gathers twenty industrial shareholders from different economic sectors: power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, financing and the sustainable development service industry, who are joining together to study the feasibility of a large transmission grid between the south and north rims of the Mediterranean Sea. Medgrid forms part of a new dynamic - set in motion over ten years ago - in Euro-Mediterranean relations, in environmental initiatives and in energy infrastructure development policies. It is important to be reminded of the main features of these initiatives and of their results in order to fully understand the huge diversity of the context in which Medgrid is going to operate, be it in the political, institutional, economic, industrial and technological spheres. (authors)

  5. Time to initial operative treatment following open fracture does not impact development of deep infection: a prospective cohort study of 736 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald; Dulai, Sukhdeep K; Bergman, Joseph; Buckley, Richard; Beaupre, Lauren A

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between time to surgery, antibiotic administration, Gustilo grade, fracture location, and development of deep infection in open fractures. Prospective cohort between 2001 and 2009. Three Level 1 Canadian trauma centers. A total of 736 (791 fractures) subjects were enrolled and 686 subjects (93%; 737 fractures) provided adequate follow-up data (1-year interview and/or clinical follow-up >90 days). Demographics, injury information, time to surgery, and antibiotics were recorded. Subjects were evaluated using standardized data forms until the fracture(s) healed. Phone interviews were undertaken 1 year after the fracture. Infection requiring unplanned surgical debridement and/or sustained antibiotic therapy. Tibia/fibula fractures were most common (n = 413, 52%), followed by upper extremity (UE) (n = 285, 36%), and femoral (n = 93, 12%) fractures. Infection developed in 46 fractures (6%). The median time to surgery was 9 hours 4 minutes (interquartile range, 6 hours 39 minutes to 12 hours 33 minutes) and 7 hours 39 minutes (interquartile range, 6 hours 10 minutes to 9 hours 54 minutes) for those without and with infection, respectively (P = 0.04). Gustilo grade 3B/3C fractures accounted for 17 of 46 infections (37%) (P developed infections (P = 0.001). Multivariate regression found no association between infection and time to surgery [odds ratio (OR), 0.97; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.90-1.06] or antibiotics (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.90-1.05). Grades 3A (OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 1.37-29.56) and 3B/3C (OR, 12.87; 95% CI, 2.72-60.95) relative to grade 1 injuries and tibia/fibula (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.33-11.53) relative to UE fractures were significantly associated with infection. Infection after open fracture was associated with increasing Gustilo grade or tibia/fibula fractures but not time to surgery or antibiotics. Prognostic level I. See instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Plants: An International Scientific Open Access Journal to Publish All Facets of Plants, Their Functions and Interactions with the Environment and Other Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W.G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the two major groups of living organisms that are an essential entity to the function of the biosphere. Plants can be found in all known parts of the earth, in all shapes and sizes. They include the green algae, mosses, ferns, vines, grasses, bushes, herbs, flowering plants and trees. Although some plants are parasitic, most produce their own food through photosynthesis. Most plants initiate from a seed. The importance of plants in the food chain dates back to ancient times. The first humans gathered wild plants for food. As settlements developed, food crops were cultivated, leading to selection of high-yielding cultivated varieties to feed the growing populations. Unlike plants, humans and other animals are unable to manufacture their own food. Therefore, they are dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants. Plants are found in natural ecosystems such as rain forests, and also in agricultural areas and urbanized settings. They are an essential part of our daily lives providing food, clean air, and important ecosystem functions. The study of plants and their function could be considered the most complex of interactions. From the time a seed germinates, it goes through a myriad of physiological processes that can be closely studied using modern tools and molecular biological methods. An open access journal such as Plants will give millions of readers access to that information around the world. PMID:27137635

  7. Perceived Effects of Pornography on the Couple Relationship: Initial Findings of Open-Ended, Participant-Informed, "Bottom-Up" Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, William A; Campbell, Lorne

    2017-02-01

    The current study adopted a participant-informed, "bottom-up," qualitative approach to identifying perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship. A large sample (N = 430) of men and women in heterosexual relationships in which pornography was used by at least one partner was recruited through online (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and offline (e.g., newspapers, radio, etc.) sources. Participants responded to open-ended questions regarding perceived consequences of pornography use for each couple member and for their relationship in the context of an online survey. In the current sample of respondents, "no negative effects" was the most commonly reported impact of pornography use. Among remaining responses, positive perceived effects of pornography use on couple members and their relationship (e.g., improved sexual communication, more sexual experimentation, enhanced sexual comfort) were reported frequently; negative perceived effects of pornography (e.g., unrealistic expectations, decreased sexual interest in partner, increased insecurity) were also reported, albeit with considerably less frequency. The results of this work suggest new research directions that require more systematic attention.

  8. Bioeconomy Initiative at MBI International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleff, Susanne, Ph.D.

    2011-11-30

    Di-carboxylic acids have the potential to replace petrochemicals used in the polymer industry (Werpy and Petersen, 2004). MBI developed a process for the production of succinic acid using a proprietary organism. During this work MBI assessed the feasibility to produce other carboxylic acids either using A. succinogenes or other organisms. The development of recombinant A. succinogenes strain derivatives for a mono-carboxylic acid through over-expression of enzymatic activities was successful. Fermentations achieved titers of 58 g/L for this organic acid. Recombinant strains that produced the same acid, but a different stereoisomer, reached titers of 10 g/L. Attempts to increase the titers for this isomer as well as other organic acids were unsuccessful. MBI is looking for commercial partners to pursue the development of recombinant A. succinogenes strains for the production of other organic acids. Attempts to develop recombinant strains of A. succinogenes for fumaric acid production through introduction of various antisense RNA constructs were unsuccessful. Alternative suitable organisms were evaluated and Rhizopus oryzae, a natural fumaric acid producer with potential for process improvements, was selected. A novel fermentation and one-step recovery process was developed that allowed capture of IP, produced titers of >80 g/L with a productivity of 1.8 g/L-h and 57% (g/g glucose) yield. The process was scaled to 2000 L pilot scale. The economic analysis projected a production cost of 72 c/lb. Recycling and re-use of the base was demonstrated and incorporated into the process. The ability of the organism to produce fumaric acid from other carbon sources and biomass hydrolysate was demonstrated. The production of other organic acids was evaluated and techno-economic de-risking roadmap documents were prepared.

  9. Sustainability of Latin American initiatives that publish open access journals using the XML-JATS standard: the case SciELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Guzmán-Useche

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is performed a sustainability analysis of the Latin American initiative scielo.org based on two main aspects, the economic and the need for its existence. Method: To achieve that, the required man-hours to publish a scientific paper were measured, using its new publication methodology called XML SPS. 40 articles published in scientific journals of different areas of knowledge are processed; journals from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, using that methodology. Results showed that the preparation of the document takes on average 35% of the total time (σ = 9.72%, while the tagging process takes on average 50% of the time (σ = 8.50%, finally the sections corresponding to references, acknowledgments and appendices (back takes the majority of the time. Conclusions: This analysis indicates that the SciELO publishing model is sustainable from the point of view of the need for its existence, but in the economic terms seems not to be fully sustainable for all countries in the region, because it is a technically complex process that not all publishers are able to perform, making outsourcing of that procedure to be necessary, which requires a greater budget for the journal that can jeopardize the sustainability and the control of this publishing model.

  10. Starting a Conversation about Open Data in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    This position paper discusses the role of open access research data within mathematics education, a relatively new initiative across the wider research community. International and national policy documents are explored and examples from both the scientific and social science paradigms of mathematical sciences and mathematics education…

  11. Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C

    2014-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one

  12. Nonclinical cardiovascular safety of pitolisant: comparing International Conference on Harmonization S7B and Comprehensive in vitro Pro-arrhythmia Assay initiative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau, Xavier; Shah, Rashmi R; Berrebi-Bertrand, Isabelle; Mirams, Gary R; Robert, Philippe; Landais, Laurent; Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Faivre, Jean-François; Lecomte, Jeanne-Marie; Schwartz, Jean-Charles

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the concordance of results from two sets of nonclinical cardiovascular safety studies on pitolisant. Nonclinical studies envisaged both in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S7B guideline and Comprehensive in vitro Pro-arrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative were undertaken. The CiPA initiative included in vitro ion channels, stem cell-derived human ventricular myocytes, and in silico modelling to simulate human ventricular electrophysiology. ICH S7B-recommended assays included in vitro hERG (K V 11.1) channels, in vivo dog studies with follow-up investigations in rabbit Purkinje fibres and the in vivo Carlsson rabbit pro-arrhythmia model. Both sets of nonclinical data consistently excluded pitolisant from having clinically relevant QT-liability or pro-arrhythmic potential. CiPA studies revealed pitolisant to have modest calcium channel blocking and late I Na reducing activities at high concentrations, which resulted in pitolisant reducing dofetilide-induced early after-depolarizations (EADs) in the ICH S7B studies. Studies in stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes with dofetilide or E-4031 given alone and in combination with pitolisant confirmed these properties. In silico modelling confirmed that the ion channel effects measured are consistent with results from both the stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and rabbit Purkinje fibres and categorized pitolisant as a drug with low torsadogenic potential. Results from the two sets of nonclinical studies correlated well with those from two clinical QT studies. Our findings support the CiPA initiative but suggest that sponsors should consider investigating drug effects on EADs and the use of pro-arrhythmia models when the results from CiPA studies are ambiguous. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  14. Efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment for clinically depressed inpatients during the initial stages of antidepressant pharmacotherapy: An open randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D; Neff, Elise M

    2016-02-01

    Physical exercise as adjunctive treatment for hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been of increasing interest in the past few years. While preliminary findings are promising, these prior studies have been plagued by inclusion of participants at different stages of medication use at study entry. The present study evaluates the effects of a short (10-days) add-on endurance-training intervention in hospitalized MDD patients on antidepressant medication for less than two weeks. Thirty-five participants were randomly assigned to one of three study groups: aerobic exercise (n=14), placebo (stretching) exercise (n=11), or no intervention (control; n=10). The study outcome was the change in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) total score from baseline to the end of the study period. The intent-to-treat analysis showed significant improvements in BDI-II scores for both the aerobic and the stretching groups. However, comparing pre- to post-study depression changes in these two groups, we found a large effect size in favor of aerobic exercise (Cohen's d=-1.06). No significant change in depressive symptoms was found in the control group. The nature of the intervention (i.e., exercise) meant blinding participants to treatments was not possible. Precise information on medication dosage was not available, and the short duration of interventions and lack of follow-up assessment were all limitations. Endurance-training can be a helpful adjunct treatment for hospitalized patients with severe affective disorders in the initial stages of pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  16. A Prospective Randomized Study on Operative Treatment for Simple Distal Tibial Fractures-Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Minimal Open Reduction and Internal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Uk; Oh, Chang-Wug; Kim, Joon-Woo; Park, Ki Chul

    2018-01-01

    To compare the radiologic and clinical results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and minimal open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for simple distal tibial fractures. Randomized prospective study. Three level 1 trauma centers. Fifty-eight patients with simple and distal tibial fractures were randomized into a MIPO group (treatment with MIPO; n = 29) or a minimal group (treatment with minimal ORIF; n = 29). These numbers were designed to define the rate of soft tissue complication; therefore, validation of superiority in union time or determination of differences in rates of delayed union was limited in this study. Simple distal tibial fractures treated with MIPO or minimal ORIF. The clinical outcome measurements included operative time, radiation exposure time, and soft tissue complications. To evaluate a patient's function, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle score (AOFAS) was used. Radiologic measurements included fracture alignment, delayed union, and union time. All patients acquired bone union without any secondary intervention. The mean union time was 17.4 weeks and 16.3 weeks in the MIPO and minimal groups, respectively. There was 1 case of delayed union and 1 case of superficial infection in each group. The radiation exposure time was shorter in the minimal group than in the MIPO group. Coronal angulation showed a difference between both groups. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle scores were 86.0 and 86.7 in the MIPO and minimal groups, respectively. Minimal ORIF resulted in similar outcomes, with no increased rate of soft tissue problems compared to MIPO. Both MIPO and minimal ORIF have high union rates and good functional outcomes for simple distal tibial fractures. Minimal ORIF did not result in increased rates of infection and wound dehiscence. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  18. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  19. Opening keynote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, B.

    1997-01-01

    In his opening address, the former premier of Ontario summarized the background of the Macdonald Committee which was appointed by his government after it became increasingly apparent that the infrastructure of Hydro Ontario was far bigger than the province and the economy could afford, and that the service that had once given Ontario tremendous competitive advantage, in the form of relatively cheap electric power, had become unsustainable in an era of economic downturn and zero inflation. He stated that the debate about Hydro is part of a broader issue, and it is no longer possible to manage our electricity system as if we were a self-enclosed universe. He predicted that the North American electricity grid will become increasingly interdependent, and that Hydro will have to develop competitive price structures, both to hold its domestic market share and to compete for export sales. He outlined the most pressing issues for Hydro as being debt reduction, while pursuing internal changes to make the organization more efficient. Organizational changes such as the creation of Ontario Hydro International, Ontario Hydro Research, separation of generation operations from the grid, and establishment of separate price and efficiency targets for the autonomous organizations within the utility family, were moves in the right direction. Equally important is to make sure that however Hydro might develop in the future, it is going to be fair to customers, and that the billions of dollars invested in Hydro by Ontario taxpayers over the years, are safeguarded

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Internal Globus Pallidus Improves Response Initiation and Proactive Inhibition in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impulse control disorder is not uncommon in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy and subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS. Internal globus pallidus (GPi-DBS is increasingly used, but its role in inhibitory control has rarely been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GPi-DBS on inhibitory control in PD patients.Methods: A stop-signal paradigm was used to test response initiation, proactive inhibition, and reactive inhibition. The subjects enrolled in the experiment were 27 patients with PD, of whom 13 had received only drug treatment and 14 had received bilateral GPi-DBS in addition to conventional medical treatment and 15 healthy individuals.Results: Our results revealed that with GPi-DBS on, patients with PD showed significantly faster responses than the other groups in trials where it was certain that no stop signal would be presented. Proactive inhibition was significantly different in the surgical patients with GPi-DBS on versus when GPi-DBS was off, in surgical patients with GPi-DBS on versus drug-treated patients, and in healthy controls versus drug-treated patients. Correlation analyses revealed that when GPi-DBS was on, there was a statistically significant moderate positive relationship between proactive inhibition and dopaminergic medication.Conclusion: GPi-DBS may lead to an increase in response initiation speed and improve the dysfunctional proactive inhibitory control observed in PD patients. Our results may help us to understand the role of the GPi in cortical-basal ganglia circuits.

  1. Data Sharing: A New Editorial Initiative of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Implications for the Editors´ Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Adamyan, Karlen; Artigou, Jean-Yves; Aschermann, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Buendia, Alfonso; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Cohen, Ariel; Cas, Livio Dei; Dilic, Mirza; Doubell, Anton; Echeverri, Dario; Enç, Nuray; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Flammer, Andreas; Fleck, Eckart; Gatzov, Plamen; Ginghina, Carmen; Goncalves, Lino; Haouala, Habib; Hassanein, Mahmoud; Heusch, Gerd; Huber, Kurt; Hulín, Ivan; Ivanusa, Mario; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lau, Chu-Pak; Marinskis, Germanas; Mach, François; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Nieminen, Tuomo; Oukerraj, Latifa; Perings, Stefan; Pierard, Luc; Potpara, Tatjana; Reyes-Caorsi, Walter; Rim, Se-Joong; Rødevand, Olaf; Saade, Georges; Sander, Mikael; Shlyakhto, Evgeny; Timuralp, Bilgin; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Ural, Dilek; Piek, J J; Varga, Albert; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2017-05-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship - emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability-, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors´ Network of the European Society of Cardiology. Resumo O Comitê Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas (ICMJE) fornece recomendações para aprimorar o padrão editorial e a qualidade científica das revistas biomédicas. Tais recomendações variam desde requisitos técnicos de uniformização até assuntos editoriais mais complexos e elusivos, como os aspectos éticos do processo científico. Recentemente, foram propostos registro de ensaios clínicos, divulgação de conflitos de interesse e novos critérios de autoria, enfatizando a importância da responsabilidade e da responsabilização. No último ano, lançou-se uma nova iniciativa editorial para fomentar o compartilhamento dos dados de ensaios clínicos. Esta revisão discute essa nova iniciativa visando a aumentar a conscientização de leitores, investigadores, autores e editores filiados à Rede de Editores da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia.

  2. A comparison of initial antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Wandeler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate and improve the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART, international recommendations are released and updated regularly. We aimed to study if adherence to the recommendations is associated with better treatment outcomes in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. METHODS: Initial ART regimens prescribed to participants between 1998 and 2007 were classified according to IAS-USA recommendations. Baseline characteristics of patients who received regimens in violation with these recommendations (violation ART were compared to other patients. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to identify associations between violation ART and (i virological suppression and (ii CD4 cell count increase, after one year. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2007, 4189 SHCS participants started 241 different ART regimens. A violation ART was started in 5% of patients. Female patients (adjusted odds ratio aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.28-2.62, those with a high education level (aOR 1.49, 95%CI 1.07-2.06 or a high CD4 count (aOR 1.53, 95%CI 1.02-2.30 were more likely to receive violation ART. The proportion of patients with an undetectable viral load (<400 copies/mL after one year was significantly lower with violation ART than with recommended regimens (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.80 whereas CD4 count increase after one year of treatment was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although more than 240 different initial regimens were prescribed, violations of the IAS-USA recommendations were uncommon. Patients receiving these regimens were less likely to have an undetectable viral load after one year, which strengthens the validity of these recommendations.

  3. Salvage of relapse of patients with Hodgkin's disease in clinical stages I or II who were staged with laparotomy and initially treated with radiotherapy alone. A report from the international database on Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Horwich, A.; Ashley, S.

    1994-01-01

    patients in the International Database on Hodgkin's Disease who were initially in clinical Stages I or II, who were staged with laparotomy, and who relapsed after initial treatment with irradiation alone. Factors analyzed for outcome after first relapse included initial stage, age, sex, histology......PURPOSE: To analyze presentation variables that might indicate a high or low likelihood of success of the treatment of patients relapsing after initial radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease in clinical Stages I or II who were staged with laparotomy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were analyzed on 681...

  4. Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pp. 201–215, 2003. 2. K. Crowston, K. Wei, J. Howison, and A. Wiggins, “Free/ libre open-source software devel- opment: What we know and what we do not...Understanding the process of participating in open source communities,” in International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Free/ Libre /Open Source Software ...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software

  5. Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Visual and Ischemic Complications After Open Surgery for Paraclinoid Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshihiko; Arishima, Hidetaka; Isozaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Norichika; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Yomo, Munenori; Awara, Kousuke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for visual and ischemic complications after open surgery for paraclinoid aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Thirty-eight consecutive patients with unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms of ICA operated on between 2009 and 2013 were included in this study. The male:female ratio was 6:32 and the ages ranged from 33 to 81 (mean: 60 ± 2). Twenty cases were asymptomatic and 18 had ophthalmological symptoms. The sizes of the aneurysms ranged from 2 to 35 mm (mean: 10.6 ± 9 mm). Twenty-three patients were treated by clipping and 15 by trapping with bypass (high-flow bypass in 11, and low-flow in 4). Twenty-four patients underwent removal of the anterior clinoid process. Among them, 8 underwent en bloc anterior clinoidectomy with a high-speed drill, and 16 had piecemeal excision with a microrongeur or ultrasonic bone curette. Intraoperative monitoring was performed using motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and visual-evoked potentials (VEP) in 27 and 15 cases, respectively. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm was achieved in 37 cases (97.4 %). The patency rate of bypass was 100 %. Postoperative worsening of visual acuity, including one case of blindness, was observed in six cases (11 %). Worsening of visual field defects occurred in 14 cases (38 %), but 10 of them were transient. Transient oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in six cases (15 %). Postoperative stroke was detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in five cases (13 %), four of which were symptomatic. Statistical analysis showed that piecemeal anterior clinoidectomy was significantly safer than en bloc removal in preserving visual function. Trapping with high-flow bypass had a significantly greater risk of postoperative stroke than direct clipping. Intraoperative VEP monitoring might be useful for preventing postoperative worsening of visual function. Two-stage treatment with bypass and endovascular trapping might be safer than single-stage trapping

  6. Ibrutinib versus temsirolimus in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma: an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyling, Martin; Jurczak, Wojciech; Jerkeman, Mats; Silva, Rodrigo Santucci; Rusconi, Chiara; Trneny, Marek; Offner, Fritz; Caballero, Dolores; Joao, Cristina; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Hess, Georg; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle; Cho, Seok-Goo; Bothos, John; Goldberg, Jenna D; Enny, Christopher; Traina, Shana; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Bandyopadhyay, Nibedita; Sun, Steven; Vermeulen, Jessica; Rizo, Aleksandra; Rule, Simon

    2016-02-20

    Mantle-cell lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. Both ibrutinib and temsirolimus have shown single-agent activity in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. We undertook a phase 3 study to assess the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib versus temsirolimus in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. This randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 clinical trial enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma confirmed by central pathology in 21 countries who had received one or more rituximab-containing treatments. Patients were stratified by previous therapy and simplified mantle-cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, and were randomly assigned with a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive daily oral ibrutinib 560 mg or intravenous temsirolimus (175 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1; 75 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of subsequent 21-day cycles). Randomisation was balanced by using randomly permuted blocks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by a masked independent review committee with the primary hypothesis that ibrutinib compared with temsirolimus significantly improves progression-free survival. The analysis followed the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01646021) and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT (number 2012-000601-74). Between Dec 10, 2012, and Nov 26, 2013, 280 patients were randomised to ibrutinib (n=139) or temsirolimus (n=141). Primary efficacy analysis showed significant improvement in progression-free survival (pibrutinib versus temsirolimus (hazard ratio 0·43 [95% CI 0·32-0·58]; median progression-free survival 14·6 months [95% CI 10·4-not estimable] vs 6·2 months [4·2-7·9], respectively). Ibrutinib was better tolerated than temsirolimus, with grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events reported for 94 (68%) versus 121 (87

  7. A crise internacional desafia o modelo brasileiro de abertura e liberalização The international crisis challenges the Brazilian model of economic opening and liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available É surpreendente a resistência da economia brasileira à crise internacional nos primeiros meses de 2009. A queda da produção e dos investimentos foi intensa, mas não houve crise cambial, nem crise fiscal ou abalos no sistema financeiro. O governo conseguiu adotar medidas anticíclicas, com corte de impostos e redução dos juros, favorecido pela arrecadação fiscal elevada e pelo fortalecimento dos bancos, depois de anos de juros elevados, além de dispor dos bancos públicos e dos fundos públicos, instrumentos poderosos herdados do passado. No lado externo, a entrada de capitais é estimulada pela ampla liquidez gerada pelas políticas de expansão monetária dos Estados Unidos, enquanto as exportações refletem a sustentação da demanda chinesa, com forte aumento da participação de produtos primários e redução das vendas de produtos industrializados. A capacidade de reagir à crise é um grande teste para o modelo brasileiro de abertura e liberalização, da mesma forma que as dificuldades para sustentar as exportações de industrializados e para a recuperação dos investimentos e da atividade produtiva são também desafios consideráveis.Reviewing the first months of 2009, it's surprising to see the Brazilian economy resistance over the international crisis. The decline on production and investment were intense, however, there has not been neither a foreign exchange crisis nor fiscal and financial system breakthrough. The government could apply anti-cyclic policies, as tax cuts and interest reduction, helped by the actual large extend of tax collection and banks strength, after years of high interest rates, besides using the public banks and the public funds, valuable legacy instruments. Regarding the external side, the capital inflow is stimulated by the wider liquidity generate by the US recent monetary expansion policy, while the exports are due to China demand maintenance, with significant increase in basic commodities

  8. High incidence of osteochondral lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced ankle fractures: Medium-term follow-up of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Marc; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Hamurcu, Ahmet; Vettorazzi, Eik; Behzadi, Cyrus; Hoffmann, Michael; Großterlinden, Lars G; Fensky, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Weiser, Lukas; Rueger, Johannes M; Spiro, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) in association with displaced ankle fractures has only been examined in two previous studies. In both studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Because MRI may overdiagnose or overestimate the extent of OCLs in an acute trauma setting the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of OCLs after ORIF of displaced ankle fractures using MRI at medium-term follow-up, and to analyse if the severity of fracture or the clinical outcome correlates with the incidence of OCLs. Following institutional review board approval a total of 100 patients (mean age, 41.3 years; range, 17.9-64.3 years) with a displaced ankle fracture who had undergone ORIF according to the AO principles were included in this study. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used to quantify the clinical outcome and MR images were evaluated for OCLs of the talus and distal tibia after a mean of 34.5 months (range, 17.5-54.1 months). OCLs were found in 40.4% of the patients. Logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between the severity of fracture and the incidence of OCLs. Patients with a trimalleolar fracture (p=0.04) or an ankle fracture dislocation (p=0.003) had a significantly higher risk for developing an OCL compared to those with a type B fracture. Logistic regression also demonstrated a significant correlation between the clinical outcome (AOFAS score) and the incidence of OCLs (p=0.01). The risk for developing an OCL increases up to 5.6% when the AOFAS score decreases by one point. OCLs were frequently found in association with acute ankle fractures at medium-term follow-up, and the severity of fracture was associated with an increased number of OCLs. Considering the disadvantages of MRI including the high cost and limited availability, the results of this study may help to explain why anatomic surgical realignment of displaced

  9. Benefits of Openness for US Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael M.

    2000-04-01

    The US has been very successful in applying science and engineering to defense and space. The US has also run the most open defense research and development establishment in the world. The openness is connected with the success by making possible open criticism of mistakes and failures, access of foreign-born citizens, and participation of cleared scientists and engineers in open science around the world. This open system is at risk today, when it is more badly needed than ever. The right strategy is first, to draw a clear line around the information that should be kept secret, with some margin so that this information would not be partially given away by its boundary, and to continue with the open system elsewhere. The US, because it invests more, usually profits more from common knowledge. Second, spies are caught through good line leadership and good security work. The constraints now being discussed on unclassified information or on foreign visitors would not have helped catch them. Third, new guidance is needed for exports control. The US must cooperate with countries that are partners in trade and in international initiatives of the first importance, but which may also be political, economic and military rivals. Guidelines to protect what is key to our current military edge while retaining the open system are suggested.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  12. Report of the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative Workshop Activity: Current Hurdles and Progress in Seed-Stock Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kurtz, Andreas; Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Zeng, Fanyi; Lomax, Geoff; Loring, Jeanne F; Crook, Jeremy; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Clarke, Laura; Inamdar, Maneesha S; Pera, Martin; Firpo, Meri T; Sheldon, Michael; Rahman, Nafees; O'Shea, Orla; Pranke, Patricia; Zhou, Qi; Isasi, Rosario; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Kawamata, Shin; Oh, Steve; Ludwig, Tenneille; Masui, Tohru; Novak, Thomas J; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Koo, Soo Kyung; Stacey, Glyn N

    2017-11-01

    This article summarizes the recent activity of the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative (ISCBI) held at the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) in California (June 26, 2016) and the Korean National Institutes for Health in Korea (October 19-20, 2016). Through the workshops, ISCBI is endeavoring to support a new paradigm for human medicine using pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) for cell therapies. Priority considerations for ISCBI include ensuring the safety and efficacy of a final cell therapy product and quality assured source materials, such as stem cells and primary donor cells. To these ends, ISCBI aims to promote global harmonization on quality and safety control of stem cells for research and the development of starting materials for cell therapies, with regular workshops involving hPSC banking centers, biologists, and regulatory bodies. Here, we provide a brief overview of two such recent activities, with summaries of key issues raised. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1956-1962. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  13. Open Access von A bis Z

    OpenAIRE

    Stieg, Kerstin; Pavlovic, Karlo

    2012-01-01

    The glossary „Open Access from A to Z“ comprises essential key terms on Open Access such as arXiv, The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), Creative Commons (CC), the Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), the EU project Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER), the Finch Report,...

  14. Open-to-Air Is a Viable Option for Initial Wound Care in Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection that Allows Early Detection of Recurrence without Need for Painful Dressing Changes or Return to Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Derek; Davies, April; Burge, Bailey; Watkins, Phillip; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2018-01-01

    The standard treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) includes extensive surgical debridement. Care of these debridements is challenging because of the size of the wound and associated pain. A potential solution is to leave the wounds open-to-air in the period after the initial debridement, allowing for regular inspection at bedside while reducing pain associated with frequent dressing changes. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach from a pain control standpoint. An audit of wound care modalities used on adult patients with NSTI admitted to a regional burn center between January 2009 and May 2014 was performed. Patients with at least one operation were included. Those opting for palliative care were excluded. Wound care was divided into four categories: open-to-air (OTA), negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), packing, and ointment. Wound care, pain score, pain medication use, and number of operations were collected for the first seven days after initial debridement. Pain management was assessed by pain scores. Analgesic use was measured and compared using conversion to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Ninety-six patients were included; 67% were men with average age of 50 years, resulting in a total of 672 days of wound care evaluated: 69 days of OTA, 127 days of NPWT, 200 days of packing, and 126 days of ointment (150 days were undocumented). Average daily pain score from all wound care modalities was 2.00. Negative pressure wound therapy had the highest reported daily pain score (2.18, p = 0.034), whereas OTA had the lowest pain score (1.63, p < 0.05). Mortality was lower in the OTA cohort but was not statistically significant; there were no other differences in long-term outcome. Leaving wounds OTA is a safe and viable option in the immediate post-debridement period of NSTI to reduce pain, while permitting frequent re-evaluation for quick recognition of disease progression and repeat operative debridement if necessary.

  15. Opening Talk: Opening Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebner, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen Dear Friends and Colleagues I welcome you at the 5th International Symposium `Quantum Theory and Symmetries, QTS5' in Valladolid as Chairman of the Conference Board of this biannual series. The aim of the series is to arrange an international meeting place for scientists working in theoretical and mathematical physics, in mathematics, in mathematical biology and chemistry and in other sciences for the presentation and discussion of recent developments in connection with quantum physics and chemistry, material science and related further fields, like life sciences and engineering, which are based on mathematical methods which can be applied to model and to understand microphysical and other systems through inherent symmetries in their widest sense. These systems include, e.g., foundations and extensions of quantum theory; quantum probability; quantum optics and quantum information; the description of nonrelativistic, finite dimensional and chaotic systems; quantum field theory, particle physics, string theory and quantum gravity. Symmetries in their widest sense describe properties of a system which could be modelled, e.g., through geometry, group theory, topology, algebras, differential geometry, noncommutative geometry, functional analysis and approximation methods; numerical evaluation techniques are necessary to connect such symmetries with experimental results. If you ask for a more detailed characterisation of this notion a hand waving indirect answer is: Collect titles and contents of the contributions of the proceedings of QTS4 and get a characterisation through semantic closure. Quantum theory and its Symmetries was and is a diversified and rapidly growing field. The number of and the types of systems with an internal symmetry and the corresponding mathematical models develop fast. This is reflected in the content of the five former international symposia of this series: The first symposium, QTS1-1999, was organized in Goslar (Germany

  16. Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

  17. The "Kiel Concept" of Long-Term Administration of Daily Low-Dose Sildenafil Initiated in the Immediate Post-Prostatectomy Period: Evaluation and Comparison With the International Literature on Penile Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmonov, Daniar K; Jünemann, Klaus P; Bannowsky, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common definitive invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. Although the different surgical procedures-open RP, laparoscopic RP, and robot-assisted laparoscopic RP-do not differ significantly for the results of postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) and continence, the fear of losing erectile function (EF) is often an important factor for preoperatively sexually active men when deciding for or against a procedure. To review the available literature on rehabilitation of EF after RP and to evaluate the value of the "Kiel concept" against different strategies of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) low-dose treatments. A review of the available literature up to January 2017 was undertaken using the key terms postsurgical ED, penile rehabilitation," PDE5i rehabilitation, and PDE5i daily dose treatment. As a main outcome measure we chose reviewed different concepts on the rehabilitation of EF after RP, taking into account the clinical background of the Kiel concept. The different therapeutic concepts for rehabilitation of EF after nerve-sparing RP are surprising. The most frequently applied method is application of different PDE5is. Despite different studies on efficacy, the issue of an optimal concept remains unresolved. The reason for this, among others, can be found in the difficulty of comparing different studies, which can vary with respect to the degree of nerve sparing, postoperative preservation of nocturnal erections, concomitant morbidity, and the number and experience of surgeons. In 86% of patients, the Kiel concept has been shown to support rehabilitation of EF after nerve-sparing RP with some form of therapeutic method. The Kiel concept is one therapeutic option among other comparable therapeutic options. Osmonov DK, Jünemann KP, Bannowsky A. The "Kiel Concept" of Long-Term Administration of Daily Low-Dose Sildenafil Initiated in the Immediate Post-Prostatectomy Period: Evaluation and

  18. Establishment and Application of a High Throughput Screening System Targeting the Interaction between HCV Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Human Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are intracellular obligate parasites and the host cellular machinery is usually recruited for their replication. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 could be directly recruited by the hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES to promote the translation of viral proteins. In this study, we establish a fluorescence polarization (FP based high throughput screening (HTS system targeting the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. By screening a total of 894 compounds with this HTS system, two compounds (Mucl39526 and NP39 are found to disturb the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. And these two compounds are further demonstrated to inhibit the HCV IRES-dependent translation in vitro. Thus, this HTS system is functional to screen the potential HCV replication inhibitors targeting human eIF3, which is helpful to overcome the problem of viral resistance. Surprisingly, one compound HP-3, a kind of oxytocin antagonist, is discovered to significantly enhance the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3 by this HTS system. HP-3 is demonstrated to directly interact with HCV IRES and promote the HCV IRES-dependent translation both in vitro and in vivo, which strongly suggests that HP-3 has potentials to promote HCV replication. Therefore, this HTS system is also useful to screen the potential HCV replication enhancers, which is meaningful for understanding the viral replication and screening novel antiviral drugs. To our knowledge, this is the first HTS system targeting the interaction between eIF3 and HCV IRES, which could be applied to screen both potential HCV replication inhibitors and enhancers.

  19. Ibrutinib for patients with rituximab-refractory Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (iNNOVATE): an open-label substudy of an international, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Trotman, Judith; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Matous, Jeffrey V; Macdonald, David; Tam, Constantine; Tournilhac, Olivier; Ma, Shuo; Oriol, Albert; Heffner, Leonard T; Shustik, Chaim; García-Sanz, Ramón; Cornell, Robert F; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández; Castillo, Jorge J; Granell, Miquel; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Leblond, Veronique; Symeonidis, Argiris; Kastritis, Efstathios; Singh, Priyanka; Li, Jianling; Graef, Thorsten; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Treon, Steven; Buske, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In the era of widespread rituximab use for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, new treatment options for patients with rituximab-refractory disease are an important clinical need. Ibrutinib has induced durable responses in previously treated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in a population with rituximab-refractory disease. This multicentre, open-label substudy was done at 19 sites in seven countries in adults aged 18 years and older with confirmed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, refractory to rituximab and requiring treatment. Disease refractory to the last rituximab-containing therapy was defined as either relapse less than 12 months since last dose of rituximab or failure to achieve at least a minor response. Key exclusion criteria included: CNS involvement, a stroke or intracranial haemorrhage less than 12 months before enrolment, clinically significant cardiovascular disease, hepatitis B or hepatitis C viral infection, and a known bleeding disorder. Patients received oral ibrutinib 420 mg once daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The substudy was not prospectively powered for statistical comparisons, and as such, all the analyses are descriptive in nature. This study objectives were the proportion of patients with an overall response, progression-free survival, overall survival, haematological improvement measured by haemoglobin, time to next treatment, and patient-reported outcomes according to the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) and the Euro Qol 5 Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). All analyses were per protocol. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02165397, and follow-up is ongoing but enrolment is complete. Between Aug 18, 2014, and Feb 18, 2015, 31 patients were enrolled. Median age was 67 years (IQR 58-74); 13 (42%) of 31 patients had high-risk disease per the International Prognostic Scoring System Waldenstr

  20. Esophagectomy - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open ... lining of the esophagus that can lead to cancer ( Barrett esophagus ) Severe trauma Destroyed esophagus Severely damaged stomach