WorldWideScience

Sample records for international health elective

  1. Ethical issues encountered by medical students during international health electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, Laurie; Hunt, Matthew; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Ranford, Jennifer; Adelson, Naomi; Schwartz, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    Medical students increasingly wish to participate in international health electives (IHEs). The authors undertook to understand from the students' perspective the ethical challenges encountered on IHEs in low-resource settings and how students respond to these issues. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 medical students upon their return from an IHE. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Inductive data analysis using a constant comparative technique generated initial codes which were later organised into higher-order themes. Five themes relating to ethical issues were identified: (i) uncertainty about how best to help; (ii) perceptions of Western medical students as different; (iii) moving beyond one's scope of practice; (iv) navigating different cultures of medicine, and (v) unilateral capacity building. International health electives are associated with a range of ethical issues for students. Students would benefit from formal pre-departure training, which should include an evaluation of their expectations of and motivations for participating in an IHE, careful selection of the IHE from amongst the opportunities available, learning about the local context of the IHE prior to departure, and the exploration and discussion of ethical and professionalism issues. Other factors that would benefit students include having an invested onsite colleague or supervisor, maintaining an ongoing connection with the home institution, and formal debriefing on conclusion of the IHE. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  2. Eight years of the Mayo International Health Program: what an international elective adds to resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Rosenman, David J; Merry, Stephen P; McDonald, Furman S

    2010-08-01

    To examine the educational benefits of international elective rotations during graduate medical education. We studied Mayo International Health Program (MIHP) participants from April 1, 2001, through July 31, 2008. Data from the 162 resident postrotation reports were reviewed and used to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze MIHP elective experiences. Qualitative analysis of the narrative data was performed using NVivo7 (QRS International, Melbourne, Australia), a qualitative research program, and passages were coded and analyzed for trends and themes. During the study period, 162 residents representing 20 different specialties were awarded scholarships through the MIHP. Residents rotated in 43 countries, serving over 40,000 patients worldwide. Their reports indicated multiple educational and personal benefits, including gaining experience with a wide variety of pathology, learning to work with limited resources, developing clinical and surgical skills, participating in resident education, and experiencing new peoples and cultures. The MIHP provides the structure and funding to enable residents from a variety of specialties to participate in international electives and obtain an identifiable set of unique, valuable educational experiences likely to shape them into better physicians. Such international health electives should be encouraged in graduate medical education.

  3. Protecting the health of medical students on international electives in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Niall; Sandys, Nichola; Geoghegan, Rosemary; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Flaherty, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, medical students from developed countries are undertaking international medical electives in developing countries. Medical students understand the many benefits of these electives, such as the opportunity to develop clinical skills, to gain insight into global health issues and to travel to interesting regions of the world. However, they may be much less aware of the risk to their health and wellbeing while abroad. Compounding this problem, medical students may not seek advice from travel medicine practitioners and often receive inadequate or no information from their medical school prior to departure. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature relating to the health of medical elective students. Combinations of the following key words were used as search terms: 'international health elective', 'medical student' and 'health risks'. Articles were restricted to those published in English from 1997 through June 2017. A secondary review of the reference lists of these articles was performed. The grey literature was also searched for relevant material. This narrative literature review outlines the risks of clinical electives in resource-poor settings which include exposure to infectious illness, trauma, sexual health problems, excessive sun exposure, mental health issues and crime. Medical students may mitigate these health risks by being informed and well prepared for high-risk situations. The authors provide evidence-based travel advice which aims to improve pre-travel preparation and maximize student traveller safety. A safer and more enjoyable elective may be achieved if students follow road safety advice, take personal safety measures, demonstrate cultural awareness, attend to their psychological wellbeing and avoid risk-taking behaviours. This article may benefit global health educators, international elective coordinators and travel medicine practitioners. For students, a comprehensive elective checklist, an inventory of health kit

  4. International electives in neurology training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  5. High Disparity Between Orthopedic Resident Interest and Participation in International Health Electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven; Shultz, Paul; Daniels, Alan; Ackelman, Edward; Kamal, Robin N

    2016-07-01

    Few orthopedic surgical residency programs offer international health electives (IHEs). Efforts to expand these programs have been increasing across medical disciplines. Whether orthopedic residents will participate remains unknown. This study quantified and characterized orthopedic resident interest and barriers to IHEs in US residency programs. A web-based survey was administered to residents from 154 US orthopedic residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2014 to 2015. Questions assessed demographics and program background, previous medical experience abroad, barriers to participation, and level of interest in participating in an international health elective during their training and beyond. Twenty-seven (17.5%) residency programs responded. Chi-square analysis showed that residents who expressed interest in participating were significantly more likely to have experience abroad compared with those who expressed no interest (Porthopedic residencies (POrthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e680-e686.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-02-15

    Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  7. Graduate medical education competencies for international health electives: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhues, Hannah C; Bashir, M Usmaan; Merry, Stephen P; Sawatsky, Adam P

    2017-11-01

    Residency programs offer international health electives (IHEs), providing multiple educational benefits. This study aimed to identify how IHEs fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. We conducted a thematic analysis of post-rotation reflective reports from residents who participated in IHEs through the Mayo International Health Program. We coded reports using a codebook created from the ACGME competencies. Using a constant comparative method, we identified significant themes within each competency. Residents from 40 specialties participated in 377 IHEs in 56 countries from 2001 to 2014. Multiple themes were identified within each of the six ACGME core competencies: Patient Care and Procedural Skills (4), Medical Knowledge (5), Practice-Based Learning and Improvement (3), Interpersonal and Communication Skills (5), Professionalism (4), and Systems-Based Practice and Improvement (3). Themes included improving physical exam and procedural skills, providing care in resource-limited setting, gaining knowledge of tropical and non-tropical diseases, identifying socioeconomic determinants of health, engaging in the education of others, and increasing communication across cultures and multidisciplinary teams. Through IHEs, residents advanced their knowledge, skills, and attitudes in each of the six ACGME competencies. These data can be used for development of IHE competencies and milestones for resident assessment.

  8. Transformative Learning and Professional Identity Formation During International Health Electives: A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Nordhues, Hannah C; Merry, Stephen P; Bashir, M Usmaan; Hafferty, Frederic W

    2018-03-27

    International health electives (IHEs) are widely available during residency and provide unique experiences for trainees. Theoretical models of professional identity formation and transformative learning may provide insight into residents' experiences during IHEs. The purpose of this study was to explore transformative learning and professional identity formation during resident IHEs and characterize the relationship between transformative learning and professional identity formation. The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach, with the sensitizing concepts of transformative learning and professional identity formation to analyze narrative reflective reports of residents' IHEs. The Mayo International Health Program supports residents from all specialties across three Mayo Clinic sites. In 2015, the authors collected narrative reflective reports from 377 IHE participants dating from 2001-2014. Reflections were coded and themes were organized into a model for transformative learning during IHEs, focusing on professional identity. Five components of transformative learning were identified during IHEs: a disorienting experience; an emotional response; critical reflection; perspective change; and a commitment to future action. Within the component of critical reflection three domains relating to professional identity were identified: making a difference; the doctor-patient relationship; and medicine in its "purest form." Transformation was demonstrated through perspective change and a commitment to future action, including continued service, education, and development. IHEs provide rich experiences for transformative learning and professional identity formation. Understanding the components of transformative learning may provide insight into the interaction between learner, experiences, and the influence of mentors in the process of professional identity formation.

  9. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.

  10. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations. PMID:29581617

  11. Preparing students for the ethical challenges on international health electives: A systematic review of the literature on educational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Anika; Knights Née Jones, Felicity; Fyfe, Molly; Alagarajah, Janagan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-09-01

    International health electives pose specific ethical challenges for students travelling from to low and middle income countries. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on interventions to prepare students to identify ethical issues addressed, educational approaches and to collate evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies. We searched nine electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and identified grey literature through key word searches; supplemented through citation mapping and expert consultation. Articles that described ethical training conducted by universities or professional bodies were included for review. We reviewed forty-four full text articles. Ten sources of published literature and seven sources of grey literature met our inclusion criteria. We identified thirteen ethical situations that students should be prepared to manage and eight generic skills to support this process. Most interventions were delivered before the elective, used case studies or guidelines. Some suggested ethical principles or a framework for analysis of ethical issues. Only two papers evaluated the intervention described. Our paper collates a small but growing body of work on education to prepare students to manage ethical issues. Ethical training should have elements that are delivered before, during and after the elective. Interventions should include case studies covering thirteen ethical issues identified here, linked to ethical principles and a process for responding to ethical issues. We suggest that evaluations of interventions are an important area for future research.

  12. Effects of international health electives on medical student learning and career choice: results of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jessica; Dumont, Rebecca A; Kim, Gloria Y; Kuo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The present study reviewed the published literature to examine the effects of international health electives (IHEs) on medical student learning and career choice. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify key English-language articles on IHEs, using PubMed journal databases for the period 1990--2009. Article inclusion for this review was vetted by a rigorous evaluation of each article's study methods, content, and data quality. Pooled or aggregate information from 11 key articles, including information on type and duration of IHE, study and comparison group characteristics, and measured outcomes such as self-reported changes in cultural competency, clinical skills, and specialty choice, were extracted and summarized. Findings suggest that having IHE experiences contributed to a more well-rounded training for medical students; students reported being more culturally competent and were more likely to choose a primary care specialty and/or a public service career. Although IHE experiences appear to have educational benefits, the quality and availability of these electives vary by institution. Barriers to ensuring that students attain a safe and rich experience include the lack of consistent categorical funding, safety concerns when traveling, and limited faculty experience and resources to support and guide students during their rotations abroad.

  13. All quiet on election day? International election observation and incentives for pre-election violence in African elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the increasing international interest in elections as exemplified by the rise of international election monitoring induces temporal shifts in the use of violent intimidation by political actors. The presence of international electoral missions lowers the potential for

  14. Unchallenged good intentions: a qualitative study of the experiences of medical students on international health electives to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; McAuliffe, Eilish; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2014-09-04

    Irish medical students have a long and proud history of embarking on international health electives (IHEs) to broaden their experience in the developing world. Although there are many opinions in the literature about IHEs, there is a dearth of empirical research that explores the experience and the value of these experiences to medical students. Most students who participate in these IHEs from Irish medical schools are members of student IHE societies, which are entirely run by students themselves. There are varying levels of preparation and interaction with the medical schools in planning these experiences. This study explores the experiences of a sample of students who completed IHEs in 2012. This qualitative study used anonymized one-on-one interviews with medical students in Irish medical schools who completed IHEs to developing countries in 2012. Students were recruited using online noticeboards of student societies and e-mail. Purposive sampling was used to find students from different medical schools, some who had travelled with medical student IHE societies and others who had travelled independently. Seven male and seven female students participated. Interviews were conducted until saturation was reached. Data were then analyzed thematically. The main themes identified were the perceived benefits of IHEs, the difficulties experienced with the distribution of charitable donations, the emotional impact on the students of participating in the IHEs, awareness of scope of practice by students, and issues with the current structure of IHEs. The informal relationship that currently exists between student societies and the medical schools results in poor accountability and reporting requirements on IHEs. Clearer guidelines and identification of learning outcomes for students would be helpful. The findings are relevant to medical students internationally.

  15. A third world international health elective for U.S. medical students: the 25-year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center instituted a 6-8 weeks third world international health elective for fourth year medical students in 1980. Since that time, some 217 students have participated in a score of third world countries. However, the most popular sites have been India, Kenya and Thailand. The purposes of this elective are to provide fourth year medical students with an opportunity to observe and study the structure and functions of a health care delivery system in a third world country, to provide medical service, and to have a cross-cultural experience. The emphasis in this elective is on public health, preventive medicine and primary care. There are high levels of student competition for this elective. However, interest in it has been affected by world events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the recent outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been twenty-five and more out of a class of two hundred students. Annual acceptance rates vary considerably, ranging from as low as 27.2% in 1995-1996 to a high of 81.8% in 1987-1988. Careful screening, including an examination of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who overall have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are extremely high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to going overseas. This includes individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system, and assignment site. Our students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patients they treat in Brooklyn, and the ethnic diversity of local

  16. An Elective Course in Women's Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop, implement, and evaluate an elective course for the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD curriculum that provides students with a comprehensive overview of women's health across the lifespan and exposes them to social and economic issues that impact women's health. Case Study: At the time of this writing, the class has been delivered 3 times to a total of 56 students. Students read and discussed (both in-class and online timely articles in women's health issues on topics including sex-based biology; women in clinical trials; maternal and child health; women's health coverage and access to care in the United States; gender and health communication; abuse and the role of healthcare professionals; and international issues in women's health and women's rights. Students completed a pre- and post-test; developed seminar presentations regarding women's health issues; wrote reflective essays about the course; and designed and implemented health promotion projects for National Women's Health Week (NWHW. At the end of the course, the number of correct answers on the post-test significantly improved from the pre-test (p<0.001. Through anonymous course evaluations, students indicated that the assignments fulfilled the learning objectives (mean 4.68 on a 5-point Likert scale and the exercises were useful in helping their understanding of the material (mean 4.66 on a 5-point Likert scale. Over 500 women from the campus and community participated in the NWHW projects. Implications: An elective course was designed to educate pharmacy students regarding women's health issues and to provide students with an opportunity to perform community outreach.   Type: Case Study

  17. Health care in the 2004 presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, Robert J; Altman, Drew E; Benson, John M; Brodie, Mollyann

    2004-09-23

    We examined the importance for voters of health care as an issue in the presidential election of 2004, how this ranking compares with the importance of health care in past elections, and which issues voters regard as the most important health care issues in the months before the election. We studied data from 22 national opinion surveys, 9 of them conducted as telephone surveys during the 2004 presidential campaign, 10 conducted as telephone surveys during the previous three presidential elections, and 3 conducted as national exit polls of voters. Voters ranked health care as the fourth most important issue in deciding their vote for president in 2004. The top health care issues for voters were the costs of health care and prescription drugs, prescription-drug benefits for the elderly, the uninsured, and Medicare. Bioterrorism and abortion were also important issues for voters. The voters most concerned about health care were older persons and those who identified themselves as Democrats. Four issues less salient to voters were racial disparities in health care, aid to developing countries to prevent and treat human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, medical malpractice, and the quality of care. Although health care ranks higher in importance among voters than most other domestic issues, it is only fourth in importance in deciding their vote for president. The health care issues of greatest concern are the affordability of health care and health care insurance. Health care issues do not appear likely to play a decisive role in the presidential election in 2004, but they might make a difference in some swing states if the race is close. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

  18. Student objectives and learning experiences in a global health elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David; Zayas, Luis E; Koyfman, Alex

    2012-10-01

    International health electives offer unique experiences for medical students to develop clinical skills and cultural competencies in unique and diverse environments. Medical students have been increasingly pursuing these learning opportunities despite the challenges. However, their goals in pursuing these opportunities and the relation between their learning objectives and actual experiences have not been studied adequately. It is important to assess these programs based on student objectives and whether those objectives are met. Thirty-seven medical students from five cohorts at a US medical school completed pre-post questionnaires regarding their global health elective objectives and learning experiences. The questionnaires included mostly open-ended questions and a Likert-scale rating of their overall experience. Qualitative thematic analysis involved inductive coding and followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Quantitative program evaluation measures yielded descriptive statistics. Five general objectives and four types of learning experiences were identified. Student objectives were: (1) to observe the practice and organization of health care in another country; (2) improve medical/surgical skills; (3) improve language skills; (4) learn about another culture; and (5) deepen knowledge of infectious diseases. All of their objectives were achieved. Moreover, one learning theme, "self-reflection and personal growth," was not a student objective. Quantitative assessment showed that most students had a favorable elective experience. Program challenges were also identified. Students in a global health elective were able to fulfill self-identified learning objectives, while also gaining other unexpected yet important lessons. Students' learning objectives also should be considered in evaluating learning experiences in international health electives.

  19. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  20. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children or = 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25-29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44-3.58). HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions.

  1. International electives in neurology training: a survey of US and Canadian program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L; Coleman, Mary E; Engstrom, John W; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-01-14

    To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012-February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health-related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%-9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%-19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority of Canadian programs that responded allow international

  2. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  3. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118...-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.118 Local unions agents in international elections. An international union may establish internal rules which require...

  4. A national survey of international electives for medical students in Japan: 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sugimoto, Naomi; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; McMahon, Graham T

    2012-01-01

    International electives can provide experiences for medical students to learn about health systems and foster critical self-reflection. So far, little is known about the status of Japanese students' engagement in international electives. We sought to provide information about the internationalization of Japanese medical education by clarifying the current situations of international electives. We undertook a cross-sectional national 17-item questionnaire survey of program officers in all medical schools in Japan in February 2010. Sixty-five (81.3%) of 80 Japanese medical schools responded to the questionnaire. 462 Japanese medical students (3% of all students in their clinical years) travelled to North America (45.5%), Asia (25.0%), or Western Europe (24.4%) to study abroad. The number of students who participated in international electives was significantly increased when academic credit was available (median 6 vs. 1, p < 0.001) and institutional affiliations were present (median 7 vs. 2 students, p < 0.001). Most students were evaluated by means of written assignment on return. About 3% of Japanese medical students participate in international clinical exchanges. Academic credit and institutional affiliations appear to promote greater utilization of international exchange opportunities.

  5. Catherine Cesarsky elected President of the International Astronomical Union and Ian Corbett elected Assistant General Secretary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Prague (Czech Republic), has elected the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President for a three-year period (2006-2009). The IAU is a body of distinguished professional astronomers, founded in 1919 to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. It now has almost 10 000 individual members drawn from all continents. Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman to receive this high distinction. At the same General Assembly, Dr. Ian Corbett, ESO's Deputy Director General, was elected Assistant General Secretary for 2006-2009, with the expectation of becoming General Secretary in 2009-2012. ESO PR Photo 32/06 ESO PR Photo 32/06 The New IAU Officers Prof. Ron Ekers, the outgoing IAU President said: "The past few years have been highly productive for astronomy, with many discoveries giving new insights into our Universe which have excited scientists and general public alike. Catherine Cesarsky is internationally honoured as a scientist, and I am delighted that she has agreed to serve the IAU as President. She has already given invaluable service to the IAU and I am confident that she will provide outstanding leadership as President." "It is a great honour and a pleasure for me to be President of the International Astronomical Union for the next three years, especially in view of the proposed International Year of Astronomy in 2009, in which the IAU will play a leading role as a catalyst and a coordinator," said Catherine Cesarsky. "I am very much looking forward to working with my colleagues in the IAU to ensure that this is a great success." Dr. Cesarsky, ESO Director General since 1999, is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma-ray emission. Later, she led the design and construction of

  6. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers.

  7. Catherine Cesarsky - President Elect of the International Astronomical Union (IAU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia), has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President Elect for a three-year period (2003-2006). The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents. The IAU General Assembly also elected Prof. Ron Ekers (Australia) as President (2003 - 2006). Dr. Cesarsky will then become President of the IAU in 2006, when the General Assembly next meets in Prague (The Czech Republic). Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman scientist to receive this high distinction. "The election of Catherine Cesarsky as President-Elect of the IAU is an important recognition for a scientist who has made impressive contributions to various areas of modern astrophysics, from cosmic rays to the interstellar medium and cosmology" , commented the outgoing IAU President, Prof. Franco Pacini. "It is also an honour and an important accolade for the European astronomical community in general and ESO in particular." Dr. Cesarsky, who assumed the function as ESO Director General in 1999, was born in France. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp), Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). As Director of DSM (1994 - 1999), she was leading about 3000 scientists, engineers and technicians active within a broad spectrum of basic research programmes in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma

  8. International electives in the final year of German medical school education – a student's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student’s final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors reflect on their experience as elective students abroad and discuss the contribution of international electives to the constant development and progress of local final year rotations. They identify key areas for improving final year electives and outline essential features for a valuable and successful final year elective.

  9. International electives in the final year of German medical school education--a student's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Agrawal, Mridul; Wahlster, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student's final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors reflect on their experience as elective students abroad and discuss the contribution of international electives to the constant development and progress of local final year rotations. They identify key areas for improving final year electives and outline essential features for a valuable and successful final year elective.

  10. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Victoria K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152. Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS. Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051. Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta

  11. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Evelyn M; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy; McMcarthy, Anne E

    2014-04-10

    To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas's transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spending a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations.

  12. New Hampshire, health care, and the 1992 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, R J; Szalay, U S; Altman, D E; Chervinsky, G

    1992-01-01

    A poll of New Hampshire voters who participated in the February 17 presidential primary shows that the recession and overall concern for the economy was the most important factor in determining the outcome of the election. Health care and national health insurance ranked second, significantly outranking concerns over all other issues. When presented with the leading policy options for health care reform, the majority of voters favored a plan that would guarantee universal coverage by law--either a "play or pay" plan or an all-government plan. However, even though a majority of voters favored universal coverage, they also preferred plans that would make insurance available through private insurers rather than through an all-government plan.

  13. International free and fair election instruments developed by UN and OSCE

    OpenAIRE

    Azer Kasumov

    2012-01-01

    After collapse of USSR, the international society confronted with a complicated challenge.After this, free and fair election standards became an essential component to establishing ademocratic governments in the new independent states. In order to conduct free and fairelection, the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europeelection standards played main role the respectively in the context of international andregional level. The Article briefly describes the im...

  14. Effect of Experience of Internal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future Infectious Disease Fellowship Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Experience of !ntcrnal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future lntCctious Di~casc Fcllo\\vship Application Sb. GRANT N_UMBER...Internal Medidne Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future Infectious Disease Fello\\\\/shlp Application Blyth Dl’vl, Barsournian 1\\E, Yun I-IC...Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Fut ure Infectious Disease Fellowship Application ~ Poeter# 1440 .,...._,: OVfil"S~ ti

  15. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  16. International electives at the university of Minnesota global pediatric residency program: opportunities for education in all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Sophia; Zink, Therese; Howard, Cindy; Campagna, Ann; Slusher, Tina; John, Chandy

    2012-01-01

    Globally competent pediatricians are in demand because of the increasing numbers of children from immigrant families living in the United States and the shortages of health care workers in low-income countries where the majority of the worlds' children live. This study sought to better understand the educational outcomes of international electives taken by pediatric residents training in global health. Thirty-two pediatric residents who participated in an international elective as part of a global health curriculum completed reflective essays which were analyzed for themes from 2006 to 2010. During the first-order analysis, the emergent themes mapped to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. In response, a second-order analysis re-examined the essays with an additional researcher to support categorization consistent with the ACGME competencies. More than 90% of essays described experiences related to medical knowledge, patient care and systems-based practice. More than 50% included reflections on practice-based learning and improvement, professionalism, and interpersonal and communication skills. Residents also described the impact on their personal and professional development. International electives can provide educational opportunities for residents to develop competency in each of the 6 ACGME domains and to reevaluate their life purpose and career goals. In addition to opportunities to increase their medical knowledge, patient care and communication skills, residents find international electives rich learning environments for systems-based practice, practice-based learning/improvement, and professionalism, domains that can be challenging to teach. These findings support the importance of international electives in global health in meeting core requirements in residency training. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PERCEIVED NEED FOR AN INTERNATIONAL ELECTIVE EXPERIENCE AMONG ITALIAN MEDICAL RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary society an International Health Elective (IHE represents a strategic tool in order to implement future medical doctor’s education. In Italy, in the last decade, an increasing interest of trainees and residents to IHE and opportunities was documented and supported by the reorganization of the Italian residency programs, provided by the Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR. Aim of the present study was to collect data on perceived need of medical residents for an IHE. A structured questionnaire was developed and administered to medical residents of Palermo’s University who underwent their annual visit to the Occupational Health Physician Ambulatory (OHPA of Palermo’s University Hospital, in the period between March and October 2011. Medical residents more prone to undergo an IHE were, younger than 29 years old (p <0.01, attending the new educational system (p 0.02 and surgical residents (p= 0.0001. A negative opinion about the formative quality performances of the residency program was significantly associated with surgical residencies (p= 0.002. Future Italian surgeons are more prone to undergo an IHE and this statement is probably related to the not satisfying residency program. Residents attending the old educational system consider the IHE as a way to implement their professional perspectives possibly for their more realistic professional perspective facing an approaching future full of work uncertainties. Considering the future competition between medical professionals working in different EU contexts, the Italian Government should implement future medical education policy in order to provide for a Healthcare “without Border” in the EU.

  18. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  19. SU-F-E-12: Elective International Rotations in Medical Physics Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D; Mundt, A; Einck, J; Pawlicki, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this educational program is to motivate talented, intelligent individuals to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. Methods: The need to improve global access to radiotherapy has been clearly established and several organizations are making substantial progress in securing funding and developing plans to achieve this worthwhile goal. The incorporation of elective international rotations in residency programs may provide one possible mechanism to promote and support this future investment. We recently incorporated an elective 1-month international rotation into our CAMPEP accredited Medical Physics residency program, with our first rotation taking place in Vietnam. A unique aspect of this rotation was that it was scheduled collaboratively with our Radiation Oncology residency program such that Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics residents traveled to the same clinic at the same time. Results: We believe the international rotation substantially enhances the educational experience, providing additional benefits to residents by increasing cross-disciplinary learning and offering a shared learning experience. The combined international rotation may also increase benefit to the host institution by modeling positive multidisciplinary working relationships between Radiation Oncologists and Medical Physicists. Our first resident returned with several ideas designed to improve radiotherapy in resource-limited settings – one of which is currently being pursued in collaboration with a vendor. Conclusion: The elective international rotation provides a unique learning experience that has the potential to motivate residents to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. What better way to prepare the next generation of Medical Physicists to meet the challenges of improving global access to radiotherapy than to provide them with training experiences that motivate them to be socially

  20. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  1. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  2. An elective course in personal finance for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Michelle A

    2009-02-19

    To create, implement, and assess an elective course on the principles and applications of personal finance. A 1.5 unit (15 hours total) elective course was designed using active-learning pedagogy, lecture, and group discussion. Homework assignments were designed to provide practical tools and materials that students could individualize and apply to their personal financial goals. Student satisfaction, using a standard course evaluation form, revealed consistent high ratings. Student enrollment increased from 19 students in its initial year to 90 students in its fourth year. Student knowledge, assessed using the Jump$tart Financial Literacy Survey, indicated significant knowledge acquisition. Many pharmacy students are ill equipped to effectively handle the complex financial decisions they face after graduation. This course provides students with practical tools to identify appropriate ways to achieve their financial goals and critically evaluate financial advice and advisors.

  3. The Influence of Elective Surgery on Functional Health in Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    surgery to decrease pain and disability, improve their cosmetic appearance, and/or set their mind at ease by getting a definitive diagnosis, and...Elective Surgery on Functional Health in Veterans with PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER HU0001-11-1-TS03 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S...with greater risk of postoperative mortality in veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine if elective outpatient surgery had a persistent

  4. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  5. International medical electives undertaken by Australian medical students: current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Iain R; Worley, Paul S; Langham, Freya J

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the proportion of students in Australian medical schools who undertake international medical electives (IMEs), particularly in developing countries, and to ascertain which medical schools provide predeparture training and postelective debriefing. Extraction of data on the number of students undertaking electives from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) for the 2013s 2006 to 2010; and interviews with the directors of each medical school in Australia in May to July 2012 to ascertain the availability of predeparture training and postelective debriefing. The proportion of medical students undertaking IMEs overall and within developing countries and the proportion of medical schools with optional and mandatory predeparture training and postelective debriefing. Fifty-three per cent of graduate-entry (GE) program students and 35% of high-school entry (HSE) program students undertook IMEs. Fifty-nine per cent of electives undertaken by GE program students were in developing countries, compared with 56% for HSE program students. Predeparture training was offered by 12 of the 16 Australian medical schools, but it was mandatory in only six. Only eight schools offer postelective debriefing. A large proportion of Australian medical students undertake IMEs in developing countries. However, a considerable proportion of students do not undertake formal preparation for, or reflection on, their experiences. Predeparture training and postelective debriefing should be scaled up across Australian medical schools to provide students with the guidance and support to maximise the benefits and minimise risks associated with undertaking IMEs in developing countries.

  6. Is international election observation credible? Evidence from Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While international election observations missions often aim to present generalizable claims about the quality and integrity of an election, their findings are rarely based on a representative sample of observations, undermining the credibility of the missions. Bias in the selection of polling stations, among other things, can inflate or deflate the percentage of polling stations where observers find significant flaws. This article uses original data from Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE election observation missions to illustrate the nature of the problem of selection bias in international election observation, and show how the percentage of ‘bad’ polling stations (in the absence of selection bias can be estimated through a weighting procedure. The article finds that, while there is a strong degree of selection bias, this does not significantly impact the overall percentage of ‘bad’ polling stations that is reported by OSCE observation missions.

  7. Evaluation of an art in health care elective module--a nurse education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Catherine; Neill, Freda; Granville, Gary; Grace, Sheila

    2013-03-01

    International literature suggests that nurse educators perceive a value in the arts and literature as a teaching strategy in helping nurses express a personal philosophy of nursing, teaching spirituality and non-verbal communication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nursing students experiences of undertaking an interdisciplinary 'Art in Health' elective. The formative evaluation approach was based on the reflective practice model that encourages students (n = 60) to evaluate their own learning experience. 88% of nursing students valued the experience of learning with students from other disciplines or colleges. 63% commented on how they enjoyed the creative aspect of studio work and the element of diversity in brought to nursing. 63% indicated that the module gave them a greater insight into the presence of art in health care contexts and felt that they gained a deeper understanding of how art can help people in hospital. The module presents an innovative model of interdisciplinary curriculum development which appears to facilitate students in viewing patients from a more holistic perspective. As an education experience this module appears to have the potential to help students develop skills in working collaboratively with other health care and non health care disciplines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is international election observation credible? Evidence from Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe missions

    OpenAIRE

    Max Bader; Hans Schmeets

    2014-01-01

    While international election observations missions often aim to present generalizable claims about the quality and integrity of an election, their findings are rarely based on a representative sample of observations, undermining the credibility of the missions. Bias in the selection of polling stations, among other things, can inflate or deflate the percentage of polling stations where observers find significant flaws. This article uses original data from Organization for Security and Co-oper...

  9. Street outreach and shelter care elective for senior health professional students: an interprofessional educational model for addressing the needs of vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndell, Cynthia; Proffitt, Brenda; Disco, Michel; Clithero, Amy

    2014-01-01

    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, has an international reputation for developing and implementing curricular initiatives addressing health inequities. The Street Outreach and Shelter Care elective is designed to provide interprofessional service learning opportunities for senior pharmacy and medical students addressing the needs of our nation's most marginalized population-those experiencing homelessness. Our institution collaborated with multiple community partners serving the homeless to develop, implement and teach a 4-week senior elective for health professions students. During this elective, senior pharmacy and medical student teams provide individualized health care to men in local homeless shelter facilities. Students also participate in street outreach programs across a continuum of homeless populations. Weekly interprofessional education (IPE) faculty-facilitated sessions allow students to reflect on their experiences and learn from other discipline perspectives. Student evaluations uniformly reflect the transformative nature of the rotation since its inception, April 2009. Our outcomes corroborated the findings of similar service learning models developed to sensitize health professions students to the complex challenges of homeless populations. Academic centers can play a central role in health education reform by instituting curricula focusing on the primacy of population welfare and just distribution of resources. Senior year is an opportune time to reinforce social accountability among health professions before graduation. This elective is based on adult principles of learning and can serve as an international educational model for developing interprofessional curricular innovations addressing the healthcare needs of vulnerable populations.

  10. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  11. Health-related quality-of-life in patients after elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Lars Holger; Laursen, Kathrine Bang; Berg Jensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related quality-of-life (QoL) in patients after elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compared to a normal population and to study the association between QoL and number of years since surgery. Methods: All Danish men who...... underwent elective surgery for AAA at the age of 65 or more in the period from 1989–2007 in Denmark were invited to participate in the survey. Of 722 patients, 375 were alive and 328 (87%) responded. The nstruments EQ-5D (European Quality of life), EQ-VAS and SF-12 (Short Form Health Survey) were applied....... Limitations: The main limitation of the study was the cross-sectional design. Males with a higher risk of death were under-represented in the sample. Conclusion: A poorer quality-of-life was found in patients having had elective AAA surgery compared to the normal population....

  12. Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya’s 2008 Post-Election Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuti Kanyinga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the 2008 Kenyan crisis, aimed at exploring the role and effectiveness of the international development and diplomatic communities’ response. This response involved working to ameliorate the fragile political environment that followed the disputed 2007 elections. Thus, this case study was selected as an archetype to demonstrate how international actors can work cooperatively on political settlements. The key objective of this research is to analyse and share lessons about how those international actors present in Kenya engaged with the evolving political settlement to address the conflict. This study draws upon evolving political economy and political settlement debates in its analysis and uses the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD Fragile States Principles as a framework. Adopting such an analytical lens encourages examination of the multiple, context-specific underlying dynamics that influenced the role of international actors during this period of political transition. It also enables a study of the operational factors facing external actors when they attempt to work more politically, and recognition of how carefully these actors need to use the limited role they have in shaping the internal institutional arrangements and dynamics of the countries within which they work. The study’s main findings indicate that in the 2008 post-election period the international development and diplomatic communities collectively commanded substantive influence over the nature and trajectory of Kenya’s evolving political settlement. It argues that these actors enhanced their influence over many important political issues principally as a result of applying good practice in fragile situations: understanding the context, adopting a unified and legitimate stance, coordinating and collaborating closely and acting fast to prevent conflict. They also laid the foundations for

  13. Voters and health care in the 2004 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, Robert J; Brodie, Mollyann; Altman, Drew E; Benson, John M; Hamel, Elizabeth C

    2005-01-01

    Exit polls showed that health care was a second-tier issue in the 2004 presidential race and that it was more important to Democratic than Republican voters. Those who considered health care the most important issue in their voting decision voted over-whelmingly for John Kerry. An analysis of national opinion surveys and exit polls shows that Republican and Democratic voters expressed dramatically differing views on key health policy issues. With the exception of malpractice reform and reducing federal health spending, health care is not likely to be a top issue for the Bush administration's second term.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Neonatal Jaundice in Warri. Int J Health Res, September 2011; 4(3): 122. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health ...

  15. Health care, the California primary, and the 1992 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, R J; Szalay, U S; Altman, D E; Chervinsky, G

    1992-01-01

    Voters in the June 2 last-in-the-nation California primary indicated that candidates' character, experience, and leadership ability have become more significant than their stands on such issues as health reform. However, among substantive campaign issues, health care ranked second, behind the economy. That is consistent with previous poll results from New Hampshire, the nation's first primary state.

  16. Ensuring the Health, Safety and Preparedness of U.S. Medical Students Participating in Global Health Electives Overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Bruno, Denise M; Monica Sweeney, M

    2016-04-01

    Global health electives based in resource-poor countries have become extremely popular with medical students from resource rich ones. As the number of such programs and participants increase, so too do the absolute health and safety risks. It is clear from a number of published reports that many institutions provide little or no meaningful preparedness for students and do little to ensure their health and safety. These deficiencies together can affect students, their foreign hosts, and sponsoring institutions. The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, and its predecessor, the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, have sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purposes of this elective are to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health systems in resource-poor countries, provide medical service, and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 386 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 resource-poor countries. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Appropriately preparing students for an overseas global health experience in resource-poor countries requires the investment of much professional and staff time and effort. At the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health, these resources have underpinned our Global Health in Developing Countries elective for many years. As a result, the elective is characterized by meticulous

  17. Parental Internet Use and Health Information Seeking Behavior Comparing Elective and Emergency Pediatric Surgical Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Kien Yee; Sivasegaran, Daveraj; Choo, Candy Suet Cheng; Nah, Shireen Anne

    2018-02-01

     This study evaluates usage patterns of online health information in parents with children undergoing elective or emergency surgical procedures.  We prospectively surveyed parents of children admitted to our institution for common emergency (appendicectomy, abscess drainage, gonadal torsion) or elective (herniotomy, orchidopexy) operations between March and September 2016. Each completed an anonymized modification of a previously published survey comprising 19 questions on demographic data, Internet usage, and review of Internet resources. Chi-square tests were used for categorical data with p  information in elective ( n  = 27; 54%) and emergency groups ( n  = 24;70.6%) than general practitioners or other health care workers. When condition-specific online information was sought, more than 95% felt that the information concurred with the doctor's. Most common reasons were for more information on the condition ( n  = 56; 90.3%) and on medical treatment ( n  = 52; 83.9%). Eighteen (18/62; 29%) parents reported excessively technical information. No significant difference in behavior was found comparing elective and emergency groups.  Approximately one quarter of parents do not access condition-specific online medical information despite high Internet penetration rates. More than half depend on friends and family for additional information, reflecting societal and cultural norms in our population. Surgeons must incorporate awareness of these behaviors during counselling. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Characterisitcs of Shea butter and Theobroma fats in Emusions. Int J Health Res, December 2010; 3(4): 222. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is ...

  19. Procedural skills training for Canadian medical students participating in international electives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Margolick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: International medical electives (IMEs are unique learning opportunities; however, trainees can risk patient safety. Returning medical students often express concern about doing procedures beyond their level of training. The Canadian Federation of Medical Students has developed guidelines for pre-departure training (PDT, which do not address procedural skills. The purpose of this research is to determine which procedural skills to include in future PDT. Methods: Twenty-six medical students who returned from IMEs completed surveys to assess PDT. Using a Likert scale, we compared procedures performed by students before departing on IME to those performed while abroad. We used a similar scale to assess which procedures students feel ought to be included in future PDT. Results: There was no significant increase in number of procedures performed while on IME.  Skills deemed most important to include in future PDT were intravenous line insertion, suturing of lacerations, surgical assisting and post-operative wound care. Conclusions: Pre-departure training is new and lacks instruction in procedural skills. Over half the students rated several procedural skills such as IV line insertion, suturing, assisting in surgery, post operative wound management and foley catheterization as important assets for future PDT.

  20. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Stewart, Charles; Bhambhani, Vijeta

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear. To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012. Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA) using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression. General community. All counties in the United States. Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese. The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift"). Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%). Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8%) had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump) and 368 counties (12.2%) had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump). The first principal component ("unhealthy score") accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16). Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012 and measures of poor public health. Although these results do not demonstrate causality, these results suggest a possible role for health status in political choices.

  1. A global health elective course in a PharmD curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo-Atuah, Joyce; Dutta, Arjun; Kovera, Craig

    2014-12-15

    To describe the design, development, and the first 4 implementations of a Global Health elective course intended to prepare pharmacy students pursue global health careers and to evaluate student perceptions of the instructional techniques used and of skills developed during the course. Following the blended curriculum model used at Touro College of Pharmacy, the Global Health course combined team-based learning (TBL) sessions in class, out-of-class team projects, and online self-directed learning with classroom teaching and discussion sessions. Student performance was assessed with TBL sessions, team projects, and class presentations, online quizzes, and final examinations. A precourse and postcourse survey showed improvement in global health knowledge and attitudes, and in the perception of pharmacists' role and career opportunities in global health. Significant improvement in skills applicable to global health work was reported and students rated highly the instructional techniques, value, and relevance of the course. The Global Health elective course is on track to achieve its intended goal of equipping pharmacy students with the requisite knowledge and applicable skills to pursue global health careers and opportunities. After taking this course, students have gone on to pursue global field experiences.

  2. Lessons learned from piloting mHealth informatics practice curriculum into a medical elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Lindley, Jennifer

    2017-08-23

    This case study reports the development and delivery of an mHealth elective piloted for first-year undergraduate medical students at Monash University (Australia) and the lessons learned by designers. The students were not as adept at using mHealth devices as the literature had predicted. Expert speakers using mHealth for practice perceptibly engaged students. Force-field analysis was a useful basis for devising end-user evaluative research tools for practice. Combining small- and large-group discussions with eLearning discussions promoted student engagement with new concepts and associated jargon. Assessment by mHealth informatics champions supported the students' independent learning. Promotion of mHealth curriculum must be transparent and clear. Our elective delivery was hampered by a lack of suitable mobile device ownership and limited availability of useful, free apps. Technological jargon required clarification. Educators require particular mHealth informatics and educational expertise to support mHealth pedagogies. This learning helps to prepare medical curriculum designers for addressing evolving mHealth practice horizons.

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to ..... Table 1: Some antihypertensive chronotherapeutically-designed market medications.

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-24

    Dec 24, 2009 ... International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published .... [14] and free energy change temperature diagram. The former distinguishes between monotropic and enantiotropic ...

  5. International climate diplomacy after the Trump election victory: Germany and the EU should intensify their outreach to climate allies

    OpenAIRE

    Dröge, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The election of Donald Trump as the new US president heralds difficult times for international climate policy. The US together with the EU was the key driver of the Paris Agreement in 2015. The new president will end climate policy cooperation with China, and with other emerging and developing countries. Moreover, he has announced plans to reverse the climate-policy legislation which is needed to implement the US climate targets. This will undermine the trust many countries have increasingly ...

  6. The revolution that wasn't: health care's role in the 1992 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, S; Rivlin, A; Lazarus, E; Mellman, M

    1993-01-01

    Ever since Harris Wofford won a U.S. Senate seat in Pennsylvania in November 1991 largely by calling for national health insurance, health reform has been considered a "top-tier" issue. But post-1992 election polls reveal that while Americans have remained disenchanted with the current system, they have not refined their views on reform much further. Because the issue is so complex and because specific proposals involve so many trade-offs, the best course of action for candidates in the 1992 races was to echo voter dissatisfaction and signal a desire for reform without stating specifics.

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... incubated aerobically or chocolate agar which was ...

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health ... despair, hopelessness and low energy. Treatment of depression by safe and effective antidepressants like SSRIs is a.

  9. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Wasfy

    Full Text Available In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear.To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012.Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression.General community.All counties in the United States.Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese.The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift".Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%. Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8% had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump and 368 counties (12.2% had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump. The first principal component ("unhealthy score" accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16. Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p < 0.0001. This association was stronger in states that switched Electoral College votes from 2012 to 2016 than in other states (5.9% per unit unhealthy, p <0.0001.Substantial association exists between a shift toward voting for Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012

  10. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  11. Importance of health care issues in 2005 presidential elections in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakula, Aleksandar; Polasek, Ozren; Sosic, Zvonko; Voncina, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana; Brborović, Ognjen

    2006-06-01

    Health and health care provision are among the most important and politically sensitive public service areas. Politicians carefully incorporate health care program changes in their political agendas to gain votes. However, knowing health care priorities of the electoral body is not useful only to politicians, but also to health policy makers, as it enables them to target the most problematic areas in health care. We conducted a telephone survey of representative sample of voters (n=643) immediately before the presidential elections in Croatia in 2005, to determine the possible differences in health care priorities between left-wing and right-wing voters, and found a high level of homogeneity in their opinions. Health care organization, corruption, and financing issues were identified as the top priorities by both left- and right-wing voters. This agreement in voters' expectations, probably caused by a similar frame of mind of Croatian citizens inherited from pre-democratic times of self-government, could be used by health policy makers to rationally invest the means and efforts in dealing with the most problematic health care issues.

  12. Importance of Health Care Issues in 2005 Presidential Elections in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Polašek, Ozren; Šošić, Zvonko; Vončina, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana; Brborović, Ognjen

    2006-01-01

    Health and health care provision are among the most important and politically sensitive public service areas. Politicians carefully incorporate health care program changes in their political agendas to gain votes. However, knowing health care priorities of the electoral body is not useful only to politicians, but also to health policy makers, as it enables them to target the most problematic areas in health care. We conducted a telephone survey of representative sample of voters (n=643) immediately before the presidential elections in Croatia in 2005, to determine the possible differences in health care priorities between left-wing and right-wing voters, and found a high level of homogeneity in their opinions. Health care organization, corruption, and financing issues were identified as the top priorities by both left- and right-wing voters. This agreement in voters’ expectations, probably caused by a similar frame of mind of Croatian citizens inherited from pre-democratic times of self-government, could be used by health policy makers to rationally invest the means and efforts in dealing with the most problematic health care issues. PMID:16758530

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. Submission of ... making the assessment of salicylate a good parameter for.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published ... uses a journal management software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. ... application of the co-administration of doxycycline, gentamicin, streptomycin ...

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-30

    Dec 30, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... a journal management software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. ... PURPOSE: To investigate the binder effect of aqueous dispersions of acrylate ...

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... not significantly modify the normal behavioral repertoire of licking, grooming and sniffing. ... As much as 80% of people in developing world are said to depend on.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... schistosomiasis in Apojula, a neglected community located around Oyan ...

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. ... College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients ...

  19. International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Health Informatics (ICHI). The conference was a new special topic conference initiative by the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), held in Vilamoura, Portugal on 7-9 November, 2013. The main theme of the ICHI2013 was “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies with Biomedicine for Global Health”. The proceedings offer a unique forum to examine enabling technologies of sensors, devices and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval of biomedical and health information as well as to report novel clinical applications of health information systems and the deployment of m-Health, e-Health, u-Health, p-Health and Telemedicine.

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Statistics and Medical Students. Int J Health Res, September 2009; 2(3): 231. Reprinted from. International Journal of. Health Research. Peer-reviewed Online Journal http://www.ijhr.org. Abstracting/Indexing. Embase, Index Corpenicus, Chemical Abstracts, Socolar, EBSCO, African Journal Online,. African Index Medicus ...

  1. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... communications. Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors track the changes to their ... occupying external auditory canal and.

  2. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors ... access to medicine, infrastructural decay, quality of health professional, poor adherence to ...

  3. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    DOAJ) databases. Page 2. Ventakesh et al. Hepatoprotective Activity of A. carnosus. Int J Health Res, September 2010; 3(3): 178. International Journal of Health Research ..... B.Jyothi, Asst.Professor, for her help pertaining to publish this work.

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... Int J Health Res, December 2008; 1(4): e147p69. Reprinted from. International Journal of. Health Research. Peer-reviewed Online Journal http://www.ijhr.org. Abstracting/Indexing. African Index Medicus, Open-J-Gate, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Socolar. (China's largest online database) ...

  6. A service-learning elective in Native American culture, health and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Victoria F; Jones, Rhonda M; Hinman, Clint E; Seoldo, Nathalie

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the success of an elective course in Native American culture, health, and service-learning in fostering interest in experiences and careers with the USPHS Indian Health Service (IHS), and in shaping reflective practitioners. Students conducted readings, kept reflective journals, and engaged in discussions with Native American and non-Native American speakers. Students orally presented a Native American health issue and spent their fall break in Chinle, Ariz, providing social and healthcare services to the Diné under the supervision of IHS pharmacists. Opportunities for additional IHS experiences were discussed, as was discerning the Creator's call to a professional life of service. Thirteen of 15 students who had completed the service-learning course by January 2007 responded to a brief survey indicating that not only were the course objectives met, but the experiences had a lasting impact on professional mindset and career plans. The course had a lasting impact on students' understanding of Native American social and health care issues, and on how they will practice their profession and live their lives.

  7. The need for narrative reflection and experiential learning in medical education: A lesson learned through an urban indigenous health elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Lindsay S

    2017-09-01

    In this personal view article, I discuss a formative experience I had during an Urban Indigenous Health elective in which I participated while in my final year of medical school. The elective was developed on the foundation of an experiential learning model, which is central to Indigenous pedagogy and emphasizes learning through experience and narrative reflection. By transforming medical education into a place where such concepts are integrated and valued, I argue that we will create physicians who are self-aware, compassionate and able to provide culturally safe care to all patient populations they will serve in their future practices.

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. All manuscripts must be in ... ingredients (API) with excellent physicochemical stability in comparison to some other dosage forms, and also provide means of ...

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to ..... biochemical studies. ... The elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT), TP in carbon tetrachloride treated rats in the present study corresponded to the extensive liver damage.

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors track the ... pharmacists about asthma and its management. Methods: Seventy-six registered ..... Saini B, Smith L, Armour C, Krass I. An educational intervention to train community ...

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-19

    Dec 19, 2008 ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a .... brushed and provide the unique aroma and taste.7 Previously, ellagitannins, galloylge- ranin, lignoseric acid and β-carotein ...

  12. Are we there yet? Preparing Canadian medical students for global health electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelly C; Slatnik, Michael A; Pereira, Ian; Cheung, Eileen; Xu, Kunyong; Brewer, Timothy F

    2012-02-01

    To understand the current landscape and the evolution of predeparture training (PDT) in Canadian medical education. The authors surveyed one faculty and one student global health leader at each of Canada's 17 medical schools in February 2008 and May 2010 to assess the delivery of and requirements for PDT at each institution. The authors then used descriptive statistics to compare responses across schools and years. In 2008, one faculty and one student representative from each of the 17 Canadian medical schools completed the survey; in 2010, 17 faculty and 16 student representatives responded. The number of medical schools offering PDT grew substantially from 2008 to 2010 (11/17 [65%] versus 16/17 [94%]). Three of the five new programs in 2010 were student run. The number of schools with mandatory PDT nearly doubled (6/17 [35%] versus 11/17 [65%]). However, institutional funding remained scarce, as 10 of 16 programs had budgets of less than $500 in 2010. PDT content, frequency, and format varied from school to school. Medical students have been responsible for organizing the majority of new PDT. To ensure quality and sustainability, however, faculty must play a more central role in the planning and implementation of such training programs. Medical schools must continue to reevaluate how best to maximize global health electives for trainees and the communities in which they study. PDT offers one avenue for schools to ensure that students are safe and socially accountable during their time abroad.

  13. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissemination of Election Returns Information: The News Election Service during Election 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Bruce

    In 1964, the Associated Press, ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, and United Press International formed a consortium called the News Election Service (NES) that was designed to collect one set of election returns for the entire United States. A study was made of NES operations during the presidential election year of 1980 to determine (1) the nature of…

  15. Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail: What the Election Means for U.S. Health Care, and the Health of American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Robert B

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U.S. health care policy, but on the health of American democracy itself.

  16. Pediatric Resident Academic Projects While on Global Health Electives: Ten Years of Experience at the University of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Slusher, Tina M; Howard, Cynthia R; Cole, Valerie B; Gladding, Sophia P

    2017-07-01

    Many residency programs require residents to complete an academic project as part of a global health (GH) elective. However, there has been little description of the range of projects residents have pursued during GH electives or the extent to which these projects are consistent with proposed best practices. The authors conducted a document review of 67 written summaries or copies of presentations of academic projects (hereafter, summaries) completed by pediatric and medicine-pediatric residents at the University of Minnesota while on GH electives from 2005 to 2015. Two authors independently coded each summary for the type of project completed; when the project idea was generated; explicit mention of a mentor from the home institution, host institution, or both; whether a needs assessment was conducted; and whether there were plans for sustainability. Most of the 67 projects were categorized into one of three project types: quality/process improvement (28 [42%]), education (18 [27%]), or clinical research (14 [21%]). Most summaries explicitly mentioned a mentor (45 [67%]), reported conducting a needs assessment (38 [57%]), and indicated sustainability plans (45 [67%]). Of the 42 summaries that indicated the timing of idea generation, 30 (71%) indicated the idea was developed after arriving at the host site. Residents undertook a wide range of academic projects during GH electives, most commonly quality/process improvement and education projects. The projects were largely aligned with best practices, with most summaries indicating the resident worked with a mentor, conducted a needs assessment, and made plans for sustainability.

  17. Appropriateness of elective percutaneous coronary intervention and impact of government health insurance scheme - A tertiary centre experience from Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Lanjewar, Charan; Vaggar, Goutam; Bhargava, Juhi; Sabnis, Girish; Pahwa, Jivtesh; Phatarpekar, Ankur; Shah, Hetan; Kerkar, Prafulla

    There is a dearth of data regarding the appropriateness of elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a limited-resource country such as India. In an attempt to rationalise the use of PCI, Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) were developed for cardiovascular care in the USA. In the Indian context, considering the high prevalence of coronary artery disease, the dramatic rise in the number of revascularization procedures and an increasing role of government/private reimbursements, application of AUC could potentially guide policy to optimize the utilization of resources and the benefit-risk ratio for individual patients. The study sought to determine the overall and year-wise trends in the appropriateness of elective PCI using the AUC and also understand the impact of the government health insurance scheme (GHIS). The inpatient records of all patients undergoing elective PCI, at a single large tertiary care centre in Western India, from January 2009 to December 2014 were retrospectively analysed (n=972, 759 males, 213 females) by a neutral observer. The AUC scores and subsequent ranking were calculated using the dedicated web-based software and each PCIwas ranked as either 'appropriate', 'uncertain' or 'inappropriate'. Elective PCI performed within a month after the index acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was considered as 'ACS' while applying the AUC. All other indications were considered as 'non-ACS'. Nearly 95% of elective PCI performed after July 2012 were covered under theGHIS and therefore the period January 2009-June 2012 was compared with the July 2012- December 2014 to assess the impact of this scheme. A total of 894 elective PCI (379 and 515 PCI in the ACS setting and non-ACS setting respectively) performed on 857 patients were analysed. The elective PCI performed in the pre-GHIS and GHIS period were 458 and 436 respectively. As per AUC, 352 (39.6 ± 4.4 %) of the overall elective PCI were ranked as 'appropriate', while 487 (55.3 ± 4.1 %) cases as

  18. Presidential elections in the United States: implications for international and European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion it should be noted that the full implementation of D. Trump’s plans for international and European security will depend on how the declared initiatives will correspond to his real actions. Perhaps this would require more than a year, but now the world and the European community must be ready for serious structural and geopolitical changes. The presence of a number of acute problems makes the role of the United States in the process of ensuring international and European security hardly predictable.

  19. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  20. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Patient Mobility for Elective Secondary Health Care Services in Response to Patient Choice Policies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Lewis, Daniel; Mason, Malcolm; Sullivan, Richard; van der Meulen, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Our review establishes the empirical evidence for patient mobility for elective secondary care services in countries that allow patients to choose their health care provider. PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant articles between 1990 and 2015. Of 5,994 titles/abstracts reviewed, 26 studies were included. The studies used three main methodological models to establish mobility. Variation in the extent of patient mobility was observed across the studies. Mobility was positively associated with lower waiting times, indicators of better service quality, and access to advanced technology. It was negatively associated with advanced age or lower socioeconomic backgrounds. From a policy perspective we demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients are prepared to travel beyond their nearest provider for elective services. As a consequence, some providers are likely to be "winners" and others "losers," which could result in overall decreased provider capacity or inefficient utilization of existing services. Equity also remains a key concern.

  2. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  3. The New World order and international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J; Sepúlveda, J; Gómez-Dantés, O; McGuinness, M J; Knaul, F

    1997-05-10

    New global and national health challenges require a new response. National health situations are increasingly influenced by the international transfer of health risks posed by environmental threats, overuse of resources, international migration, trade in harmful legal products (tobacco), traffic of illicit drugs, and diffusion of potentially inappropriate and costly medical technologies and treatment policies. This situation calls for reform of national health systems, and a natural extension of such reform is reform of the world health system. The first step toward this goal should be to achieve consensus about the essential core functions of international health organizations their division of labor. Currently international health agencies have overlapping mandates and duplicate efforts, and they have neglected the following essential functions: monitoring emerging diseases, setting consumer health standards, providing international coordination to control the transfer of health risks, coordinating research efforts and technological development, designing information systems to facilitate development of national and global health policies, accumulating knowledge about cost-effectiveness of medical technologies and interventions, and creating a process for sharing information about national health system reform. Reform "essentialists" identify the following core functions for international health organizations: surveillance and control of globally-threatening diseases, promotion of research and technological development, development of standards and norms for international certification, protection of international refugees, and assisting vulnerable populations. Others give international health organizations a more expansive role including redistributing resources from rich to poor countries, political advocacy, direct regulation of transnational corporations, and intervention in national health projects. Consensus must be reached to effect reform.

  4. Do elections matter for private-sector healthcare management in Brazil? An analysis of municipal health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alecia J; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J

    2017-07-12

    This study analyzed several political determinants of increased private-sector management in Brazilian health care. In Brazil, the poor depend almost exclusively on the public Unified Health System (the SUS), which remains severely underfunded. Given the overhead costs associated with privately contracted health services, increased private management is one driver of higher expenditures in the system. Although left parties campaign most vocally in support of greater public control of the SUS, the extent to which their stated positions translate into health care policy remains untested. Drawing on multiple publicly available data sources, we used linear regression to analyze how political party-in-power and existing private sector health care contracting affect the share of privately managed health care services and outsourcing in municipalities. Data from two election periods-2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012-were analyzed. Our findings showed that although private sector contracting varies greatly across municipalities, this variation is not systematically associated with political party in power. This suggests that electoral politics plays a relatively minor role in municipal-level health care administration. Existing levels of private sector management appear to have a greater effect on the public-private makeup of the Brazilian healthcare system, suggesting a strong role of path dependence in the evolution of Brazilian health care delivery. Despite campaign rhetoric asserting distinct positions on privatization in the SUS, factors other than political party in power have a greater effect on private-sector health system management at the municipal-level in Brazil. Given the limited effect of elections on this issue, strengthening participatory bodies such as municipal health councils may better enfranchise citizens in the fundamental debate over public and private roles in the health care sector.

  5. Correlates of depression among internally displaced persons after post-election violence in Kaduna, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Abdulaziz, Mohammed; Agunbiade, Samuel; Joseph, Ike; Ebiti, Bill; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a post-election violent conflict in northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine the prevalence of depression among the IDPs. We also determined socio-demographic and other correlates of depression among the IDPs. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used the Hopkins symptom checklist to diagnose probable depression, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of definite depression and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale and Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD". Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of depression. Of the 258 IDPs, 154 (59.7%) had probable depression, and 42 (16.3%) had definite depression. Females were more likely to have probable depression (1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.78; p=0.04) and definite depression (2.69, 1.31-5.54; p= 0.006). IDPs with co-morbid PTSD were more likely to have probable depression (16.9, 8.15-35.13; pdepression (3.79,1.86-7.71; pPTSD (AOR 16.6, 7.2-38.6; ppsycho-trauma of getting beaten (AOR 2.7, 1.1-6.7; p=0.004) remained as independent predictors of probable depression among the IDPs. The male gender remained a protective factor against probable depression (AOR 0.3, 0.1-0.7; p= 0.006). This study was conducted 2 years post-conflict and only IDPs living in the camps were studied. IDPs living in Hajj camp in Kaduna, northern Nigeria developed post-conflict probable depression and definite depression. Female gender, experienced beating and comorbid diagnosis of PTSD were independent predictors of probable depression among the IDPs, while IDPs that were unemployed or retired had more of definitive depression. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nigerian Election Management Bodies and their Associated Election Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Etila Shaibu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the challenges that confront Election Management Bodies (EMBs in conducting free and fair elections in Nigeria. It aligns with the position of extant literature on the subject that elections in Nigeria have been anything but free and fair, and argues that all the EMBs that have so far conducted elections in Nigeria are complicit in perpetrating electoral malpractices. In other words, though there are external factors that undermine the conduct of free, fair and credible elections in Nigeria, EMBs in Nigeria also present themselves as willing tools in the hands of politicians to compromise the integrity of the electoral process. The number of litigations and level of both international and local denunciations that attend every election in Nigeria underscores the magnitude of electoral malfeasance inherent in the elections conducted by successive EMBs in Nigeria. The paper analysed the major challenges that inhibit the conduct of free and fair elections in Nigeria and proffered solutions to them. Relying heavily on the documentary methods of data collection, the paper concludes that until all these challenges confronting EMBs in Nigeria in the conduct of free and fair elections are comprehensively addressed, credible elections will continue to be a mirage in the country.

  7. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  8. African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)-supported program for strengthening African-led health systems and human resources for health. The focus of AHSI is on national-level health strategies and architecture, human resources for front-line service delivery, and health information. This project will endeavor ...

  9. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  10. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  11. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall determine...

  12. Emergencies in international child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, G L

    1997-06-01

    Emergencies in the pediatric populations of third world and developing countries are of a much different sort than those to which pediatricians in developing countries are familiar. Many of these emergencies derive from conditions, situations, and etiologies that no longer represent a threat to children in developed countries: malnutrition, immunizable illnesses, infectious diseases from pathogenes easily treated or prevented, urbanization, and armed conflict. Programs directed at improving basic public health, health education, access to basic health care, and immunization have been shown to have a major and positive impact on children's health status in these countries. Because of the vastness of these health problems, a growing number of volunteer organizations offer opportunities for pediatricians to contribute to improvement and they have an impact on the health of children considerably less fortunate than those in developed countries.

  13. Comparative Elections: Building a Basic Reference Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography focuses on resources for the study of international elections and electoral systems and outcomes that will be useful for collection development and for answering reference questions about foreign elections. Discusses comparative politics, comparative elections, and possible electoral reform. (LRW)

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... Jobayer Hossain1. Laurens Holmes,. Jr2,3. 1Biomedical Research,. A.I.duPont Hospital for. Children, Wilmington, DE. 19803. 2School of Public Health,. University of Texas Health. Sciences Center, Houston, TX. 77030. 3Nemours Center for Childhood. Cancer Research, 1700. Rockland Road, Wilmington,.

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. ..... differences may exist between and within health care facilities. Again, the limitation that these were 'simulated' prescriptions should be borne in mind.

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    the deserts of Mongolia and northwestern China. Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate matter ... Korean Peninsula and Japan, and is occasionally transported across the Pacific Ocean to North. America 1-4. ... health, especially in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL is considered a subset ...

  17. Electives during Medical Internship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sultan, Ali I.; Parashar, Shyam K; Al-Ghamdi, Abulmohsin A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of study was to find out the reasons for selecting elective rotations during a rotating medical internship.One hundred and seventy-eight medical interns in the College of Medicine, King Faisal University,Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period March 2001 to August 2002 completed a questionnaire for their selection reasons with responses on a scale of 1-5.The study comprised 60% males and 98.3% Saudis. The most frequently chosen elective is Dermatology 28.1% ,radiology 20.8%, anesthesia 9.6% and otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat [ENT]) 9%. Significantly, more males (89.2%) chose radiology rotation and more females (75%) chose ENT rotation.The leading reasons to choose an elective rotations are;1, to gain broad medical training and education,2, to assist in choice of future speciality and,3, being relevant to future speciality .The mean score for ENT and dermatology is higher than radiology and anesthesia for the response to participate in medical practice in different institute , while dermatology is higher than anesthesia for response to help for getting aceptance for job in the same instituteand radiology is higher than ENT and anesthesia for the response i t has infrequent or no night duties . The reason chosen reflect the educational value of electives and their important role in choosing future career. Dermatology and radiology rotations are most popular electives ,with additional and though different reasons. (author)

  18. Election Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Kids learn by doing, which, experts agree, is the only real way to teach citizenship. This article presents election-year activities that stress action. These activities will show students what it means to be a good citizen. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also ... manufacturing a robust tablet dosage form and ..... [Switzerland]:. University of Basel; 2009, 18p. 3. Buwalda P, Arends–Scholte AW. Use of microcrystalline starch products as tabletting excipients. International Patent (WO 97/31267).

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an international forum for the ... private hospitals (35.2%) followed by pharmaceutical store. (27.9%) and 17.0% for general/teaching ..... convenience and proximity (71.6%), privacy. (58.7%), respect or good attitude by workers.

  1. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated Pawpaw (Carica papaya L) on Sale in Nigerian Markets · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OO Oyeyipo, CA Iwuji, O Owhoeli, 23-27 ...

  2. International institutions and China's health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  3. Swasti: An International Health Resource Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swasti, an International Health Resource Centre was established in 2002 in India. The objective was to enhance the health and well-being of communities, particularly the marginalized. Swasti’s main focus lies in the areas of primary health, sexual and reproductive health including HIV, communicable and non-communicable diseases, water, sanitation and hygiene and gender based violence. The organization, during the last decade has grown in leaps and bounds reaching out to the most affected comm...

  4. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Adolescents makes up 20 percent of the world population and 85 percent of these live in the developing countries. The ado- lescence is a period of experimentation which exposes the youths to health risk through irresponsible sexual behaviour, drugs, alcohol, and tobacco use. The fact that adolescents ...

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering fields). ... for review, 6,000 words for research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. ..... correct basic information and skills for health actions. To a great ...

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. ... cannot submit online should send their manuscript by e-mail attachment (in single file) to the editorial office below. Submission of a ... Faculty of the Social Sciences,. University of ...

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... Authors may submit the names of expert reviewers or those they do not want to review their papers. ..... Percent contribution of excess deaths = excess feto-infant mortality rate for category divided by total excess ...

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-01

    Sep 1, 2008 ... Kumar & Garg. Sleep deprivation and trazodone. Int J Health Res, September 2008; 1(3): 152. Introduction. Depression is commonly associated with poor quality of sleep and forms an essential criterion for the diagnosis of the condition. Studies have also suggested that up to 90% of patients suffering from ...

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    19: 334-338. 13. Lyons M. Third Sector: The Contribution of Nonprofit and Cooperative Enterprises in Australia. NSW,. Australia: Allen Unwin, Crows Nest; 2001. 14. Thoits P, Hewitt L. Volunteer Work and Well-Being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2001; 42: 115–131. 15. Hornbostel S. Third party funding of German.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... Table: Effect of hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Coccinia grandis against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Bilurubin. Treatment. SGOT ... and loss of functional integrity of the cell.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    . Medical Practitioner. 46. 42.2. Nursing. 40. 36.7. Physiotherapy. 9. 8.3. Health Information. Officer. 8. 7.3. Pharmacy. 6. 5.5. Table 2: respondents' literacy and access to computer. Variable (n). Number Percentage. Computer Literate (107). 96.

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and believed that abstinence from sexual intercourse and health education remains viable preventive measures. However, only. 171(32.8%) of respondents were ready to be screened for HIV infection. Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents (n=521). Variable. Frequency. Age group. Early adolescence.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Reference Ranges for Fasting Profiles and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Int J Health Res, March ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering fields). ... oral glucose tolerance test for healthy adults in metropolitan region of. Nairobi. Methods: A ...

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Comments and suggestions made were incorporated into the final instrument. Respondents were urged to select best responses to an 18 item questionnaire generated with constructs of the Health. Belief Model, seeking responses to their perceived barriers and benefits to healthy living during their stay at this university. A.

  16. First International One Health congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn H. Jeggo

    2012-06-01

    The Organising Committee recognised from the outset, the need to provide a forum not just for scientific presentation, but for open discussion and dialogue around the policy and political issues, as well as the science that drives the One Health agenda. The Committee was also cognizant of the need to embrace a definition of One Health that includes food security and food safety and included the social and economic pressures that shapes this area. The meeting was therefore organised under four themes with plenary sessions followed by breakout parallel sessions for each of these. The themes covered Disease Emergence, Environmental Drivers, Trade, Food Security and Food Safety, and Science Policy and Political Action. The plenary session commenced with one or two keynote presentations by world leaders on the topic being covered, followed by panel discussions involving six to eight experts and involving all participants at the congress. Each of the panel members spoke briefly on the topic covered by the keynote speaker and were asked to be as provocative as possible. The discussions that followed allowed debate and discussion on the keynote presentations and the panel members comments. This was followed by six to eight parallel breakout sessions involving in depth papers on the session’s topic. Throughout the conference at various times, sponsored sessions dealt with particular areas of science or policy providing a further framework not only to learn current science but for debate and discussion. A full copy of all abstracts is available on the web at http://www.springerlink.com. In concluding the Congress recognised the interdependence of, and seeks to improve human, animal and environmental health; recognised that communication, collaboration and trust between human and animal health practitioners is at the heart of the One Health concept; agreed that a broad vision that includes other disciplines such as economics and social behaviour is essential to success. The

  17. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  18. The Evolution of an Elective in Health Disparities and Advocacy: Description of Instructional Strategies and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cristina M; Fox, Aaron D; Marantz, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    Health disparities remain pervasive in the United States. Training future physicians to address health disparities requires attention to both systemic and provider causes of disparities, but comprehensive curricula are lacking. Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, New York, offers a 13-session health disparities elective to first-year medical students. The curriculum covers three main content areas: background, provider contributions to health disparities, and systemic contributions to health disparities (i.e., social determinants of health). Teaching methods included didactic and multimedia presentations, reflective discussions, and skill-building seminars (e.g., addressing subconscious assumptions and advocacy training).The authors evaluated the course in 2010-2013 by comparing students' summary scores for knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported confidence on pre- and postintervention tests. They investigated associations between students' sociodemographic characteristics and changes in summary scores. Scores increased significantly in each domain: Mean knowledge scores increased from 63.6 (± 10.0), out of 100, to 76.4 (± 12.8); mean attitudes scores increased from 16.7 (± 1.9), out of 20, to 18.2 (± 1.1); mean confidence scores increased from 10.7 (± 1.5), out of 16, to 14.4 (± 1.7). Younger students (< 24) had greater changes in confidence than older students. Other sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with changes in any domain. Exposure to health disparities instruction is important for medical students. The authors' experience provides insights for incorporating such material into the compulsory curriculum. Future evaluation of outcomes from similar curricula should include measures of clinical behaviors (e.g., through clinical examinations).

  19. A systematic approach to developing a global surgery elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Davis, Bradley R; Huber, Nathan L; Edwards, Michael J; Lungu, Douglas; Logan, Jocelyn M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in global health has been increasing for years among American residents and medical students. Many residency programs have developed global health tracks or electives in response to this need. Our goal was to create a global surgery elective based on a synergistic partnership between our institution and a hospital in the developing world. We created a business plan and 1-year schedule for researching potential sites and completing a pilot rotation at our selected hospital. We administered a survey to general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati and visited medical facilities in Sierra Leone, Cameroon, and Malawi. The survey was given to all general surgery residents. A resident and a faculty member executed the fact-finding trip as well as the pilot rotation. Our general surgery residents view an international elective as integral to residency training and would participate in such an elective. After investigating 6 hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, we conducted a pilot rotation at our selected hospital and gained the necessary information to organize a curriculum. We will begin sending senior residents for 8-week rotations in the coming academic year. By systematically approaching the process of creating a global surgery elective, we were able to gain considerable insight into choosing a location and organizing the elective. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health risks encountered by Dutch medical students during an elective in the tropics and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenbroucke Jan P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and research electives abroad offer medical students many unique experiences. However, participating in an unfamiliar health-care setting combined with limited medical experience may place students at risk of illness. To improve pre-and post-travel care, we assessed the health risks and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care in a cohort of Dutch medical students returning form an elective abroad. Methods All medical students who had performed an elective in the tropics between July 2006 and December 2008 were sent an informative email asking them to complete a web-based questionnaire. Results 180 of 242 (74% students completed the questionnaire. Regarding the risk of bloodborne viral infection: 67% of all students and 32% of junior students engaged in procedures that constitute a risk of exposure to bloodborne viral infection, often in countries with high HIV prevalence rates. None of nine students who experienced possible or certain mucosal or percutaneous exposure to potentially infectious body fluids reported the exposure at the time it occurred and none used PEP. Regarding other health risks: 8 of 40 (20% students stopped using mefloquine due to adverse effects. This left a sizeable proportion unprotected in countries that are hyperendemic for malaria. Post-travel screening for schistosomiasis, tuberculosis (tuberculin skin test and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA encompassed approximately half of all students who should have been screened. Conclusions Based on the results of this study we have adopted an integral set of measures to reduce the health risks associated with an elective abroad. The pre and post-travel consult has been centralized and standardized as well as the distribution of PEP. In addition we have developed a mandatory module on Global Health for all medical students planning an elective abroad.

  1. International organizations and migrant health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda

    International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.

  2. Can medicine be aesthetic? Disentangling beauty and health in elective surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes tensions between aesthetics and health in medicine. The blurring of distinctions between reconstructive and cosmetic procedures, and the linking of plastic surgery with other medical treatments, have added to the legitimacy of an emerging "aesthetic medicine." As cosmetic surgeries become linked to other medical procedures with perceived greater medical necessity, health and aesthetics become entangled. One consequence is that medical needs are magnified while perceptions of the risks of surgery are minimized. Drawing on ethnographic work on plastic surgery, as well as other studies of obstetrics and cosmetic surgery, I illustrate this entanglement of health and aesthetics within the field of women's reproductive health care in Brazil. I argue that while it would be difficult to wholly disentangle aesthetics and health, analysis of how risk-benefit calculations are made in clinical practice offers a useful critical strategy for illuminating ethical problems posed by aesthetic medicine. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  3. World health organization perspective on implementation of International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Maxwell Charles

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

  4. Debate over NAFTA's effect on health care a sign medicare will be dominant election issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Does the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) pose a threat to Canada's medicare system? There was a flurry of political activity in March over concerns that US health care companies were eagerly eyeing the Canadian market because NAFTA had opened it to them. The issue disappeared almost as quickly as it arrived, but it caught the attention of federal politicians, who hastened to negotiate to protect all existing health and social services. The rapidity with which the question grabbed the headlines was another reminder that health care remains one of the key political issues in Canada, and politicians will ignore it at their peril.

  5. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. The international migration of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The international migration of health care professionals has been recognized as a public health concern. A series of 'push' and 'pull' factors have been identified as driving forces for migration of doctors. The USA, UK, Canada and Australia are the main beneficiaries of medical migration, which has adverse consequences for health care systems in developing countries. Recently, a Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel was adopted by the World Health Assembly. In this paper, a summary of the most important recommendations of the Code is presented. In addition, the case of overseas trained psychiatrists in Australia is illustrated. These specialists complain of discriminatory practices due to the lack of recognition of their professional credentials. Research evidence from different countries confirms that international medical graduates face discriminatory obstacles to exercise their rights and practise their professions in developed countries. An international strategy is required to promote sustainable health care systems worldwide. Additional academic and scientific partnerships must be established between developed and developing nations in order to minimize discrepancies. There is an urgent need to review policies related to the recognition of medical credentials in host countries, including Australia. There are clear implications for psychiatry and psychiatrists.

  7. The nature of international health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Su, Yi-Yuan; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chang, Ya-Chen; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    Health issues occasionally intersect security issues. Health security has been viewed as an essential part of human security. Policymakers and health professionals, however, do not share a common definition of health security. This article aims to characterize the notions of health security in order to clarify what constitutes the nexus of health and security. The concept of health security has evolved over time so that it encompasses many entities. Analyzing the health reports of four multilateral organizations (the United Nations, World Health Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the European Union) produced eight categories of most significant relevance to contemporary health security, allowing comparison of the definitions. The four categories are: emerging diseases; global infectious disease; deliberate release of chemical and biological materials; violence, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies. Two other categories of common concern are natural disasters and environmental change, as well as chemical and radioactive accidents. The final two categories, food insecurity and poverty, are discussed less frequently. Nevertheless, food security is emerging as an increasingly important issue in public health. Health security is the first line of defence against health emergencies. As globalization brings more complexities, dealing with the increased scale and extent of health security will require greater international effort and political support.

  8. Women, reproductive health and international human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.

  9. Can medicine be aesthetic? Disentangling beauty and health in elective surgeries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes tensions between aesthetics and health in medicine. The blurring of distinctions between reconstructive and cosmetic procedures, and the linking of plastic surgery with other medical treatments, have added to the legitimacy of an emerging "aesthetic medicine." As cosmetic

  10. The bottom line: Tailoring a public health elective to students' needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context and setting. Academics face difficulties when trying to include public health in the medical curriculum. The first hurdle is an already overloaded curriculum and the second the marginal interest in the healthy on the part of those who are mainly concerned with the ill. One overlooked potential opportunity for inclusion ...

  11. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development is a peer reviewed journal with the following purposes: To publish contributions in clinical and basic science research, in all field of medicine. To publish contributions in the prevention, care and treatment of diseases, and on the promotion of ...

  13. 10th International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the International Conference on Health Informatics is to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to healthcare and medicine in general and to the support of persons with special needs in particular.

  14. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Veazey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research

  15. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement of...

  16. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect to reduce coinsurance for any or all APC groups on a calendar year basis. A hospital may not elect to...

  17. Election of candidates to municipal presidency of political parties in Ciudad Juarez and as practice and internal democracy strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Sarabia Ríos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The internal democratic of political parties are one of the numerous analyses that can be performed on an electoral process. In this regard, this document aims to understand the logic of development of internal democracy in the party organizations in Ciudad Juarez, focusing on one aspect of it: the selection of candidates. The observation of the selection of candidates for municipal office in the last decade in Ciudad Juarez allowed to comment the advantages and disadvantages for the internal democratic life of party, to understand its development level and the logic that motivates their evolution or turn to be attractive only for external voting and not for the militants.

  18. Association Between Type of Health Insurance and Elective Cesarean Deliveries: New Jersey, 2004–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the relationship between insurance coverage, which may influence physician incentives and maternal choices, and cesarean delivery before labor. Methods. I analyzed hospital discharge data for mothers without previous cesarean deliveries in New Jersey between 2004 and 2007, with adjustment for maternal age, race, marital status, and maternal, fetal, and placental conditions. Results. Nearly 1 in 7 women (13.9%) had a cesarean delivery without laboring. Insurance status was strongly associated with cesarean birth. Women insured by Medicaid (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.91) or self-paying (ARR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) had a significantly lower likelihood, and women insured by BlueCross (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09) or standard commercial plans (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10) had a significantly higher likelihood of cesarean delivery than did women insured by commercial health maintenance organizations. These associations persisted in subsets restricted to lower-risk women and in qualitative sensitivity analyses for a hypothetical single, binary, unmeasured confounder. Conclusions. Insurance status has a small, independent impact on whether a woman without a previous cesarean delivery proceeds to labor or has a cesarean delivery without labor. PMID:21940911

  19. And after the elections!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    What happens to the newly elected, and the re-elected delegates after the election of the new Staff Council? (see Écho No 47-48 / 2016). It is the outgoing Staff Council which is responsible for preparing the new staff representatives to take on their new roles. To do this, information days are organized in the form of assizes. This year they took place on November 23 in the afternoon; as well as on November 24, bringing together the new Staff Council. These days mainly aim to inform delegates about the role of the Staff Association (SA) at CERN, ist the organs, committees, forums, etc.; with whom the SA interacts, how the work of the Staff Association is organization, the issues on which it works (e.g., the Five-Yearly Review..). These days are like a kind of "induction". Inform, but not only! Assizes are also aiming to integrate the newcomers, inviting them to discover the various internal committees of the SA, explaining to them the challenges ahead as well as defining the act...

  20. And after the Elections!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    What happens to the newly elected, and the re-elected delegates after the election of the new Staff Council? It is the outgoing Staff Council which is responsible for preparing the new staff representatives to take on their new roles. To do this, information days are organized in the form of assizes. This year they will take place on November 27 in the morning; as well as on November 28, bringing together the new Staff Council. These days mainly aim to inform delegates about the role of the Staff Association (SA) at CERN, the bodies, committees, forums, etc.; with whom the SA interacts, how the work of the SA is organized, the issues on which it works. These days are like a kind of "induction". Inform, but not only! Assizes are also aiming to integrate the newcomers, inviting them to discover the various internal committees of the SA, explaining to them the challenges ahead as well as defining the action plan for 2018. They offer new delegates, if they wish, a godparent (a kind of mentor). I...

  1. Developments in international/European health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription.

  2. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  3. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Saff Association

    2013-01-01

    2013 Elections to Staff Council   Vote! Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. More details on the elections can be found on the Staff Association web site (https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2013).   Timetable elections Monday 28 October to Monday 11 November, 12:00 am voting Monday 18 and Monday 25 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 19 November, Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 3 December, first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee.

  4. International adoption: a health and developmental prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Patrick; Narad, Christine

    2005-02-01

    Adoptions from international countries have become an option for many US families, with over 150,000 children adopted in the past 14 years. Typically, internationally adopted children present with a host of medical and developmental concerns. Issues such as growth stunting, abnormal behaviors, and significant delays in motor, speech, and language development are likely directly related to the prenatal and early postnatal environment experienced prior to adoption. The new family and its health-care team must quickly work to identify and address these issues to aid the child's integration into his or her new family. This article will examine potential issues seen in children who are being adopted, including the impact of early environment on subsequent development. We will summarize early and long-term medical issues and review the extent of developmental delays seen in children adopted internationally. Finally, we will discuss possible mechanisms leading to the observed delays, including the impact of stress on subsequent development. By understanding the extent of expected delays and the mechanisms likely causing the issues, the health-care team will be in a good position to quickly identify and develop intervention protocols that will foster the child's assimilation into his or her new family.

  5. Union certification elections in nursing care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palthe, Jennifer; Deshpande, Satish P

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study examines 387 union certification elections conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in nursing care facilities (North American Industry Classification System 623) from January 1999 to December 2001. Unions won 60% of the elections. Service Employees International Union was involved in 42% of the elections. Bargaining unit size significantly impacted union victory. Unions had a better probability of winning elections in the northeast and midwest than in the south. Unlike other industries, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations affiliated unions did not suffer a big labor image in nursing care facilities. Implications for union organizers and administrators of nursing care facilities are discussed.

  6. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  7. AGU election FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  8. 26 CFR 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporate level is zero. Under section 1375 (a) shareholders of an electing small business corporation take... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.58-4... TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-4 Electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section...

  9. 76 FR 52556 - Election To Expense Certain Refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BF05 Election To Expense Certain Refineries AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This document provides final regulations relating to the election to expense qualified refinery... capacity. Section 179C(a) allows a taxpayer to elect to deduct as an expense 50 percent of the cost of any...

  10. Implementation of Main Statements of Educational Plan in the Elective Course “Endodontic Techniques in Pediatric Dentistry” for the Sub-Interns at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyuk, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates the method of implementation of the main statements of educational plan in the elective course “Endodontic techniques in Pediatric Dentistry” for the dental sub-interns at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University. We have developed and adapted for use in higher medical institutions an educational-and-methodological complex based on the typical program that will provide training future European professionals. The practical le...

  11. Serbian Elections 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Pavlović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elections in Serbia have been held quite often over the past 26 years. Yet, of all elections that have taken place since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1990, the elections held on April 24 2016, were the most confusing. They were held early, but were neither a product of political, nor economic crisis. So why were they necessary?

  12. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun Eun

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in. In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54 and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25 were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending

  13. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly

  14. Ebola disease: an international public health emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe illness caused by Ebola filovirus, and is often fatal if left untreated. The first case of the current EVD was diagnosed in Guinea in March 2014, and since then it has spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, and Senegal. The current review has been performed with an objective to explore the magnitude of the current Ebola virus epidemic and identify the multiple determinants that have resulted in the exponential growth of the epidemic. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was done for almost two months (August-October in Pubmed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Relevant documents, reports, recommendations, guidelines and research articles focusing on the different aspects of Ebola virus and its current outbreak, published in the period 2002-2014 were included in the review. Keywords used in the search include Ebola virus, Ebola virus disease, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola vaccine, and Ebola treatment. The current EVD epidemic has turned out to be extensive, severe, and uncontrollable because of a delayed response and ineffective public health care delivery system. In fact, multiple challenges have also been identified and thus a range of interventions have been proposed to control the epidemic. In conclusion, the 2014 epidemic of EVD has shown to the world that in absence of a strong public health care delivery system even a rare disease can risk the lives of millions of people. The crux of this epidemic is that a large scale and coordinated international response is the need of the hour to support affected and at-risk nations in intensifying their response activities and strengthening of national capacities.

  15. Taiwan in 2004: Elections, Referenda, and Other Democratic Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    .... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...

  16. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4 Section 1.47-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-4 Electing small...

  17. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact ...

  18. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staff...

  19. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staf...

  20. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Executive summary In September 2015, the member states of the United Nations endorsed sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030 that aspire to human rights-centered approaches to ensuring the health and well-being of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy that has been fraught with controversy, seen as inconsistent with human rights norms, and for which scientific evidence and public health approaches have arguably played too limited a role. The previous UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 – convened under the theme “a drug-free world, we can do it!” – endorsed drug control policies based on the goal of prohibiting all use, possession, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs. This goal is enshrined in national law in many countries. In pronouncing drugs a “grave threat to the health and well-being of all mankind,” the 1998 UNGASS echoed the foundational 1961 convention of the international drug control regime, which justified eliminating the “evil” of drugs in the name of “the health and welfare of mankind.” But neither of these international agreements refers to the ways in which pursuing drug prohibition itself might affect public health. The “war on drugs” and “zero-tolerance” policies that grew out of the prohibitionist consensus are now being challenged on multiple fronts, including their health, human rights, and development impact. The Johns Hopkins – Lancet Commission on Drug Policy and Health has sought to examine the emerging scientific evidence on public health issues arising from drug control policy and to inform and encourage a central focus on public health evidence and outcomes in drug policy debates, such as the important deliberations of

  1. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, D P

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health.

  2. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  3. International adoption families: a unique health care journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the health care experiences of families with an internationally adopted child. Content analysis of data from 107 adoptive parents was used to identify themes that characterized health care experiences of the families. Four themes were identified: a) Coming home: Like a lobster thrown into a boiling pot; b) Vigilance: Is my child healthy today? Will my child be healthy tomorrow?; c) Unique health care needs of international adoption families: We are different; and d) Importance of support by health care providers: Do they know or care? Health care providers need to be aware of the unique experiences of the increasing number of international adoption families. The themes identified provide insight into the health care experiences of international adoption families and the crucial role of health care providers in helping international adoption families feel supported on their journey.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  5. A Comparison of the Expectations and Experiences of Medical Students From High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries Participating in Global Health Clinical Electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Michael J; Rodman, Adam; Mata, Douglas A; Kellett, Anne T; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Rohrbaugh, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Global health education (GHE) is expanding to include socioculturally and resource-different settings, with the goal of developing a workforce with members who can promote health equity locally and globally. GHE is also no longer limited to students from high-income countries (HICs). However, it is unknown whether the motivations and experiences of medical students from HICs and from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in GHE clinical electives through institutional partnerships are similar or different. Such an understanding is needed to design programs that meet the needs of participants and effectively train them in the principles and practice of global health. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods survey of LMIC students from partner sites rotating at one U.S. medical school, and U.S. students from one medical school rotating at partner sites, between 2010 and 2015. Variables included demographic characteristics of participants, components of the curriculum at the home institution, and components of the away rotation, including perceptions of its content and impact. Content analysis was used to identify themes in the responses provided to open-ended questions. In all, 63 of 84 (75%) LMIC and 61 of 152 (40%) U.S. students participated. Recall of predeparture training was low for both LMIC and U.S. students (44% and 55%, respectively). Opportunities to experience different healthcare systems, resource-different settings, and cultural exposure emerged as motivators for both groups. Both groups noted differences in doctor-patient relationships, interactions between colleagues, and use of diagnostic testing. U.S. respondents were more likely to perceive differences in the impact of social determinants of health and ethical issues. Both groups felt that their experience affected their interactions with patients and perspectives on education, but U.S. students were more likely to mention perspectives on healthcare delivery and social

  6. 26 CFR 301.9100-12T - Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of... Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9100-12T Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. (a) Elections covered by temporary rules. The sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, or of the Tax Reform Act of...

  7. Strengthening health systems in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Strengthening health systems means overcoming challenges such as staff shortages and inequities in access to care. Ten teams focused their research primarily on frontline health workers and health information systems. Through various studies and interventions, these researchers aimed to make health ...

  8. Integrating ICTs within health systems | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... There is limited evidence on how electronic health (eHealth) technologies can be used to enable the governance and functioning of health systems in low-income countries. Starting with the gaps in the health system —rather than the technology—there is a need to better understand how these tools can ...

  9. Mozambique Health Information Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A communication system that can provide health managers with timely surveillance data and health workers with valuable decision support information is vital to the delivery of effective health services. Satellife, a United States-based health information nongovernmental organization, was instrumental in setting up the ...

  10. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-13

    Jan 13, 2011 ... Enlisting the aid of communities to improve the health system The Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project shows how health systems benefit when local communities and officials contribute to key decisions and participate in efforts to improve health services. Whether it is making bricks to rebuild ...

  11. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  12. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviors of International Students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to identify key patterns in nutrition, exercise and use of health care services and make recommendations for health promotion interventions. Methods: Online questionnaires were distributed to all international students enrolled in classes for the Spring 2007. Results: The majority of international students ...

  13. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  14. Measuring Quality of Mental Health Care: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Pincus, Harold Alan; Silvestri, Fran; Peters, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The International Initiative for Mental Health Leadership (IIMHL) (www.iimhl.com) is a unique international collaborative that focuses on improving mental health and addiction services. IIMHL is a collaboration of eight countries including Australia, England, Canada, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, Scotland, Sweden and USA.[...

  15. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  16. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A longtime advocate of advancing health research and policy in Africa, Sewankambo led the effort that established the REACH Policy Initiative, an East African institutional brokerage mechanism linking research to health policy and action. His 25-year contribution to HIV/AIDS and health research in Africa has been ...

  17. History of the international societies in health technology assessment: International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care and Health Technology Assessment International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, David; Jonsson, Egon; Childs, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC) was formed in 1985. It grew out of the increasing awareness of the international dimensions of health technology assessment (HTA) and the need for new communication methods at the international level. The main function of ISTAHC was to present an annual conference, which gradually grew in size, and also to generally improve in quality from to year. ISTAHC overextended itself financially early in the first decade of the 2000s and had to cease its existence. A new society, Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi), based on many of the same ideas and people, grew up beginning in the year 2003. The two societies have played a large role in making the field of HTA visible to people around the world and providing a forum for discussion on the methods and role of HTA.

  18. Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail: What the Election Means for U.S. Health Care, and the Health of American Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    DOHERTY, ROBERT B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential im...

  19. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  20. Use of antidepressants and association with elective termination of pregnancy: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieler, H; Malm, H; Artama, M; Engeland, A; Furu, K; Gissler, M; Nørgaard, M; Stephansson, O; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H; Haglund, B

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or other antidepressants is associated with late elective termination of pregnancy. Case-control study using data from national registers. Denmark, Finland, and Norway during the period 1996-2007. A total of 14,902 women were included as cases and 148,929 women were included as controls. Cases were women with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation. Controls continued their pregnancy and were matched with cases on key factors. Association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation for fetal anomalies, or for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage. At least one prescription of antidepressants was filled by 3.7% of the cases and 2.2% of the controls. Use of any type of antidepressant was associated with elective termination of pregnancy for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage (odds ratio, OR 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies was associated with the use of mirtazapine (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5). There was no association between the use of any of the other antidepressants and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The use of any type of antidepressants was associated with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage, but not with terminations for fetal anomalies. Further studies need to confirm the findings concerning mirtazapine and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  2. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge

    2017-03-01

    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  3. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  4. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Better Health A short video on the importance of community involvement to effective health systems. ... They discovered that the World Bank would fund the lion's share of the cost of installing piped water in Kilimani if the villagers raised a portion of the money themselves. Villagers decided to create a fund based on ...

  5. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy.

  6. The Elections in Uganda, February 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gibb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 February, Uganda conducted presidential and parliamentary elections. Incumbent president Yoweri Museveni of the National Resistance Movement (NRM won the multiparty contest for a third consecutive time. If his reign as the NRM leader during Uganda’s stint as a one-party state is counted, the February elections marked the beginning of Museveni’s fifth overall term as president. The NRM continues to dominate parliament, having won a super-majority of the contested seats. Opposition members who competed for both the presidential seat and a seat in parliament contested the results of the election, and the primary opposition candidate Kizza Besigye was placed under house arrest. International observers questioned the integrity of the results, specifically in rural areas that were poorly monitored, and opposition strongholds in urban centres suffered logistical problems. The elections reconfirmed the strength of the NRM following years of political infighting.

  7. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an international forum for the communication and ...

  8. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use...

  9. International Journal of Health Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal publishes original research articles, reviews, and case reports in health sciences and related disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields.

  10. A survey of health promotion at international schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curless, Melanie; Burns, Sharyn

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated health promotion efforts at international schools serving the education needs of expatriate communities abroad. Factors supporting the implementation of whole-school approaches to health promotion also were examined. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed by a combination of electronic and conventional mail. International school staff in 93 countries (n = 205) completed an adapted version of an instrument used for evaluating the Western Australian School Health Project (WASHP). This survey demonstrated usefulness of the WASHP instrument cross-culturally in a variety of school settings. The level of whole-school approaches to health promotion in the participating international schools varied but tended to be low. Demographic characteristics of schools were not associated with differences in the level of health promotion, with the exception school size. School organizational factors support implementation of health promotion programs.

  11. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  12. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  13. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  14. International Allied Health Education and Cross-Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Makhdoom A.; Robinson, Thomas C.; Al Enezi, Naser

    2002-01-01

    Three issues in global relations should be addressed in international education: societal and academic interdependence, global-centric perspectives, and cultural respect. A model for international allied health education exchange includes the following aspects of both advisors and advisees: history, politics, economics, sociocultural environment,…

  15. Health | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... de produits chimiques constituent un risque pour les populations et les écosystèmes. Read more about Pollution de l'environnement. Language French. Worldwide, thousands of different types of chemicals pose serious risks to human and ecosystems' health. Read more about Environmental pollution. Language English.

  16. Strengthening health systems | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... The quotes below represent a range of views on this important issue. ... Instead of addressing poor motivation and low morale, we end up providing incentives to health personnel to do the work they have been hired to do without paying enough attention to the quality of care they deliver. Gita Sen.

  17. International Master Classes in health informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatewood, L.; Limburg, M.; Gardner, R.; Haux, R.; Jaspers, M.; Schmidt, D.; Wetter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Master Classes arose within the performing arts and are now being offered in system sciences. The IPhiE group of faculty from six universities in Europe and the United States has offered Master Classes in health informatics to provide an integrative forum for honors students. Featured are

  18. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the official publication of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria under the supervision of the Directorate for research and publications, . The College consists of three faculties: The Faculty of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry. Through excellence in education ...

  19. International politics and primary health care in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L M

    1990-01-01

    Costa Rica's internationally-renowned rural health program exemplifies the principles put forth by the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care with one exception: the government has not succeeded in achieving active community participation in health. This paper uses a historical and political-economic perspective to explain why the Costa Rican government failed in its efforts to enhance community participation after Alma Ata. International agencies have been closely involved in the design and implementation of rural health services in Costa Rica since the early 1900s, yet community participation did not figure in these programs until the mid-1970s. The demise of community participation in the early 1980s is attributed to a combination of factors including partisan conflicts, social class conflicts, interest group politics and, particularly, to the shifting priorities of international health and development agencies.

  20. Health maintenance practices and healthcare experiences among international university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Dyer, Jane

    2017-11-01

    While over a million international students attend U.S. universities, there is little information to guide providers on their care. Differences in language and health beliefs can lead to misunderstandings and poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the health practices and healthcare experiences of international students before and after they move to the United States to carve out specific quality improvement activities at a student health center. International students volunteered to attend focus groups. Data were analyzed using text coding software (Dedoose) to identify salient themes that reflected participants' experiences. Participants (N = 19) identified four areas of health maintenance: exercise, nutrition, yearly checkups, and self-care for minor ailments. While participants described health care in their home countries as accessible and affordable, they described health care in the United States as less accessible, more expensive, and laden with communication mishaps. A broader educational message to international students, that is, how to maintain healthy habits in the United States and how to access/navigate U.S. health care, coupled with staff training on effective health communication and the use of interpreter services would enhance the health and healthcare experience of this vital population. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. 2016 Presidential Election Durham

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Voting totals for the 2016 Presidential Election by voting method and precinct. Voting Method Definitions: PROV = Provisional IN-PERSON = In PersonABS-1STOP =...

  2. Training Internal Medicine Residents in Social Medicine and Research-Based Health Advocacy: A Novel, In-Depth Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gaurab; Pels, Richard J; Stark, Rachel L; Jain, Priyank; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2017-04-01

    Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum. The course has three major innovations: it has a yearlong longitudinal curriculum, it is required for all residents, and all residents complete a group research-based health advocacy project within the curricular year. The authors describe the structure, content, and goals of this curriculum. Over the last four years (AYs 2012-2015), residents (17/32; 53%) have rated the overall quality of the course highly (mean = 5.2, where 6 = outstanding; standard deviation = 0.64). In each year since the new course has been implemented, all scholarly work from the course has been presented at conferences by 31 resident presenters and/or coauthors. The course seems to enhance the residency program's capacity to recruit high-caliber residents and faculty members. The authors are collecting qualitative and quantitative data on the impact of the course. They will use their findings to advocate for a national health advocacy competency framework. Recommendations about how to initiate or further develop social medicine and health advocacy curricula are offered.

  3. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  4. International portability of health-cost coverage : concepts and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Werding, Martin; McLennan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Social insurance and other arrangements for funding health-care benefits often establish long-term relationships, effectively providing insurance against lasting changes in an individual's health status, engaging in burden-smoothing over the life cycle, and entailing additional elements of redistribution. International portability regarding this type of cover is, therefore, difficult to es...

  5. Teaching corner: an undergraduate medical education program comprehensively integrating global health and global health ethics as core curricula : student experiences of the medical school for international health in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichholtz, Sara; Kreniske, Jonah Susser; Morrison, Zachary; Shack, Avraham R; Dwolatzky, Tzvi

    2015-03-01

    The Medical School for International Health (MSIH) was created in 1996 by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in affiliation with Columbia University's Health Sciences division. It is accredited by the New York State Board of Education. Students complete the first three years of the program on the Ben-Gurion University campus in Be'er-Sheva, Israel, while fourth-year electives are completed mainly in the United States (at Columbia University Medical Center and affiliates as well as other institutions) along with a two-month global health elective at one of numerous sites located around the world (including Canada, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Kenya, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, the United States, and Vietnam). The unique four-year, American-style curriculum is designed not only to prepare physicians who will be able to work at both an individual and community level but also at both of these levels anywhere in the world. In this way, it combines elements of medical and public health curricula not limited to an American perspective.

  6. The Thalassemia International Federation: a global public health paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many international organizations are struggling today to coordinate limited economic and human resources in support of governments’ efforts to advance public health around the world. The United Nations and the World Health Organization, along with others play a pivotal role in this global effort. Furthermore, during the past few decades an increasingly higher percentage of global efforts on public health are carried out by specific health initiatives, international projects and non-governmental patient-oriented organizations. The Thalassemia International Federation (TIF is one such organization focusing on the control of thalassemia around the world. The current paper aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the mission, goals, objectives and activities of this organization. Our ultimate goal is to highlight TIF’s public health paradigm and diffuse its success at an international levels for others to follow. TIF is devoted to disseminating information, knowledge, experience and best practices around the world to empower patients with thalassemia and their relatives, support health professionals providing care to such patients and promote national and international policies, which secure equal access to quality care for all patients with thalassemia.

  7. Voice for the voiceless. Access to health services -- the contrast between the voiceless and their elected leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    1999-01-01

    This article comments on the availability of health services among the voiceless and poor people. Literally hundreds of millions of people are suffering and died because of the unavailability of life-saving medical and public health services. The voiceless have been also deprived the rudimentary state-funded services that used to be accessible to them. The author divulged the gigantic deception and fraud among political leaders on the suffering voiceless people. Most political leaders who suffer serious illnesses would rush to other developed countries for immediate treatment. However, they failed to attain the standards of the developed countries on their own country. Finally, the author pointed that the struggle of the oppressed against the oppressors would be a long and arduous one.

  8. Health effects of internally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, Otto G.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been conducted of the ionizing radiation dose-response relationships in both human and laboratory animal studies involving internal deposition of radionuclides including alpha-emitters 226 Ra, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am and beta-emitters 90 Sr, 90 Y and 144 Ce. Intake routes included inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The preeminent importance of dose rate was revealed in this analysis. The lifetime effects of the ionizing radiation from internal emitters are described by three-dimensional dose rate/ time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. Using maximum likelihood survival regression methods, the characteristic logarithmic slope for cancer induction was found to be about negative one-third for alpha-emitters or about negative two-thirds for beta-emitters. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha versus beta radiations for cancer induction is a strong function of dose rate, near one at high dose rates and greater than 20 at low dose rates. The cumulative dose required to yield any level of induced-cancer risk is less at lower dose rates than at higher dose rates showing an apparent inverse-dose effect (up to a factor of 10 for high LET alpha radiation and a factor of 2 for low LET beta radiation). The competing risks of death associated with radiation injury, radiation-induced cancer, and natural aging are graphically shown using three-dimensional illustrations. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates. At the lower average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed natural life span, yielding an apparent lifespan effective threshold for death associated with radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses to the target tissue below from 1.1 to 1.4 Gy for alpha-emitters or below

  9. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  10. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  11. International comparison of health care systems using resource profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Anell, Anders; Michael, Willis

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently used bases for comparing international health care resources are health care expenditures, measured either as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP) or per capita. There are several possible reasons for this, including the widespread availability of historic expenditure figures; the attractiveness of collapsing resource data into a common unit of measurement; and the present focus among OECD member countries and other governments on containing health care costs. Despit...

  12. A perspective on international school health education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, J W

    1990-09-01

    The scope and content of school health education research conducted from 1984-1987 in countries outside the U.S. are examined. Both published and unpublished research were requested from sources identified by the American School Health Association's Council on International Health. One hundred eighty-eight studies from 31 countries were reviewed and categorized. Countries that publish journals devoted to school health offer more opportunities for publishing research. Analysis of the studies revealed that individuals involved in school health face similar problems regardless of country. Cross-country comparative studies serve as models for future research.

  13. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... do not exist. However, besides scaling up research for new drugs and vaccines, research in health care systems are needed to understand the obstacles to implement new as well as existing interventions to prevent and combat the major health problems of those most in need. The task demands political...

  14. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  15. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  16. The World Health Organization and the transition from "international" to "global" public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context.

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike

    2013-08-12

    This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice - involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes - as a possible avenue into this work.

  19. Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice – involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes – as a possible avenue into this work. PMID:25729409

  20. The Election Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadgaard, Anne Kathrine Pihl

    When democratic elections run smoothly, the practices that ensure a direct – free and fair – link from the will of the people to those who govern are mostly hidden in the bureaucratic machinery of elections. These administrative aspects of elections are seen as a background to the political...... and representational democracy by examining the inner workings of democracy, and as practical achievement for the public administration. In this approach reside at least two claims about democracy. Firstly, in Latourian fashion this thesis argues against the existence of an ahistorical pure form of democracy. Although......, the understanding of the Danish deliberative and representational democracy can be traced back to Hal Koch and Alf Ross, the thesis does not take democratic principles as the point of departure, but as a topic for investigation; as practices in their own right and as practices linked to and intertwined with other...

  1. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  2. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  3. Health care innovations from the internal marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S S; Foltz, M B

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an opportunity to apply the marketing concept internally to the diffusion and implementation of innovative services which can help organizations to achieve an advantageous external market position. An internal marketing communications model is discussed in this paper to identify factors and relationships influencing the internal diffusion and implementation of innovative services. Three case studies are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model to a specific innovation in the health care industry. The notion of marketing innovative services from the inside out also is critical for other service firms. Further operational models are needed to present opportunities for marketing of innovative services.

  4. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  5. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, A E

    1999-03-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women.

  6. The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haik Nikogosian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health instruments have been under constant development and renewal for decades. International legal instruments, with their binding character and strength, have a special place in this development. The start of the 21st century saw, in particular, the birth of the first World Health Organization (WHO-era health treaties – the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and its first Protocol. The authors analyze the potential impact of these instruments on global health governance and public health, beyond the traditional view of their impact on tobacco control. Overall, the very fact that globally binding treaties in modern-era health were feasible has accelerated the debate and expectations for an expanded role of international legal regimes in public health. The impact of treaties has also been notable in global health architecture as the novel instruments required novel institutions to govern their implementation. The legal power of the WHO FCTC has enabled rapid adoption of further instruments to promote its implementation, thus, enhancing the international instrumentarium for health, and it has also prompted stronger role for national legislation on health. Notably, the Convention has elevated several traditionally challenging public health features to the level of international legal obligations. It has also revealed how the legal power of the international health instrument can be utilized in safeguarding the interests of health in the face of competing agendas and legal disputes at both the domestic and international levels. Lastly, the legal power of health instruments is associated with their potential impact not only on health but also beyond; the recently adopted Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products may best exemplify this matter. The first treaty experiences of the 21st century may provide important lessons for the role of legal instruments in addressing the unfolding challenges in global

  7. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances using...

  9. 26 CFR 7.57(d)-1 - Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to straight line recovery... ACT OF 1976 § 7.57(d)-1 Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles. (a) Purpose... Tax Reform Act of 1976. Under this election taxpayers may use cost depletion to compute straight line...

  10. Increased health-care utilisation in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J; Siersma, Volkert D; Kragstrup, Jakob; Petersson, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have documented that international adoptees have an increased occurrence of health problems and contacts to the health-care system after arriving to their new country of residence. This may be explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for the period immediately after adoption. Our study aimed to the assess health-care utilisation of international adoptees in primary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatric diagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increased use of the health-care system in this period, even when increased morbidity in the group of international adoptees is taken into consideration? This was a Danish register-based cohort study examining health-care utilisation in a multivariable two-part model. The prevalence of selected outcomes and the quantity of use were assessed in a late (year three, four and five) post-adoption period. The cohort comprised internationally adopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and 2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who could be matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipality and family constellation at the time of adoption. International adoption increased the use of all services in primary care, while in secondary care only few areas showed an increased long-term morbidity. International adoptees use medical services in primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees some years after adoption. Excess use of services in secondary care is also present, but only exists in selected areas. none. not relevant.

  11. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  12. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  13. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health

    OpenAIRE

    incl Table of Contents, Complete Supplement,

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health August 5–10, 2012, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. This extensive publication includes nearly 100 full length papers, 90 extended abstracts and nearly 100 short abstracts. The full publication is freely available through the journal website.(Published: 5 August 2013)Citation: Int J Circumpolar Health 2013, 72: 22447 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v72i0.22447

  14. New international classification of functioning, disability and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stucki Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF provides a coherent view of health from a biological, individual and social perspective. This view may be defined both as multi- and interdisciplinary management of one’s functioning and health. This new classification is currently being assessed in multiple centers in 32 countries, on 12 health conditions. The Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, is one of them, serving as the centre where the classification is being tested in obese population. The objective of this paper is to provide information needed for further development and practical application of this classification in various health conditions. The new language of ICF is an exciting landmark event for preventive medicine and rehabilitation. It may lead to a stronger position of rehabilitation within the medical community, change multiprofessional communication and improve communication between patients and health professionals. .

  15. 3rd International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingshan; Matta, Andrea; Sahin, Evren; Vandaele, Nico; Visintin, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents statistical processes for health care delivery and covers new ideas, methods and technologies used to improve health care organizations. It gathers the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE 2017), which took place in Florence, Italy from May 29 to 31, 2017. The Conference provided a timely opportunity to address operations research and operations management issues in health care delivery systems. Scientists and practitioners discussed new ideas, methods and technologies for improving the operations of health care systems, developed in close collaborations with clinicians. The topics cover a broad spectrum of concrete problems that pose challenges for researchers and practitioners alike: hospital drug logistics, operating theatre management, home care services, modeling, simulation, process mining and data mining in patient care and health care organizations.

  16. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy.

  17. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. The voting takes place from the 31st of October to the 14th of November, at noon. As you may have noted when reading Echo, many issues concerning our employment conditions are on the agenda of the coming months and will keep the next Staff Council very busy. So, make your voice heard and take part in the elections for a new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will be representing you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. Every member of the Staff Association will have received an email containing a link to the webpage which will allow voting. If you are a member of the Staff Association and you did not receive such an email, please contact the Staff Association secretariat (staff.association@cern.ch). Do not forget to vote * * * * * * * Vote Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. More details on the election...

  19. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  20. Trust in Internet Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Ronquillo, Lorena; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Decryption and Counting Ceremony held in conjunction with the internet voting trial on election day in the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Norway in 2013. We examine the organizers' ambition of making the decryption and counting of electronic vote...

  1. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Health Behaviors of International Students at a University · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Larte, S Mishra, D Odonwodo, C Chitalu, A Chafatelli. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijhr.v2i2.55404 ...

  2. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  3. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  4. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ... in the January 31, 2009 provincial elections. However, campaigning for the provincial elections, held in all provinces except Kirkuk and the Kurdish-controlled provinces, was relatively peaceful and enthusiastic and there was a more diverse...

  5. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... health (61%) as the highest priorities echoed current population needs. Conclusions: This international partnership training programme was the first of this type provided to a member state by WHO/EURO. It combined academic expertise in curriculum development and teaching technologies with practical...

  6. Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The process of acculturation often results in changes in the health behavior of international students. This study employed an open-ended, qualitative approach in an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the acculturation process for physical activity, diet, and drinking behavior among international students. Eighteen undergraduate international students (average age 19.20, standard deviation 1.21) were interviewed for 45-60 min. Most of the international students became more physically active after they arrived in the United States. Facilitators included accessibility, weight management, free time, and role modeling. Most international students were unsatisfied with the food on campus. Their strategies for adjusting to this included ordering food from restaurants, visiting supermarkets, and moving off campus. Most international students felt uncomfortable with the drinking culture in the United States, although some of them felt drinking was a good way to socialize with Americans and explore American culture. Colleges and universities should adopt strategies to better help their international students build lifelong healthy behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Role of international collaboration in developing mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Srinivasa Murthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of mental health care for the total population is a challenge in all countries. Common challenges are accessibility, acceptability, affordability and stigma. There has been a progress in shifting the location of mental health services from jails, to asylums, to psychiatric hospitals, to general hospitals to community care facilities over the last three hundred years. Developing mental health services presents both universal and local challenges. There are advantages in collaboration across countries. Past efforts have taken advantage of collaboration to develop innovative approaches to care, tools for measuring impact of services, training methodology and evaluation of impact of interventions. Collaboration allows for bringing together wide ranging experiences and expertise, increase the size of the populations and understand the differences that influence development of mental health care. World Health Organization has pioneered collaborative projects in the past. The development of mhGAP Guidelines for non-specialists in recent times illustrates the value of collaboration. World Psychiatric Association promoted fighting stigma by bringing together over 20 countries. Grand Challenges Canada initiative is another example in this field. India has contributed to development of mental health services by focusing the importance of family in mental health care, integration of mental health with general health care, demonstrating the effectiveness of community care, revitalizing the traditional practices like yoga/meditation and presenting a different approach to psychotherapy. International collaboration for developing mental health services presents a win-win situation for all the partners and should be utilized to a greater extent.

  8. Democratic Dawn? Civil Society and Elections in Myanmar 2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lidauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the general elections in Myanmar in November 2010 were widely condemned, both national and international actors approached the by-elections of April 2012 as a political rite-de-passage to improve relations between the government and the opposition inside, and between the former pariah state and the international community outside the country. An undercurrent to the government-led transition process from an authoritarian to a formally more democratic regime was the development of a politically oriented civil society that found ways to engage in the electoral process. This article describes the emerging spaces of election-related civil society activism in the forms of civic and voter education, national election observation, and election-related agency in the media. Noting that, in particular, election observation offers connections for civil society to regional and international debates, the paper draws preliminary conclusions about further developments ahead of the general elections in Myanmar expected for 2015.

  9. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by fateful visions--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy

  10. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, G A

    1990-08-01

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by "fateful visions"--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy.

  11. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-12-01

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  12. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-11 - Election with respect to bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to bonds. 11.412(c)-11 Section 11.412(c)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-11 Election with respect to bonds. (a) In general. Section 412(c)(2)(B) provides...

  13. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange. 1.631-1 Section 1.631-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-1 Election to...

  14. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating to...

  15. The retrospection of Romania presidential elections of 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Iustina Tuzu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to take a radiograph of Romania presidential elections of 2014, starting from a general framework in which these elections were held, continuing with issues and debates that characterized this context and ending with international reactions regarding the new elected-president in the foreign press and from the officials. This radiograph brings a series of questions: was the final result of these elections an accident? Was it an express of confidence for the successful candidate or the result of discontent with the current political system, a vote of hope? In this regard, I consider absolutely necessary to understand how the president was elected, the reasons behind this choice and especially if the hopes of voters will be reflected in the work of Klaus Iohannis during his term.

  16. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  17. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke the individual's...

  18. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to the conditions set forth in...

  19. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs MA plan, or...

  20. 2nd International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Evren; Li, Jingshan; Guinet, Alain; Vandaele, Nico

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and practitioners write about new methods and technologies for improving the operation of health care organizations. Statistical analyses play an important role in these methods with the implications of simulation and modeling applied to the future of health care. Papers are based on work presented at the Second International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE2015) in Lyon, France. The conference was a rare opportunity for scientists and practitioners to share work directly with each other. Each resulting paper received a double blind review. Paper topics include: hospital drug logistics, emergency care, simulation in patient care, and models for home care services. Discusses statistical analysis and operations management for health care delivery systems based on real case studies Papers in this volume received a double blind review Brings together the work of scientists, practitioners, and clinicians to unite research and practice in the future of these systems Top...

  1. Endocrine Disruptors: An Evolving Health Concern in International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Borowy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are compounds believed to mimic hormones in animal and human bodies and which are thought therefore to be a potential threat to health. Agencies including the European Commission, the International Labour Office (ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP each had some responsibility for chemicals in the wider environment over the last five decades. Despite this, the issue of how far the use of EDCs represents a threat to public health remains contested and policy remains uncertain. This article aims to examine the response of IHOs to the growing perception that EDCs can have negative health impacts by disentangling the various agendas and actors involved.

  2. International Maritime Health Promotion Programme 2007-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Rodriguez, Maria Manuela; Canals, Maria Luisa

    effect. Change of the pattern of risk factors in the population strategy, however, have been shown in a Finnish study. In addition, the SHIP project international relates to the population strategy. Though no direct health effect can be measured, the program has been successfully performed. The effects......Background: Prevention of diabetes-2, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer and overweight is needed in general and in seafaring as well. The diseases are related to three main causal factors: diet, physical activity and smoking. Seafarers have their daily life on board and health promotion is a natural...... part of the occupational health for seafarers. WHO use the concept of a high-risk strategy and a population strategy for prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Speaking about intervention studies, related to the population strategy, there are few if any studies with known long-term health...

  3. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  4. International cooperation to conquer global inequities in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of population growth is not limited to national boundaries. Indeed the inability of people in developing countries to control their own fertility has repercussions on global security and on the balance between population and environment as well a on their health and welfare. All nations need to take steps to slow down rapid population growth now, otherwise we will suffer serious consequences. The different between 2 UN projections of world population equals current world population size. Almost 90% of the increase of the larger projection would occur in developing countries, yet they are the least capable of managing big populations. Further major inequalities in reproductive health between developed and developing countries, as well as between men and women exist. The infant mortality rate in developed regions is around 6 times lower than it is in developing regions, child mortality is 7 times lower, and maternal mortality is 15 times lower. International collaboration to rid the world of these inequalities is need to improve reproductive health. Specifically, political and health leaders should mobilize necessary international and national resources. Even though there is more than US $50,000 million in official development assistance funds available annually, the level of population related funding has decreased to less than 1.1% of these funds for 1993-1994. Developed countries could reduce the debt burden to free funds for population activities and to reverse the flow from the poor countries in the Southern Hemisphere to the rich countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Besides developing countries spend much of their money on the military (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa spends US$ 10,000 million). International cooperation leading to peace would make significantly more money available for the social and health sectors, especially reproductive health care.

  5. Health Resorts and Multi-Textured Perceptions of International Health Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Majeed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and medical tourism is considered one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry. Recently, research on health resorts has been gaining academic attention in tandem with the positive contribution of the health and medical segments to the tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to better conceptualize how the behavioral intentions of health tourists are shaped in the emerging context of the health resort. This study illuminates the likely perceptions of prospective tourists about the attractions of health resorts, and endeavors to examine the response of health tourists using data from 359 international health tourists/travelers, comprising of Thai, Indian, and Chinese nationalities. The study also uses the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique in order to analyze the responses of international tourists gathered at two international airports in China. The present study shows that tourists’ expectations and their behavioral intentions are generally associated indicators of perceived health resort attractions. Expectations play a significant mediating role, while culture impacts the overall phenomenon of proposed associations in a moderating way. Moreover, sustainable tourism attractions also play a significant role in shaping Thai travelers’ behavioral responses, while medical facilities and risk levels are considered significant in determining Indian and Chinese travelers’ behaviors. By developing theoretical and empirical grounds, this study offers implications for further research and development in health resorts and other niches of health tourism.

  6. Health care in the first year after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Elaine E; Springer, Sarah H

    2005-10-01

    After international adoption, routine screenings for infectious and nutritional diseases, lead exposure, and vision and hearing difficulties are early priorities for children's postadoptive health care. Specific health concerns raised before adoption should also be reviewed after children arrive home with their families. Once appropriate postadoptive screenings and immunizations have been initiated, the challenge for the primary care provider is to determine the intervals and content of future follow-up visits. Clinical decision making is influenced by a specific child's age, acute medical needs, and developmental assessments.

  7. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office's three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described

  8. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  9. What do international comparisons of health care expenditures really show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, D W; McGuire, A J; Yule, B F

    1989-05-01

    There is much interest in international comparisons of health care expenditures, in particular their relation to national income. They have been widely used to judge countries' performance in cost-containment, and in the United Kingdom have been widely quoted in debates about the funding of the National Health Service. This paper challenges conclusions drawn from simple analyses of this topic, which have used dubious and inappropriate data, questionable methods and assumptions, and simplistic ad-hoc reasoning. It looks particularly at price differences between countries, which have usually been hidden by using exchange rates to standardize national figures. When more appropriate conversion factors called purchasing power parities are used, many of the simple and conventionally-accepted conclusions no longer appear so obvious. The attempt to create apparent scientific facts for policy debates has been based on a misuse of international comparisons.

  10. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  11. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED..., during the taxable year, the building or paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots...

  12. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.853-2 Effect of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.853-4 Manner of...

  14. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  15. Thinking upstream: the roles of international health and drug policies in public health responses to chemsex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Oliver; Forrest, Jamie I

    2018-03-19

    Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks. Aetiologically complex issues such as chemsex require multifaceted interventions that may fall outside conventional frameworks. Existing interventions have been designed and implemented at the local level. The use of international policy to mitigate these structural barriers, however, has largely been ignored. International policy is broad in nature and its implementation is, in principle, binding for member states. We believe that despite its low international prevalence, international policy can be of use in improving the lives of people who participate in chemsex. Through stimulating a much-needed debate on the interplay between sex and drugs within global health and harm reduction frameworks, this paper aims to address the paucity of substantial discussion surrounding the applicability of international language to chemsex. We analyse international policy aimed at addressing HIV, illicit drugs, harm reduction, and development, and make recommendations for both national advocacy, and advocates working to alter the positions of member states internationally.

  16. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  17. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pretravel health advice among international travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Serrano, Edson; Mozo, Karen; Gonzales, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Cuzco, a Peruvian city of historical interest located 3,326 m above sea level, is a frequent destination for tourists. We conducted a descriptive study to assess the extent and sources of pretravel health advice received by international travelers before their arrival to Cuzco. Data were collected as part of a health survey among travelers. Between August and November 2002, travelers between 15 and 65 years old were invited to fill out a questionnaire in the departing area of Cuzco's international airport. A total of 5,988 travelers participated. The mean age was 35.4 years (SD 11.4 yr); 50.6% were female and 50.8% were single. Tourism was the reason for traveling in 90.2% of the participants, and 89.3% of them were traveling with companions. Pretravel health information was received by 93.6%. The median number of information sources was two, with books (41.5%), travel medicine clinics (38.8%), the Internet (23.3%), and general practitioners (22.7%) as the main sources. Most frequently received recommendations were about safe food and water consumption (85%), use of insect repellents (66.0%), sunburn protection (64.4%), and condom use (22%). Only 16.5% took medication to prevent altitude sickness, and 14.2% took medication to prevent traveler's diarrhea. Variables independently associated with receiving pretravel health information from a health care professional were female gender, country of residence other than the United States, length of stay in Cuzco > 7 days, length of stay in other Peruvian cities > 7 days, tourism as the main reason for visiting Cuzco, traveling with companions, and consulting of more than one source of information. Most travelers arriving to Cuzco had received pretravel health information, and the majority obtained it from more than one source. Recommendations addressed for specific health risks, such as altitude sickness prophylaxis, were received by few travelers.

  19. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  20. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  1. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Cui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways, and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement and installation of next generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  2. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  3. International comparison of health care systems using resource profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, A; Willis, M

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently used bases for comparing international health care resources are health care expenditures, measured either as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP) or per capita. There are several possible reasons for this, including the widespread availability of historic expenditure figures; the attractiveness of collapsing resource data into a common unit of measurement; and the present focus among OECD member countries and other governments on containing health care costs. Despite important criticisms of this method, relatively few alternatives have been used in practice. A simple framework for comparing data underlying health care systems is presented in this article. It distinguishes measures of real resources, for example human resources, medicines and medical equipment, from measures of financial resources such as expenditures. Measures of real resources are further subdivided according to whether their factor prices are determined primarily in national or global markets. The approach is illustrated using a simple analysis of health care resource profiles for Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Comparisons based on measures of both real resources and expenditures can be more useful than conventional comparisons of expenditures alone and can lead to important insights for the future management of health care systems.

  4. 2011 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Vote Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. Voting will begin on Monday 31 October. Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will  represent you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. More details on the elections can be found on the Staff Association web site. (http://association.web.cern.ch) Elections Timetable Monday 31 October, at noon start date for voting Monday 14 November, at noon closing date for voting Monday 21 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 22 and Wednesday 29 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 6 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee. 

  5. 2015 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Asscociation

    2015-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! Be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will represent you over the next two years and they will without doubt appreciate your gratitude. The voting takes place from the 26th of October to the 9th of November, at noon at https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2015.   Elections Timetable Monday 9 November, at noon Closing date for voting Monday 16 and Monday 23 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 8 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 16 and 24 November. Candidates for the 2015 elections

  6. 2017 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! We hope that you will be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council! By doing so, you can support and encourage the women and men, who will represent you over the next two years. The voting takes place from 23 October to 13 November, at noon at https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2017. Elections Timetable Monday 13 November, at noon Closing date for voting Tuesday 21 November and Tuesday 5 December Publication of the results in Echo Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 5 December (afternoon) First meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 21 November and 5 December. Candidates for the 2017 Elections

  7. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  8. Observing and analysing the 1997 general election: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Mazrui, A.; Grignon, F.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Mazrui, A.; Grignon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of a three-day conference held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, in September 1998, this book on the 1997 Kenya general elections is organized in four parts: the direct pre-electoral background; technical and national analysis of the general elections, including the performance of the Electoral Commission, international observation, and the role of the media; regional studies focusing on the grassroots level of Kenyan politics at the Kenya Coast, among the Ke...

  9. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....

  10. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver.

  11. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  12. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  13. Examining transgender health through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health's (ICF) Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Melissa; Cox, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals. A literature review was conducted to identify Environmental and Personal Factors that may influence transgender individuals' physical, psychological, and social functioning. Seven electronic databases were searched. In total, 154 records were reviewed, and 41 articles and other records met inclusion criteria. Three general themes emerged for Environmental Factors: family and social networks, education, and health care. Three general themes also emerged for Personal Factors: socioeconomic status, race, and age. Transgender individuals benefit from gender-affirming services, improved family and social support systems, and competent provider care. Educational training programs, including medical curricula or workshops, might provide the greatest benefit in improving transgender health by increasing the knowledge and cultural competency of health professionals working with this population. Given the diversity of gender expression, differences in lived experiences, and potential for enduring persistent "double discrimination" due to the intersectional relationships between socioeconomic status, race, and/or age, health professionals must approach transgender health using a holistic lens such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  14. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. The voting takes place from the 28 of October to the 11th of November, at noon. As you may have noted when reading Echo, many issues concerning our employment conditions are on the agenda of the coming months, and in particular the Five-yearly-Review 2015, subject of the questionnaire that you probably recently filled out. All this will keep the next Staff Council very busy indeed. So, make your voice heard and take part in the elections for a new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will be representing you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. Every member of the Staff Association will have received an email containing a link to the webpage which will allow voting. If you are a member of the Staff Association and you did not receive such an email, please contact the Staff Association secretariat (staff.association@cern.ch). Do not forget to v...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  16. 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Jadeera; Usman, Juliana; Ahmad, Mohd; Razman, Rizal; Selvanayagam, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016 (MoHE2016). The conference was jointly organized by the Biomedical Engineering Department and Sports Centre, University of Malaya. It was held in Malacca, from 28-30 September 2016. MoHE 2016 provided a good opportunity for speakers and participants to actively discuss about recent developments in a wide range of topics in the area of sports and exercise science. In total, 83 presenters and 140 participants took part in this successful conference. .

  17. 2014 Election forecast - a post-election analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available –55 http://orion.journals.ac.za ORiON ISSN 0259–191X (print) ISSN 2224–0004 (online) ©2017 2014 Election forecast — a post-election analysis HW Ittmann* JP Holloway„ N Dudeni-Tlhone„ Received: 3 September 2016; Revised: 2 March 2017; Accepted: 8 May 2017...

  18. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  19. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-0 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., table of contents. 1.402(g)-0 Section 1.402(g)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.402(g)-0 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents. This section contains the captions that appear in § 1.402(g)-1. § 1.402(g)-1Limitation on exclusion for elective...

  20. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  1. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir; Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Hepp, Shelanne L; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Nanayakkara, Shyama Dilani; Harrison, Elizabeth Louise; Mickelson, Grace; Bainbridge, Lesley; Grymonpre, Ruby E

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE) resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs). Methodology A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills). None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency domains defined in the Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (CIHC) National Interprofessional Competency Framework. Conclusion The IEHPs learning resources in Western Canada do not cover all of the interprofessional competencies. This review points to the value of developing a comprehensive IPE curriculum, based on the six domains identified in the CIHC National Interprofessional Competency Framework. PMID:28424551

  2. Selective international migration by social position, health behaviour and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-04-01

    Immigrants is an important minority in many countries, but little is known how they are self-selected. We analysed differences in psycho-social and health behavioural factors between international migrants and non-migrants prior to migration in a large cohort of Finnish twins. A questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins in 1975 (response rate 89%, N = 26555 twin individuals). Follow-up data on migration and mortality were derived from population registries in Finland and Sweden up to 31 March 2002. In 1998, another questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins migrated to Sweden and their co-twins (response rate 71%, N = 1534 twin individuals). The data were analysed using Cox and conditional logistic regression models. Life dissatisfaction, higher alcohol use and smoking at baseline predicted future migration. In men additionally, unemployment, neuroticism and extroversion increased the probability to migrate. Similar associations were found for alcohol use in men and smoking in men and women within twin pairs discordant for migration. Twins also reported retrospectively that prior to migration the migrated twin had been less satisfied with his/her educational institution or job and was generally less satisfied with life, used more alcohol (men) and smoked more (women) than the co-twin stayed in Finland. Migrants are self-selected by health behavioural and personality factors, which may compromise their health. The special requirements of migrants should be recognized in health care.

  3. The capitalist world-system and international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, R H

    1981-01-01

    A number of world health problems which have been discretely considered in the past are viewed in this paper as interwoven with each other and with the functioning of the capitalist political-economic world-system. Thus, climactic explanations ("tropical medicine"), and even poverty when conceived in cultural terms or as a structural problem resident entirely within a single nation, are seen as inadequate for understanding any or all of the problems discussed briefly here: poor general health levels in peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, especially rising infant mortality rates in countries such as Brazil; comerciogenic malnutrition; dumping and exploitative sale of drugs, pesticides and other products banned or restricted in core nations; genocidal and other threatening approaches to population control; export of hazardous and polluting industry to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations; similar export of human experimentation; the sale of irrelevant, high medical technology to countries lacking basic public health measures, the "brain drain", and medical imperialism. Also discounted are moralistic inveighing, complaints about inadequate information and its transfer, discussions of bureaucratic bumbling or inter-agency politics and professional rivalries, various forms of victim-blaming, and other explanations and corrective approaches which ignore class structure and the control, distribution, and expropriation of resources in nations and the world-system. The framework suggests the importance of a worldwide cultural hegemony, including a medical cultural hegemony, established by and in the service of the ruling classes. Socialist-oriented nations which are quasi-independent of the capitalist world-system are seen as suffering less from its effects. This suggests that we should conceive of world socialist health and world capitalist health, rather than any kind of unified phenomenon called "international health".

  4. How well do international drug conventions protect public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-07

    The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 aimed to eliminate the illicit production and non-medical use of cannabis, cocaine, and opioids, an aim later extended to many pharmaceutical drugs. Over the past 50 years international drug treaties have neither prevented the globalisation of the illicit production and non-medical use of these drugs, nor, outside of developed countries, made these drugs adequately available for medical use. The system has also arguably worsened the human health and wellbeing of drug users by increasing the number of drug users imprisoned, discouraging effective countermeasures to the spread of HIV by injecting drug users, and creating an environment conducive to the violation of drug users' human rights. The international system has belatedly accepted measures to reduce the harm from injecting drug use, but national attempts to reduce penalties for drug use while complying with the treaties have often increased the number of drug users involved with the criminal justice system. The international treaties have also constrained national policy experimentation because they require nation states to criminalise drug use. The adoption of national policies that are more aligned with the risks of different drugs and the effectiveness of controls will require the amendment of existing treaties, the formulation of new treaties, or withdrawal of states from existing treaties and re-accession with reservations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 26 CFR 54.4975-14 - Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre...-14 Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions. (a) In general... election to pay an excise tax by certain persons involved prior to 1975 in prohibited transactions within...

  6. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...... ). Results - 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3-5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3-5, indicating moderately to severely...

  7. European developments on radiation protection in health care. An international public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, M.; Del Rosario Perez, M.

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's Programme on Radiation and Environmental Health is engaged in a range of global, regional and national collaborations to protect patients, workers and the public from planned, existing and emergency radiation exposures. Collaboration with European countries in this field is very active, with the ultimate goal of ensuring appropriate use of radiation worldwide. The WHO 'Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings' is now being developed to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. European collaboration in this initiative can have impact not only regionally but globally. This article provides an overview of relevant European developments in radiation protection in health care, from an international public health perspective. The 'Global Initiative' presents new opportunities for European countries to expand the horizons of their achievements globally, therefore contributing to improved radiation protection worldwide. (authors)

  8. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  9. Certification of ICTs in Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Barrat, Jordi; Bolo, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies play a critical role in the administration and organization of modern elections. Any breakdown of an election technology, security breach or programming error can incur tremendous cost for the electoral management body (EMB)—and may undermine voters’ tru...

  10. Adopting New International Health Instruments - What Can We Learn From the FCTC? Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselman, Marlies; Toebes, Brigit

    2017-07-15

    This Commentary forms a response to Nikogosian's and Kickbusch's forward-looking perspective about the legal strength of international health instruments. Building on their arguments, in this commentary we consider what we can learn from the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) for the adoption of new legal international health instruments. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Health risks, travel preparation, and illness among public health professionals during international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Victor; Warnock, Eli; Ramana Dhara, V; Jean-Louis, Lee Ann; Sotir, Mark J; Kozarsky, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Few data currently exist on health risks faced by public health professionals (PHP) during international travel. We conducted pre- and post-travel health surveys to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and illnesses among PHP international travelers. Anonymous surveys were completed by PHP from a large American public health agency who sought a pre-travel medical consult from September 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. Surveys were completed by 122 participants; travelers went to 163 countries. Of the 122 respondents, 97 (80%) reported at least one planned health risk activity (visiting rural areas, handling animals, contact with blood or body fluids, visiting malarious areas), and 50 (41%) reported exposure to unanticipated health risks. Of the 62 travelers who visited malarious areas, 14 (23%) reported inconsistent or no use of malaria prophylaxis. Illness during travel was reported by 33 (27%) respondents. Most of the PHP travelers in our study reported at least one planned health risk activity, and almost half reported exposure to unanticipated health risks, and one-quarter of travelers to malarious areas reported inconsistent or no use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Our findings highlight that communication and education outreach for PHP to prevent travel-associated illnesses can be improved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of... exchange of a capital asset or property treated under section 1231 (except coal or iron ore to which...

  13. Hindsight bias in political elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut; Fischer, Volkhard; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    Two studies on political hindsight bias were conducted on the occasions of the German parliament election in 1998 and the Nordrhein-Westfalen state parliament election in 2000. In both studies, participants predicted the percentage of votes for several political parties and recalled these predictions after the election. The observed hindsight effects were stronger than those found in any prior study on political elections (using percentage of votes as the dependent variable). We argue that the length of the retention interval between original judgement and recollection is mainly responsible for this difference. In our second study, we investigated possible artifacts in political hindsight biases using a control-group design where half of the participants recalled their predictions shortly before or after the election. Hindsight bias was preserved, reinforcing the results of earlier studies with non-control-group designs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the hindsight experience (in political judgement and in general) actually consists of three different, partly independent components.

  14. Bayesian Inference on Proportional Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259

  15. The 2015 Nigerian General Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkwachukwu Orji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high level of success of Nigeria’s 2015 general elections was unexpected, considering the difficult political and security environment in which the elections were conducted. The major obstacles to the smooth conduct of the elections include the grave security threat posed by the Boko Haram insurgency, the competing claims to the presidency by northern and southern politicians, a keenly contested campaign smeared by inflammatory messages, and serious gaps in electoral preparations. Against the backdrop of these challenges, this article assesses Nigeria’s 2015 general elections, looking closely at the key issues that affected the polls, the major electoral outcomes, and the critical post-election issues raised by the outcomes.

  16. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  17. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  18. [International cooperation in health: the Special Service of Public Health and its nursing program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, André Luiz Vieira

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Service of Public Health) in developing and expanding higher education in nursing and to train auxiliary health personnel in Brazil under bilateral agreements between the US and Brazil during the 1940s and 1950s. The Nursing Program of the Special Service is approached from the perspective of its participation in a broader international cooperation developed by the Pan American Health Organization, but also as part of the state and nation building effort of the first Vargas Regime.

  19. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Helderman, Wim van Palenstein

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and education related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many countries, intensified efforts are required. We present the Fit for School Action Framework as a realistic and tested approach that helps to make schools places of public health for children and wider communities.

  20. Addressing health literacy through clear health communication: a training program for internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jamie A; Gonzaga, Alda Maria; Cohen, Elan D; Spagnoletti, Carla L

    2014-04-01

    To develop, pilot, and test the effectiveness of a clear health communication curriculum to improve resident knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding health literacy. Thirty-one internal medicine residents participated in a small group curriculum that included didactic teaching, practice with a standardized patient, and individualized feedback on videotaped encounters with real patients. Outcomes were assessed using a pre-post survey and a communication skills checklist. Mean knowledge scores increased significantly from 60.3% to 77.6% (pcommunicating with low literacy patients (3.3 vs. 4.1) (all pcommunication improves resident knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding health literacy. The increased use of clear health communication techniques can significantly improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with limited health literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross...... effect of different types of public health emergencies in a timely manner as required by the International Health Regulations (2005).......BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing...

  2. On being agents of change: A qualitative study of elective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key themes were the importance of providing holistic patient-centred care, becoming a competent health professional, working within the health team and advocating for a better health system. The elective experience helped students to be more confident in their abilities and to better understand how to effect change at a ...

  3. Global health education in emergency medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havryliuk, Tatiana; Bentley, Suzanne; Hahn, Sigrid

    2014-06-01

    Interest in global health and international electives is growing among Emergency Medicine (EM) residents in the United States (US). The majority of EM residency programs offer opportunities for international electives. The degree of participation among residents and type of support provided by the residency program, however, remains unclear. To explore the current state of global health education among EM residents who participate in international electives. A 12-question survey was e-mailed to the program directors of the 192 EM residency programs in the US. The survey included questions about the number of residents participating in international electives and the types of preparation, project requirements, supervision, and feedback participating residents receive. The response rate was 53% with 102 responses. Seventy-five of 102 (74%) programs reported that at least one resident participated in an international elective in the 2010-2011 academic year. Forty-three programs (42%) report no available funding to support any resident on an international elective. Residents receive no preparation for international work in 41 programs (40%). Only 25 programs (26%) required their residents to conduct a project while abroad. Forty-nine programs (48%) reported no formal debriefing session, and no formal feedback was collected from returning residents in 57 of 102 (59%) programs. The majority of EM residencies have residents participating in international electives. However, the programs report variable preparation, requirements, and resident supervision. These results suggest a need for an expanded and more structured approach to international electives undertaken by EM residents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-02

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  5. Maximising the value from the elective experience: post-elective workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Dotchin, Catherine; Walker, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Medical electives are important facets of Global Health education of UK medical students, preparing them for work in an increasingly globalised world. However, their explicit educational value is unclear, and is often lost because of inadequate preparation and review procedures. Aiming to capitalise on this unique personal and professional development opportunity, which Newcastle University students undertake in their fourth year, a pilot feedback workshop was designed in which 42 final-year students gave 10-15-minute reflective presentations to subgroups of between six and eight peers, followed by an opportunity for questions, discussion and feedback. Feedback was sought from individual questionnaires and then there was open discussion with the whole group. Despite the participants' variable satisfaction with the pre-elective procedures, all felt that the elective itself was valuable and enjoyable, and, moreover, all enjoyed and benefited from debriefing in this workshop format. This pilot was successful. Simple, inexpensive workshops are to be recommended for overcoming perceived staffing and timetabling barriers to Global Health education, and affording students the maximum personal and professional benefit from their own, and each others' medical electives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  7. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  8. 26 CFR 1.1020-1 - Election as to amounts allowed in respect of depreciation, etc., before 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election as to amounts allowed in respect of depreciation, etc., before 1952. 1.1020-1 Section 1.1020-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.1020-1 Election as to amounts allowed in respect of depreciation, etc., before 1952. (a) In...

  9. 26 CFR 1.846-2T - Election by taxpayer to use its own historical loss payment pattern (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election by taxpayer to use its own historical loss payment pattern (temporary). 1.846-2T Section 1.846-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Election by taxpayer to use its own historical loss payment pattern (temporary). (a) through (c...

  10. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  11. Lifetime health risks from internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Nikula, K.J.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the lifetime health risks resulting from internal depositions of beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides has come from studies in laboratory animals conducted to provide information not available from human epidemiological studies. This paper is focused primarily on results of experiments in which laboratory animals (dogs and rodents) were exposed once, briefly, by inhalation or intravenous injection to an individual fission-product radionuclide and were studied for radionuclide metabolism, dosimetry, and lifetime health effects. The relative importance of many dose- and effect-modifying factors was studied. The main long-term biological effects were cancers in the organs and tissues receiving the highest doses. Results for three different patterns of irradiation (skeleton, lung, and whole-body) are presented. The risks of bone cancers produced by 90 Sr are compared with those from 238 Pu in dogs. Lung cancer risks for several beta emitters inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by dogs are compared with results for 144 CeO 2 inhaled by rats. Late-occurring biological effects from the relatively uniform whole-body irradiation from intravenously injected 137 Cs are also presented. In addition to radionuclide-specific results, cross-cutting analyses of these studies provide valuable information on broader issues such as dose protraction, relative biological effectiveness, threshold considerations, and inter-species comparisons including extrapolation to human exposure situations. (authors)

  12. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: MAURIN First Name: Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives. One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted i...

  13. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARD First Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while by a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you give me your support.

  14. Elections in November

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Become a delegate, it’s simple! CERN’s employment conditions have had a rather hard time over the past few years. The Staff Association, with the support of the staff, has managed to avoid the worst on many occasions. The next few years will be decisive, which is why we must continue to be on the scene, active, a source of proposals, and a real negotiating partner. The Staff Association is your only formal representative vis-à-vis the Management and the Member States, and the Staff Council your voice. A rapidly evolving Staff Association In November, all 60 seats in the Staff Council must be filled. All delegates are therefore outgoing. About a dozen current delegates have informed us that they will not stand for election again, which corresponds to a standard turnover. We thank these outgoing delegates for their past investment. If you are interested in the work of the Staff Association, become involved. We need new, talented, enthusiastic people who are willing to inv...

  15. Literature review: Afghanistan women's health crisis, health service delivery, and ethical issues for international aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen

    2006-09-01

    The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help.

  16. Tuberculosis epidemic poses international threat. World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-third of the world's population is infected with the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus. Like the common cold, TB is spread through the air and by relatively casual contact. Migration, international travel, and tourism are therefore increasingly allowing TB to penetrate borders. An untreated person with active TB will typically infect 10-15 other people over the course of one year. Only 5-10% of people infected with TB, however, actually become sick or infectious themselves. Nonetheless, among infectious diseases, TB is the leading killer of adults in the world today, currently killing more adults annually than AIDS, malaria, and tropical diseases combined, and almost 300,000 children. The disease accounts for more than 25% of all preventable adult deaths in developing countries. An estimated 300 million people will be infected during the next decade, 90 million people will develop the disease, and 30 million people will die from it. The global resurgence of TB is being accelerated by the spread of HIV, with TB already the leading cause of death among HIV-seropositive individuals. TB, together with AIDS, has overwhelmed health services and devastated urban populations in parts of Africa. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of TB is of particular concern to the World Health Organization (WHO), surely a factor in WHO's April 1993 declaration of TB to be a global emergency, the first declaration of its kind in WHO history. There is no cure for some multidrug-resistant strains of TB, and there is concern that they may spread rapidly around the world. Curing TB cases is the most cost-effective way to check the spread of TB in communities with high incidence of the infection, and the best curative method for TB is the Directly Observed Treatment approach in which health workers watch patients take each dose of medication throughout the full course of the treatment regimen.

  17. The internal audit of clinical areas: a pilot of the internal audit methodology in a health service emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison; Santilli, Mario; Scott, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Governing bodies of health services need assurance that major risks to achieving the health service objectives are being controlled. Currently, the main assurance mechanisms generated within the organization are through the review of implementation of policies and procedures and review of clinical audits and quality data. The governing bodies of health services need more robust, objective data to inform their understanding of the control of clinical risks. Internal audit provides a methodological framework that provides independent and objective assurance to the governing body on the control of significant risks. The article describes the pilot of the internal audit methodology in an emergency unit in a health service. An internal auditor was partnered with a clinical expert to assess the application of clinical criteria based on best practice guidelines. The pilot of the internal audit of a clinical area was successful in identifying significant clinical risks that required further management. The application of an internal audit methodology to a clinical area is a promising mechanism to gain robust assurance at the governance level regarding the management of significant clinical risks. This approach needs further exploration and trial in a range of health care settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  18. The certification and decertification process of elections, with special emphasis in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Haxhiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The right of all adult citizens to participate in the issues of their country’s governance is one of the cornerstones of democracy. Election participation is defined by internal legal acts such as constitution, laws, electoral codes, and through international legal acts. This right has been limited throughout history, by completely banning certain categories of citizens to participate in elections or by placing voters’ censorship such as the rich, poor, educated, etc. Apart from the active and passive right to participate in the elections, the constitution and the electoral laws have also determined the right of exclusion from the elections. In the contemporary world, with internal norms and international law, special criteria are set for the certification and decertification of voters in the elections. The purpose of this paper is to assess the colliding norms that exist in Kosovo’s legislation regarding the participation of citizens in the elections, especially the colliding norms between the constitution and the electoral laws in the certification-de-certification provisions of the elections. With these shortcomings and ambiguities, international standards for democratic elections have been violated.

  19. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  20. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  1. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... The Administration is expressing optimism that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern new provincial elections to held in early 2009, will heal remaining rifts and continue to reduce violence...

  2. Tactical Voting in Plurality Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2010-01-01

    How often will elections end in landslides? What is the probability for a head-to-head race? Analyzing ballot results from several large countries rather anomalous and yet unexplained distributions have been observed. We identify tactical voting as the driving ingredient for the anomalies and introduce a model to study its effect on plurality elections, characterized by the relative strength of the feedback from polls and the pairwise interaction between individuals in the society. With this model it becomes possible to explain the polarization of votes between two candidates, understand the small margin of victories frequently observed for different elections, and analyze the polls' impact in American, Canadian, and Brazilian ballots. Moreover, the model reproduces, quantitatively, the distribution of votes obtained in the Brazilian mayor elections with two, three, and four candidates. PMID:20856800

  3. Improving Predictive Accuracy in Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiaraj, David; Cassidy, William M; Rohli, Eric

    2017-12-01

    The problem of accurately predicting vote counts in elections is considered in this article. Typically, small-sample polls are used to estimate or predict election outcomes. In this study, a machine-learning hybrid approach is proposed. This approach utilizes multiple sets of static data sources, such as voter registration data, and dynamic data sources, such as polls and donor data, to develop individualized voter scores for each member of the population. These voter scores are used to estimate expected vote counts under different turnout scenarios. The proposed technique has been tested with data collected during U.S. Senate and Louisiana gubernatorial elections. The predicted results (expected vote counts, predicted several days before the actual election) were accurate within 1%.

  4. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  5. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  6. Getting elections right? Measuring electoral integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Holding elections has become a global norm. Unfortunately, the integrity of elections varies strongly, ranging from “free and fair” elections with genuine contestation to “façade” elections marred by manipulation and fraud. Clearly, electoral integrity is a topic of increasing concern. Yet electoral

  7. 12 CFR 1261.7 - Election process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election process. 1261.7 Section 1261.7 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.7 Election process. (a... at least 20 percent of the votes eligible to be cast, the Bank shall continue the election process...

  8. Development of consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for lymphedema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viehoff, P.B.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Hidding, J.; Damstra, R.J.; Napel, H. ten; Neumann, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges of patients with lymphedema it is important to describe functioning and to measure the effectiveness of treatment in changing functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an international framework to classify

  9. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  10. THE VALUE OF A PERSONAL BRAND IN THE ELECTIONS. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR ELECTION LAWS APPLIED IN LOCAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIUȚĂ OVIDIU-AUREL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the concepts of brand equity and brand value as found in the professional scientific literature and proposes an innovative research approach of the brand value of uninominal candidates running in the local elections in Romania in 2012 or of any other candidates that run in similar elections in terms of voting procedures. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that we have created a formula that will be used to measure the brand equity of these candidates depending on the results obtained by the party whose candidate is running in the elections, as compared to the other candidates and the other parties. This paper presents the methodology used to validate these formulae for measuring the theoretical score that should have been reached by a party’s candidate whose brand equals zero. In order to identify the contribution of the candidate’s brand to the respective result in our future research, we will make the difference and calculate the ratio between the real score and this theoretical score for a null personal brand. The present research, conducted from a positive perspective, resorts to a behavioural approach that allowsfor the measurement of the personal brand of candidates running for elections in certain electoral systems. This research is valuable for professionals as well as one can identify the candidates that are unsuitable for future elections, since a negative brand equity, accompanied by increased awareness (reached during the most recent elections, at the latest can hardly be turned into a positive image. Moreover, this analysis can be used in the internal assessments conducted by each political party after elections.

  11. [Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

    2010-03-01

    The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  12. Solving Interoperability in Translational Health. Perspectives of Students from the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) 2016 Master Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Anne M.; Facelli, Julio C.; Jaspers, Monique; Wetter, Thomas; Pfeifer, Daniel; Gatewood, Laël Cranmer; Adam, Terry; Li, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chin; Evans, R. Scott; Beukenhorst, Anna; van Mens, Hugo Johan Theodoore; Tensen, Esmee; Bock, Christian; Fendrich, Laura; Seitz, Peter; Suleder, Julian; Aldelkhyyel, Ranyah; Bridgeman, Kent; Hu, Zhen; Sattler, Aaron; Guo, Shin-Yi; Mohaimenul, Islam Md Mohaimenul; Anggraini Ningrum, Dina Nur; Tung, Hsin-Ru; Bian, Jiantano; Plasek, Joseph M.; Rommel, Casey; Burke, Juandalyn; Sohih, Harkirat

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This

  13. 26 CFR 9.1 - Investment credit-public utility property elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment credit-public utility property... Investment credit—public utility property elections. (a) Applicability of prior election under section 46(f... respect to public utility property described in section 46(f)(5) by reason of sections 301 and 302 of the...

  14. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body

  15. Building public health capacity in Afghanistan to implement the International Health Regulations: a role for security forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Jean-Paul; Yingst, Samuel L; Thompson, Donald

    2010-09-01

    The government of Afghanistan, with international partners and donors, has achieved substantial public health improvements during the past 8 years. But a critical gap remains: capacities to detect and respond to disease outbreaks that could constitute a public health emergency of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (IHR). The Afghan Ministry of Public Health seeks to build these capacities, but conflict and scarcity of resources hinder public health surveillance and response, diagnostic laboratory and clinical management capacity is limited, and massive international population movements could permit outbreaks to cross international borders. Several diseases covered by the IHR, such as polio, are endemic in Afghanistan, and risk of novel disease emergence may be elevated in some areas. The security forces of the United States and other countries with military presence in Afghanistan are potential partners for the government of Afghanistan in strengthening the public health capacity. They could extend specialized disease surveillance and response capabilities to the Afghan military and civilian sectors and could integrate surveillance and response capacity building into ongoing development programs, especially in insecure areas. The World Health Organization could provide the forum for coordinating military and civilian contributions to public health capacity strengthening in Afghanistan and could help ensure that international health sector development efforts address Afghan public health priorities in addition to IHR requirements.

  16. Global Health Watch 2006-2008 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Enterprise Architecture Laboratory (HEAL). A health information system is made up of discreet and modular building blocks that need to interoperate with one another. View moreHealth Enterprise Architecture Laboratory (HEAL) ...

  17. [Experience of international cooperation among Baltic countries in occupational health and security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloutka, E V; Andronova, E R; Dedkova, L E

    2013-01-01

    The article covers longstanding experience of international cooperation in occupational health and security with Baltic countries. The authors describe history of information network creation, its structure, objectives, importance for occupational health services and safety in the region.

  18. International school mental health: global approaches, global challenges, and global opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan

    2012-01-01

    School mental health programs from developed countries demonstrate that both the practice and research are becoming more important to policy makers, educators, health providers, parents, and other stakeholders. Some United Nations agencies and other international organizations have begun work to advance school mental health internationally. School-based mental health programming needs to be considered as part of usual child and youth mental health policies and plans, whether those are national or other jurisdictional in nature. Currently, a paucity of evidence-based and cost effective child and youth global mental health policies/programs exist, limiting school-based mental health programs being developed, implemented, or sustained.

  19. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    Information technology is changing the way elections are organized. Technology renders the electoral process more efficient, but things could also go wrong: Voting software is complex, it consists of over thousands of lines of code, which makes it error-prone. Technical problems may cause delays ...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....... at polling stations, or even delay the announcement of the final result. This thesis describes a set of methods to be used, for example, by system developers, administrators, or decision makers to examine election technologies, social choice algorithms and voter experience. Technology: Verifiability refers...... development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...

  20. 2017 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! After verification by the Electoral Commission, all candidates for the elections to the Staff Council have been registered. It is now up to you, members of the Staff Association, to vote for the candidate(s) of your choice. We hope that you will be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council! By doing so, you can support and encourage the women and men, who will represent you over the next two years. We are using an electronic voting system; all you need to do is click the link below and follow the instructions on the screen. https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2017 The deadline for voting is Monday, 13 November at midday (12 pm). Elections Timetable Monday 13 November, at noon Closing date for voting Tuesday 21 November and Tuesday 5 December Publication of the results in Echo Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 5 December (afternoon) First meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The ...

  1. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  2. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  3. Health | Page 16 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers with the Africa Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) have uncovered ways to strengthen health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Weak health systems cause a high burden of preventable and treatable illnesses, especially for those living in rural areas. Strong health systems are needed to provide adequate access ...

  4. Health | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers with the Africa Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) have uncovered ways to strengthen health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Weak health systems cause a high burden of preventable and treatable illnesses, especially for those living in rural areas. Strong health systems are needed to provide adequate access ...

  5. Young adults' psychological and physiological reactions to the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Zeiders, Katharine H; Chaku, Natasha; Toomey, Russell B; Nair, Rajni L

    2018-06-01

    Elections present unique opportunities to study how sociopolitical events influence individual processes. The current study examined 286 young adults' mood and diurnal cortisol responses to the 2016 U.S. presidential election in real-time: two days before the election, election night, and two days after the election of Donald Trump, with the goal of understanding whether (and the extent to which) the election influenced young adults' affective and biological states. Utilizing piecewise trajectory analyses, we observed high, and increasing, negative affect leading up to the election across all participants. Young adults who had negative perceptions of Trump's ability to fulfill the role of president and/or were part of a non-dominant social group (i.e., women, ethnic/racial minority young adults) reported increased signs of stress before the election and on election night. After the election, we observed a general "recovery" in self-reported mood; however, diurnal cortisol indicators suggested that there was an increase in biological stress among some groups. Overall, findings underscore the role of macro-level factors in individuals' health and well-being via more proximal attitudes and physiological functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Forgotten World on Campus: Acculturation and Health Issues of International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Behjat A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed international college students regarding their health conditions and student-health-center utilization motives and patterns. Significant gender differences existed in perceptions of health status and health behaviors. Many students had sleep-related problems. Language barriers was the main problem in making educational and sociocultural…

  7. Health of International Marriage Immigrant Women in South Korea: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Tiffany; Roh, Eun Ha; Song, Ju-Eun

    2017-06-05

    International marriage migration is now one of the most prominent forms of migration in Asia, and the number of women migrating to South Korea for marriage has increased dramatically in the last two decades. In this article, we provide a systematic review regarding the health status and health-related issues of international marriage immigrant women. The literature search identified 620 articles, of which 53 studies are presented in the article. Three overarching categories including six subcategories were identified according to the research focus; 'Environmental factors of health' including social support and barriers, 'Health status' including physical, psychological and social health, and quality of life as 'Outcome of health'. Overall women immigrants by marriage showed relatively poor health outcomes. Social support was an important factor affecting the health status and quality of life in this population. We offer recommendations to develop and implement culturally and linguistically appropriate health promoting programs for international marriage immigrant women in South Korea.

  8. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting Health Behaviors Using Peer Education: A Demonstration Project between International and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Finn, Kevin; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bent, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer education has the potential to promote health behaviors and cultural competence for both international and domestic college students. Purpose: The present study examined a peer education program aimed at promoting cultural competence and health behaviors among international and American students in a university setting. Methods:…

  10. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing: the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Achterberg, Theo; Holleman, Gerda; Heijnen-Kaales, Yvonne; van der Brug, Ype; Roodbol, Gabriël; Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; Hellema, Fokje; Frederiks, Carla M. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  11. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing : The international classification of functioning disability and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Achterberg, T; Holleman, G; Heijnen-Kaales, Y; Van der Brug, Y; Roodbol, G; Stallinga, HA; Hellema, F; Frederiks, CMA

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  12. An International Partnership in Health Care and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlton, Donna; Miller, Marie

    The faculty achievements and challenges in an international nursing education project between two colleges are presented. In the spring of 1985, the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) and the University Autonomous of Benito Juarez of Oaxaca (UABJO), Oaxaca, Mexico, entered into an international covenant to develop a baccalaureate nursing…

  13. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  14. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Lin

    Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these

  15. Healthy incentives: Canadian health reform in an international context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Michael; McArthur, William; Ramsay, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    .... Since health expenditures are one of the largest and fastest growing segments of provincial budgets, much of the fiscal reform taking place across the country has centred around cuts to health funding...

  16. International variation in socioeconomic inequalities in self reported health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Geurts, J. J.; van den Berg, J.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent to which the size of socioeconomic inequalities in self reported health varies among industrialised countries. DESIGN--Cross sectional data on the association between educational level and several health indicators were obtained from national health interview

  17. Health | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health concern in Latin America and the Caribbean and are responsible for one million years of potential life loss due to premature ... For example, they adapted to the Chilean context a Canadian occupational health tool that identifies risks to mental health in the workplace.

  18. International health law : why it matters to our world today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    We are witnessing a number of serious challenges in relation to health, including a change in disease patterns, some of which are lifestyle-related, as well as increasing health inequalities within and between states. What is more, many countries are struggling with the detrimental health effects of

  19. Gender Differences in Adult Health: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Omar; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…

  20. Health | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is limited evidence on how electronic health (eHealth) technologies can be used to enable the governance and functioning of health systems in low-income countries. ... In India's Karnataka state, girls and women face many barriers stemming from their low social status that are exacerbated by poverty and caste.

  1. Public Report on Health (India) - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although India has made significant progress in increasing life expectancy and in reducing infant and child mortality, health indicators in the less progressive states remain unacceptably poor. Preventive and public health services are neglected, forcing people to make high out-of-pocket expenditures on private health ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.992-2 - Election to be treated as a DISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.992-2 Election to be... sale, exchange, or other disposition, including a transfer by gift or at death. (2) Requirement for the...

  3. Factors influencing korean international students' preferences for mental health professionals: a conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed.

  4. The employee's productivity in the health care sector in Poland and their impact on the treatment process of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiek A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Rosiek,1,2 Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska,3 Łukasz Leksowski,4 Tomasz Kornatowski,2 Krzysztof Leksowski2,5 1Ross-Medica, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Public Health Department, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 5Department of General Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Military Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland Background: Increasing the engagement of employees in the treatment process of patients may benefit a hospital and employee productivity and may result in better patient care and satisfaction with medical services. Given this, the first step in improving the quality of patient care is better availability of doctors for patients in a hospital ward.Methods: The research for this paper was conducted in six health care units in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian province in Poland. The research assessed how the elements relating to employees’ behavior and things characteristic to medical service influence patients’ willingness to recommend a hospital.Results: Patients’ perception of services is linked with the behavior of medical employees and their engagement in the treatment process.Conclusion: Our research indicates that individual employee recognition and collective recognition of hospital employees as a whole were identified as the most important factors in employee engagement in the treatment process (employee productivity and patients’ satisfaction with medical service. Keywords: employee’s productivity, workplace interventions to enhance health, hospitals, organizational health, medical staff, public health

  5. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. 2015 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Elections Timetable Monday 26 October, at noon Start date for voting Monday 9 November, at noon Closing date for voting Monday 16 and Monday 23 November, publication of the results in Echo Monday 23 and Tuesday 24 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 1st December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 16 and 24 November. During its meeting of March 17 2015, the Staff Council approved the election rules, which define the allocation of seats in each department, as follows:   Number of seats in the electoral colleges Departments BE EN TE DG/DGS FP GS HR/PF IT PH Career paths AA - D 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 Career paths E - G 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 3   Global CERN Career paths AA - G 14     Number of seats for fellows representatives Global CERN 5 For more informat...

  7. 2015 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Elections Timetable Monday 21 September, at noon Start date for receipt of the application Friday 16 October, at noon Closing date for receipt of the applications Monday 26 October, at noon Start date for voting Monday 9 November, at noon Closing date for voting Monday 16 and Monday 23 November, publication of the results in Echo Monday 23 and Tuesday 24 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 1st December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 16 and 24 November. During its meeting of March 17 2015, the Staff Council approved the election rules, which define the allocation of seats in each department, as follows:   Number of seats in the electoral colleges Departments BE EN TE DG/DGS FP GS HR/PF IT PH Career paths AA - D 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 Career paths E - G 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 3   ...

  8. Evaluation of a Brief Marriage Intervention for Internal Behavioral Health Consultants in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0025 TITLE: Evaluation of a Brief Marriage Intervention for Internal Behavioral Health Consultants in Primary Care ... Health Consultants in Military Primary Care Year 1 Annual Report Introduction The most challenging community problems faced by senior military...conduct Marriage Checkup for Primary Care to nine Internal Behavioral Health Consultants (IBHCs) at four medical treatment facilities in the Air

  9. Strategies and Procedures for Expediting Election Petitions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    53 has made a far reaching innovation by specifying the time limit for concluding electoral disputes and appeals arising therefrom. Strategies for Expediting Election Petition Disputes. The primary aim of adjudication in election petitions should ...

  10. Political Broadcast Advertising and Primary Election Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, John

    1974-01-01

    Results of a research project which hypothisized that: Other things being equal, the heavier a candidate's usage of broadcast advertising in a primary election campaign, the greater will be his share of the votes in the election. (Author/HB)

  11. Is This Election the Most Important Ever?

    OpenAIRE

    E. James Burton

    2008-01-01

    In every presidential election I can remember, it seems someone has opined that it was the most important election ever. And perhaps that was so. Maybe the stakes do ratchet up each time we go to the polls.

  12. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  13. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 26 CFR 1.9004-1 - Election relating to the determination of gross income from the property for taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 1.9004-1 Section 1.9004-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... paving brick, drainage and roofing tile, sewer pipe, flower pots, and kindred products. The election must...

  15. International research teams-the social utility of health promotion and health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shpakou

    2016-04-01

    of new, innovative communication media. 2. Activities of VRTs to a significant extent contribute to an international research cooperation. 3. Verification of the health policy implemented by both academic centers poses a challenge to actions undertaken by Grodno and Suwalki VRTs.

  16. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  17. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  18. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Election process. 44.3 Section 44.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCESS FOR ELECTING STATE AGENCY EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS REPRESENTATIVES FOR CONSULTATIONS WITH DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 44.3 Election process. (a) Process. The Commissioner of Labor Statistics of...

  19. Media and the 2013 Kenyan election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013, Kenya held its first election after the post-election violence (PEV) in 2008, which media were blamed for contributing to by partisan reporting and hate speech. Prior to the 2013 election, several organizations worked to raise awareness of the negative consequences of hate speech...

  20. Political budget cycles and election outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses two empirical questions. Is fiscal policy affected by upcoming elections? If so, do election-motivated fiscal policies enhance the probability of re-election of the incumbent? Employing data for 65 democratic countries over 1975-2005 in a semi-pooled panel model, we find that in

  1. School governing body election deficiencies – deliberative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undemocratic features in the election process results in the election of unsuitable or incompetent candidates which has a detrimental effect on the governance of public schools. It is therefore recommended that a new set of nationally uniform SGB election regulations, which allows for transparent deliberation between ...

  2. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any further...

  3. Election 2017 Party policies and the future of the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2017-05-31

    Isn't this meant to be the Brexit election? Where does health fit in? Polls suggest the NHS is one of the key areas of concern for voters - possibly even more than Brexit. Labour would love this election to be all about the NHS, and has produced a raft of policies that should appeal to people working in it, including free car parking and an end to pay restraint. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has put the NHS at the heart of his campaign, promising an extra £37 billion for it by 2022.

  4. International students. Culture shock can affect the health of students from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamboyan, H.; Bryan, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Family physicians and other health care workers who have international students as patients should have a thorough understanding of their circumstances in order to manage their health problems effectively. These students often experience culture shock that could lead to serious psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems. PMID:8829581

  5. International students. Culture shock can affect the health of students from abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamboyan, H.; Bryan, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Family physicians and other health care workers who have international students as patients should have a thorough understanding of their circumstances in order to manage their health problems effectively. These students often experience culture shock that could lead to serious psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems.

  6. International students. Culture shock can affect the health of students from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamboyan, H; Bryan, A K

    1995-10-01

    Family physicians and other health care workers who have international students as patients should have a thorough understanding of their circumstances in order to manage their health problems effectively. These students often experience culture shock that could lead to serious psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems.

  7. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...] International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization Scheduling... Director-General of the World Health Organization ``With reference to article 2 of the Convention on... written comments and to request an informal public meeting concerning recommendations by the World Health...

  8. Research award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program aims to save and improve the lives of women, adolescents, and children by developing solutions that promote the quality and accountability of health services for the most vulnerable. We are particularly committed to developing solutions through implementation ...

  9. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Immunology research can also tackle some of the major health challenges low and middle-income countries face, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, vaccine development, and infectious diseases. To that end, the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is supporting six projects led by world-class teams that were selected ...

  10. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Strong research, analytical, and communication skills;; Familiarity with key institutions (including Canadian) that are active in global health research and policy;; An understanding of health systems and social and gender analysis; and; Proficiency in English and French. Please note that preference will be ...

  11. Climate change impacts health in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... Research is showing that climate change is having major impacts on human health. Weather-related disasters are on the rise and water- and vector-borne diseases are spreading. Strategies to adapt to the effects of climate change may also pose unforeseen health risks. Read more about a project in ...

  12. Health | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Bangladesh, young people are increasingly using cell phones to access health services. Photo: Lutful Husain. Read more about Making healthcare accessible in Bangladesh. Language English. Developing eHealth policies will increase access to care for rural populations in Kenya. Photo: Tech. Sgt. Daniel St. Pierre.

  13. International and Transracial Adoptions: A Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher; And Others

    The key dependent variable in adoption research is the child's mental health, in the short and the long term. Defining mental health as the development of basic ego strength and a feeling of self-worth, which enable an individual to cope with stresses later in life, this book focuses on how well adolescents and young adults have fared in adoption.…

  14. GIS for Health and the Environment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research presented in this book demonstrates how GIS data is being used to show cause effect relationships between environmental conditions and health. Case studies demonstrate how GIS can be used to monitor tropical diseases, water quality, environmental toxicology, and overall rural health. The book also ...

  15. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since its foundation in 1998, the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR) has sought to focus greater attention and resources on research that will improve the health of the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged. The Forum has also become an authoritative and independent source of reliable data, practical tools and ...

  16. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects.

  17. The role of internalized homonegativity in the faith and psychological health of lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Dane R; de St Aubin, Ed; Skerven, Kim

    2017-10-02

    Among lesbians, faith-based beliefs and behaviors may be associated with negative psychological health due to the interplay between religious and sexual identities. The present study examined health outcomes, faith-based beliefs (views of God as loving and controlling), faith-based behaviors (personal spiritual practices, religious activities), and internalized homonegativity in a sample of 225 self-identified lesbians. We hypothesized that internalized homonegativity would moderate the relationship between health outcomes and faith-based beliefs and behaviors among lesbians. Generally, results indicated that some faith-based beliefs and behaviors were related to negative health outcomes among lesbians with higher levels of internalized homonegativity, but among those with lower levels of internalized homonegativity, the negative associations with health were mitigated.

  18. THE INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE OF GLOBALIZATION IN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The social aspect of globalization is characteristic that in health care the increasing distribution is received by market mechanisms, turning medical care into the goods in «the market trading in services». In the conditions of inevitability of globalization experts of WHO recommend to observe a uniform world trend in health care availability, justice, quality of medical care. It often not productively as the same experts of WHO ascertain. In most cases, unfortunately, the effect appears negative. The general in health care reforming in the modern world of globalization is the state way of financing and health care regulation, including obligatory medical insurance (compulsory health insurance and the state guarantees of free medical care with emphasis on prevention. 

  19. New insights into health financing: First results of the international data collection under the System of Health Accounts 2011 framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Morgan, David

    2017-07-01

    International comparisons of health spending and financing are most frequently carried out using datasets of international organisations based on the System of Health Accounts (SHA). This accounting framework has recently been updated and 2016 saw the first international data collection under the new SHA 2011 guidelines. In addition to reaching better comparability of health spending figures and greater country coverage, the updated framework has seen changes in the dimension of health financing leading to important consequences when analysing health financing data. This article presents the first results of health spending and financing data collected under this new framework and highlights the areas where SHA 2011 has become a more useful tool for policy analysis, by complementing data on expenditure of health financing schemes with information about their revenue streams. It describes the major conceptual changes in the scope of health financing and highlights why comprehensive analyses based on SHA 2011 can provide for a more complete description and comparison of health financing across countries, facilitate a more meaningful discussion of fiscal sustainability of health spending by also analysing the revenues of compulsory public schemes and help to clarify the role of governments in financing health care - which is generally much bigger than previously documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  1. International cooperation for science and technology development: a way forward for equity in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Priscila Almeida; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de

    2015-01-01

    Since 1990, international organizations have been increasingly involved in building an international sub-regime for research, development and innovation in health. This article analyzes the priorities of developing countries in health since the 1990s. It is a descriptive and analytical study that investigates the literature and contributions of key informants. Calling for the end of global inequities in the support for science and technology in health, international organizations recommend that developing countries focus their efforts on neglected diseases and operational research, an insufficient agenda for science and technology cooperation to effectively overcome the vulnerabilities between countries.

  2. Some international activities in environmental health monitoring and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, V B; Ozolins, G; Hasegawa, Y; Pařizek, J

    1982-12-01

    Environmental health monitoring and surveillance include activities such as collection of information on the production and use of chemicals; preparation of inventories of waste discharges; measurement of physical, chemical and biological agents in air, water and food, at work place and at home; epidemiological investigations, and collection and analysis of environmental, and health statistical data. There are two main objectives of these activities: estimation of human exposure to potentially harmful environmental factors and timely detection of adverse health effects; and the assessment of environmental conditions in relation to established guidelines and standards. Environmental health monitoring and surveillance projects initiated, organized and implemented by the Specialized Agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system include monitoring of air and water quality and of food and animal feed contamination; pilot projects on air pollution exposure assessment and biological monitoring; and ionizing radiation surveillance. Principles of environmental and health monitoring in occupational environment, and of monitoring and surveillance of environmental health effects are outlined. Two examples are provided of national environmental health surveillance systems.

  3. Health | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Luces y sombras de la reforma de la salud en Colombia : Ley 100 de 1993. Language French. All economic activity depends on the environment. This simple fact has spurred the international community into giving more and more attention to the environment in general and the environmental performance ...

  4. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In October 2016, the partners launched the 3rd call for research proposals in the field of cancer. The proposals were evaluated by an international committee, Chaired by Prof. Edward Harlow from the Department of Biological Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School. Six world-class teams were ...

  5. Morality, consumerism and the internal market in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, T

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the managerially oriented reforms that have brought auditing and accounting into such prominence in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and which seem alien to the culture of the caring professions, consumerist reforms may seem to complement moves towards the acceptance of wide definitions of health, and towards increasing patient autonomy. The empowerment favoured by those who support patient autonomy sounds like the sort of empowerment that is sometimes associated with the patient's charter. For this reason moral criticism of recent NHS reforms may stop short of calling consumerism into question. This, however, would be a mistake: consumerism can be objectionable both within and beyond the health care market. PMID:9134485

  6. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  7. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 7. Taking stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the six papers published so far in this series on global trends in health science librarianship. Starting with a retrospective review of trends in the twentieth-century, the series has covered 6 different regions, with contributions from 21 countries. As this is the half-way point in the survey, it seems a useful point at which to reflect on what has emerged so far. The method of content analysis is used to identify key trends. The top five trends are explored. © 2013 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie Alley

    2017-01-01

    Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers. 432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62%) participating. The survey assessed participants' (A) demographic and global health background, (B) perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C) detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D) potential solutions. Thirty-four (of 66) barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale), Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a) Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b) Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC) but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications) negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness. That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type) were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional was

  9. Election Bias: Comparing Polls and Twitter in the 2016 U.S. Election

    OpenAIRE

    Anuta, David; Churchin, Josh; Luo, Jiebo

    2017-01-01

    While the polls have been the most trusted source for election predictions for decades, in the recent presidential election they were called inaccurate and biased. How inaccurate were the polls in this election and can social media beat the polls as an accurate election predictor? Polls from several news outlets and sentiment analysis on Twitter data were used, in conjunction with the results of the election, to answer this question and outline further research on the best method for predicti...

  10. Understanding attrition from international Internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.

  11. International "best practices" in health care: the roles of context and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Jim; Savage, Grant T; Friedman, Leonard H

    2015-01-01

    Explores recent approaches to international best practices and how they relate to context and innovation in health services. Critical review of existing research on best practices and how they created, diffused, and translate in the international setting. Best practices are widely used and discussed, but processes by which they are developed and diffused across international settings are not well understood. Further research is needed on innovation and dissemination of best practices internationally. This commentary points out directions for future research on innovation and diffusion of best practices, particularly in the international setting.

  12. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  13. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  14. ICTs are improving health equity in Jordan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) 2013 ... Rural and remote areas often lack specialized and experienced medical staff. Consequently, the health status in Jordan's rural communities is lower than in urban communities. To help bridge this gap, the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan (RSS) developed and implemented an electronic mobile health ...

  15. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  16. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.

  17. [Challenges in the health care of international migrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica; McIntyre, Ana María; Chepo, Macarena

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the perceptions of primary health workers (PHW) about the challenges of health care for migrants. A qualitative multicase study was conducted in eight communes of Chile, using the snowball technique, where 101 PHW and local authorities were recruited. Semi-structured interviews and focal groups were conducted, achieving information saturation. The findings were grouped into two major thematic axes: 1. Technical and administrative difficulties, and 2. Perception of cultural barriers. According to the PHW, although regulations have been established and health care strategies have been generated for the migrant population, these are mostly not stable or known to all PHW. They are also not easy to implement in the various realities investigated. The absence of records on the number of migrants accessing the health system makes it difficult to design specific interventions. Additionally, health care has complications, and the PHW do not necessarily have tools that allow them to provide a care that is culturally sensitive to the needs of the migrant community. The findings put into question the new challenges in health that Chile is facing in the face of the growing migrant population. The needs perceived by PHW are: stability and clarity in the regulations in force in relation to access and provision of services, training in regulations and the concrete way in which they should operate, and sensitization in cultural competence.

  18. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  19. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  20. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Katrina N.; Varga, Zolt?n M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding ...

  1. The differences between pregnant women who request elective caesarean and those who plan for vaginal birth based on Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsareh, Fatemeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Rajaei, Minoo; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Zare, Shahram

    2016-12-01

    Although vaginal birth is the safest type of childbirth, sometimes caesarean is necessary for the safety of the mother or the infant. The problem is that low-risk, healthy women are choosing caesarean as a birth option despite the fact that it is fraught with possible complications. To determine the differences and identify the predictors for the way women plan their childbirth based on Health Belief Model. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bandar abbas city, Iran, from May to October 2015. The study recruited eligible women who self identified themselves as requesting a caesarean or vaginal birth in their response to a questionnaire. Of 470 recruited women, 183 (38.9%) planned to have a caesarean without medical indication. Maternal characteristics (age, level of education, occupational status, involvement in a medical profession, and household income) and obstetric variables (health provider type, place of prenatal care, and the number of children planned for the future) influenced the decisions made by the women. There was a significant difference between women planning a caesarean and those planning vaginal birth in terms of childbirth knowledge. Significant differences were observed regarding maternal self-efficacy, with women planning a caesarean reporting significantly lower self-efficacy than women planning a vaginal birth. Women planning a caesarean birth were also significantly less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk for caesarean-related side effects than women planning a vaginal birth. Comprehensive childbirth knowledge can lead to positive maternal attitude towards vaginal birth and may improve birth confidence. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International trends in health science librarianship Part 10: The Greater China area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyun; Chan, Julia L Y; Lam, Louisa Mei Chun; Chiu, Tzu-Heng

    2014-06-01

    This is the 10th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The next issue will report on Japan and South Korea. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  3. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  4. Communication, control, and co-operation: (Latin) American interchanges in the history of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Hochman, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of historical studies of international health since the 1980s, showing that the field has gained considerable density and complexity. The authors touch on various current research trends in the history of international health, including reconsideration of so-called centre-periphery and imperial-colonial relations. They emphasize the important, if often forgotten, role of Latin America in the history of international health and bring attention to the relevance of Canada to the international health field, especially in the last 30 years. The article concludes by introducing the articles that make up this special issue of CBMH, pointing out their most significant findings and cross-cutting themes.

  5. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  6. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  7. [Internal audit--the foundation of healthcare quality management in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiianov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The paper proved the need for internal audit as the basis for quality control of medical care in a health facility, developed the project milestones and explains what needs to be taken into account at every stage during its implementation.

  8. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Improving the international response to infectious illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Zika virus in 2015-16 suggest similar operational difficulties within national and international public health agencies. ... a career, which can result in little institutional memory among generations of on-the-ground staff members. ...

  9. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research

  10. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  11. Moving towards South-South International Health: debts and challenges in the regional health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the increased interest in health as an important dimension of the foreign policy and diplomatic concerns together with the emergence of a new framework for regional health integration and regional health diplomacy. Second, it seeks to understand the role and practices of new regional blocs in the field of health and whether they are conducting to the emergence of new strategies for addressing health regional policies in South America. The regional policy process relates to health as a right. Thus, some practices and processes in social policy are setting new standards for political and social cohesion in the construction of new regionalism. Health crosses national, regional, and global agendas in a multi-directional fashion, rather than via one-way, top-down policy transfer. A special feature of Unasur is upholding regional health sovereignty despite the unique fact that member countries retain national autonomy. Unasur has projected foreign policy that promotes social values in ways that seem innovative. Experience as Unasur shows that regional organisms can become a game changer in global diplomacy and an influential actor in the international agenda. Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar,investigar el creciente interés en la salud como una dimensión importante de la política exterior, en sintonía con el surgimiento de un nuevo marcopara la integración regional y la diplomacia en salud. En segundo lugar, comprender el papel y las prácticas de los nuevos bloques regionales en el campo de la salud y si estasconducena la emergencia de nuevas estrategias para abordar las políticas sanitarias regionales en América del Sur. Los nuevos procesos de integración regional se refieren a la salud como un derecho. Así, algunas prácticas y procesos de la política regional están estableciendo nuevos patrones de cohesión política y social en el avancede un nuevo regionalismo

  12. Results of the 2009 elections

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    The elections to renew the Staff Council for the 2010-2011 period are now behind us and we are very pleased to have had at least as many candidates as posts in five of the six electoral colleges. Furthermore, the average rate of participation of 56.8% in these elections is a very good result compared to previous years. We thank the candidates who have committed themselves to actively defending the interests of the staff, and all our members have shown, by voting, their full support of the candidates in their college and Department. This newly-elected Staff Council (see its composition on the following page) will therefore be truly representative of all the sectors and professions of the Organization, which will be a major asset when the Staff Association representatives begin discussions with the Management and Member States in 2010 on the key issues of the five-yearly review and the measures to be taken to absorb the deficit of our Pension Fund. Armed with this vote of confidence, we know that we can count o...

  13. Results of the 2017 elections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The election of the Staff Council for the period 2018-2019 is now over and the first lesson is a turnout for the vote of 56.15 %, higher than for the previous election. This clearly shows the interest that members of the Staff Association attach to the work and dedication of their delegates. Of course we also thank all those who stood up as candidates and expressed their commitment to actively defend the interests of the staff and of CERN. This newly-elected Staff Council (see its composition below) is truly representative of all sectors and professions of the Organization. This will be a major asset when representatives of the Staff Association discuss with Management and Member States on issues which we will have to address during the next two years. Strong with this vote of confidence, we are certain that we can count on your active and ongoing support of our members and all personnel at CERN for the future. We know there will be no shortage of challenges. Together we will be stronger and more creative to...

  14. Results of the 2017 elections

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The election of the Staff Council for the period 2018-2019 is now over and the first lesson is a turnout for the vote of 56.15 %, higher than for the previous election. This clearly shows the interest that members of the Staff Association attach to the work and dedication of their delegates. Of course we also thank all those who stood up as candidates and expressed their commitment to actively defend the interests of the staff and of CERN. This newly-elected Staff Council (see its composition below) is truly representative of all sectors and professions of the Organization. This will be a major asset when representatives of the Staff Association discuss with Management and Member States on issues which we will have to address during the next two years. Strong with this vote of confidence, we are certain that we can count on your active and ongoing support of our members and all personnel at CERN for the future. We know there will be no shortage of challenges. Together we will be stronger and more creative to ...

  15. 2013 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Elections Timetable Starting with Echo of 16 September, posters, etc. call for applications Monday 21 October, at noon closing date for receipt of the applications Monday 28 October, at noon start date for voting Monday 11 November, at noon closing date for voting Monday 18 and Monday 25 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 19 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 3 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 18 and 25 November. n its meeting on 11 September 2013, the Electoral Commission decided on the following distribution of seats in colleges O.1 to O.6: Sectors Departments Career paths AA – A – B – C – D Career paths E – F – G – H Accelerators and Technology BE TE EN Electoral colle...

  16. 2011 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Elections Timetable Starting with Echo of 26 September, posters, etc. call for applications Wednesday 26 October, at noon closing date for receipt of the application Monday 31 October, at noon start date for voting Monday 14 November, at noon closing date for voting Monday 21 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 22 and Wednesday 29 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 6 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 21 November. In its meeting on 19 September 2011, the Electoral Commission decided on the following distribution of seats in colleges 0.1 to 0.6: Sector Department Career path AA – A – B – C – D Career path E – F – G – H Accelerators and Technology BE TE EN Electoral college 0.1 18 si&e...

  17. 2013 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Elections Timetable Starting with Echo of 16 September, posters, etc. call for applications Monday 21 October, at noon closing date for receipt of the applications Monday 28 October, at noon start date for voting Monday 11 November, at noon closing date for voting Monday 18 and Monday 25 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 19 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 3 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 18 and 25 November. n its meeting on 11 September 2013, the Electoral Commission decided on the following distribution of seats in colleges O.1 to O.6: Sectors Departments Career paths AA – A – B – C – D Career paths E – F – G – H Accelerators and Technology BE TE EN Electoral college 0.1 13 si&...

  18. International and Interdisciplinary Identification of Health Care Transition Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Cynthia; Cuttance, Jessica; Sharma, Niraj; Maslow, Gary; Wiener, Lori; Betz, Cecily; Porter, Jerlym; McLaughlin, Suzanne; Gilleland-Marchak, Jordan; Renwick, Amy; Naranjo, Diana; Jan, Sophia; Javalkar, Karina; Ferris, Maria

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of agreement on what constitutes successful outcomes for the process of health care transition (HCT) among adolescent and young adults with special health care needs. To present HCT outcomes identified by a Delphi process with an interdisciplinary group of participants. A Delphi method involving 3 stages was deployed to refine a list of HCT outcomes. This 18-month study (from January 5, 2013, of stage 1 to July 3, 2014, of stage 3) included an initial literature search, expert interviews, and then 2 waves of a web-based survey. On this survey, 93 participants from outpatient, community-based, and primary care clinics rated the importance of the top HCT outcomes identified by the Delphi process. Analyses were performed from July 5, 2014, to December 5, 2014. Health care transition outcomes of adolescents and young adults with special health care needs. Importance ratings of identified HCT outcomes rated on a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 9 (very important). The 2 waves of surveys included 117 and 93 participants as the list of outcomes was refined. Transition outcomes were refined by the 3 waves of the Delphi process, with quality of life being the highest-rated outcome with broad agreement. The 10 final outcomes identified included individual outcomes (quality of life, understanding the characteristics of conditions and complications, knowledge of medication, self-management, adherence to medication, and understanding health insurance), health services outcomes (attending medical appointments, having a medical home, and avoidance of unnecessary hospitalization), and a social outcome (having a social network). Participants indicated that different outcomes were likely needed for individuals with cognitive disabilities. Quality of life is an important construct relevant to HCT. Future research should identify valid measures associated with each outcome and further explore the role that quality of life plays in the HCT process. Achieving

  19. Solving Interoperability in Translational Health. Perspectives of Students from the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) 2016 Master Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Facelli, Julio C; Jaspers, Monique; Wetter, Thomas; Pfeifer, Daniel; Gatewood, Laël Cranmer; Adam, Terry; Li, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chin; Evans, R Scott; Beukenhorst, Anna; van Mens, Hugo Johan Theodoore; Tensen, Esmee; Bock, Christian; Fendrich, Laura; Seitz, Peter; Suleder, Julian; Aldelkhyyel, Ranyah; Bridgeman, Kent; Hu, Zhen; Sattler, Aaron; Guo, Shin-Yi; Mohaimenul, Islam Md Mohaimenul; Anggraini Ningrum, Dina Nur; Tung, Hsin-Ru; Bian, Jiantano; Plasek, Joseph M; Rommel, Casey; Burke, Juandalyn; Sohih, Harkirat

    2017-06-20

    In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This international biomedical and health informatics workshop was created to share knowledge and explore issues in biomedical health informatics (BHI). The goal of this paper is to summarize the discussions of biomedical and health informatics graduate students who were asked to define interoperability, and make critical observations to gather insight on how to improve biomedical education. Students were assigned to one of four groups and asked to define interoperability and explore potential solutions to current problems of interoperability in health care. We summarize here the student reports on the importance and possible solutions to the "interoperability problem" in biomedical informatics. Reports are provided from each of the four groups of highly qualified graduate students from leading BHI programs in the US, Europe and Asia. International workshops such as IPHIE provide a unique opportunity for graduate student learning and knowledge sharing. BHI faculty are encouraged to incorporate into their curriculum opportunities to exercise and strengthen student critical thinking to prepare our students for solving health informatics problems in the future.

  20. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving m...

  1. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  2. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  3. Acculturative Stress, Poor Mental Health and Condom-Use Intention among International Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningxi; Xu, Yayun; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Engaging in sexual risk behaviour can be a maladaptive strategy for international students to deal with stress. This study examined the role of poor mental health in mediating the relationship between acculturative stress and condom-use intention among international students in Beijing, China. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional…

  4. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  5. 26 CFR 1.856-8 - Revocation or termination of election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation or termination of election. 1.856-8 Section 1.856-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-8 Revocation or termination of...

  6. Themes affecting health-care consumers' choice of a hospital for elective surgery when receiving web-based comparative consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene; van der Weijden, Trudy; Tange, Huibert

    2010-03-01

    To get insights into the decision-making strategy of health-care consumers when confronted with comparative consumer information. Qualitative descriptive study among 18 consumers who had a hip or knee replacement no longer than five years ago. To study their decision-making strategies a paper draft for a website was used providing comparative consumer information. Data were collected by cognitive interviews and focus-group meetings and subjected to thematic analysis. Consumers were able to understand the presented information, but had problems to use it as a decision aid. They primarily relied on previous experiences. Four themes were revealed: decision making, perceived benefits, unmet information needs, and trustworthiness. Consumers used different decision strategies and showed unpredictable behavior when choosing a hospital. Individual decision strategies, unsatisfied information needs, limited tenability and too coarse aggregation levels of quality scores are barriers for a proper use of comparative consumer information. Personal experience remains a valuable information source for hospital selection. We suggest that a website presenting comparative consumer information should be flexible in various ways and should include functionality to share personal experience. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early elective versus delayed elective surgery in acute recurrent diverticulitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao Muhammad Asaf; Hajibandeh, Shahin; Hajibandeh, Shahab

    2017-10-01

    To investigate outcomes of early versus delayed surgery in patients with acute recurrent diverticulitis. We performed a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards. We conducted a search of electronic information sources, including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry; ClinicalTrials.gov; and ISRCTN Register, and bibliographic reference lists to identify all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies investigating outcomes of early versus delayed surgery in patients with acute recurrent diverticulitis. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the risk of bias of included studies. Random-effects models were applied to calculate pooled outcome data. We identified three retrospective and one prospective cohort studies enrolling a total of 1046 patients. The included patients were comparable in terms of age, ASA score and Hinchey classifications (Hinchey I and II). The results of our analyses suggested that there was no difference between two groups in surgical site infection [Odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% CI 0.79-3.27, P = 0.19], intra-abdominal abscess (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.21-4.00, P = 0.91), anastomotic leak (OR1.27, 95% CI 0.50-3.25, P = 0.61), 30-day mortality [Risk difference (RD) 0.00 95% CI -0.01-0.01, P = 0.80], postoperative ileus (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.50-3.66, P = 0.55), postoperative bleeding (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.32-2.69, P = 0.89), ureteric injury (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.08-5.07, P = 0.65), and overall morbidity (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.76-2.66, P = 0.27). The early surgery was associated with longer operative time [Mean Difference (MD) 12.8, 95% CI 5.08-20.53, P = 0.001] and length of stay (MD 4.41, 95% CI -0.34-8.53, P = 0.03). Among those undergoing laparoscopic surgery, conversion to open surgery was higher in the early surgery group (OR

  8. Social values and health policy: a new international research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Peter; Weale, Albert; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Faden, Ruth; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2012-01-01

    This editorial aims to outline the context of healthcare priority-setting, and summarise each of the other ten papers in this special edition. It introduces a new multidisciplinary research programme drawing on ethics, philosophy, health economics, political science and health technology assessment, out of which the papers in this edition have arisen. Key normative concepts are introduced and policy and research context provided to frame subsequent papers in the edition. Common challenges of health priority-setting are faced by many countries across the world, and a range of social value judgments is in play as resource allocation decisions are made. Although the challenges faced by different countries are in many ways similar, the way in which social values affect the processes and content of priority-setting decisions means that those challenges are resolved very differently in a variety of social, political, cultural and institutional settings, as subsequent papers in this edition demonstrate. How social values affect decision making in this way is the subject of a new multi-disciplinary research programme. Technical analyses of health priority setting are commonplace, but approaching the issues from the perspective of social values and conducting comparative analyses across countries with very different cultural, social and institutional contexts provides the content for a new research agenda.

  9. in_focus - Health: An Ecosystem Approach | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Côte d'Ivoire | Kenya | Brazil | Ecuador (Pesticides) | India | Ethiopia | Nepal | Mexico (Air Pollution) | Mexico (Malaria) | Cuba | Chile | Ecuador (Mining). Ecohealth Works Series: Agricultural Transformation · Environmental Pollution · Health in Urban Environments · Infectious Diseases. Lasting Impacts: Ecohealth: Improving ...

  10. International trends in health tourism: Implications for thermal spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Travel to thermal springs for the sake of health and healing can be traced at least as far back as the ancient Greeks and Romans, with the earliest forms of tourism being based on apparent curative powers of mineral-rich thermal waters. There are 11 thermal springs in the Western Cape, seven of which have been ...

  11. Health | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about The Health Gap: Beyond Pregnancy and Reproduction. Language English. A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced ...

  12. Health | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Aimed at development planners and students of nutrition, public health, anthropology, and human cultural ecology, this book discusses issues surrounding the use of natural sources of food for the prevention of vitamin A deficiency. Read more about Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A ...

  13. Mother and Child Health International Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    child.org/) is a demand-driven, participatory and non-proprietary online space for maternal-child health researchers to engage in online collaboration activities - often facilitated by "Web 2.0" technologies. Web 2.0 is a term that encompasses ...

  14. International Service and Public Health Learning Objectives for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C.; Duron, Vincent; Creigh, Peter; McIntosh, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to improve the education of medical students involved in a longitudinal perinatal health improvement project in Gowa, Malawi. Design: We conducted qualitative interviews with students who participated in the project, reviewed their quantitative reports, and assessed the application of methodologies consonant with the learning…

  15. Handheld boost to health care in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    Aug 29, 2012 ... They doubted that health workers who had never seen a computer would be able “to learn how to use these more complex, miniature computers,” Gebru recalls. Many officials also felt that money would be better spent on scarce drugs rather than untested gadgets. Researchers confronted those ideas ...

  16. Boosting capacity for health research in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Authors Caroline Kabiru, Chima Izugbara, Susan Wambugu, and Alex Ezeh share APHRC's reflections on its experiences implementing the ADDRF program — its successes and challenges. As attention focuses on health research capacity-strengthening in Africa and the need for African-led programs, ...

  17. Health | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Colour. #1BAEA7. Environmental, health, and sanitary requirements in developed countries are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. This book shows that such restrictions are perceived to be more stringent during the domestic production season or when stock levels are high.

  18. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... education and research and clinical service, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria will achieve ever-increasing national distinction as a health sciences college.College of Medicine, University of Nigeria will provide outstanding medical education through its faculty, staff, programs, centers of excellence and affiliates.

  19. Strengthening international health co-operation in Africa through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are the pillars of the African Union (AU), and have been recognized by the AU as the key vehicles for economic integration and cooperation in Africa. The 2003 Session of the AU Conference of African Ministers of. Health (CAMH) considered and adopted, inter alia, ...

  20. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Vietnam has made impressive strides in recent years in improving the health of mothers and children and in reducing deaths linked to pregnancy and childbirth. But in remote regions, maternal mortality rates are almost four times higher among ethnic minority groups. Census data shows that minority groups ...