WorldWideScience

Sample records for international health board

  1. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  2. Alaska Mental Health Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunization Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits coalitions statewide. Visit the AOPTF Website to learn more. Childhood Trauma Costs All Alaskans What we

  3. Board of Governors | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... internal control and management information systems are viable; Track corporate performance against strategic and business plans; Monitor the performance of the president and chief executive officer; Ensure IDRC has an effective communications strategy; Assess our own performance in fulfilling Board responsibilities ...

  4. Board members’ contribution to strategy: The mediating role of board internal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Barroso-Castro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore what directors do on the board, to what extent the processes occurring in the board allow the sharing and integrating of the existing knowledge, thus facilitating the board members’ contributions to strategy. We adopt the view that the internal board processes increase the impact of the cognitive resources on board performance. Using survey data from 200 large Spanish companies we demonstrate that directors’ level of knowledge of the firm and board job-related diversity positively influence the degree of the board's strategic involvement. Additionally, the internal processes that take place within the board – particularly Cognitive Conflict, the Critical and Independent Approach and the Comprehensive Discussion Process – influence the board's strategic involvement and play a partial mediating role on the aforementioned relationships. However, our results show no evidence for a positive relationship between Board Meeting Dynamics and the board's strategic involvement.

  5. Maintaining bone health in patients with multiple myeloma: survivorship care plan of the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Teresa S; Colson, Kathleen; Faiman, Beth M; Miller, Kena; Tariman, Joseph D

    2011-08-01

    About 90% of individuals with multiple myeloma will develop osteolytic bone lesions from increased osteoclastic and decreased osteoblastic activity. Severe morbidities from pathologic fractures and other skeletal events can lead to poor circulation, blood clots, muscle wasting, compromised performance status, and overall poor survival. Supportive care targeting bone disease is an essential adjunct to antimyeloma therapy. In addition, the maintenance of bone health in patients with multiple myeloma can significantly improve quality of life. Oncology nurses and other healthcare providers play a central role in the management of bone disease and maintenance throughout the course of treatment. Safe administration of bisphosphonates, promotion of exercise, maintenance of adequate nutrition, vitamin and mineral supplementation, scheduled radiographic examinations, and monitoring of bone complications are among the important functions that oncology nurses and healthcare providers perform in clinical practice.

  6. Internal medicine board certification and career pathways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ide, Hiroo; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Shimpo, Masahisa; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-05-08

    Establishing and managing a board certification system is a common concern for many countries. In Japan, the board certification system is under revision. The purpose of this study was to describe present status of internal medicine specialist board certification, to identify factors associated with maintenance of board certification and to investigate changes in area of practice when physicians move from hospital to clinic practice. We analyzed 2010 and 2012 data from the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists. We conducted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with the maintenance of board certification between 2010 and 2012. We also analyzed data on career transition from hospitals to clinics for hospital physicians with board certification. It was common for physicians seeking board certification to do so in their early career. The odds of maintaining board certification were lower in women and those working in locations other than academic hospitals, and higher in physicians with subspecialty practice areas. Among hospital physicians with board certification who moved to clinics between 2010 and 2012, 95.8% remained in internal medicine or its subspecialty areas and 87.7% maintained board certification but changed their practice from a subspecialty area to more general internal medicine. Revisions of the internal medicine board certification system must consider different physician career pathways including mid-career moves while maintaining certification quality. This will help to secure an adequate number and distribution of specialists. To meet the increasing demand for generalist physicians, it is important to design programs to train specialists in general practice.

  7. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  8. Private benefits and board size: International evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Shinozaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our analyses of 10,390 companies from 51 countries, we find that in countries that have small capital markets free cash flow is positively related to board size. However, this positive relation becomes significantly weak for companies in large securities markets. This result suggests that managers in underdeveloped capital markets have an incentive to construct less effective boards to extract private benefits. However, the distorted managerial incentive is alleviated in developed countries that have various disciplinary mechanisms to ensure good governance practices. We do not find clear evidence that legal protection of shareholder rights mitigates the managerial incentive to construct less effective boards.

  9. 4 CFR 28.17 - Internal petitions of Board employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the supervisor is unable to resolve the matter informally to the satisfaction of the employee, then... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal petitions of Board employees. 28.17 Section 28... of Board employees. (a) The provisions of the GAO Personnel Act, its implementing regulations, and...

  10. Federal Board of Health - annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The emphases of the work of the Federal Board of Health is on drug control, consumer protection with regard to health, environmental hygiene, radiation hygiene, preventation and intervention as well as on special subjects, as for instance the control of animal experiments and the supervision of biological safety of genetic engineering. In addition, central services, systems of information and documentation, publications and courses for professional and advanced training are offered. (DG) [de

  11. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. Report by the Director-General. Executive Board 95. session, provisional agenda item 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. This report by the Director General outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project

  12. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  13. 76 FR 58076 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director of the International Security Advisory Board..., 2011. Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director, International Security Advisory Board, U.S. Department...

  14. 78 FR 66984 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB); Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director of the International Security Advisory Board, U.... Richard W. Hartman, II, Executive Director, International Security Advisory Board, U.S. Department of...

  15. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  16. Board self-evaluation: the Bayside Health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Marr, Alison; Duckett, Stephen J

    2005-08-01

    Board evaluation is a critical component of good governance in any organisation. This paper describes the board self-evaluation process used by Bayside Health, a public health service in Melbourne. The question of how governing boards can assess their performance has received increasing attention over the past decade. In particular, the increasing demand for accountability to shareholders and regulators experienced by corporate sector Boards has resulted in greater scrutiny of board performance, with the market and the balance sheet providing some basis for assessment. Performance evaluation of governing boards in the public sector has been more challenging. Performance evaluation is complex in a sector that is not simply driven by the bottom line, where the stakeholders involve both government and the broader community, and where access to, and the quality and safety of the services provided, are often the major public criteria by which performance may be judged. While some practices from the corporate sector can be applied successfully in the public sector, this is not always the case, and public sector boards such as the Board of Directors of Bayside Health have been developing ways to evaluate and improve their performance.

  17. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the

  18. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  19. Up dating Islamic Boarding School Santri and Reproductive Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Asri Budisuari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Islamic boarding school system has long story in indonesia, they covered as much 14.798 student whoare teenager between 9–15 year old. Problems encountered with adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. Methods:An explorative research implemented in 3 provinces ie East Java, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB, East Kalimantan and sixIslamic boarding schools. Data were collected through questionnaires about reproductive health. Results: It showed 48,5%of respondents didn’t have enough knowledge, attitudes and behavior about reproductive health, 40% of respondents knewvery little about puberty, menstruation and wet dream, 71% of respondents had little knowledge about the risk of pregnancy;49% of respondents had not enough knowledge about sexually transmited diseases. 88% respondents said that they hadfall in love, 76% of respondents had positive courtship behavior. Conclusion: The information about reproductive healthin islamic boarding school for adolescents is still in adequate and only refer to yellow book. Health worker did not provideadequqte information. We still found student who have sex while when they were engaged still datting. Suggestion: Theneed of additional and up to date reproductive health information and the risks of sexual intercourse marriage it maybedelivery on interesting media, such as one social networking. A health reproductive modules consist of scientic materialand some knowledge has to be developed and should be delivery health worker. Reproductive health syllabus and trainingfor trainers for teachers of boarding school is needed.

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals.

  1. 76 FR 81005 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    .... For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director of the International Security..., 2011. Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director, International Security Advisory Board, U.S. Department...

  2. 76 FR 33700 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. Board members with continuing service include Elsa Murano... International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of the public meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural...

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular ...

  4. Research ethics board approval for an international thromboprophylaxis trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristina; Wilton, Kelly; Zytaruk, Nicole; Julien, Lisa; Hall, Richard; Harvey, Johanne; Skrobik, Yoanna; Vlahakis, Nicholas; Meade, Laurie; Matte, Andrea; Meade, Maureen; Burns, Karen; Albert, Martin; Cash, Bronwyn Barlow; Vallance, Shirley; Klinger, James; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Cook, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    Research ethics board (REB) review of scientific protocols is essential, ensuring participants' dignity, safety, and rights. The objectives of this study were to examine the time from submission to approval, to analyze predictors of approval time, and to describe the scope of conditions from REBs evaluating an international thromboprophylaxis trial. We generated survey items through literature review and investigators' discussions, creating 4 domains: respondent and institutional demographics, the REB application process, and alternate consent models. We conducted a document analysis that involved duplicate assessment of themes from REB critique of the protocol and informed consent forms (ICF). Approval was granted from 65 REB institutions, requiring 58 unique applications. We analyzed 44 (75.9%) of 58 documents and surveys. Survey respondents completing the applications had 8 (5-12) years of experience; 77% completed 4 or more REB applications in previous 5 years. Critical care personnel were represented on 54% of REBs. The time to approval was a median (interquartile range) of 75 (42, 150) days, taking longer for sites with national research consortium membership (89.1 vs 31.0 days, P = .03). Document analysis of the application process and ICF yielded 5 themes: methodology, data management, consent procedures, cataloguing, and miscellaneous. Protocol-specific themes focused on trial implementation, external critiques, and budget. The only theme specific to the ICF was risks and benefits. The most frequent comments on the protocol and ICF were about methodology and miscellaneous issues; ICF comments also addressed study risks and benefits. More studies on methods to enhance efficiency and consistency of the REB approval processes for clinical trials are needed while still maintaining high ethical standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...... for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value...

  6. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on ..... mediator generated by endothelial cells, ... Springer Science and Business Media,.

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal ... research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ... formulated as Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System ...... In vivo gastric studies were run.

  9. Polyimide Nanocomposite Circuit Board Materials to Mitigate Internal Electrostatic Discharge, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic T8.02, NASA has identified a need for improved circuit boards to mitigate the hazards of internal electrostatic discharge (IESD) on missions where high...

  10. The American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination and State Medical Board Disciplinary Actions: a Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2018-03-07

    Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.

  11. Eastern Health Board Regional Orthodontic Service: an initial audit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, P A

    1997-01-01

    This initial audit of 600 recently assessed Eastern Health Board orthodontic patients suggests that a large number of them (47 per cent) requires referral for routine restorative and preventive dental care. Closer links are needed with general dental practitioners and community dental surgeons to resolve these needs. The trend for a high referral of females and Class 11 Division 1 malocclusion type correlated well with studies in other countries.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... Conclusion: Permeation rate of drugs across the ..... New Delhi, McGraw Hill Medical Publishing ... Human skin permeation of.

  13. Sexual dysfunction in multiple myeloma: survivorship care plan of the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A; Bertolotti, Page A; Doss, Deborah; McCullagh, Emily J

    2011-08-01

    The World Health Organization describes sexuality as a "central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical, religious, and spiritual factors." Currently, no research has been conducted regarding sexual dysfunction in patients with multiple myeloma; therefore, information related to the assessment and evaluation of sexual dysfunction is gleaned from other malignancies and diseases. In this article, members of the International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board discuss the definition, presentation, and causes of sexual dysfunction; provide recommendations for sexual assessment practices; and promote discussion among patients with multiple myeloma, their healthcare providers, and their partners.

  14. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  15. Next level of board accountability in health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Armstrong, C Michael; Demski, Renee; Peterson, Ronald R; Rothman, Paul B

    2018-03-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer six principles that health system leaders can apply to establish a governance and management system for the quality of care and patient safety. Design/methodology/approach Leaders of a large academic health system set a goal of high reliability and formed a quality board committee in 2011 to oversee quality and patient safety everywhere care was delivered. Leaders of the health system and every entity, including inpatient hospitals, home care companies, and ambulatory services staff the committee. The committee works with the management for each entity to set and achieve quality goals. Through this work, the six principles emerged to address management structures and processes. Findings The principles are: ensure there is oversight for quality everywhere care is delivered under the health system; create a framework to organize and report the work; identify care areas where quality is ambiguous or underdeveloped (i.e. islands of quality) and work to ensure there is reporting and accountability for quality measures; create a consolidated quality statement similar to a financial statement; ensure the integrity of the data used to measure and report quality and safety performance; and transparently report performance and create an explicit accountability model. Originality/value This governance and management system for quality and safety functions similar to a finance system, with quality performance documented and reported, data integrity monitored, and accountability for performance from board to bedside. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of how a board has taken this type of systematic approach to oversee the quality of care.

  16. Metabolic monitoring in New Zealand district health board mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveley, Aimee; Soosay, Ian; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2017-11-10

    To audit New Zealand district health boards' (DHBs) metabolic monitoring policies in relation to consumers prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications using a best practice guideline. Metabolic monitoring policies from DHBs and one private clinic were analysed in relation to a best practice standard developed from the current literature and published guidelines relevant to metabolic syndrome. Fourteen of New Zealand's 20 DHBs currently have metabolic monitoring policies for consumers prescribed antipsychotic medication. Two of those policies are consistent with the literature-based guideline. Eight policies include actions to be taken when consumers meet criteria for metabolic syndrome. Four DHBs have systems for measuring their rates of metabolic monitoring. There is no consensus on who is clinically responsible for metabolic monitoring. Metabolic monitoring by mental health services in New Zealand reflects international experience that current levels of monitoring are low and policies are not always in place. Collaboration across the mental health and primary care sectors together with the adoption of a consensus guideline is needed to improve rates of monitoring and reduce current rates of physical health morbidities.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Reference Ranges for Fasting Profiles and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow .... medical textbooks [4, 5] and internet. In the.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-11-03

    Nov 3, 2008 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings ... Introduction ... worms are pathogenic for human beings. .... McGraw Hill Co., New York,.

  19. The representation of health professionals on governing boards of health care organizations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana J; Keepnews, David; Holmberg, Jessica; Murray, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The Representation of Health Professionals on Governing Boards of Health Care Organizations in New York City. The heightened importance of processes and outcomes of care-including their impact on health care organizations' (HCOs) financial health-translate into greater accountability for clinical performance on the part of HCO leaders, including their boards, during an era of health care reform. Quality and safety of care are now fiduciary responsibilities of HCO board members. The participation of health professionals on HCO governing bodies may be an asset to HCO governing boards because of their deep knowledge of clinical problems, best practices, quality indicators, and other issues related to the safety and quality of care. And yet, the sparse data that exist indicate that physicians comprise more than 20 % of the governing board members of hospitals while less than 5 % are nurses and no data exist on other health professionals. The purpose of this two-phased study is to examine health professionals' representations on HCOs-specifically hospitals, home care agencies, nursing homes, and federally qualified health centers-in New York City. Through a survey of these organizations, phase 1 of the study found that 93 % of hospitals had physicians on their governing boards, compared with 26 % with nurses, 7 % with dentists, and 4 % with social workers or psychologists. The overrepresentation of physicians declined with the other HCOs. Only 38 % of home care agencies had physicians on their governing boards, 29 % had nurses, and 24 % had social workers. Phase 2 focused on the barriers to the appointment of health professionals to governing boards of HCOs and the strategies to address these barriers. Sixteen health care leaders in the region were interviewed in this qualitative study. Barriers included invisibility of health professionals other than physicians; concerns about "special interests"; lack of financial resources for donations to the organization

  20. Assessing the Effects of the 2003 Resident Duty Hours Reform on Internal Medicine Board Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrick S.; Itani, Kamal M.F.; Rosen, Amy K.; Small, Dylan; Lipner, Rebecca S.; Bosk, Charles L.; Wang, Yanli; Halenar, Michael J.; Korovaichuk, Sophia; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hours reform affected medical knowledge as reflected by written board scores for internal medicine (IM) residents. Method The authors conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) Internal Medicine residents who started training before and after the 2003 duty hour reform using a merged data set of American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Board examination and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NMBE) United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge test scores. Specifically, using four regression models, the authors compared IM residents beginning PGY-1 training in 2000 and completing training unexposed to the 2003 duty hours reform (PGY-1 2000 cohort, n = 5,475) to PGY-1 cohorts starting in 2001 through 2005 (n = 28,008), all with some exposure to the reform. Results The mean ABIM board score for the unexposed PGY-1 2000 cohort (n = 5,475) was 491, SD = 85. Adjusting for demographics, program, and USMLE Step 2 exam score, the mean differences (95% CI) in ABIM board scores between the PGY-1 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 cohorts minus the PGY-1 2000 cohort were −5.43 (−7.63, −3.23), −3.44 (−5.65, −1.24), 2.58 (0.36, 4.79), 11.10 (8.88, 13.33) and 11.28 (8.98, 13.58) points respectively. None of these differences exceeded one-fifth of an SD in ABIM board scores. Conclusions The duty hours reforms of 2003 did not meaningfully affect medical knowledge as measured by scores on the ABIM board examinations. PMID:24556772

  1. Health and wellbeing boards: public health decision making bodies or political pawns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Z; McCafferty, S

    2017-02-01

    Health and Wellbeing boards in England are uniquely constituted; embedded in the local authorities with membership drawn from a range of stakeholders and partner organizations. This raises the question of how decision making functions of the boards reflects wider public health decision making, if criteria are applied to decision making, and what prioritization processes, if any, are used. Qualitative research methods were employed and five local boards were approached, interview dyads were conducted with the boards Chair and Director of Public Health across four of these (n = 4). Three questions were addressed: how are decisions made? What are the criteria applied to decision making? And how are criteria then prioritized? A thematic approach was used to analyse data identifying codes and extracting key themes. Equity, effectiveness and consistency with strategies of board and partners were most consistently identified by participants as criteria influencing decisions. Prioritization was described as an engaged and collaborative process, but criteria were not explicitly referenced in the decision making of the boards which instead made unstructured prioritization of population sub-groups or interventions agreed by consensus. Criteria identified are broadly consistent with those used in wider public health practice but additionally incorporated criteria which recognizes the political siting of the boards. The study explored the variety in different board's approaches to prioritization and identified a lack of clarity and rigour in the identification and use of criteria in prioritization processes. Decision making may benefit from the explicit inclusion of criteria in the prioritization process. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Health Informatics (ICHI). The conference was a new special topic conference initiative by the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), held in Vilamoura, Portugal on 7-9 November, 2013. The main theme of the ICHI2013 was “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies with Biomedicine for Global Health”. The proceedings offer a unique forum to examine enabling technologies of sensors, devices and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval of biomedical and health information as well as to report novel clinical applications of health information systems and the deployment of m-Health, e-Health, u-Health, p-Health and Telemedicine.

  3. An international nanoscience advisory board to improve and harmonize nanotechnology oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, Gary E.; White, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As governments around the world begin to implement regulations aimed at controlling nanotechnology, those regulations should be based upon the best available science, applied as consistently as possible within jurisdictions and, to the extent feasible, across jurisdictions. These goals would be easier to achieve with the creation of an international nanoscience advisory board. Such a body could be modeled on similar international scientific advisory bodies for other issues, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Such a body should also take into account lessons learned from these similar organizations. An international nanoscience advisory board could assist regulatory bodies by providing a central source of accurate scientific information about the risks and benefits of nanotechnology, including relevant uncertainties, rather than having each regulatory body make these determinations independently. An international nanoscience advisory board could facilitate harmonization within and between jurisdictions by involving the top experts in the field to produce a centralized knowledge base for regulatory decisions. While an international nanoscience advisory board presents many potential benefits, it also faces significant difficulties, which are best illustrated by examining the history and challenges of existing international science advisory bodies.

  4. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage multidisciplinary research and collaboration ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to allow authors ... access to medicine, infrastructural decay, quality of health professional, poor adherence to ...

  5. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  6. Democratising health care governance? New Zealand's inaugural district health board elections, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand's 'district health board' (DHB) system has been under implementation since the 1999 general election. A key factor motivating the change to DHBs is the democratisation of health care governance. A majority of the new DHB members are popularly elected. Previously, hospital board members were government appointees. Inaugural DHB elections were held in October 2001. This article reports on the election results and the wider operating context for DHBs. It notes organisational issues to be considered for the next DHB elections in 2004, and questions the extent to which the elections and DHB governance structure will enhance health care democratisation in New Zealand.

  7. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D

    2014-01-19

    To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, pInternal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.

  8. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392-MLA; ASLBP No. 11-910-01-MLA-BD01] Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium Conversion Facility... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19, 74...

  9. Minutes of the First International Editorial Board Meeting of Chinese Journal of Traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan-Yuan; Tian, Y

    2016-06-01

    The First International Editorial Board Meeting of Chinese Journal of Traumatology was held in Guiyang, China on August 16, 2015. Totally 32 domestic and 20 foreign professors from America, Europe, Asia and Oceania attended the panel discussion about the future of this journal. Some experience from globally excellent journals was proposed.

  10. HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME -- announcement from the CHIS Board

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    A number of members of our Health Insurance Scheme are currently experiencing difficulties getting reimbursement for consulting an acupuncture practitioner. The CHIS Board wishes to remind you that in order to be reimbursed, you must receive your acupuncture treatment from doctors recognised by the competent authorities of the country in which they have their medical practice. In Switzerland, these are people possessing the title of doctor of medicine recognised by the Swiss Medical Association (FMH). Treatment provided by medical auxiliaries must be prescribed beforehand by a recognised doctor. As the practitioner in question is currently not recognised as a doctor in Switzerland, his services are not reimbursed. In order to avoid any inconvenience, we advise you to contact uniqa before undergoing such treatment. You will find all details concerning reimbursement of complementary medicine (acupuncture, chiropractic, osteopathy and ethiopathy) in CHISbull’ No. 18 dated November 2004, which can ...

  11. HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME - announcement from the CHIS Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A number of members of our Health Insurance Scheme are currently experiencing difficulties getting reimbursement for consulting an acupuncture practitioner. The CHIS Board wishes to remind you that in order to be reimbursed, you must receive your acupuncture treatment from doctors recognised by the competent authorities of the country in which they have their medical practice. In Switzerland, these are people possessing the title of doctor of medicine recognised by the Swiss Medical Association (FMH). Treatment provided by medical auxiliaries must be prescribed beforehand by a recognised doctor. As the practitioner in question is currently not recognised as a doctor in Switzerland, his services are not reimbursed. In order to avoid any inconvenience, we advise you to contact uniqa before undergoing such treatment. You will find all details concerning reimbursement of complementary medicine (acupuncture, chiropractic, osteopathy and ethiopathy) in CHISbull' No. 18 dated November 2004, which can also be co...

  12. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), Coordinating Center for Health Promotion (CCHP): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), Coordinating Center for Health Promotion (CCHP): Notice of Charter Amendment... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). [[Page 42449

  13. Trends in international health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars

    2002-01-01

    "... Good population health is a crucial input into poverty reduction, economic growth and long-term economic development... This point is widely recognised by analysts and policy makers, but is greatly underestimated in its qualitative and quantitative significance, and in the investment allocations of many developing country and donor governments."--Commission on Macroeconomics and Health The international health development scene has changed rapidly during the past 5 years. From being a merely bilateral effort together with a few multilateral organisations and many NGOs new global partnerships have entered the scene and become major funding agencies. The provision of aid has also changed from small-scale project basis to financial support of large programmes. The purpose of this article is to describe some of the major transformations taken place in the organising, delivery and objective of international health development. But before presenting the new international health development agenda, a short introduction to the challenges inducing the need for renewed thinking about international aid is shortly presented.

  14. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-06-06

    Jun 6, 2009 ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering fields). ... International Journal of Health Research, June 2009; 2(2): 195-199 (e2213p91-95) ... were measured in the diabetic and non-diabetic rats. .... People with Type 2 diabetes are at.

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... international forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. ... school students in Benin City is still poor and the adolescents still engage in ... people often have to overcome the stigma and discrimination, and address some of the most ...

  17. Message from the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHISB)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the end of 2006, the Management of Clinique La Colline canceled its 2005 tariff agreement with the health insurance schemes of international organizations (CERN, ILO-ITU, WHO, UNOG). The proposed 2007 tariffs were unacceptable to these schemes as they included an average increase of 12%. No agreement was found and therefore this clinic is no longer approved by the CHIS, according to the definition given in the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Our Administrator, UNIQA, will no longer act as paying third party for any hospitalisation which has not already been planned and agreed. More information will appear in the next issue of the CHISBull'. Tel.74484

  18. 76 FR 5340 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Hilton Washington Dulles Hotel, 13869 Park Center Road, Herndon, Virginia, 20171 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health Board (DHB) Web site: http://www.ha.osd... the Defense Health Board until the next open meeting. The Designated Federal Officer will review all...

  19. The internal processes and behavioral dynamics of hospital boards: an exploration of differences between high- and low-performing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nancy M; Clark, Jonathan R; Rivenson, Howard L

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit hospital boards are under increasing pressure to improve financial, clinical, and charitable and community benefit performance. Most research on board effectiveness focuses on variables measuring board structure and attributes associated with competing ideal models of board roles. However, the results do not provide clear evidence that one role is superior to another and suggest that in practice boards pursue hybrid roles. Board dynamics and processes have received less attention from researchers, but emerging theoretical frameworks highlight them as key to effective corporate governance. We explored differences in board processes and behavioral dynamics between financially high- and low-performing hospitals, with the goal of developing a better understanding of the best board practices in nonprofit hospitals. A comparative case study approach allowed for in-depth, qualitative assessments of how the internal workings of boards differ between low- and high-performing facilities. Boards of hospitals with strong financial performance exhibited behavioral dynamics and internal processes that differed in important ways from those of hospitals with poor financial performance. Boards need to actively attend to key processes and foster positive group dynamics in decision making to be more effective in governing hospitals.

  20. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...

  1. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-05-07

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  2. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  3. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  4. Performance during internal medicine residency training and subsequent disciplinary action by state licensing boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Arnold, Gerald K; Blank, Linda L; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-06-03

    Physicians who are disciplined by state licensing boards are more likely to have demonstrated unprofessional behavior in medical school. Information is limited on whether similar performance measures taken during residency can predict performance as practicing physicians. To determine whether performance measures during residency predict the likelihood of future disciplinary actions against practicing internists. Retrospective cohort study. State licensing board disciplinary actions against physicians from 1990 to 2006. 66,171 physicians who entered internal medicine residency training in the United States from 1990 to 2000 and became diplomates. Predictor variables included components of the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary ratings and American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores. 2 performance measures independently predicted disciplinary action. A low professionalism rating on the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary predicted increased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2]), and high performance on the ABIM certification examination predicted decreased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 0.7 [CI, 0.60 to 0.70] for American or Canadian medical school graduates and 0.9 [CI, 0.80 to 1.0] for international medical school graduates). Progressively better professionalism ratings and ABIM certification examination scores were associated with less risk for subsequent disciplinary actions; the risk ranged from 4.0% for the lowest professionalism rating to 0.5% for the highest and from 2.5% for the lowest examination scores to 0.0% for the highest. The study was retrospective. Some diplomates may have practiced outside of the United States. Nondiplomates were excluded. Poor performance on behavioral and cognitive measures during residency are associated with greater risk for state licensing board actions against practicing physicians at every point on a performance continuum. These findings support

  5. 77 FR 12577 - Department of Defense (DoD) Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries; Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries; Federal Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: DoD. ACTION: Meeting... DoD Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries will take place. DATES: Friday, August 3... Contact: Persons desiring to attend the DoD Medicare- Eligible Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries...

  6. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with..., research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health... Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide...

  7. 77 FR 47850 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with..., research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health... Occupational Safety and Health on research and prevention programs. Specifically, the Board shall provide...

  8. 78 FR 51729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with... demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health. The Board of Scientific Counselors shall provide guidance to the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on...

  9. 76 FR 28790 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Hearing Loss Prevention; Personal Protective Technologies; Health Hazard Evaluations; Construction Safety... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with... relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health. The Board of Scientific Counselors shall...

  10. 76 FR 65729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Recommendations for Respiratory Diseases, Hearing Loss Prevention, Personal Protective Technologies, and Health... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with..., and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health. The Board of...

  11. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Brateanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision

  12. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  13. African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) is a 10-year Canadian International ... for strengthening African-led health systems and human resources for health. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  14. Using an International Medical Advisory Board to guide clinical governance in a corporate refractive surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John A

    2009-07-01

    To describe the role played by the International Medical Advisory Board (IMAB) in clinical and corporate governance at Optical Express, a corporate provider of refractive surgery. A review of goals, objectives, and actions of the IMAB. The IMAB has contributed to study design, data analysis, and selection of instruments and procedures. Through interactions with Optical Express corporate and clinical staff, the IMAB has supported management's effort to craft a corporate culture focused on continuous improvement in the safety and visual outcomes of refractive surgery. The IMAB has fashioned significant changes in corporate policies and procedures and has had an impact on corporate culture at Optical Express.

  15. A persistent lack of international representation on editorial boards in environmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Johanna; Palmas, Sebastian; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Riemer, Kristina; Allen, Pablo E; Berkebile, Nathan; Hecht, Kirsten A; Kastner-Wilcox, Kay; Núñez-Regueiro, Mauricio M; Prince, Candice; Rios, Constanza; Ross, Erica; Sangha, Bhagatveer; Tyler, Tia; Ungvari-Martin, Judit; Villegas, Mariana; Cataldo, Tara T; Bruna, Emilio M

    2017-12-01

    The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals. Over the course of 3 decades, there were 3,827 unique scientists based in 70 countries who served as editors. The size of the editorial community increased over time-the number of editors serving in 2014 was 4-fold greater than in 1985-as did the number of countries in which editors were based. Nevertheless, editors based outside the "Global North" (the group of economically developed countries with high per capita gross domestic product [GDP] that collectively concentrate most global wealth) were extremely rare. Furthermore, 67.18% of all editors were based in either the United States or the United Kingdom. Consequently, geographic diversity-already low in 1985-remained unchanged through 2014. We argue that this limited geographic diversity can detrimentally affect the creativity of scholarship published in journals, the progress and direction of research, the composition of the STEM workforce, and the development of science in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia (i.e., the "Global South").

  16. A persistent lack of international representation on editorial boards in environmental biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Espin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals. Over the course of 3 decades, there were 3,827 unique scientists based in 70 countries who served as editors. The size of the editorial community increased over time-the number of editors serving in 2014 was 4-fold greater than in 1985-as did the number of countries in which editors were based. Nevertheless, editors based outside the "Global North" (the group of economically developed countries with high per capita gross domestic product [GDP] that collectively concentrate most global wealth were extremely rare. Furthermore, 67.18% of all editors were based in either the United States or the United Kingdom. Consequently, geographic diversity-already low in 1985-remained unchanged through 2014. We argue that this limited geographic diversity can detrimentally affect the creativity of scholarship published in journals, the progress and direction of research, the composition of the STEM workforce, and the development of science in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia (i.e., the "Global South".

  17. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  18. 78 FR 48151 - Defense Health Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... implications of trends in overweight and obesity in America for the DoD and the report on the Deployment Health... by the subcommittees on the sustainment and advancement of amputee care, deployment pulmonary health... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Health Board; Notice of Federal Advisory...

  19. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  20. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  1. 78 FR 19268 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  2. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  3. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  4. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  5. 78 FR 38346 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  6. 77 FR 15761 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  7. 78 FR 732 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  8. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  9. 78 FR 62635 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  10. 75 FR 39029 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  11. 76 FR 77235 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  12. The relationship of five boarding school experiences and physical health status among Northern Plains Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running Bear, Ursula; Croy, Calvin D; Kaufman, Carol E; Thayer, Zaneta M; Manson, Spero M

    2018-01-01

    American Indian (AI) boarding school attendance is related to poor physical health status; however, little is known about how specific aspects of this experience contribute to poor health. Five experiences (age of first attendance, limited family visits, forced church attendance, prohibition on practicing AI culture and traditions, and punishment for use of AI language) may be independently associated with physical health status in adulthood. We expected the effect to be greater for those who began boarding school at older ages. Data on AI boarding school attenders (n = 771) came from the AI-Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project. Multiple linear regression models examined the association of these five experiences with physical health status. Additionally, we conducted a separate set of regressions to test for an interaction effect of age of first attendance. Each of the five experiences noted above were independently associated with poorer physical health status compared to those who did not have these experiences. An interaction effect for those punished for use of AI language and who were aged 8 or older was confirmed. Findings are consistent with reports that boarding school attendance is related to poor AI adult health. To inform AI health programs, the relationship of specific diseases and boarding school attendance should be considered.

  13. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  14. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ... This is the official publication of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria under the ... Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian students ...

  15. Delivering democracy? An analysis of New Zealand's District Health Board elections, 2001 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin

    2005-08-01

    The district health board (DHB) system is New Zealand's present structure for the governance and delivery of publicly-funded health care. An aim of the DHB system is to democratise health care governance, and a key element of DHBs is elected membership of their governing boards. This article focuses on the electoral component of DHBs. It reports on the first DHB elections of 2001 and recent 2004 elections. The article presents and discusses data regarding candidates, the electoral process, voter behaviour and election results. It suggests that the extent to which the DHB elections are contributing to aims of democratisation is questionable.

  16. International Maritime Health Promotion Programme 2007-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Rodriguez, Maria Manuela; Canals, Maria Luisa

    effect. Change of the pattern of risk factors in the population strategy, however, have been shown in a Finnish study. In addition, the SHIP project international relates to the population strategy. Though no direct health effect can be measured, the program has been successfully performed. The effects......Background: Prevention of diabetes-2, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer and overweight is needed in general and in seafaring as well. The diseases are related to three main causal factors: diet, physical activity and smoking. Seafarers have their daily life on board and health promotion is a natural...... part of the occupational health for seafarers. WHO use the concept of a high-risk strategy and a population strategy for prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Speaking about intervention studies, related to the population strategy, there are few if any studies with known long-term health...

  17. National Differences in Regional Emergency Department Boarding Times: Are US Emergency Departments Prepared for a Public Health Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer S; Karp, David; Delgado, M Kit; Margolis, Gregg; Wiebe, Douglas J; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-08-01

    Boarding admitted patients decreases emergency department (ED) capacity to accommodate daily patient surge. Boarding in regional hospitals may decrease the ability to meet community needs during a public health emergency. This study examined differences in regional patient boarding times across the United States and in regions at risk for public health emergencies. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed by using 2012 ED visit data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) database and 2012 hospital ED boarding data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database. Hospitals were grouped into hospital referral regions (HRRs). The primary outcome was mean ED boarding time per HRR. Spatial hot spot analysis examined boarding time spatial clustering. A total of 3317 of 4671 (71%) hospitals were included in the study cohort. A total of 45 high-boarding-time HRRs clustered along the East/West coasts and 67 low-boarding-time HRRs clustered in the Midwest/Northern Plains regions. A total of 86% of HRRs at risk for a terrorist event had high boarding times and 36% of HRRs with frequent natural disasters had high boarding times. Urban, coastal areas have the longest boarding times and are clustered with other high-boarding-time HRRs. Longer boarding times suggest a heightened level of vulnerability and a need to enhance surge capacity because these regions have difficulty meeting daily emergency care demands and are at increased risk for disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:576-582).

  18. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...

  19. Unlicensed Boarding House Managers' Experiences and Perceptions of Need in Residents with Mental Health and Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Frank P.; Tweedie, Rosemarie; van der Weyden, Chantelle; Cowlin, Feona

    2012-01-01

    Unlicensed boarding houses provide low cost accommodation for many people who have mental health and/or alcohol or other drug problems. The present study explored the needs and experiences of owners and managers of unlicensed boarding houses who have residents with MH and AOD problems. Twenty-three boarding house managers (BHMs) from Illawarra and…

  20. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  1. Lifestyle factors in Croatian seafarers as relating to health and stress on board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2017-01-01

    Seafaring is characterized by specific stressors and health risks. The purpose of this article was to compare the prevalence of various lifestyle factors between the shipping and home environments, and in addition to test the relations between lifestyle factors, perceived stress on board, and health in seafarers. A total of 530 Croatian seafarers participated in an on-line survey. The questionnaire contained requests for demographic data and a set of questions relating to lifestyle, stress on board, physical health symptoms, and mental health. The data showed higher sleep deprivation, higher levels of smoking and unhealthier diet at sea than at home, with prevalence of alcohol consumption and physical exercise being more favourable for the shipping environment. Sleep deprivation, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking are shown as negative correlates of various measures of health. Stress on board was associated with sleep deprivation and unhealthy diet, and with more unfavourable physical and mental health. The results give practical implications for promoting health in seafarers. Some of the lifestyle factors tested, such as alcohol use, smoking and physical exercise, fall rather under individual control, but others, such as a healthy, balanced diet on board and sleeping hygiene at sea, should be improved by shipping management.

  2. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... women of African and Asian ancestry were also transported from their home countries to. America to work. Movement from ... barriers to health care utilization.

  4. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    . The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international......The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  5. 77 FR 46425 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... briefings regarding military health needs and priorities including, a vote on Supraglottic Airways... Groups Ad Hoc Work Group, and Military Health Systems Governance Updates. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b, as... DHB. Special Accommodations If special accommodations are required to attend (sign language...

  6. 77 FR 66443 - Renewal of the Defense Health Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Academia; Health Care Finance/Economics; Health Care Policy/Executive Leadership; and Patient Care. The... at least one of the following disciplines: Clergy, DoD leadership, Human Research Protection... formal bioethics or medical ethics training or experience. The Subcommittee, when tasked according to DoD...

  7. "Psychological Boarding" and Community-Based Behavioral Health Crisis Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Saxon, Verletta

    2018-01-27

    This exploratory paper presents a case study where a community based mental health organization forging a partnership with a local hospital system to establish a crisis stabilization unit (CSU) to address behavioral health emergency care. The study takes a mixed methods case study approach to address two research questions; (a) did this approach reduce the overall length of stay in the hospital emergency departments? (b) What challenges did the taskforce face in implementing this CSU model? The paper shares recommendation from the findings.

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    (27.9%) and 17.0% for general/teaching hospitals and only. 12.3% for primary ... and that within the public sector, the higher levels of health facilities are ... health facilities attributed mostly to issues of easy access ..... and tertiary education.

  9. Information about Editor-in-Chief and the Secretary of the International Scholarly Board of Religious and Sacred Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Tytko, Marek Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Tekst jest informacją biograficzną o redaktorze naczelnym i Sekretarzu Międzynarodowej Rady Naukowej "Religious and Sacred Poetry". The text is the biographical information about editor-in-chief and the secretary of the International Scholarly Board of Religious and Sacred Poetry

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and ...

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) ... pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related engineering and social science fields. ... Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated Pawpaw (Carica papaya L) on ...

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-28

    Dec 28, 2009 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... al [8] for the detection of schistosome DNA in faeces. ..... save the inhabitants from the socio- economic ...

  13. 75 FR 11868 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Colorado Springs Marriott hotel, 5580 Tech Center Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80919. Written statements may.... Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... will review all timely submissions with the Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of...

  14. 75 FR 5289 - Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... meeting will be held at the Doubletree Hotel Cocoa Beach, 2080 North Atlantic Avenue, Cocoa Beach, Florida.... Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... next open meeting. The Designated Federal Officer will review all timely submissions with the Defense...

  15. 76 FR 41221 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... August 8, 2011, the DHB will receive briefings regarding military health needs and priorities. The DHB... briefings about the DoD Institutional Review Board, the Military Infectious Diseases Research Program, and... (sign language, wheelchair accessibility) please contact Ms. Lisa Jarrett at (703) 681- 8448 Ext. 1280...

  16. 75 FR 82030 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics (BSC, NCHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and... below. All requests must contain the name, address, telephone number, and organizational affiliation of...

  17. 78 FR 48163 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... listed below. All requests must contain the name, address, telephone number, and organizational...

  18. 75 FR 17754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics, (BSC, NCHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and... name, address, telephone number, and organizational affiliation of the presenter. Written comments...

  19. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... contain the name, address, telephone number, and organizational affiliation of the presenter. Written...

  20. 78 FR 48438 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... listed below. All requests must contain the name, address, telephone number, and organizational...

  1. 77 FR 22326 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics, (BSC, NCHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and..., and organizational affiliation of the presenter. Written comments should not exceed five single-spaced...

  2. 78 FR 32657 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases and other impairments; (2... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of...

  3. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14, 2013, at the... research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...

  4. Changes to the law on consent following Montgomery vs Lanarkshire Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearkin, Louis

    2016-06-01

    The Supreme Court's determination on Montgomery (AP) (Appellant) v Lanarkshire Health Board (Respondent) (Scotland) [2015] clarified UK law on consent. It is for the informed patient to determine which intervention, if any, they will undergo. All doctors must meet this standard and may need to reassess their practice to do so.

  5. Investigation of medical board reports of disability due to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yildiz

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We think that this report might be helpful for regulations related to disabled people, and might guide adult psychiatric services for patients who present to medical boards for disability due to mental health problems. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 253-258

  6. infant mortality and the Kimberley Board of Health, 1898-1977

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leonard B. Lerer. Annual reports of the Kimberley Board of Health, established in 1883. provide rich insight into public hearth discourse on infant mortality. Commentaries on the determinants of infant mortality, especially prior to 1950, largely focus on poverty and interracial disparities, issues relevant to current heatth policy.

  7. 77 FR 8330 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Disorders; HCR 2--Substance Use Disorders; HCR 3--Rehabilitation/Rural; HCR 4--Women's Health; HCR 5--Pain... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on March 6-8, 2012, at the Hilton New Orleans... to the Chief Research and Development Officer. On March 6, the subcommittee on Nursing Research...

  8. Swasti: An International Health Resource Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swasti, an International Health Resource Centre was established in 2002 in India. The objective was to enhance the health and well-being of communities, particularly the marginalized. Swasti’s main focus lies in the areas of primary health, sexual and reproductive health including HIV, communicable and non-communicable diseases, water, sanitation and hygiene and gender based violence. The organization, during the last decade has grown in leaps and bounds reaching out to the most affected comm...

  9. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research: Submissions ... The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines ... adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields).

  10. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  11. Performance management models for public health: Public Health Accreditation Board/Baldrige connections, alignment, and distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Grace G; Klater, David M; Mason, Marlene; Russo, Pamela; Rivera, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    The nationally known Malcolm Baldrige Award for Excellence ("Baldrige program") recognizes outstanding performance management and is specifically cited by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) as a potential framework for PHAB's requisite performance management system. The authors developed a crosswalk that identifies alignments between the 2 programs and is a highlight of the Quest for Exceptional Performance tool that is intended to help health departments capitalize on the connections between the 2 programs. To provide deeper insight into the most robust connections between the 2 programs. The authors developed a crosswalk by listing the PHAB measures, identifying corresponding Baldrige areas to address, and assigning a rating regarding the strength of the alignment. Subsequently, they generated a matrix with numerical scores reflecting the strength of the PHAB-Baldrige alignments that were then analyzed for frequency and strength of alignment by PHAB domain and by Baldrige category. The tool developers and 3 public health leaders with experience in the Baldrige program contributed to both the design and the analyses. The measures used reflected both the frequency and strength of alignments. Of the 123 alignments identified in the crosswalk, 39 were rated as high, 40 as medium, and 44 as low. The strongest connections were in the areas of performance management, quality improvement, strategic planning, workforce development, assessment and analysis, and customer service. While the areas with the most frequent and strongest connections provide the most useful basis for health departments pursuing Baldrige recognition or using Baldrige criteria as a framework for performance management, all alignments could be considered for both purposes.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    in relation to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as car fuel. Methods: ... Public health and environmental impact of. LPG were not .... and valid insurance was reported for 78.7%. (N=181) ... economical point of view for advertising and.

  13. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. .... Table: Effect of hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Coccinia grandis against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Bilurubin. Treatment. SGOT ... and loss of functional integrity of the cell.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Research on this matter should also be encouraged to inform future practice. Keywords: Volunteering; Health research; Nonprofit organization. Mohammad A Al- ... “organizations”. According to Porter and Kramer. [3], the number of volunteer organizations in the. USA is increasing which might help address the society's high ...

  15. 78 FR 44954 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... provided to the contact person below in advance of the meeting. Background: The Advisory Board was... President on a variety of policy and technical functions required to implement and effectively manage the new compensation program. Key functions of the Advisory Board include providing advice on the...

  16. Message from the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHISB)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following a long series of discussions with the Administration of the La Tour Hospital, a tariff agreement has been concluded between the Hospital and the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. In the case of hospitalisations, this new agreement will apply to admissions on or after 1st September 2004 and will result, in particular, in the reintroduction of the third-party payer system. In the case of out-patient treatment, billing will be according to the Swiss medical tariff system TARMED and Uniqa will act as third-party guarantor. Further details will be published in the next issue of the CHISBull'. Tel.74484

  17. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  18. First International One Health congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn H. Jeggo

    2012-06-01

    The Organising Committee recognised from the outset, the need to provide a forum not just for scientific presentation, but for open discussion and dialogue around the policy and political issues, as well as the science that drives the One Health agenda. The Committee was also cognizant of the need to embrace a definition of One Health that includes food security and food safety and included the social and economic pressures that shapes this area. The meeting was therefore organised under four themes with plenary sessions followed by breakout parallel sessions for each of these. The themes covered Disease Emergence, Environmental Drivers, Trade, Food Security and Food Safety, and Science Policy and Political Action. The plenary session commenced with one or two keynote presentations by world leaders on the topic being covered, followed by panel discussions involving six to eight experts and involving all participants at the congress. Each of the panel members spoke briefly on the topic covered by the keynote speaker and were asked to be as provocative as possible. The discussions that followed allowed debate and discussion on the keynote presentations and the panel members comments. This was followed by six to eight parallel breakout sessions involving in depth papers on the session’s topic. Throughout the conference at various times, sponsored sessions dealt with particular areas of science or policy providing a further framework not only to learn current science but for debate and discussion. A full copy of all abstracts is available on the web at http://www.springerlink.com. In concluding the Congress recognised the interdependence of, and seeks to improve human, animal and environmental health; recognised that communication, collaboration and trust between human and animal health practitioners is at the heart of the One Health concept; agreed that a broad vision that includes other disciplines such as economics and social behaviour is essential to success. The

  19. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  20. The New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit: Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Stephen R; Evans, Helen M; Gane, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand is a geographically isolated country with 4.55 million inhabitants. It has endemic hepatitis B (HBV) infection that is especially evident in Maori and Pacific Island communities and impacts indications for liver transplantation. The country has a socialised medical system that allows for full coverage of the assessment for, and completion of liver transplants in suitable recipients. Between February 1998 and December 2014, the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit (NZLTU) had performed 595 liver transplants in 568 patients, indicating a crude re-transplant rate of 4.8%. Overall 1, 5, and 10 year patient survival rates for all adult (96%, 89%, and 81%, respectively) and pediatric (93%, 92%, and 92%, respectively) recipients compare very favourably with international outcomes from Europe and the United States. Eligibility criteria could be modestly expanded if deceased donor rates improved from the current level of around 10 per million of population per year. This somewhat meagre supply of deceased donor organs, along with significant waiting list attrition, has necessitated the use of living donors, which have been used in more than 50 recipients to date. Despite these limitations, the NZLTU has contributed to improvements in the outcome of transplantation for HBV and hepatitis C through the development of effective antiviral prophylaxis regimes. Furthermore, innovative changes have been made to the manner in which pediatric patients are transitioned to the adult service.

  1. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Victoria K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152. Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS. Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051. Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta

  2. International organizations and migrant health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda

    International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.

  3. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  4. Reprising the globalization dimensions of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2018-05-18

    Globalization is a fairly recent addition to the panoply of concepts describing the internationalization of health concerns. What distinguishes it from 'international health' or its newer morphing into 'global health' is a specific analytical concern with how globalization processes, past or present, but particularly since the start of our neoliberal era post-1980, is affecting health outcomes. Globalization processes influence health through multiple social pathways: from health systems and financing reforms to migration flows and internal displacement; via trade and investment treaties, labour market 'flexibilization', and the spread of unhealthy commodities; or through deploying human rights and environment protection treaties, and strengthening health diplomacy efforts, to create more equitable and sustainable global health outcomes. Globalization and Health was a pioneer in its focus on these critical facets of our health, well-being, and, indeed, planetary survival. In this editorial, the journal announces a re-focusing on this primary aim, announcing a number of new topic Sections and an expanded editorial capacity to ensure that submissions are 'on target' and processed rapidly, and that the journal continues to be on the leading edge of some of the most contentious and difficult health challenges confronting us.

  5. World health organization perspective on implementation of International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Maxwell Charles

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

  6. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. The nature of international health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Su, Yi-Yuan; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chang, Ya-Chen; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    Health issues occasionally intersect security issues. Health security has been viewed as an essential part of human security. Policymakers and health professionals, however, do not share a common definition of health security. This article aims to characterize the notions of health security in order to clarify what constitutes the nexus of health and security. The concept of health security has evolved over time so that it encompasses many entities. Analyzing the health reports of four multilateral organizations (the United Nations, World Health Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the European Union) produced eight categories of most significant relevance to contemporary health security, allowing comparison of the definitions. The four categories are: emerging diseases; global infectious disease; deliberate release of chemical and biological materials; violence, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies. Two other categories of common concern are natural disasters and environmental change, as well as chemical and radioactive accidents. The final two categories, food insecurity and poverty, are discussed less frequently. Nevertheless, food security is emerging as an increasingly important issue in public health. Health security is the first line of defence against health emergencies. As globalization brings more complexities, dealing with the increased scale and extent of health security will require greater international effort and political support.

  8. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  9. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... ``Globalization of agriculture and food research at land-grant universities: BIFAD public meeting at University of... BIFAD Chair Brady Deaton. The Board will address both old and new business during this time and hear...

  10. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  11. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  12. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    treatment.Access to controlled medicines: Ensure access to controlled medicines, establishing inter-sectoral national authorities to determine levels of need and giving the World Health Organization (WHO) the resources to assist the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) in using the best science to determine the level of need for controlled medicines in all countries.Gender-responsive policies: Reduce the negative impact of drug policy and law on women and their families, especially minimizing custodial sentences for women who commit non-violent offenses and developing appropriate health and social support, including gender-appropriate treatment of drug dependence, for those who need it.Crop production: Efforts to address drug crop production must take health into account. Aerial spraying of toxic herbicides should be stopped, and alternative development programmes should be part of integrated development strategies, developed and implemented in meaningful consultation with the people affected.Improve research: There is a need for a more diverse donor base to fund the best new science on drug policy experiences in a non-ideological way that, among other things, interrogates and moves beyond the excessive pathologising of drug use.UN governance of drug control: UN governance of drug policy must be improved, including by respecting WHO’s authority to determine the dangerousness of drugs. Countries should be urged to include high-level health officials in their delegations to CND. Improved representation of health officials in national delegations to CND would, in turn, be a likely result of giving health authorities an important day-to-day role in multi-sectoral national drug policy-making bodies.Better metrics: Health, development, and human rights indicators should be included in metrics to judge success of drug policy; WHO and UNDP should help formulate them. UNDP has already suggested that indicators such as access to treatment, rate of overdose deaths, and

  14. 10th International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the International Conference on Health Informatics is to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to healthcare and medicine in general and to the support of persons with special needs in particular.

  15. Consumer health hazards in international food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging risks have been defined as potential food-borne, feed-borne, or diet-related hazards that may become a risk for human health in the future. This study disentangles how emerging risks relate to international trade. It develops a basic framework for the economic analysis of emerging risks,

  16. The Evolution of On-Board Emergency Training for the International Space Station Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBuff, Skyler

    2015-01-01

    The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) receives extensive ground-training in order to safely and effectively respond to any potential emergency event while on-orbit, but few people realize that their training is not concluded when they launch into space. The evolution of the emergency On- Board Training events (OBTs) has recently moved from paper "scripts" to an intranet-based software simulation that allows for the crew, as well as the flight control teams in Mission Control Centers across the world, to share in an improved and more realistic training event. This emergency OBT simulator ensures that the participants experience the training event as it unfolds, completely unaware of the type, location, or severity of the simulated emergency until the scenario begins. The crew interfaces with the simulation software via iPads that they keep with them as they translate through the ISS modules, receiving prompts and information as they proceed through the response. Personnel in the control centers bring up the simulation via an intranet browser at their console workstations, and can view additional telemetry signatures in simulated ground displays in order to assist the crew and communicate vital information to them as applicable. The Chief Training Officers and emergency instructors set the simulation in motion, choosing the type of emergency (rapid depressurization, fire, or toxic atmosphere) and specific initial conditions to emphasize the desired training objectives. Project development, testing, and implementation was a collaborative effort between ISS emergency instructors, Chief Training Officers, Flight Directors, and the Crew Office using commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware along with simulation software created in-house. Due to the success of the Emergency OBT simulator, the already-developed software has been leveraged and repurposed to develop a new emulator used during fire response ground-training to deliver data that the crew receives

  17. 78 FR 732 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... President on a variety of policy and technical functions required to implement and effectively manage the... Responses to Public Comments from the September 2012 Advisory Board Meeting; Subcommittee and Work Group..., Management Analysis and Services Office, has been delegated the authority to sign Federal Register notices...

  18. 75 FR 11186 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... a variety of policy and technical functions required to implement and effectively manage the new... Facility Records Search Methods; NIOSH Office of Compensation Analysis and Support Analysis of SEC Class Definitions; Board Subcommittee and Work Group Updates; and, OCAS SEC Petition Evaluations Update for May 2010...

  19. 77 FR 62240 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... President on a variety of policy and technical functions required to implement and effectively manage the...); Subcommittee and Work Group Updates; SEC Petition Evaluations Update for the December 2012 Advisory Board....gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, has been delegated the authority to sign...

  20. Nurses on health care governing boards: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundean, Lisa J; Polifroni, E Carol; Libal, Kathryn; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    Nurses are key change agents in health care; yet, nurses have not been sufficiently engaged on boards to shape decision making. Without an equal voice in the boardroom, nurses cannot fulfill their professional obligation to society. The purpose of this study was to understand the progression in research focus and recommendations over time about nurses on boards (NOB), identify research gaps, and make research/practice recommendations. An integrative review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (2009) for data evaluation and analysis. Eleven studies (six quantitative, three qualitative, and two quasi-mixed methods) were included in the review. The focus/recommendations of research about NOB have changed from passive observation to action-oriented inquiry that considers nurse expertise and value but lacks a coordinated approach to advance board appointments for nurses. A systematic approach to the research is needed to advance NOB as key agents in health care transformation and social justice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  2. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  3. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  4. Motivation, Engagement, and Social Climate: An International Study of Boarding Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Most educational climate research is conducted among (day school) students who spend the bulk of their young lives outside of school, potentially limiting the amount of climate variance that can be captured. Boarding school students, on the other hand, spend much of their lives at school and thus offer a potentially unique perspective on…

  5. The best of two worlds: how the Greenland Board of Nutrition has handled conflicting evidence about diet and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional diet in Greenland consists to a large extent of meat and organs of seal and other marine mammals, which is polluted by POPs and mercury. These substances are present in the blood of Greenlanders in concentrations well above international guidelines, and as these contaminants are suspected of having negative impacts on health, some action should be taken. On the other hand, traditional food is also an important source of health promoting micronutrients that are not provided by imported food in sufficient quantities, for example vitamin D, long chain n-3 fatty acids, and selenium, not to mention the traditional diet's function as a social glue that is perceived as important for Inuit identity in Greenland. The proportion of the total diet that comes from marine mammals is on a constant decrease, and especially children and young adults consume rather little seal and whale. The traditional food items are consequently being replaced by imported food, and among the imported food items several rather unhealthy items are popular, that is carbonated soft drinks with sugar, sweets, chips and farmed (red meat with a high content of saturated fat. Together with a decrease in physical activity, this dietary transition has resulted in a severe epidemic of overweight and diabetes. In giving advice to the public, the Greenland Board of Nutrition was therefore faced with the challenge to retain the benefits of the traditional diet while minimizing the contaminant exposure, and at the same time to counteract the effects of poor quality imported food. The Board tried to balance the known and suspected positive and negative aspects of the total diet in relation not only to physical health but to general wellbeing, and decided on 10 simple recommendations. As the consumption of traditional food becomes less prominent and as the consumption of food rich in empty calories increases, the guidelines are continuously revised and updated.

  6. The best of two worlds: how the Greenland Board of Nutrition has handled conflicting evidence about diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert

    2012-07-10

    The traditional diet in Greenland consists to a large extent of meat and organs of seal and other marine mammals, which is polluted by POPs and mercury. These substances are present in the blood of Greenlanders in concentrations well above international guidelines, and as these contaminants are suspected of having negative impacts on health, some action should be taken. On the other hand, traditional food is also an important source of health promoting micronutrients that are not provided by imported food in sufficient quantities, for example vitamin D, long chain n-3 fatty acids, and selenium, not to mention the traditional diet's function as a social glue that is perceived as important for Inuit identity in Greenland. The proportion of the total diet that comes from marine mammals is on a constant decrease, and especially children and young adults consume rather little seal and whale. The traditional food items are consequently being replaced by imported food, and among the imported food items several rather unhealthy items are popular, that is carbonated soft drinks with sugar, sweets, chips and farmed (red) meat with a high content of saturated fat. Together with a decrease in physical activity, this dietary transition has resulted in a severe epidemic of overweight and diabetes. In giving advice to the public, the Greenland Board of Nutrition was therefore faced with the challenge to retain the benefits of the traditional diet while minimizing the contaminant exposure, and at the same time to counteract the effects of poor quality imported food. The Board tried to balance the known and suspected positive and negative aspects of the total diet in relation not only to physical health but to general wellbeing, and decided on 10 simple recommendations. As the consumption of traditional food becomes less prominent and as the consumption of food rich in empty calories increases, the guidelines are continuously revised and updated.

  7. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., and prevention of physical and mental diseases and other impairments; (2) assist states and their... Health Effects; presentation on NCEH/ ATSDR Internal Clearance and External Peer Review Policies and...

  8. Institutionalising health technology assessment: establishing the Medical Technology Assessment Board in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura E; Mehndiratta, Abha; Grover, Ashoo; Gauba, Vijay; Sheikh, Kabir; Prinja, Shankar; Singh, Ravinder; Cluzeau, Francoise A; Dabak, Saudamini; Teerawattananon, Yot; Kumar, Sanjiv; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    India is at crossroads with a commitment by the government to universal health coverage (UHC), driving efficiency and tackling waste across the public healthcare sector. Health technology assessment (HTA) is an important policy reform that can assist policy-makers to tackle inequities and inefficiencies by improving the way in which health resources are allocated towards cost-effective, appropriate and feasible interventions. The equitable and efficient distribution of health budget resources, as well as timely uptake of good value technologies, are critical to strengthen the Indian healthcare system. The government of India is set to establish a Medical Technology Assessment Board to evaluate existing and new health technologies in India, assist choices between comparable technologies for adoption by the healthcare system and improve the way in which priorities for health are set. This initiative aims to introduce a more transparent, inclusive, fair and evidence-based process by which decisions regarding the allocation of health resources are made in India towards the ultimate goal of UHC. In this analysis article, we report on plans and progress of the government of India for the institutionalisation of HTA in the country. Where India is home to one-sixth of the global population, improving the health services that the population receives will have a resounding impact not only for India but also for global health.

  9. 77 FR 52025 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Science Advisory Board; Exposure and Human Health Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee to discuss its... hereby given that the SAB Exposure and Human Health Committee (EHHC) will hold a public teleconference to...

  10. Trialling a shaken baby syndrome prevention programme in the Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Wilson, Kati; Mowjood, Aqeela; Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter

    2016-02-19

    To describe and evaluate a shaken baby prevention programme trialled in the Auckland District Health Board from January 2010, to December 2011. Development and implementation of the programme, telephone survey of a sample of caregivers and written survey of a sample of providers. At least 2,592 caregivers received the trial programme. 150 (6%) were surveyed by telephone a median of 6 weeks later. 128 (85%) remembered at least one key message, unprompted; most commonly "It's OK to walk away" (94/150, 63%). When asked, 92% had made a plan for what to do when frustrated and 63% had shared the information with others. Only 98/150 (65%) watched the programme DVD. Many said they already knew about the risks of shaking a baby, but still found the programme highly relevant. Thirty-one nurses were surveyed. There was a high degree of agreement that the programme was relevant. Barriers to programme delivery included time, workload and the documentation required. A shaken baby prevention programme adapted to New Zealand can be introduced in a District Health Board and is acceptable to caregivers and health professionals. Further research is needed to evaluate the content, mode of delivery and effectiveness of this programme.

  11. [External and internal financing in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Klaus-Dirk

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this contribution is to characterize the functional and institutional features of the German health-care system. This takes place after a short introduction and examination of the ongoing debate on health care in Germany. External funding describes the form of revenue generation. Regarding external funding of the German health care system, one of the favored alternatives in the current debate is the possibility of introducing per capita payments. After a short introduction to the capitation option, focus is on the so-called health fund that is currently debated on and being made ready for implementation in Germany, actually a mixed system of capitation and contributions based on income. On the other hand, internal funding is the method of how different health-care services are purchased or reimbursed. This becomes a rather hot topic in light of new trends for integrated and networked care to patients and different types of budgeting. Another dominating question in the German health-care system is the liberalization of the contractual law, with its "joint and uniform" regulations that have to be loosened for competition gains. After a discussion of the consequences of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in Germany, the article is concluded by a note on the political rationality of the current health-care reform for increased competition within the Statutory Health Insurance and its players as exemplified by the health fund. To sum up, it has to be said that the complexity and specific features of how the German system is financed seem to require ongoing reform considerations even after realization of the currently debated health-care reform law which, unfortunately, is dominated by political rationalities rather than objective thoughts.

  12. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His principal research interests include knowledge transfer and exchange in public policy-making environments and the politics of healthcare systems. Lavis wrote the report that ... and new members of the Board of Governors. IDRC's Board of Governors congratulates Jean Lebel on his appointment as President and CEO.

  13. Oceans and Human Health (OHH): a European perspective from the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation (Marine Board-ESF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Fleming, Lora; Hess, Philipp; Lees, David; Leonard, Paul; Madsen, Lise; Owen, Richard; Pirlet, Hans; Seys, Jan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-05-01

    will impact adversely on efforts to alleviate poverty, sustain the availability of environmental goods and services and improve health and social and economic stability; and thus, will impinge on many policy decisions, both nationally and internationally. Knowledge exchange (KE) will be a key element of any ensuing research. KE will facilitate the integration of biological, medical, epidemiological, social and economic disciplines, as well as the emergence of synergies between seemingly unconnected areas of science and socio-economic issues, and will help to leverage knowledge transfer across the European Union (EU) and beyond. An integrated interdisciplinary systems approach is an effective way to bring together the appropriate groups of scientists, social scientists, economists, industry and other stakeholders with the policy formulators in order to address the complexities of interfacial problems in the area of environment and human health. The Marine Board of the European Science Foundation Working Group on "Oceans and Human Health" has been charged with developing a position paper on this topic with a view to identifying the scientific, social and economic challenges and making recommendations to the EU on policy-relevant research and development activities in this arena. This paper includes the background to health-related issues linked to the coastal environment and highlights the main arguments for an ecosystem-based whole systems approach.

  14. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  15. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Otavio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR of the World Health Organization (WHO. The current HR(2005 contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005 call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010.

  16. Implementing and sustaining a hand hygiene culture change programme at Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally A; Sieczkowski, Christine; Campbell, Taima; Balla, Greg; Keenan, Andrew

    2012-05-11

    In January 2009 Auckland District Health Board commenced implementation of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) programme to bring about a culture change and to improve hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. We describe the implementation process and assess the effectiveness of this programme 36 months after implementation. In keeping with the HHNZ guideline the implementation was divided into five steps: roll-out and facility preparation, baseline evaluation, implementation, follow-up evaluation and sustainability. The process measure was improvement in hand hygiene compliance and the outcome measure was Staphylococcus aureus clinical infection and bacteraemia rates. The mean (95% CI; range) baseline compliance rates for the national reporting wards was 35% (95% CI 24-46%, 25-61%). The overall compliance by the 7th audit period was 60% (95% CI 46-74; range 47-91). All healthcare worker groups had improvement in compliance. The reduction in healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteraemia rates following the implementation was statistically significant (p=0.027). Compliance with hand hygiene improved following implementation of a culture change programme. Sustaining this improvement requires commitment and strong leadership at a senior level both nationally and within each District Health Board.

  17. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  18. Survey of the environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; de Boever, P.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.; Coninx, I.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Reports on the exploitation of the orbital station Mir has indicated that microorganisms are ubiquitously present and that they should be considered as indigenous to any spacecraft environment Although most microorganisms do not affect human health it has been reported that in a confined environment such as a space cabin microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat Monitoring the biological contamination of the current International Space Station ISS is imperative and the results of the investigations may trigger off specific countermeasures when microbial concentrations pass defined thresholds e g disinfection and sterilization Aim More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of six years to characterize air and surface biocontamination residing in the ISS Results Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7 1x102 CFU m 3 and 4 4x101 CFU m 3 respectively Staphylococcus sp was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial species whereas Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp dominated the fungal population The bacterial concentrations in surfaces samples fluctuated from 2 5x101 to 4 3x104 CFU 100 cm2 Staphylococcus sp dominated in all of these samples The number of fungi varied between 2 5x101 CFU 100 cm2 and 3 0x105 CFU 100 cm2 with Aspergillus sp and Cladosporium sp as the most dominant genera Furthermore the investigations identified the presence of several opportunistic pathogens e g S aureus

  19. A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…

  20. A Twenty-Two-Year-Old Community Advisory Board: Health Research as an Opportunity for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; Quinn, Sandra J.; Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting health research often requires a partnership between marginalized communities and researchers. Community organizers can broker this partnership in a way that not only produces important scientific discoveries but also brings needed resources to the communities. This article is a description of a community advisory board established in 1984 to advise researchers on a longitudinal study of the natural history of AIDS among gay men. The Board successfully guided the recruitment of more than 3,000 gay and bisexual male volunteers and, at the same time worked as a powerful change agent. An analysis of minutes from all Board meetings between 1984-2006 indicates that significant social change as well as important research findings resulted from Board actions. Community organizers who work to create a mutually beneficial partnership between communities and researchers may find new opportunities to support community growth and social justice. PMID:20523763

  1. 78 FR 41183 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ..., nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive..., telephone: (202) 736-4290. Dated: June 26, 2013. Richard W. Hartman, II, Executive Director, International...

  2. 77 FR 21142 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman..., DC 20520, telephone: (202) 736-4290. Dated: March 28, 2012. Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director...

  3. 76 FR 36167 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman..., DC 20520, telephone: (202) 736-4290. Dated: June 13, 2011. Richard W. Hartman, II., Executive...

  4. Statement of the Thorotrast Committee under the National Board of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Thorotrast Commmitte appointed by the National Board of Health evaluated the medical consequences of thorotrast use as x-ray contrast until 1947. Based on the available statistical data of thorotrast carcinogenic effects there is given a prognosis for the 100 Danish thorotrast patients. The risk of developing cancer, particularly liver cancer and leukemia is treble compared to a control group of the same age (average 70). There is a high probability of 29 developing some form of liver cancer or cirrhosis. With regard to their advanced age surgical methods (resection) are rarely succesful. About five cases of leukemia in various forms and as many of bone marrow diseases are probable. There is some promising progress in treatment of these diseases, but at present the committee does not find semiannual screenings helpful for therapeutic purposes. (EB) 52 refs

  5. 75 FR 4043 - Science Advisory Board; Draft Report of the NOAA Science Advisory Board Oceans and Health Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...: January 20, 2010. Mark E. Brown, Chief Financial Officer, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research... decide to entertain: (1) What are NOAA's unique and important scientific roles in addressing ocean health...

  6. Concurrent Validity Between a Shared Curriculum, the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination, and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Stephen D; Bertram, Amanda; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-03-01

    A core objective of residency education is to facilitate learning, and programs need more curricula and assessment tools with demonstrated validity evidence. We sought to demonstrate concurrent validity between performance on a widely shared, ambulatory curriculum (the Johns Hopkins Internal Medicine Curriculum), the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE), and the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE). A cohort study of 443 postgraduate year (PGY)-3 residents at 22 academic and community hospital internal medicine residency programs using the curriculum through the Johns Hopkins Internet Learning Center (ILC). Total and percentile rank scores on ILC didactic modules were compared with total and percentile rank scores on the IM-ITE and total scores on the ABIM-CE. The average score on didactic modules was 80.1%; the percentile rank was 53.8. The average IM-ITE score was 64.1% with a percentile rank of 54.8. The average score on the ABIM-CE was 464. Scores on the didactic modules, IM-ITE, and ABIM-CE correlated with each other (P ITE total and percentile rank scores (P ITE percentile rank. Performance on a widely shared ambulatory curriculum is associated with performance on the IM-ITE and the ABIM-CE.

  7. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  8. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PHI Annual Reports Contact Us Copyright EDUCATION Post-Polio Health newsletter Health Care Considerations Handbook on the Late Effects ... Late Effects of Polio Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) About Acute Polio Major ...

  9. GPS and Galileo Developments on Board the International Space Station With the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Oscar; Fantinato, Samuele; Dalla Chiara, Andrea; Gamba, Giovanni; Crisci, Massimo; Giordana, Pietro; Enderle, Werner; Chelmins, David; Sands, Obed S.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) is a facility developed by NASA and hosted on board the International Space Station (ISS) on an external truss since 2013.It has the objective of testing navigation and communication experimentations with a Software Defined Radio (SDR) approach, which permits software updates for testing new experimentations.NASA has developed the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard for SDRs used in space and ground-based platforms to provide commonality among radio developments to provide enhanced capability. The hardware is equipped with both L band front-end radios and the NASA space network communicates with it using S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band links.In May 2016 Qascom started GARISS (GPS and Galileo Receiver for the ISS), an activity of experimentation in collaboration with ESA and NASA that has the objective to develop and validate the acquisition and processing of combined GPS and Galileo signals on board the ISS SCaN testbed. This paper has the objective to present the mission, and provide preliminary details about the challenges in the design, development and verification of the waveform that will be installed on equipment with limited resources. GARISS is also the first attempt to develop a waveform for the ISS as part of an international collaboration between US and Europe. Although the final mission objective is to target dual frequency processing, initial operations will foresee a single frequency processing. Initial results and trade-off between the two options, as well as the final decision will be presented and discussed. The limited resources on board the SCaN with respect to the challenging requirements to acquire and track contemporaneously two satellite navigation systems, with different modulations and data structure, led to the need to assess the possibility of aiding from ground through the S-band. This option would allow assistance to the space receiver in order to provide

  10. Ebola disease: an international public health emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe illness caused by Ebola filovirus, and is often fatal if left untreated. The first case of the current EVD was diagnosed in Guinea in March 2014, and since then it has spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, and Senegal. The current review has been performed with an objective to explore the magnitude of the current Ebola virus epidemic and identify the multiple determinants that have resulted in the exponential growth of the epidemic. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was done for almost two months (August-October in Pubmed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Relevant documents, reports, recommendations, guidelines and research articles focusing on the different aspects of Ebola virus and its current outbreak, published in the period 2002-2014 were included in the review. Keywords used in the search include Ebola virus, Ebola virus disease, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola vaccine, and Ebola treatment. The current EVD epidemic has turned out to be extensive, severe, and uncontrollable because of a delayed response and ineffective public health care delivery system. In fact, multiple challenges have also been identified and thus a range of interventions have been proposed to control the epidemic. In conclusion, the 2014 epidemic of EVD has shown to the world that in absence of a strong public health care delivery system even a rare disease can risk the lives of millions of people. The crux of this epidemic is that a large scale and coordinated international response is the need of the hour to support affected and at-risk nations in intensifying their response activities and strengthening of national capacities.

  11. 75 FR 60762 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... studies relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of... Climate Control; a discussion of ATSDR Funded State Reports; an update on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis...

  12. 78 FR 9890 - DoD Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries; Notice of Federal Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Actuaries; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under... Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries will take place. DATES: Friday, August 2, 2013, from 10:00 a.m. to... Activity, DoD Office of the Actuary, 4800 Mark Center Drive, STE 06J25-01, Alexandria, VA 22350-4000. Phone...

  13. 75 FR 6360 - Federal Advisory Committee; DoD Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Retiree Health Care Board of Actuaries AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Meeting notice... Actuaries will meet on August 18, 2010. Subject to the availability of space, the meeting is open to the...: Margot Kaplan at the DoD Office of the Actuary, 4040 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 308, Arlington, VA 22203...

  14. A new international health order. An inquiry into the international relations of world health and medical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, Charles Olke

    1978-01-01

    A 'New International Health Order' (NIHO) is a new notion. In order to value the function of a NIHO, the present international health order and the socioeconomic order between the rich and poor countries will have to be taken into account. The factual and normatived evelopment of a new international

  15. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  16. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  17. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  18. Proceedings, sixth international symposium : moisture and creep effects on paper, board and containers: Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 14-15 July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Considine; Sally A. Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The USDA Forest Products Laboratory sponsored the 6th International Symposium: Moisture and Creep Effects on Paper, Board and Containers at the Monona Terrace Convention Center, Madison, WI, USA on 14-15 July 2009. Attendees heard 20 technical presentations; presenters were from seven different countries and three continents. Session topics included Corrugated...

  19. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  20. Study of values and interpersonal perception in cosmonauts on board of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A. G.; Gushin, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    The increased heterogeneity of International Space Station (ISS) crews' composition (in terms of nationality, profession and gender) together with stressful situations, due to space flight, can have a significant impact on group interaction and cohesion, as well as on communications with Mission Control Center (MCC) and the success of the mission as a whole. Culturally related differences in values, goals, and behavioral norms could influence mutual perception and, thus, cohesive group formation. The purpose of onboard "Interaction-Attitudes" experiment is to study the patterns of small group (space crew) behavior in extended space flight. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions 19-30 with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers. Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. We used Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) software for analyzing subjects' attitudes toward social environment (crewmembers and MCC). It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight. Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity (motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline) and good social relationships (sociability, friendship, and tolerance), as well. Post-flight study of changes in perceptions

  1. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  2. Globalization of health insecurity: the World Health Organization and the new International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2006-12-01

    The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.

  3. Strengthening global health security by embedding the International Health Regulations requirements into national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin

    2018-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.

  4. Latest Results on Complex Plasmas with the PK-3 Plus Laboratory on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, M.; Du, C.-R.; Huber, P.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Naumkin, V. N.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Zhukhovitskii, D. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Thomas, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Complex plasmas are low temperature plasmas that contain microparticles in addition to ions, electrons, and neutral particles. The microparticles acquire high charges, interact with each other and can be considered as model particles for effects in classical condensed matter systems, such as crystallization and fluid dynamics. In contrast to atoms in ordinary systems, their movement can be traced on the most basic level, that of individual particles. In order to avoid disturbances caused by gravity, experiments on complex plasmas are often performed under microgravity conditions. The PK-3 Plus Laboratory was operated on board the International Space Station from 2006 - 2013. Its heart consisted of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasma chamber. Microparticles were inserted into the low-temperature plasma, forming large, homogeneous complex plasma clouds. Here, we review the results obtained with recent analyzes of PK-3 Plus data: We study the formation of crystallization fronts, as well as the microparticle motion in, and structure of crystalline complex plasmas. We investigate fluid effects such as wave transmission across an interface, and the development of the energy spectra during the onset of turbulent microparticle movement. We explore how abnormal particles move through, and how macroscopic spheres interact with the microparticle cloud. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the PK-3 Plus Laboratory.

  5. Renal complications in multiple myeloma and related disorders: survivorship care plan of the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth M; Mangan, Patricia; Spong, Jacy; Tariman, Joseph D

    2011-08-01

    Kidney dysfunction is a common clinical feature of symptomatic multiple myeloma. Some degree of renal insufficiency or renal failure is present at diagnosis or will occur during the course of the disease and, if not reversed, will adversely affect overall survival and quality of life. Chronic insults to the kidneys from other illnesses, treatment, or multiple myeloma itself can further damage renal function and increase the risk for additional complications, such as anemia. Patients with multiple myeloma who have light chain (Bence Jones protein) proteinuria may experience renal failure or progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and require dialysis because of light chain cast nephropathy. Kidney failure in patients with presumed multiple myeloma also may result from amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, or acute tubular necrosis caused by nephrotoxic agents; therefore, identification of patients at risk for kidney damage is essential. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board has developed practice recommendations for screening renal function, identifying positive and negative contributing risk and environmental factors, selecting appropriate therapies and supportive care measures to decrease progression to ESRD, and enacting dialysis to reduce and manage renal complications in patients with multiple myeloma.

  6. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  7. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  8. Engagement of National Board of Examinations in strengthening public health education in India: present landscape, opportunities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  9. 78 FR 15369 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... strategies and goals for the programs and research within OPHPR, monitoring the overall strategic direction...; improving critical information sharing across CDC; biosecurity risk evaluation software; measuring operational readiness; (2) BSC liaison representative updates to the Board highlighting organizational...

  10. Integrating ICTs within health systems | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... But for too long, ICT and health system researchers have worked in isolation ... be used to enable the governance and functioning of health systems in ... most African countries adopted direct payment for health services as the ...

  11. Integrating ICTs within health systems | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... ... to help improve service delivery, build local capacity for primary health care, and address the ... There is limited evidence on how electronic health (eHealth) technologies can be ... The world is now home to the greatest num.

  12. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  13. History of the international societies in health technology assessment: International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care and Health Technology Assessment International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, David; Jonsson, Egon; Childs, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC) was formed in 1985. It grew out of the increasing awareness of the international dimensions of health technology assessment (HTA) and the need for new communication methods at the international level. The main function of ISTAHC was to present an annual conference, which gradually grew in size, and also to generally improve in quality from to year. ISTAHC overextended itself financially early in the first decade of the 2000s and had to cease its existence. A new society, Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi), based on many of the same ideas and people, grew up beginning in the year 2003. The two societies have played a large role in making the field of HTA visible to people around the world and providing a forum for discussion on the methods and role of HTA.

  14. Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takeshi; Win, Thar; Maung, Cynthia; Ray, Paw; Sakisaka, Kayako; Tanabe, Aya; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-04-12

    In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12-18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants' mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants' mental health status. In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand's Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized assumption on the mental health status of

  15. The interactions of Canadian ethics consultants with health care managers and governing boards during times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris; Maddalena, Victor; Brunger, Fern; Pullman, Daryl; Singleton, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Health care organizations can be very complex, and are often the setting for crisis situations. In recent years, Canadian health care organizations have faced large-scale systemic medical errors, a nation-wide generic injectable drug shortage, iatrogenic infectious disease outbreaks, and myriad other crises. These situations often have an ethical component that ethics consultants may be able to address. Organizational leaders such as health care managers and governing boards have responsibilities to oversee and direct the response to crisis situations. This study investigates the nature and degree of involvement of Canadian ethics consultants in such situations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with Canadian ethics consultants to investigate the nature of their interactions with upper-level managers and governing board members in health care organizations, particularly in times of organizational crisis. We used a purposive sampling technique to identify and recruit ethics consultants throughout Canada. We found variability in the interactions between ethics consultants and upper-level managers and governing boards. Some ethics consultants we interviewed did not participate in managing organizational crisis situations. Most ethics consultants reported that they had assisted in the management of some crises and that their participation was usually initiated by managers. Some ethics consultants reported the ability to bring issues to the attention of upper-level managers and indirectly to their governing boards. The interactions between managers and ethics consultants were characterized by varying degrees of collegiality. Ethics consultants reported participating in or chairing working groups, participating in incident management teams, and developing decision-making frameworks. Canadian ethics consultants tend to believe that they have valuable skills to offer in the management of organizational crisis situations. Most of the ethics consultants

  16. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  17. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  18. Testing the associations between different aspects of seafarers' employment contract and on-board internet access and their job and life satisfaction and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test for associations between different aspects of contract and on-board internet access and seafarers' satisfaction and health. Altogether 298 Croatian seafarers, all officers, employed on cargo ships, with a minimum work experience of two years with their current shipping company, participated in an online survey. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, questions relating to their employment contract and internet access, and measures of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, mental health, and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Their job- and lifesatisfaction levels were higher for shorter duration on board, favourable ratio of work to non-work days, and compliance with the employment contract regarding the changes to work and non-work days. Mental health differed likewise but only in relation to two aspects of the contract: on-board duration and compliance with the contract. The level of gastrointestinal symptoms was lower in cases of shorter on-board duration and compliance with the contract, and in seafarers who have free, unlimited internet access on board. Lower level of cardiovascular symptoms was found in seafarers with free, unlimited internet access on board. Our findings suggest that in promoting satisfaction and health in seafaring, attention should be given to reducing on-board duration, compliance with the contract, and internet accessibility on board.

  19. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  20. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations in a health board region in Ireland: room for improvement?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2008-02-01

    Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of these diseases in the Irish population at both a local and national level. Anecdotal evidence suggests, however, that the occurrence of notifiable infectious diseases is seriously underestimated. This study aims to assess the level of hospitalization for notifiable infectious diseases for a 6-year period in one health board region in Ireland and to assess whether or not there was any under-reporting during this period. All hospital in-patient admissions from 1997 to 2002 inclusive with a principal diagnosis relating to \\'infectious and parasitic diseases\\' (ICD codes 001-139) of residents from a health board region in Ireland were extracted from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry System (HIPE). All notifiable infectious diseases were identified based on the 1981 Irish Infectious Disease Regulations and the data were analysed in the statistical package, JMP. These data were compared with the corresponding notification data. Analysis of the hospital in-patient admission data revealed a substantial burden associated with notifiable infectious diseases in this health board region: there were 2758 hospitalizations by 2454 residents, 17,034 bed days and 33 deaths. The statutory notification data comprises both general practitioner and hospital clinician reports of infectious disease. Therefore, only in cases where there are more hospitalizations than notifications can under-reporting be demonstrated. This occurred in nine out of 22 notifiable diseases and amounted to an additional 18% of notifications (or 572 cases) which were \\'missed\\' due to hospital clinician under-reporting. The majority of these under-reported cases were for viral meningitis (45%), infectious mononucleosis (27%), viral hepatitis C unspecified (15%) and acute encephalitis (5.8%). This study has highlighted the extent of under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases, in a

  1. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  2. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge

    2017-03-01

    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  3. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Better Health A short video on the importance of community involvement to effective health systems. ... They discovered that the World Bank would fund the lion's share of the cost of installing piped water in Kilimani if the villagers raised a portion of the money themselves. Villagers decided to create a fund based on ...

  4. Management of health technologies: An international view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, D.

    1999-01-01

    Health technology includes not only equipment, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices but also surgical and medical procedures Most countries regulate drugs and devices by law, by payment, or by placement of services-a new, multidisciplinary research called health technology assessment assists policy

  5. Strengthening health systems | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... ... maternal health risks and make better, more informed decisions about care. .... Corps examines a woman patient at a mobile health clinic in Pakistan. ... With the support of IDRC, Lehmann has studied the role of nurses in ...

  6. Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite progress in the past two decades, nearly 800 women die every day due ... their rights and to access the services they require to protect themselves from ... Challenges to providing equitable and accessible health services are further exacerbated in fragile settings. ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health.

  7. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations.

  8. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Atsawarungruangkit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods: The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment are related to the pass rate. Results: Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC. Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions: As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  9. Welcome to the Maiden Issue of International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shantaram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today marks the publication date of the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS. IJHRS is a publication of Global Network of Health Educators (GNHE, a not-for-profit initiative of Health educators worldwide in a mission to promote the health related awareness across the globe. We would like to take this opportunity to place on record my hearty thanks to all the members of GNHE and editorial board of IJHRS for their invaluable personal and scientific resources for guiding the journal from initial planning to the first steps it is taking now. Our aim is that IJHRS will be the paramount archive of knowledge in the areas of Health and Rehabilitation sciences. IJHRS is in open access format, in our view the only relevant such model in these times where information must be freely available to all. The traditional subscription-based model inherently denies free access to knowledge and seems contrary to the attribute of scientific thought. Our goal is to have a rapid peer review process, and we will make every effort to make an initial decision at the earliest. The peer review process will match scholarly reviewers with submitted manuscripts to produce high quality articles of interest and scientific caliber. The process is confidential so that criticisms and revisions are made in the fairest manner possible. The final decision on publication will be made by the editorial board. We will look for submissions of interesting and important scientific information that hopefully will have clinical application. High quality research of all types will be fostered and published with pride in the journal. IJHRS will be shortly indexed in Index Copernicus and other indexing authorities. We have the opportunity to improve the quality of life of so many people in developing countries and otherwise disadvantaged situations. The talent and determination of our readers is a resource with unlimited potential and we have

  10. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  11. Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goal of the Food, Environment, and Health program is to develop evidence, innovations, and policies to ... A young mother and her baby visit the local nutrition center in rural Madagascar to participate ... Gary Kobinger working in the lab.

  12. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009) ... Psychosocial characteristics of patients admitted to a drug rehabilitation unit in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia acidissima linn ...

  13. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  14. Health Services in Boarding School: An Oasis of Care, Counseling, and Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Adria C.; Dukes, Thomas; Greene, Jamelle Gardine; Taylor, Jennifer; Gilpin, Louise B.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who attend high school as preparatory boarding students are growing up and learning to care for themselves in a very different set of circumstances than those who live at home with their families. Although this choice may present myriad opportunities for personal growth and academic advantages, nurturance and support from caring adults…

  15. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Board will be held March 2-3, 2011, at the Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750 Kearny Street... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit... subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiatives will convene from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.; the subcommittee for pilot...

  16. Social Media in Health Research: An Example from Childcare Provider Message Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Social media sites, such as message boards and blogs, provide innovative data sources for researchers as these sites feature people sharing advice and discussing issues in a public arena. Research has found the online context can encourage people to reveal more information than do such traditional methods as interviews or focus groups. However,…

  17. 78 FR 56235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... thinking in disaster management; assessing CDC's Emergency Management Program through accreditation; (2) BSC liaison representative updates to the Board highlighting organizational activities relevant to the...) no later than 12:00 noon (EDT) on Tuesday, October 8, 2013: Full Name, Organizational Affiliation...

  18. 75 FR 17903 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., VA 22204. The June 9 meeting will be held at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort McNair... to the Board: Department of Defense Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed.... 552b, as amended, and 41 CFR 102-3.155, in the interest of national security, the Department of Defense...

  19. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  20. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  1. International Allied Health Education and Cross-Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Makhdoom A.; Robinson, Thomas C.; Al Enezi, Naser

    2002-01-01

    Three issues in global relations should be addressed in international education: societal and academic interdependence, global-centric perspectives, and cultural respect. A model for international allied health education exchange includes the following aspects of both advisors and advisees: history, politics, economics, sociocultural environment,…

  2. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  3. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  4. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  5. Internal evaluation of public health department of Semnan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Pour- Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal evaluation is a fundamental determinant to quality development in teachingdepartments and faculties. The purpose of this study was an internal departmental evaluation in the publichealth department of Semnan university of medical sciences (SUMS.Materials and Methods: This work was performed (during 2008-2009 in department of public health ofSUMS utilizing an accreditation model. The assessment covered 9 areas, namely: educational missions andobjectives, management and organization, educational programs, scientific board, students, educationalresources, research activities, assessment and evaluation, and graduates. Questionnaires were developed bythe scientific members of the department. After collecting the data, results were categorized according toGourman scoring scale, from unsatisfied class to very strong class, with the range of 1-5 scores.Results: The mean scores in the 9 evaluation areas were obtained and the rankings were as below:Educational programs area was in strong ranking; educational missions and objectives, scientific board,and assessment and evaluation areas were in good ranking; management and organization area was in morethan satisfied ranking; students area was in satisfied ranking; educational resources and research activitiesareas were in borderline ranking; and finally, the department was ranked as unsatisfied in the graduatesarea.Conclusions: Results showed that by achieved mean of 3.19 in whole of the evaluation areas, the publichealth department has placed in "more than satisfied" class. Although the overall status is acceptable, thereis a need to modify the weak points in the suboptimal areas to improve the educational quality in thisdepartment.

  6. Health | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Language English. Safeguarding the Health Sector in Times of Macroeconomic Instability presents the results of an international initiative to document the effects of how health systems in the developing world have responded to ...

  7. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  8. International portability of health-cost coverage : concepts and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Werding, Martin; McLennan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Social insurance and other arrangements for funding health-care benefits often establish long-term relationships, effectively providing insurance against lasting changes in an individual's health status, engaging in burden-smoothing over the life cycle, and entailing additional elements of redistribution. International portability regarding this type of cover is, therefore, difficult to es...

  9. [Pitfalls in international comparisons of health data and indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Shani, M

    1991-05-01

    Comparison of published data and health indices from different countries with different health systems is subject to many pitfalls. Comparison of national expenditure for health care based on purchasing power of the currency may be misleading if the purchasing power of the health services is ignored. Comparisons may also be misleading if they ignore national geographic and demographic structures. Government and health authorities often quote different sets of data and use different terminology and definitions. This article stresses the disparity in the definition of medical manpower and points out differences relating to ratios of manpower to population and to per capita spending. Also addressed is the importance of the qualitative and value aspects of health systems not usually involved in comparison of international health indices. In conclusion, safety measures and precautions such as choosing the right index for the right purpose, adjustment of indices to the purchasing power parity of health, demographics, etc., should be used when conducting health care analyses.

  10. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-01-01

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut...

  11. The Thalassemia International Federation: a global public health paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many international organizations are struggling today to coordinate limited economic and human resources in support of governments’ efforts to advance public health around the world. The United Nations and the World Health Organization, along with others play a pivotal role in this global effort. Furthermore, during the past few decades an increasingly higher percentage of global efforts on public health are carried out by specific health initiatives, international projects and non-governmental patient-oriented organizations. The Thalassemia International Federation (TIF is one such organization focusing on the control of thalassemia around the world. The current paper aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the mission, goals, objectives and activities of this organization. Our ultimate goal is to highlight TIF’s public health paradigm and diffuse its success at an international levels for others to follow. TIF is devoted to disseminating information, knowledge, experience and best practices around the world to empower patients with thalassemia and their relatives, support health professionals providing care to such patients and promote national and international policies, which secure equal access to quality care for all patients with thalassemia.

  12. Health effects of internally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, Otto G.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been conducted of the ionizing radiation dose-response relationships in both human and laboratory animal studies involving internal deposition of radionuclides including alpha-emitters 226 Ra, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am and beta-emitters 90 Sr, 90 Y and 144 Ce. Intake routes included inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The preeminent importance of dose rate was revealed in this analysis. The lifetime effects of the ionizing radiation from internal emitters are described by three-dimensional dose rate/ time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. Using maximum likelihood survival regression methods, the characteristic logarithmic slope for cancer induction was found to be about negative one-third for alpha-emitters or about negative two-thirds for beta-emitters. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha versus beta radiations for cancer induction is a strong function of dose rate, near one at high dose rates and greater than 20 at low dose rates. The cumulative dose required to yield any level of induced-cancer risk is less at lower dose rates than at higher dose rates showing an apparent inverse-dose effect (up to a factor of 10 for high LET alpha radiation and a factor of 2 for low LET beta radiation). The competing risks of death associated with radiation injury, radiation-induced cancer, and natural aging are graphically shown using three-dimensional illustrations. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates. At the lower average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed natural life span, yielding an apparent lifespan effective threshold for death associated with radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses to the target tissue below from 1.1 to 1.4 Gy for alpha-emitters or below

  13. Health effects of internally deposited radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Otto G., E-mail: ograabe@ucdavis.edu [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Center for Health and the Environment

    2008-07-01

    A comparative evaluation has been conducted of the ionizing radiation dose-response relationships in both human and laboratory animal studies involving internal deposition of radionuclides including alpha-emitters {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Am and beta-emitters {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 144}Ce. Intake routes included inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The preeminent importance of dose rate was revealed in this analysis. The lifetime effects of the ionizing radiation from internal emitters are described by three-dimensional dose rate/ time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. Using maximum likelihood survival regression methods, the characteristic logarithmic slope for cancer induction was found to be about negative one-third for alpha-emitters or about negative two-thirds for beta-emitters. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha versus beta radiations for cancer induction is a strong function of dose rate, near one at high dose rates and greater than 20 at low dose rates. The cumulative dose required to yield any level of induced-cancer risk is less at lower dose rates than at higher dose rates showing an apparent inverse-dose effect (up to a factor of 10 for high LET alpha radiation and a factor of 2 for low LET beta radiation). The competing risks of death associated with radiation injury, radiation-induced cancer, and natural aging are graphically shown using three-dimensional illustrations. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates. At the lower average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed natural life span, yielding an apparent lifespan effective threshold for death associated with radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses to the target tissue below from 1.1 to

  14. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  15. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    do not exist. However, besides scaling up research for new drugs and vaccines, research in health care systems are needed to understand the obstacles to implement new as well as existing interventions to prevent and combat the major health problems of those most in need. The task demands political......Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...

  16. International Comparisons in Underserved Health: Issues, Policies, Needs and Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Morelli, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Health care globally has made great strides; for example, there are lower rates of infant and maternal mortality. Increased incomes have led to lower rates of diseases accompanying poverty and hunger. There has been a shift away from the infectious diseases so deadly in developing nations toward first-world conditions. This article presents health care statistics across age groups and geographic areas to help the primary care physician understand these changes. There is a special focus on underserved populations. New technologies in health and health care spending internationally are addressed, emphasizing universal health care. The article concludes with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hoisting the Sails, Shining the Bright Pearl——Interviewing LiQingPing, Vice Chairman of the Board of International Pearl Jadeite Jewelry Investment Company, General Manager & CEO of Ming Qin Jewelry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Li Qingping was born in Wuning County, Jiangxi Province, in 1954. Now, he is Vice Chairman of the Board of International Pearl, Jadeite and Jewelry Investment Company, General Manager & CEO of Ming Qin Jewelry Group.

  18. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination given in July to intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination scores, a predictor of performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM administers the in-training examination (ITE. In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE, an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EMACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results: Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4. The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]. For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores, only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05. We observed significant colinearity

  19. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  20. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. New Zealand evidence for the impact of primary healthcare investment in Capital and Coast District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee; Carr, Julia; Reidy, Johanna

    2012-03-30

    This paper provides New Zealand evidence on the effectiveness of primary care investment, measured through the Capital and Coast District Health Board's (DHB) Primary Health Care Framework. The Framework was developed in 2002/2003 to guide funding decisions at a DHB level, and to provide a transparent basis for evaluation of the implementation of the Primary Health Care Strategy in this district. The Framework used a mixed method approach; analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative data. This article demonstrates the link between investment in primary health care, increased access to primary care for high-need populations, workforce redistribution, and improved health outcomes. Over the study period, ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department use reduced for enrolled populations and the District's immunisation coverage improved markedly. Funding and contracting which enhanced both 'mainstream' and 'niche' providers combined with community-based health initiatives resulted in a measurable impact on a range of health indicators and inequalities. Maori primary care providers improved access for Maori but also for their enrolled populations of Pacific and Other ethnicity. Growth and redistribution of primary care workforce was observed, improving the availability of general practitioners, nurses, and community workers in poorer communities.

  2. Understanding bureaucracy in health science ethics: toward a better institutional review board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Slade, Catherine; Hirsch, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Research involving human participants continues to grow dramatically, fueled by advances in medical technology, globalization of research, and financial and professional incentives. This creates increasing opportunities for ethical errors with devastating effects. The typical professional and policy response to calamities involving human participants in research is to layer on more ethical guidelines or strictures. We used a recent case-the Johns Hopkins University/Kennedy Kreiger Institute Lead Paint Study-to examine lessons learned since the Tuskegee Syphilis Study about the role of institutionalized science ethics in the protection of human participants in research. We address the role of the institutional review board as the focal point for policy attention.

  3. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy

    2015-11-01

    There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents' knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson's correlation and linear regression were performed. Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (pcorrelation with ITE. Clinical EM experience prior to the in-training exam did not affect the

  4. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  5. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  6. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  7. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  8. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  10. The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haik Nikogosian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health instruments have been under constant development and renewal for decades. International legal instruments, with their binding character and strength, have a special place in this development. The start of the 21st century saw, in particular, the birth of the first World Health Organization (WHO-era health treaties – the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and its first Protocol. The authors analyze the potential impact of these instruments on global health governance and public health, beyond the traditional view of their impact on tobacco control. Overall, the very fact that globally binding treaties in modern-era health were feasible has accelerated the debate and expectations for an expanded role of international legal regimes in public health. The impact of treaties has also been notable in global health architecture as the novel instruments required novel institutions to govern their implementation. The legal power of the WHO FCTC has enabled rapid adoption of further instruments to promote its implementation, thus, enhancing the international instrumentarium for health, and it has also prompted stronger role for national legislation on health. Notably, the Convention has elevated several traditionally challenging public health features to the level of international legal obligations. It has also revealed how the legal power of the international health instrument can be utilized in safeguarding the interests of health in the face of competing agendas and legal disputes at both the domestic and international levels. Lastly, the legal power of health instruments is associated with their potential impact not only on health but also beyond; the recently adopted Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products may best exemplify this matter. The first treaty experiences of the 21st century may provide important lessons for the role of legal instruments in addressing the unfolding challenges in global

  11. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 12–15, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  13. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  14. ASM LabCap's contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specter, Steven; Schuermann, Lily; Hakiruwizera, Celestin; Sow, Mah-Séré Keita

    2010-12-03

    The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, "Laboratory", requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response.Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM's vast resources and its membership's expertise-40,000 microbiologists worldwide-to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap's program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes.ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID

  15. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health

    OpenAIRE

    incl Table of Contents, Complete Supplement,

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health August 5–10, 2012, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. This extensive publication includes nearly 100 full length papers, 90 extended abstracts and nearly 100 short abstracts. The full publication is freely available through the journal website.(Published: 5 August 2013)Citation: Int J Circumpolar Health 2013, 72: 22447 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v72i0.22447

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  18. 78 FR 78966 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned..., NCHS; discussion of vital statistics; future program reviews; National Health Interview Survey 2017...

  19. 76 FR 59388 - Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... University of the Health Sciences AGENCY: Department of Defense, Uniformed Services University of the Health... Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. DATES: Tuesday, October 25, 2011, from 8:30 a.m. to 11... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janet S. Taylor, Designated Federal Officer, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda...

  20. 3rd International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingshan; Matta, Andrea; Sahin, Evren; Vandaele, Nico; Visintin, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents statistical processes for health care delivery and covers new ideas, methods and technologies used to improve health care organizations. It gathers the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE 2017), which took place in Florence, Italy from May 29 to 31, 2017. The Conference provided a timely opportunity to address operations research and operations management issues in health care delivery systems. Scientists and practitioners discussed new ideas, methods and technologies for improving the operations of health care systems, developed in close collaborations with clinicians. The topics cover a broad spectrum of concrete problems that pose challenges for researchers and practitioners alike: hospital drug logistics, operating theatre management, home care services, modeling, simulation, process mining and data mining in patient care and health care organizations.

  1. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A

    2009-01-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  3. A survey on the effects of institutional ownership, internal audit and non-executive board members on forecasting crashes: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sohouli Vahed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of institutional ownership, internal audit system, the number of non-executive board members and having differentiation between chair and general managers’ responsibilities on the likelihood of stock price crash on 110 listed firms on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2011. The study uses Chen’ model (2001 [Chen, J., Hong, H., & Stein, J. C. (2001. Forecasting crashes: Trading volume, past returns, and conditional skewness in stock prices. Journal of Financial Economics, 61(3, 345-381.] to perform the investigation. Based on the results of the survey, there is a negative and meaningful relationship between stock price crash and institutional ownership when the level of significance is ten percent. In addition, as the number of non-executive board members increases, the chance of stock price crash decreases when the level of significance is five percent. However, separation between the responsibility of chair and general managers did not seem to influence on stock price and also having internal audit system had no impact on the likelihood of stock price change.

  4. Bigger hybrid loader on the drawing board : Mining Technologies International hybrid gets rave reviews for power and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, N.

    2010-12-01

    This article presented a hybrid loader that reduces diesel emissions in underground mining. Sudbury-based Mining Technologies International (MTI) plans to build a 4 cubic yard loader in 2011, following the successful trial of a smaller 1.5 cubic yard machine at the CANMET experimental mine in Val d'Or, Quebec. The prototype hybrid loader was equipped with a metal hydride battery pack and a 2-cylinder, 35 hp Deutz engine. Performance testing revealed that the machine is capable of providing much more torque than originally expected and that it has more power compared to a mechanical drive machine. Operators at the CANMET mine also gave the hybrid loader high marks for comfort. The MTI loaders are equipped with a load sensing hydraulics system to eliminate jarring movement. The prototype experienced some premature failures in the flex coupling, which was subsequently replaced at the MTI shop in Sudbury. The primary reason for building the hybrid loader was to reduce diesel emissions underground in anticipation of stricter emission standards planned by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and CANMET for 2014. Compared to a conventional machine, there is virtually no exhaust from the hybrid loader. It is an ideal machine for a mine with very limited ventilation. Since the loader runs off the battery, MTI is currently looking at battery technologies other than metal hydrides to obtain a much higher energy density. Diesel is used to recharge the loader, and eliminates the need to plug in the unit between shifts. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  5. Information about Editor-in-Chief and the Secretary of the International Scholarly Board of "Religious and Sacred Poetry"

    OpenAIRE

    Tytko, Marek Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Tekst jest informacją biograficzną o dr. Marku Mariuszu Tytko, redaktorze naczelnym i sekretarzu Międzynarodowej Rady Naukowej "Religious and Sacred Poetry : An International Quarterly of Religion, Culture and Education". The text is the biographical information on Marek Mariusz Tytko, PhD, EDitor-in-Chief and secretary of the International Scholarly Council of "Religious and Sacred Poetry : An International Quarterly of Religion, Culture and Education".

  6. A model-Driven Approach to Customize the Vocabulary of Communication Boards: Towards More Humanization of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Natália M; Medeiros, Gabriel F; Silva, Edson A; Murta, Angela S; Machado, Aydano P; Fidalgo, Robson N

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a Modeling Language and its technological infrastructure to customize the vocabulary of Communication Boards (CB), which are important tools to provide more humanization of health care. Using a technological infrastructure based on Model-Driven Development (MDD) approach, our Modelin Language (ML) creates an abstraction layer between users (e.g., health professionals such as an audiologist or speech therapist) and application code. Moreover, the use of a metamodel enables a syntactic corrector for preventing creation of wrong models. Our ML and metamodel enable more autonomy for health professionals in creating customized CB because it abstracts complexities and permits them to deal only with the domain concepts (e.g., vocabulary and patient needs). Additionally, our infrastructure provides a configuration file that can be used to share and reuse models. This way, the vocabulary modelling effort will decrease our time since people share vocabulary models. Our study provides an infrastructure that aims to abstract the complexity of CB vocabulary customization, giving more autonomy to health professionals when they need customizing, sharing and reusing vocabularies for CB.

  7. 78 FR 66422 - Appointment of Members of the Legal Division to the Performance Review Board, Internal Revenue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Counsel (Operations) 2. Laurel Robinson, Deputy Division Counsel (Large Business & International) 3. Debra... Counsel (Passthroughs and Special Industries) 5. Andrew Keyso, Associate Chief Counsel (Income Tax...

  8. [The transition from 'international' to 'global' public health and the World Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Within the context of international public health, 'global health' seems to be emerging as a recognized term of preference. This article presents a critical analysis of the meaning and importance of 'global health' and situates its growing popularity within a historical context. A specific focus of this work is the role of the World Health Organization - WHO in both 'international' and 'global' health, and as na agent of transition from one to the other. Between 1948 and 1998, the WHO went through a period of hardship as it came up against an organizational crisis, budget cuts and a diminished status, especially when confronted with the growing influence of new, power players like the World Bank. We suggest that the WHO has responded to this changing international context by inititating its own process of restructuring and repositioning as an agent for coordinating, strategically planning and leading 'global health' initiatives.

  9. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims..., ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... external review processes for group health plans and health insurance issuers offering coverage in the...

  10. 77 FR 2548 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...; review of the ambulatory and hospital care statistics program; a discussion of the NHANES genetics...

  11. 75 FR 6402 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Marketing (BSC, NCHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... on the future course for health communications and marketing at CDC; and a discussion of focus areas... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Marketing (BSC, NCHM) In accordance with section 10(a)(2..., goals and organizational structure of the new Office of Communications; discussions on program...

  12. The health status of population in the regions boarding to Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmukhanov, S.B.; Raisova, G.K.; Balmukhanov, T.S.; Voronin, A.M.; Sandybaev, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    It is performed the detailed investigation the health status of Semipalatinsk region population affected by constant radioactive irradiation during 40 years. The special attention attached to such pathologies as cancer, congenial defects of development and pathologies of cardio-vascular and nervous systems. It is also characterized the children health status. (author)

  13. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...

  14. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  15. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  16. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  19. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  20. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  1. 77 FR 62211 - Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board... International Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... Performance Review Boards. The board shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of each USAID OIG senior...

  2. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  3. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  4. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, G A

    1990-08-01

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by "fateful visions"--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy.

  5. International financial institutions and human rights: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Serving as lender of last resort to countries experiencing unsustainable levels of public debt, international financial institutions have attracted intense controversy over the past decades, exemplified most recently by the popular discontent expressed in Eurozone countries following several rounds of austerity measures. In exchange for access to financial assistance, borrowing countries must settle on a list of often painful policy reforms that are aimed at balancing the budget. This practice has afforded international financial institutions substantial policy influence on governments throughout the world and in a wide array of policy areas of direct bearing on human rights. This article reviews the consequences of policy reforms mandated by international financial institutions on the enjoyment of human rights, focusing on the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. It finds that these reforms undermine the enjoyment of health rights, labour rights, and civil and political rights, all of which have deleterious implications for public health. The evidence suggests that for human rights commitments to be met, a fundamental reorientation of international financial institutions' activities will be necessary.

  6. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by fateful visions--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy

  7. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-12-01

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  8. Ebola, Zika and the International Health Regulations ? implications for Port Health Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn, R. W.; Boland, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa in 2014-2015 was unprecedented in terms of its scale and consequence.? This, together with the emergence of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016, has again highlighted the potential for disease to spread across international borders and provided an impetus for countries to review their Port Health preparedness. This report reviews the legislative framework and actions taken under this framework i...

  9. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  10. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing...

  11. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  12. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  13. The importance of internal health beliefs for employees' participation in health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-10-01

    To investigate associations between employees' health locus of control (HLOC) and self-perceived health, health behaviors, and participation in health promotion programs (HPPs) and the mediating effect of self-perceived health and health behaviors on the relation between HLOC and participation. Between 2010 and 2012, a six-month longitudinal study was conducted among 691 Dutch employees. Using questionnaires, information was collected on health behaviors, self-perceived health, HLOC, and intention to participate at baseline. Actual participation was assessed at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to study associations between HLOC and self-perceived health, health behaviors, and participation, and to examine whether associations between HLOC and participation were mediated by self-perceived health and health behaviors. Higher internal HLOC was associated with sufficient physical activity (moderate: OR:1.04, 95%CI:1.00-1.08; vigorous: OR:1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.10) and fruit and vegetable intake (OR:1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.09), a good self-perceived health (OR:1.20, 95%CI:1.11-1.30), a positive intention towards participation (OR:1.05, 95%CI:1.00-1.09), and actual participation (OR:1.06, 95%CI:1.00-1.13). Self-perceived health or health behaviors did not mediate associations between HLOC and participation. Employees with a higher internal HLOC behaved healthier and were more likely to participate in HPPs, irrespectively of their health. Increasing internal HLOC seems a promising avenue for improving employees' health and participation in HPPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 2nd International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Evren; Li, Jingshan; Guinet, Alain; Vandaele, Nico

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and practitioners write about new methods and technologies for improving the operation of health care organizations. Statistical analyses play an important role in these methods with the implications of simulation and modeling applied to the future of health care. Papers are based on work presented at the Second International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE2015) in Lyon, France. The conference was a rare opportunity for scientists and practitioners to share work directly with each other. Each resulting paper received a double blind review. Paper topics include: hospital drug logistics, emergency care, simulation in patient care, and models for home care services. Discusses statistical analysis and operations management for health care delivery systems based on real case studies Papers in this volume received a double blind review Brings together the work of scientists, practitioners, and clinicians to unite research and practice in the future of these systems Top...

  15. Health Resorts and Multi-Textured Perceptions of International Health Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Majeed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and medical tourism is considered one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry. Recently, research on health resorts has been gaining academic attention in tandem with the positive contribution of the health and medical segments to the tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to better conceptualize how the behavioral intentions of health tourists are shaped in the emerging context of the health resort. This study illuminates the likely perceptions of prospective tourists about the attractions of health resorts, and endeavors to examine the response of health tourists using data from 359 international health tourists/travelers, comprising of Thai, Indian, and Chinese nationalities. The study also uses the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique in order to analyze the responses of international tourists gathered at two international airports in China. The present study shows that tourists’ expectations and their behavioral intentions are generally associated indicators of perceived health resort attractions. Expectations play a significant mediating role, while culture impacts the overall phenomenon of proposed associations in a moderating way. Moreover, sustainable tourism attractions also play a significant role in shaping Thai travelers’ behavioral responses, while medical facilities and risk levels are considered significant in determining Indian and Chinese travelers’ behaviors. By developing theoretical and empirical grounds, this study offers implications for further research and development in health resorts and other niches of health tourism.

  16. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International health electives: thematic results of student and professional interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical

  18. International cooperation to conquer global inequities in reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of population growth is not limited to national boundaries. Indeed the inability of people in developing countries to control their own fertility has repercussions on global security and on the balance between population and environment as well a on their health and welfare. All nations need to take steps to slow down rapid population growth now, otherwise we will suffer serious consequences. The different between 2 UN projections of world population equals current world population size. Almost 90% of the increase of the larger projection would occur in developing countries, yet they are the least capable of managing big populations. Further major inequalities in reproductive health between developed and developing countries, as well as between men and women exist. The infant mortality rate in developed regions is around 6 times lower than it is in developing regions, child mortality is 7 times lower, and maternal mortality is 15 times lower. International collaboration to rid the world of these inequalities is need to improve reproductive health. Specifically, political and health leaders should mobilize necessary international and national resources. Even though there is more than US $50,000 million in official development assistance funds available annually, the level of population related funding has decreased to less than 1.1% of these funds for 1993-1994. Developed countries could reduce the debt burden to free funds for population activities and to reverse the flow from the poor countries in the Southern Hemisphere to the rich countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Besides developing countries spend much of their money on the military (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa spends US$ 10,000 million). International cooperation leading to peace would make significantly more money available for the social and health sectors, especially reproductive health care.

  19. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office's three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described

  20. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  1. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  2. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  3. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  4. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  5. 75 FR 38493 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board (DHB) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... (from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m.). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Thayer Hotel, 674 Thayer Road, West...: Additional information, agenda updates, and meeting registration are available online at the Defense Health... casualties requiring transfusion, and the Joint Theater Trauma System, as well as the review of the...

  6. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching nutrition in an International Master of Public Health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elliot M; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2002-01-01

    The health of populations is related to the norms and characteristics of society and its socio-economic organization. The causes of food-related ill health are located at the national and international levels and the cure must be sought in good governance. Thus, it is obvious that a Master's Degree in International Public Health must include a thorough overview of the "food chain" from "plough to plate" within the political, economical, socio-economic changes, environmental, industrial, scientific, and health contexts. Nutritional deficiencies are addressed by a variety of measures, including food supply and utilization programs, specific supplementation for high-risk groups, and food fortification to reach a general population. All are part of a wide-based public health nutrition approach, applicable in developed, redeveloping, and newly developing countries. This article is based on experience in teaching Public Health Nutrition to a mixed group of foreign students from different countries. Our goal is to prepare students for a variety of public health careers related to nutrition and health. The aim of this course is to introduce current roles and aspects of food and nutrition policy, focusing on food and nutrition security, human rights for food and nutrition, and the complex interactions among local and global systems. Students are introduced to nutrition screening, assessment, and research skills, and nutrition in emergency situations and in disaster relief. During the course the students learn about the design and the evaluation of nutrition interventions at the individual, community, and national level. The course gives a broad-based examination of major themes related to development and underdevelopment, poverty and wealth, equality and inequality. It also introduces program planning from the perspective of international organisations such as the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United

  8. The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikogosian, Haik; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-09-04

    Public health instruments have been under constant development and renewal for decades. International legal instruments, with their binding character and strength, have a special place in this development. The start of the 21st century saw, in particular, the birth of the first World Health Organization (WHO)-era health treaties - the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its first Protocol. The authors analyze the potential impact of these instruments on global health governance and public health, beyond the traditional view of their impact on tobacco control. Overall, the very fact that globally binding treaties in modern-era health were feasible has accelerated the debate and expectations for an expanded role of international legal regimes in public health. The impact of treaties has also been notable in global health architecture as the novel instruments required novel institutions to govern their implementation. The legal power of the WHO FCTC has enabled rapid adoption of further instruments to promote its implementation, thus, enhancing the international instrumentarium for health, and it has also prompted stronger role for national legislation on health. Notably, the Convention has elevated several traditionally challenging public health features to the level of international legal obligations. It has also revealed how the legal power of the international health instrument can be utilized in safeguarding the interests of health in the face of competing agendas and legal disputes at both the domestic and international levels. Lastly, the legal power of health instruments is associated with their potential impact not only on health but also beyond; the recently adopted Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products may best exemplify this matter. The first treaty experiences of the 21st century may provide important lessons for the role of legal instruments in addressing the unfolding challenges in global health. © 2016 The

  9. Pretravel health advice among international travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Serrano, Edson; Mozo, Karen; Gonzales, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Cuzco, a Peruvian city of historical interest located 3,326 m above sea level, is a frequent destination for tourists. We conducted a descriptive study to assess the extent and sources of pretravel health advice received by international travelers before their arrival to Cuzco. Data were collected as part of a health survey among travelers. Between August and November 2002, travelers between 15 and 65 years old were invited to fill out a questionnaire in the departing area of Cuzco's international airport. A total of 5,988 travelers participated. The mean age was 35.4 years (SD 11.4 yr); 50.6% were female and 50.8% were single. Tourism was the reason for traveling in 90.2% of the participants, and 89.3% of them were traveling with companions. Pretravel health information was received by 93.6%. The median number of information sources was two, with books (41.5%), travel medicine clinics (38.8%), the Internet (23.3%), and general practitioners (22.7%) as the main sources. Most frequently received recommendations were about safe food and water consumption (85%), use of insect repellents (66.0%), sunburn protection (64.4%), and condom use (22%). Only 16.5% took medication to prevent altitude sickness, and 14.2% took medication to prevent traveler's diarrhea. Variables independently associated with receiving pretravel health information from a health care professional were female gender, country of residence other than the United States, length of stay in Cuzco > 7 days, length of stay in other Peruvian cities > 7 days, tourism as the main reason for visiting Cuzco, traveling with companions, and consulting of more than one source of information. Most travelers arriving to Cuzco had received pretravel health information, and the majority obtained it from more than one source. Recommendations addressed for specific health risks, such as altitude sickness prophylaxis, were received by few travelers.

  10. Using a Board Game About Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions in Daily Practice : A Research into Facilitating and Impeding Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A.L. van Staa; Dr. H.A. van der Stege; Dr. S.R. Hilberink; MSc E.J.M. Bakker

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into use of a new board game (SeCZ TaLK) to facilitate discussing sexual health with adolescents with chronic conditions in healthcare and special education, and to establish impeding and facilitating factors for using the game.

  11. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  12. On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-health (SOH estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs is presented with three main advantages: (1 it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2 it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3 it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability.

  13. Design of external sensors board based on Bluetooth interface of smart phones for structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zhou, Yaping; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of new information technology, the Internet of Things(IoT) is based on intelligent perception, recognition technology, ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous network integration, and it is known as the third wave of the development of information industry in the world after the computer and the Internet. And Smart Phones are the general term for a class of mobile phones with a separate operating system and operational memory, in which the third-party service programs including software, games, navigation, et.al, can be installed. Smart Phones, with not only sensors but also actuators, are widely used in the IoT world. As the current hot issues in the engineering area, Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also facing new problems about design ideas in the IoT environment. The development of IoT, wireless sensor network and mobile communication technology, provides a good technical platform for SHM. Based on these facts, this paper introduces a kind of new idea for Structural Health Monitoring using Smart Phones Technique. The system is described in detail, and the external sensor board based on Bluetooth interface is designed, the test based on Smart Phones is finished to validate the implementation and feasibility. The research is preliminary and more tests need to be carried out before it can be of practical use.

  14. The National Accreditation Board for Hospital and Health Care Providers accreditation programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyani, Girdhar J; Krishnamurthy, B

    2014-01-01

    Quality in health care is important as it is directly linked with patient safety. Quality as we know is driven either by regulation or by market demand. Regulation in most developing countries has not been effective, as there is shortage of health care providers and governments have to be flexible. In such circumstances, quality has taken a back seat. Accreditation symbolizes the framework for quality governance of a hospital and is based on optimum standards. Not only is India establishing numerous state of the art hospitals, but they are also experiencing an increase in demand for quality as well as medical tourism. India launched its own accreditation system in 2006, conforming to standards accredited by ISQua. This article shows the journey to accreditation in India and describes the problems encountered by hospitals as well as the benefits it has generated for the industry and patients.

  15. Boarding school rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-04

    Ofsted inspects and regulates services that care for children and young people, including boarding facilities. Medication management is an integral part of caring for children in boarding schools, and robust systems must be in place to pass inspection. These systems must cover how medicines are dispensed, administered and stored at the facility, risk assessments, identifying which pupils can manage their own medicines and the individual health needs of boarders, so that care plans can be put in place for children with specific needs.

  16. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  17. Evaluation of international recruitment of health professionals in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ruth; Noble, Jenny; Mahon, Ann; Maxted, Mairead; Grant, Janet; Sibbald, Bonnie

    2010-10-01

    To explore whether a period of intensive international recruitment by the English National Health Service (NHS) achieved its objectives of boosting workforce numbers and to set this against the wider costs, longer-term challenges and questions arising. A postal survey of all pre-2006 NHS providers, Strategic Health Authorities and Deans of Postgraduate Medical Education obtained information on 284 (45%) organizations (142 completed questionnaires). Eight subsequent case studies (74 interviews) covered medical consultant, general practitioner, nurse, midwife and allied health professional recruitment. Most respondents had undertaken or facilitated international recruitment between 2001 and 2006 and believed that it had enabled them to address immediate staff shortages. Views on longer-term implications, such as recruit retention, were more equivocal. Most organizations had made only a limited value-for-money assessment, balancing direct expenditure on overseas recruitment against savings on temporary staff. Other short and long-term transaction and opportunity costs arose from pressures on existing staff, time spent on induction/pastoral support, and human resource management and workforce planning challenges. Though recognized, these extensive 'hidden costs' for NHS organizations were harder to assess as were the implications for source countries and migrant staff. The main achievement of the intensive international recruitment period from a UK viewpoint was that such a major undertaking was seen through without major disruption to NHS services. The wider costs and challenges meant, however, that large-scale international recruitment was not sustainable as a solution to workforce shortages. Should such approaches be attempted in future, a clearer upfront appraisal of all the potential costs and implications will be vital.

  18. [The ICOH International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, V

    2010-01-01

    In the paper all the steps are described which are followed by ICOH to finalize the International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals (OHP). The Code is composed by a "Preface" in which is explained why the Occupational Health Professionals need a specific Code different from other Codes built up for general practitioners or other specializations, followed by an "Introduction" where the targets of Occupational Health are underlined and which professionals contribute to achieve the defined target. These two parts are followed by a more substantial description of the tasks and duties of the OHP. In the last part of the Code it is illustrated how to carry out the above mentioned duties. The principles inserted in the ICOH Code of Ethics have been worldwide accepted by the OHP and particularly in Italy where they have been included in the Legislative Decree 81/08.

  19. Rockwell International - Rocky Flats Plant: Occupational Health Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistine, R.W.; Petrocchi, A.; Wright, W.L.; Yoder, R.E.; Fischer, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Rockwell International-Rocky Flats Occupational Health Information System uses the FLOW GEMINI software on a VAX computer system. The system is extremely user friendly, flexible, comprehensive, and easily customized by the user. The system contains the editioned files (i.e., time organized historical data) of the Medical, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, and Safety Departments. It maintains, analyzes and reports on data from employee medical and work histories, medical exams, workplace monitoring, and health effects related to specific hazards or locations in the workplace. It identifies and reports potential individual and group problems through regular reports and responses to on-line queries. In addition, it schedules examination, sampling, produces standard user-defined reports, and provides statistical analysis capabilities. The system presently contains a file of more than 20,000 Material Data Safety Sheets. A user group provides a mechanism for sharing ideas and continual software enhancement. 11 figures

  20. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... analysed 197 structured self-administered questionnaires using one way ANOVA to identify associations between individual characteristics of health professionals and perceived training needs. Results: The majority of participants were women (n=143, 73%) and men (n=53, 27%). In terms of motivation...

  1. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  2. 76 FR 37037 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... interim final regulations published July 23, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance..., group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of...

  3. International military operations and mental health--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Noora M; Laukkala, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Volunteering in international military missions has been scrutinized for its effects on mental health. Different kinds of exposures to traumatic events are associated with a variety of mental disorders, mainly heightened rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse. Based on the literature we discuss risk and protective factors concerning the psychological well-being of soldiers attending to international military operations. A systematic literature search was carried out using relevant search terms to identify the articles for this review. The ability to recognize and treat acute stress reactions during deployments is important. Post-deployment psychosocial support and services have a role in lowering barriers to care, diminishing stigma and also in recognizing individuals who suffer from psychological distress or psychiatric symptoms, to connect them with appropriate care. Further investigation of gender differences and the role of stigmatization is warranted. Most of those participating in international military operations are repatriated without problems, but repeated exposure to combat situations and other stressors may affect mental health in various ways. Stigmatization is still a barrier to care.

  4. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  5. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication.

  6. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  7. Estimates of Enhanced Outcomes in Employment, Income, Health, and Volunteerism for the Association of Boarding Schools Member School Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Allison; Erhardt, Robert; Phelps, Richard; Upham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from 65 schools that are U.S. members of The Association of Boarding Schools (TABS) to estimate how TABS member school graduates who enter college compare with college entrants from non-boarding schools on several long-term quality-of-life estimates. Although TABS students are more likely to graduate college than the population of…

  8. Examining transgender health through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health's (ICF) Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Melissa; Cox, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals. A literature review was conducted to identify Environmental and Personal Factors that may influence transgender individuals' physical, psychological, and social functioning. Seven electronic databases were searched. In total, 154 records were reviewed, and 41 articles and other records met inclusion criteria. Three general themes emerged for Environmental Factors: family and social networks, education, and health care. Three general themes also emerged for Personal Factors: socioeconomic status, race, and age. Transgender individuals benefit from gender-affirming services, improved family and social support systems, and competent provider care. Educational training programs, including medical curricula or workshops, might provide the greatest benefit in improving transgender health by increasing the knowledge and cultural competency of health professionals working with this population. Given the diversity of gender expression, differences in lived experiences, and potential for enduring persistent "double discrimination" due to the intersectional relationships between socioeconomic status, race, and/or age, health professionals must approach transgender health using a holistic lens such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  9. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  10. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  11. Safety of radioactive waste management: International conference in Spain seeks board platform of consensus among experts and regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives short information about the Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (13-17 March 2000, Cordoba, Spain) organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the European Commission, the World Health Organization, and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

  12. 75 FR 62501 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update... Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board. DATES: September... reference-- USAID OIG Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 5...

  13. HIV/AIDS, health and wellbeing study among International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) seafarer affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf Chowdhury, Syed Asif; Smith, Jacqueline; Trowsdale, Steve; Leather, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Transport workers generally face a higher-than-average risk of HIV as well as other health challenges. In order to improve understanding of health issues in the maritime sector, including but not limited to HIV/AIDS, and to prepare appropriate responses the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) conducted a study of the views and needs of those affiliates. The ITF carried out two surveys. The first consisted of a questionnaire sent to all ITF seafarer affiliates to establish their concerns about health issues, including the impact of HIV/AIDS, and to assess the extent and nature of existing trade union programmes. The second consisted of a knowledge, attitude and behaviour survey on health, wellbeing and AIDS among a cross-section of individual members administered through anonymous and confidential questionnaires by maritime affiliates in four countries in different regions and an identical online questionnaire through Survey Monkey. For the first survey, replies were received from 35 unions in 30 countries, including major seafarer supplying countries - India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Turkey, Ukraine - and major beneficial ownership countries such as Germany, Italy, Norway, and South Korea. Health issues of concern included HIV and other sexually transmitted infections for over three-quarters of them, and then alcohol use, weight control, and mental health. All said they would welcome ITF support in starting or strengthening a programme on general health and/or HIV. Replies were received to the second survey from 615 individual seafarers. Half to three-quarters said they worried about their weight, lack of exercise and drinking; over half felt depressed sometimes or often. There were serious knowledge gaps in a number of areas, especially HIV transmission and prevention, as well as high levels of stigma towards workmates with HIV. A number of health issues and information gaps remain unaddressed on board and pre-departure. Mental health is

  14. 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Jadeera; Usman, Juliana; Ahmad, Mohd; Razman, Rizal; Selvanayagam, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016 (MoHE2016). The conference was jointly organized by the Biomedical Engineering Department and Sports Centre, University of Malaya. It was held in Malacca, from 28-30 September 2016. MoHE 2016 provided a good opportunity for speakers and participants to actively discuss about recent developments in a wide range of topics in the area of sports and exercise science. In total, 83 presenters and 140 participants took part in this successful conference. .

  15. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  16. Trends in viral meningitis hospitalisations and notifications in the North Eastern Health Board (1997 - 2001): a cause for concern?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to compare trends in both hospital admissions and notifications of viral meningitis in the North Eastern Health Board (NEHB). Hospital admissions from 1997 to 2001, involving NEHB residents with an infectious disease diagnosis, were examined and viral meningitis cases were analyzed. During this period 265 NEHB residents were admitted to hospital with viral meningitis--an increase of 429% between 1997 and 2001 with the bulk of this increase during 2000 and 2001. A total of 1,234 bed days were taken up by this cohort and the mean length of stay was 4.5 days (95% CI 4.2 - 4.9). The number of viral meningitis notifications in the NEHB was 38 (ranging from 4 in 1997 to 11 in 2001). This number is much lower than expected given the corresponding number of hospital admissions for the same period. Thus, most cases were not notified which means that current surveillance systems under-estimate the disease burden of viral meningitis. Such under-reporting has implications for infectious disease policy in Ireland.

  17. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  18. School health promotion--international perspectives and role of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasla, Munira; Prasla, Shameer Ali

    2011-01-01

    Schools have great potential in health promotion; however, this is often neglected area and fewer efforts are done in exploring status of school health promotion in Pakistan. This paper attempts to outline brief historical background of school health promotion in Pakistan; presents critical review of some international school health promotion perspectives; and finally explore opportunities and role of healthcare professionals in Pakistan's context. A critical review of peer-reviewed literature divided into two broad themes of international perspectives on school health promotion, and role of healthcare professionals. Results are presented in cross-cutting themes and in narrative style. School health promotion is very diverse phenomenon, situated in respective cultural contexts. Programmes pesent a range of characteristics from focusing on integrated approach to health education to behavioural changes; and from involving youngsters to policy advocacy. Like the programmes, role of healthcare professionals is also varied and dynamic and without clearly defining their role, development of effective health promotion programmes is difficult. School health promotion could be facilitated by appropriate trainings for healthcare professionals and evidence-based policy changes.

  19. Human Rights Treaties Are an Important Part of the "International Health Instrumentariam" Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-10-02

    In their commentary, Haik Nikogosian and Ilona Kickbusch argue for the necessity of new binding international legal instruments for health to address complex health determinants and offer a cogent analysis of the implications of such treaties for future global health governance. Yet in doing so they pay no attention to the existing instrumentarium of international legally binding treaties relevant to health, in the form of human rights treaties. International human rights law has entrenched individual entitlements and state obligations in relation to individual and public health through iterative human rights treaties since 1946. These treaties offer normative specificity, institutional monitoring and the possibility of enforcement and accountability. If we are to build a new 'international health instrumentariam' we should not ignore existing and important tools that can assist in this endeavor. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  1. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  2. The capitalist world-system and international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, R H

    1981-01-01

    A number of world health problems which have been discretely considered in the past are viewed in this paper as interwoven with each other and with the functioning of the capitalist political-economic world-system. Thus, climactic explanations ("tropical medicine"), and even poverty when conceived in cultural terms or as a structural problem resident entirely within a single nation, are seen as inadequate for understanding any or all of the problems discussed briefly here: poor general health levels in peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, especially rising infant mortality rates in countries such as Brazil; comerciogenic malnutrition; dumping and exploitative sale of drugs, pesticides and other products banned or restricted in core nations; genocidal and other threatening approaches to population control; export of hazardous and polluting industry to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations; similar export of human experimentation; the sale of irrelevant, high medical technology to countries lacking basic public health measures, the "brain drain", and medical imperialism. Also discounted are moralistic inveighing, complaints about inadequate information and its transfer, discussions of bureaucratic bumbling or inter-agency politics and professional rivalries, various forms of victim-blaming, and other explanations and corrective approaches which ignore class structure and the control, distribution, and expropriation of resources in nations and the world-system. The framework suggests the importance of a worldwide cultural hegemony, including a medical cultural hegemony, established by and in the service of the ruling classes. Socialist-oriented nations which are quasi-independent of the capitalist world-system are seen as suffering less from its effects. This suggests that we should conceive of world socialist health and world capitalist health, rather than any kind of unified phenomenon called "international health".

  3. Recreational facilities: a guide to recreational facilities in the East Coast Area Health Board

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence

  4. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: A Successful Validation of a Department of Defense (DoD) Funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Technology on Board the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Khodadad, Christina; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Pollack, Lawrence; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR EX (Registered Trademark) PCR unit was initially developed by the DoD as part of an SBIR project to detect and identify biothreats during field deployment. The system was evaluated by NASA as a commercial technology for future microbial monitoring requirements and has been successfully demonstrated in microgravity on-board the International Space Station.

  5. Health risks, travel preparation, and illness among public health professionals during international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Victor; Warnock, Eli; Ramana Dhara, V; Jean-Louis, Lee Ann; Sotir, Mark J; Kozarsky, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Few data currently exist on health risks faced by public health professionals (PHP) during international travel. We conducted pre- and post-travel health surveys to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and illnesses among PHP international travelers. Anonymous surveys were completed by PHP from a large American public health agency who sought a pre-travel medical consult from September 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. Surveys were completed by 122 participants; travelers went to 163 countries. Of the 122 respondents, 97 (80%) reported at least one planned health risk activity (visiting rural areas, handling animals, contact with blood or body fluids, visiting malarious areas), and 50 (41%) reported exposure to unanticipated health risks. Of the 62 travelers who visited malarious areas, 14 (23%) reported inconsistent or no use of malaria prophylaxis. Illness during travel was reported by 33 (27%) respondents. Most of the PHP travelers in our study reported at least one planned health risk activity, and almost half reported exposure to unanticipated health risks, and one-quarter of travelers to malarious areas reported inconsistent or no use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Our findings highlight that communication and education outreach for PHP to prevent travel-associated illnesses can be improved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Adopting New International Health Instruments - What Can We Learn From the FCTC? Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselman, Marlies; Toebes, Brigit

    2017-07-15

    This Commentary forms a response to Nikogosian's and Kickbusch's forward-looking perspective about the legal strength of international health instruments. Building on their arguments, in this commentary we consider what we can learn from the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) for the adoption of new legal international health instruments. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  8. [International cooperation in health: the Special Service of Public Health and its nursing program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, André Luiz Vieira

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Service of Public Health) in developing and expanding higher education in nursing and to train auxiliary health personnel in Brazil under bilateral agreements between the US and Brazil during the 1940s and 1950s. The Nursing Program of the Special Service is approached from the perspective of its participation in a broader international cooperation developed by the Pan American Health Organization, but also as part of the state and nation building effort of the first Vargas Regime.

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  10. RECALMIN: The association between management of Spanish National Health Service Internal Medical Units and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio; Javier Elola-Somoza, Francisco; Casariego-Vales, Emilio; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Bernal, José Luis; Barba-Martín, Raquel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between management of Internal Medical Units (IMUs) with outcomes (mortality and length of stay) within the Spanish National Health Service. Data on management were obtained from a descriptive transversal study performed among IMUs of the acute hospitals. Outcome indicators were taken from an administrative database of all hospital discharges from the IMUs. Spanish National Health Service. One hundred and twenty-four acute general hospitals with available data of management and outcomes (401 424 discharges). IMU risk standardized mortality rates were calculated using a multilevel model adjusted by Charlson Index. Risk standardized myocardial infarction and heart failure mortality rates were calculated using specific multilevel models. Length of stay was adjusted by complexity. Greater hospital complexity was associated with longer average length of stays (r: 0.42; P International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. [Health, illnes and higiene in the boarding schools. the case of the salesian arts and craft scholl of Córdoba. 1905 - 1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    The following article asks about the speeches, practices, representations and experiences on health, hygiene and illnes in boarding schools early last century, taking for instance the School of Arts and Crafts of the Salesian Congregation, with the intention of revisiting the dialogue between medicine, hygiene and school in the context of development of the social question, the result of accelerated modernization process experienced by the city of Córdoba.

  12. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  13. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing...... public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross...... effect of different types of public health emergencies in a timely manner as required by the International Health Regulations (2005)....

  14. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to... Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and... of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human...

  15. 75 FR 43109 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...

  16. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-02

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  17. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  18. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  19. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed

  20. Predicting fitness to practise events in international medical graduates who registered as UK doctors via the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) system: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffin, Paul A; Paton, Lewis W; Mwandigha, Lazaro M; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan

    2017-03-20

    International medical graduates working in the UK are more likely to be censured in relation to fitness to practise compared to home graduates. Performance on the General Medical Council's (GMC's) Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) tests and English fluency have previously been shown to predict later educational performance in this group of doctors. It is unknown whether the PLAB system is also a valid predictor of unprofessional behaviour and malpractice. The findings would have implications for regulatory policy. This was an observational study linking data relating to fitness to practise events (referral or censure), PLAB performance, demographic variables and English language competence, as evaluated via the International English Language Test System (IELTS). Data from 27,330 international medical graduates registered with the GMC were analysed, including 210 doctors who had been sanctioned in relation to at least one fitness to practise issue. The main outcome was risk of eventual censure (including a warning). The significant univariable educational predictors of eventual censure (versus no censures or referrals) were lower PLAB part 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.00) and part 2 scores (HR, 0.94; 0.91 to 0.97) at first sitting, multiple attempts at both parts of the PLAB, lower IELTS reading (HR, 0.79; 0.65 to 0.94) and listening scores (HR, 0.76; 0.62 to 0.93) and higher IELTS speaking scores (HR, 1.28; 1.04 to 1.57). Multiple resits at either part of the PLAB and higher IELTS speaking score (HR, 1.49; 1.20 to 1.84) were also independent predictors of censure. We estimated that the proposed limit of four attempts at both parts of the PLAB would reduce the risk in this entire group by only approximately two censures per 5 years in this group of doctors. Making the PLAB, or any replacement assessment, more stringent and raising the required standards of English reading and listening may result in fewer fitness

  1. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  2. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  3. Lifetime health risks from internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Nikula, K.J.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the lifetime health risks resulting from internal depositions of beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides has come from studies in laboratory animals conducted to provide information not available from human epidemiological studies. This paper is focused primarily on results of experiments in which laboratory animals (dogs and rodents) were exposed once, briefly, by inhalation or intravenous injection to an individual fission-product radionuclide and were studied for radionuclide metabolism, dosimetry, and lifetime health effects. The relative importance of many dose- and effect-modifying factors was studied. The main long-term biological effects were cancers in the organs and tissues receiving the highest doses. Results for three different patterns of irradiation (skeleton, lung, and whole-body) are presented. The risks of bone cancers produced by 90 Sr are compared with those from 238 Pu in dogs. Lung cancer risks for several beta emitters inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by dogs are compared with results for 144 CeO 2 inhaled by rats. Late-occurring biological effects from the relatively uniform whole-body irradiation from intravenously injected 137 Cs are also presented. In addition to radionuclide-specific results, cross-cutting analyses of these studies provide valuable information on broader issues such as dose protraction, relative biological effectiveness, threshold considerations, and inter-species comparisons including extrapolation to human exposure situations. (authors)

  4. A Critical-Holistic Analysis of Nursing Faculty and Student Interest in International Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Korniewicz, Denise M.; Zerbe, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 211 undergraduate and 23 graduate nursing students and 38 faculty revealed substantial interest in international health. Faculty had numerous international experiences; many students had traveled abroad and one-third considered international health a career priority. The need for a broad interdisciplinary framework rather than…

  5. Basic Health, Women’s Health, and Mental Health Among Internally Displaced Persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Glen; Torbay, Rabih; Lawry, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed basic health, women’s health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur. Methods. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents’ households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents’ mental health, opinions on women’s rights, and the health status of household members. Results. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women. Conclusions. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population’s basic needs. However, mental and women’s health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health. PMID:17138925

  6. Basic health, women's health, and mental health among internally displaced persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Glen; Torbay, Rabih; Lawry, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    We assessed basic health, women's health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents' households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents' mental health, opinions on women's rights, and the health status of household members. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population's basic needs. However, mental and women's health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health.

  7. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  8. The internal audit of clinical areas: a pilot of the internal audit methodology in a health service emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison; Santilli, Mario; Scott, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Governing bodies of health services need assurance that major risks to achieving the health service objectives are being controlled. Currently, the main assurance mechanisms generated within the organization are through the review of implementation of policies and procedures and review of clinical audits and quality data. The governing bodies of health services need more robust, objective data to inform their understanding of the control of clinical risks. Internal audit provides a methodological framework that provides independent and objective assurance to the governing body on the control of significant risks. The article describes the pilot of the internal audit methodology in an emergency unit in a health service. An internal auditor was partnered with a clinical expert to assess the application of clinical criteria based on best practice guidelines. The pilot of the internal audit of a clinical area was successful in identifying significant clinical risks that required further management. The application of an internal audit methodology to a clinical area is a promising mechanism to gain robust assurance at the governance level regarding the management of significant clinical risks. This approach needs further exploration and trial in a range of health care settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Education Based on Focus Group Discussions on Menstrual Health Behaviors of Female Adolescents in Boarding Centers of the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Shirzadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Problems caused by menstruation are common among women. Focus group discussions are a method of data collection in which a small group of participants discuss a specified topic or issue. This study mainly aimed to determine the effects of health education based on focus group discussions on the promotion of health behaviors of female adolescents residing boarding centers of the Welfare Organization (Tehran, Iran during their menstruation periods. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental interventional study recruited all eligible 12-19-year-old female residents (n=61 of the boarding centers affiliated to the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including demographic information and puberty health behaviors (health behaviors during the menstruation period. The questionnaires were completed through interviews before and one month after training. The educational intervention lasted for three months. Data were analyzed using paired t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests in SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of performance increased from 12.11±4.43 before the intervention to 16.50±2.79 after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Since the educational intervention based on focus group discussions had positive effects on the participants’ puberty health, such discussions are recommended to educate adolescent girls about puberty issues.

  10. Cultural differences and board gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco , Amélia; Francoeur , Claude; Réal , Isabelle; Laffarga , Joaquina; Ruiz-Barbadillo , Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    International audience; As evidence of the continuing interest raised by "board gender diversity", major studies (Catalyst, 2008; World Economic Forum, 2010; European Board Diversity Analysis, 2010) were recently carried out and have all led to reports confirming the imbalance of women on boards and the need to address this issue. Moreover, our analysis of these reports indicates that the low proportion of women observed on corporate boards varies across countries, which raises the question a...

  11. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  13. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2010-08-01

    War victims are regarded as one of the highest risk groups for mental disturbances. This study investigated the effects of the Darfur conflict on mental health of 430 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from three camps located around Fasher and Nyala towns. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select participants. Male participants represented 50.6% of the sample while female participants represented 49.4%. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used in addition to a questionnaire measuring demographic variables and living conditions. It was hypothesized that high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms will be evident. Results showed a high dissatisfaction rate (72%) with living conditions among IDPs. There was also high prevalence of PTSD (54%) and general distress (70%) among IDPs. Female participants showed more somatic symptoms than their male counterparts. Married participants were more distressed, anxious, and showed more social dysfunction, while single ones reported more avoidance symptoms. Significant differences related to date of displacement were found in PTSD and hyperarousal. The group of IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales than those displaced in 2004 and 2005. There was also significant difference related to date of displacement in distress, somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales. Results are discussed in light of the study hypotheses and previous findings. It is concluded that three factors might affect the dissatisfaction of IDPs with living conditions inside camps. These are: lack of employment, unsuitability of food items, and lack of security around camps. It was recommended that psychological support services should be among the prime relief services provided by aid agencies.

  14. Detection of esophageal fiducial marker displacement during radiation therapy with a 2-dimensional on-board imager: analysis of internal margin for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right-left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (Pdisplacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (Pinternal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode Florin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  16. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Croitoru, Cristiana Verona; Sandu, Mihnea; Dogeanu, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS) has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ) have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  17. Solving Interoperability in Translational Health. Perspectives of Students from the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) 2016 Master Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Anne M.; Facelli, Julio C.; Jaspers, Monique; Wetter, Thomas; Pfeifer, Daniel; Gatewood, Laël Cranmer; Adam, Terry; Li, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chin; Evans, R. Scott; Beukenhorst, Anna; van Mens, Hugo Johan Theodoore; Tensen, Esmee; Bock, Christian; Fendrich, Laura; Seitz, Peter; Suleder, Julian; Aldelkhyyel, Ranyah; Bridgeman, Kent; Hu, Zhen; Sattler, Aaron; Guo, Shin-Yi; Mohaimenul, Islam Md Mohaimenul; Anggraini Ningrum, Dina Nur; Tung, Hsin-Ru; Bian, Jiantano; Plasek, Joseph M.; Rommel, Casey; Burke, Juandalyn; Sohih, Harkirat

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This

  18. Strengthening public health laboratory capacity in Thailand for International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruski, Anne Harwood; Birmingham, Maureen; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Chungsamanukool, Ladawan; Chungsamanukool, Preecha; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Saengklai, Ladapan; Supawat, Krongkaew; Thattiyaphong, Aree; Wongsommart, Duangdao; Wootta, Wattanapong; Nikiema, Abdoulaye; Pierson, Antoine; Peruski, Leonard F; Liu, Xin; Rayfield, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Thailand conducted a national laboratory assessment of core capacities related to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), and thereby established a baseline to measure future progress. The assessment was limited to public laboratories found within the Thai Bureau of Quality and Safety of Food, National Institute of Health and regional medical science centres. The World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory assessment tool was adapted to Thailand through a participatory approach. This adapted version employed a specific scoring matrix and comprised 16 modules with a quantitative output. Two teams jointly performed the on-site assessments in December 2010 over a two-week period, in 17 public health laboratories in Thailand. The assessment focused on the capacity to identify and accurately detect pathogens mentioned in Annex 2 of the IHR (2005) in a timely manner, as well as other public health priority pathogens for Thailand. Performance of quality management, budget and finance, data management and communications was considered strong (>90%); premises quality, specimen collection, biosafety, public health functions, supplies management and equipment availability were judged as very good (>70% but ≤90%); while microbiological capacity, staffing, training and supervision, and information technology needed improvement (>60% but ≤70%). This assessment is a major step in Thailand towards development of an optimized and standardized national laboratory network for the detection and reporting of infectious disease that would be compliant with IHR (2005). The participatory strategy employed to adapt an international tool to the Thai context can also serve as a model for use by other countries in the Region. The participatory approach probably ensured better quality and ownership of the results, while providing critical information to help decision-makers determine where best to invest finite resources.

  19. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  20. Global Health Watch 2006-2008 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Enterprise Architecture Laboratory (HEAL). A health information system is made up of discreet and modular building blocks that need to interoperate with one another. View moreHealth Enterprise Architecture Laboratory (HEAL) ...

  1. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...

  2. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... An electronic maternal health platform, called mMOM, links health system users ... Minority women are thus gaining knowledge and trust in reproductive health services available to them.

  3. Internal locus of control, health literacy and health, an Israeli cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Cohen, Vicki; Elhayany, Asher

    2017-11-13

    The association between health literacy (HL) and health outcomes, including self-perceived health (SPH) has been well documented. Yet the complexity of this association is not yet completely clear. Drawing on the Health Literacy Scale (HLS) study in Israel, we examined the association between HL, Internal Health Locus of Control (IHLOC) and SPH among Jews and Arabs. A face-to-face survey was conducted among 242 Arabs and 358 Jews. The questionnaire measured SPH, IHLOC and two measures of HL: a European HLScale (HLS-EU-16) and the Hebrew/Arabic Health Literacy Test (H/AHLT), based on the Short Test Of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Analysis included multivariable logistic regressions and bootstrapping to identify mediation effects. Among Jews, IHLOC seems to be a significant mediator between HL and SPH. IHLOC was strongly associated with SPH (OR = 6.13; CI = 3.2, 11.8), while HL was not significantly associated directly with SPH. Similar results were observed when using the H/AHLT as a measure of HL. Among Arabs a different pattern emerges; IHLOC was neither associated with SPH nor was it a mediator of the association between HL and SPH. The two measures of HL seem to have different associations with SPH among Arabs, as only H/AHLT was associated significantly with SPH, and not HLS-EU-16. Thus, those with higher levels of IHLOC assess their health as better than those with low IHLOC only among Jews, and not among Arabs. IHLOC seems to be a significant mediator between HL and SPH among some cultures. Among Arabs, only functional HL seems to be positively associated with SPH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Experience of international cooperation among Baltic countries in occupational health and security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloutka, E V; Andronova, E R; Dedkova, L E

    2013-01-01

    The article covers longstanding experience of international cooperation in occupational health and security with Baltic countries. The authors describe history of information network creation, its structure, objectives, importance for occupational health services and safety in the region.

  5. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  6. Leadership in primary health care: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Anne

    2007-08-01

    A primary health care approach is essential to contemporary nursing roles such as practice nursing. This paper examines the evolution of primary health care as a global strategy for responding to the social determinants of health. Primary health care roles require knowledge of, and a focus on social determinants of health, particularly the societal factors that allow and perpetuate inequities and disadvantage. They also require a depth and breadth of leadership skills that are responsive to health needs, appropriate in the social and regulatory context, and visionary in balancing both workforce and client needs. The key to succeeding in working with communities and groups under a primary health care umbrella is to balance the big picture of comprehensive primary health care with operational strategies for selective primary health care. The other essential element involves using leadership skills to promote inclusiveness, empowerment and health literacy, and ultimately, better health.

  7. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  8. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  10. Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Wagstaff (Adam); H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents evidence on income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in nine industrialized countries. Health interview survey data were used to construct concentration curves of self-assessed health, measured as a latent variable. Inequalities in health favoured the

  11. Health | Page 16 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A visiting professor at the Public Health Foundation of India, Dr Cash is a senior lecturer on global health in the Department of Global Health and Population at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He spoke on “Taking Science to the People: The Development and Dissemination of ORT." Read more about Highlight: ...

  12. Health | Page 17 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers with the Africa Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) have uncovered ways to strengthen health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Weak health systems cause a high burden of preventable and treatable illnesses, especially for those living in rural areas. Strong health systems are needed to provide adequate access ...

  13. The health of women and girls determines the health and well-being of our modern world: A white paper from the International Council on Women's Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; McGrath, Sarah J; Meleis, Afaf I; Stern, Phyllis; Digiacomo, Michelle; Dharmendra, Tessa; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Hochleitner, Margarethe; Messias, Deanne K H; Brown, Hazel; Teitelman, Anne; Sindhu, Siriorn; Reesman, Karen; Richter, Solina; Sommers, Marilyn S; Schaeffer, Doris; Stringer, Marilyn; Sampselle, Carolyn; Anderson, Debra; Tuazon, Josefina A; Cao, Yingjuan; Krassen Covan, Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    The International Council on Women's Health Issues (ICOWHI) is an international nonprofit association dedicated to the goal of promoting health, health care, and well-being of women and girls throughout the world through participation, empowerment, advocacy, education, and research. We are a multidisciplinary network of women's health providers, planners, and advocates from all over the globe. We constitute an international professional and lay network of those committed to improving women and girl's health and quality of life. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally.

  14. Comparison of Content on the American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination With Conditions Seen in Practice by General Internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bradley; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Lipner, Rebecca S; Green, Marianne M

    2017-06-13

    Success on the internal medicine (IM) examination is a central requirement of the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM's) Maintenance of Certification program (MOC). Therefore, it is important to understand the degree to which this examination reflects conditions seen in practice, one dimension of content validity, which focuses on the match between content in the discipline and the topics on the examination questions. To assess whether the frequency of questions on IM-MOC examinations were concordant with the frequency of conditions seen in practice. The 2010-2013 IM-MOC examinations were used to calculate the percentage of questions for 186 medical condition categories from the examination blueprint, which balances examination content by considering importance and frequency of conditions seen in practice. Nationally representative estimates of conditions seen in practice by general internists were estimated from the primary diagnosis for 13 832 office visits (2010-2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys) and 108 472 hospital stays (2010 National Hospital Discharge Survey). Prevalence of conditions included on the IM-MOC examination questions. The outcome measure was the concordance between the percentages of IM-MOC examination questions and the percentages of conditions seen in practice during either office visits or hospital stays for each of 186 condition categories (eg, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, liver disease). The concordance thresholds were 0.5 SD of the weighted mean percentages of the applicable 186 conditions seen in practice (0.74% for office visits; 0.51% for hospital stays). If the absolute differences between the percentages of examination questions and the percentages of office visit conditions or hospital stay conditions seen were less than the applicable concordance threshold, then the condition category was judged to be concordant. During the 2010-2013 IM-MOC examination periods, 3600 questions (180 questions per

  15. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... an opportunity to apply for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the Board is to advise the Secretary of...

  16. Manpower Issues Involving Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    17 a. Flexibility ...Xhienne, SWOT analysis diagram, Sept. 30, 2007. 17 B. CURRENT BOARDING TEAMS 1. Strengths a. Flexibility In a 2011 report from International...outlined on their website includes, Boarding Officer Course, Boarding Officer Practical, BO eLearning , Ports waterways coastal security, Boarding

  17. Reorienting adolescent sexual and reproductive health research : Reflections from an international conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Kristien; De Meyer, Sara; Ivanova, Olena; Anderson, Ragnar; Decat, Peter; Herbiet, Céline; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Ketting, Evert; Lees, James; Moreau, Caroline; Tolman, Deborah L.; Vega, Bernardo; Verhetsel, Elizabeth; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    On December 4th 2014, the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) at Ghent University organized an international conference on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) and well-being. This viewpoint highlights two key messages of the conference - 1) ASRH promotion is broadening

  18. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing : The international classification of functioning disability and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Achterberg, T; Holleman, G; Heijnen-Kaales, Y; Van der Brug, Y; Roodbol, G; Stallinga, HA; Hellema, F; Frederiks, CMA

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  19. Using a multidisciplinary classification in nursing: the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Achterberg, Theo; Holleman, Gerda; Heijnen-Kaales, Yvonne; van der Brug, Ype; Roodbol, Gabriël; Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; Hellema, Fokje; Frederiks, Carla M. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study to explore systematically the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to nurses giving patient care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has a history of more than 20 years. Although this World

  20. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-20

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing.

  1. Board Charter

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TEST

    Section 14: Terms of Reference for the Human Resources Committee . .... Management is responsible for the development of an overall Strategic ...... Appropriate diversity and Canadian and international geographical representation.

  2. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Lin

    Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these

  3. in_focus - Health: An Ecosystem Approach | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It recognizes the inextricable links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic ... Home · Resources · Publications ... Reconciling an ecosystem's health with the health of its human inhabitants is a new area of research, ...

  4. GIS for Health and the Environment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The book also demonstrates how GIS can provide health researchers, ... Director (Tropical Diseases) for the Environmental Health Project in Arlington, VA, USA. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  5. Research award: Maternal and Child Health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program aims to save and ... quality, accessibility, and effectiveness of health services and care.

  6. Health | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits ... province of Carchi in northern Ecuador suffer a number of health problems caused by ... the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of ...

  7. Handheld boost to health care in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-08-29

    Aug 29, 2012 ... They give health workers instant access to information that enables them to ... help the health system become more efficient, he says, required overcoming ... The introduction of cellular telephony has revolutionized Uganda's ...

  8. Development assistance for health: past trends, associations, and the future of international financial flows for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Schneider, Matthew T; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Sadat, Nafis; Birger, Maxwell; Reynolds, Alex; Templin, Tara; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-06-18

    Disbursements of development assistance for health (DAH) have risen substantially during the past several decades. More recently, the international community's attention has turned to other international challenges, introducing uncertainty about the future of disbursements for DAH. We collected audited budget statements, annual reports, and project-level records from the main international agencies that disbursed DAH from 1990 to the end of 2015. We standardised and combined records to provide a comprehensive set of annual disbursements. We tracked each dollar of DAH back to the source and forward to the recipient. We removed transfers between agencies to avoid double-counting and adjusted for inflation. We classified assistance into nine primary health focus areas: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, maternal health, newborn and child health, other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, Ebola, and sector-wide approaches and health system strengthening. For our statistical analysis, we grouped these health focus areas into two categories: MDG-related focus areas (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, child and newborn health, and maternal health) and non-MDG-related focus areas (other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, sector-wide approaches, and other). We used linear regression to test for structural shifts in disbursement patterns at the onset of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; ie, from 2000) and the global financial crisis (impact estimated to occur in 2010). We built on past trends and associations with an ensemble model to estimate DAH through the end of 2040. In 2015, US$36·4 billion of DAH was disbursed, marking the fifth consecutive year of little change in the amount of resources provided by global health development partners. Between 2000 and 2009, DAH increased at 11·3% per year, whereas between 2010 and 2015, annual growth was just 1·2%. In 2015, 29·7% of DAH was for HIV/AIDS, 17·9% was for child and newborn health, and 9·8

  9. International health law : why it matters to our world today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    We are witnessing a number of serious challenges in relation to health, including a change in disease patterns, some of which are lifestyle-related, as well as increasing health inequalities within and between states. What is more, many countries are struggling with the detrimental health effects of

  10. Gender Differences in Adult Health: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Omar; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…

  11. Public Report on Health (India) - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Public Report on Health aims to draw federal and state attention to the health needs of ordinary people, so as to develop evidence-based solutions for meeting those needs. The Intensive Village Study carried out during the first phase of ... Outputs. Reports. Public report on health : final technical report. Download PDF ...

  12. Factors influencing korean international students' preferences for mental health professionals: a conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Feigon, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Asian students comprise over half of all international students in the United States, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors and preferences for mental health professionals. The purpose of this study was to use conjoint analysis to examine characteristics of mental health professionals influencing Korean international students' preferences when choosing a mental health professional. Korean international students from three universities in the United States were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in this study (N = 114). Results indicated that mental health professional characteristics, including ethnicity, age, professional identity, and training institution, were significant factors in students' preference formation; however, gender of the mental health professional was not found to be a significant factor in the present study. Ethnic similarity was the most powerful predictor of preference formation. Implications for promoting help-seeking and mental health service utilization among Asian international students are discussed.

  13. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Eye health in Tanzania: An essential oil | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... The consequences are disastrous: among children, vitamin A deficiency stunts ... Southern and Central Africa, at Mennonite Economic Development Associates ... The initiative, supported primarily by Canada's International ...

  15. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. From Board to Bedside: How the Application of Financial Structures to Safety and Quality Can Drive Accountability in a Large Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J Matthew; Demski, Renee; Callender, Tiffany; Lee, K H Ken; Hoffman, Ann; Allen, Lisa; Radke, Deborah A; Kim, Yungjin; Werthman, Ronald J; Peterson, Ronald R; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    As the health care system in the United States places greater emphasis on the public reporting of quality and safety data and its use to determine payment, provider organizations must implement structures that ensure discipline and rigor regarding these data. An academic health system, as part of a performance management system, applied four key components of a financial reporting structure to support the goal of top-to-bottom accountability for improving quality and safety. The four components implemented by Johns Hopkins Medicine were governance, accountability, reporting of consolidated quality performance statements, and auditing. Governance is provided by the health system's Patient Safety and Quality Board Committee, which reviews goals and strategy for patient safety and quality, reviews quarterly performance for each entity, and holds organizational leaders accountable for performance. An accountability plan includes escalating levels of review corresponding to the number of months an entity misses the defined performance target for a measure. A consolidated quality statement helps inform the Patient Safety and Quality Board Committee and leadership on key quality and safety issues. An audit evaluates the efficiency and effectiveness of processes for data collection, validation, and storage, as to ensure the accuracy and completeness of quality measure reporting. If hospitals and health systems truly want to prioritize improvements in safety and quality, they will need to create a performance management system that ensures data validity and supports performance accountability. Without valid data, it is difficult to know whether a performance gap is due to data quality or clinical quality. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005): Chinese lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China. PMID:26029897

  19. Strengthening Core Public Health Capacity Based on the Implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR (2005: Chinese Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO. The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety, radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China.

  20. International research teams-the social utility of health promotion and health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shpakou

    2016-04-01

    of new, innovative communication media. 2. Activities of VRTs to a significant extent contribute to an international research cooperation. 3. Verification of the health policy implemented by both academic centers poses a challenge to actions undertaken by Grodno and Suwalki VRTs.

  1. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  2. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  3. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since its foundation in 1998, the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR) has sought to focus greater attention and resources on research that will improve the health of the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged. The Forum has also become an authoritative and independent source of reliable data, practical tools and ...

  4. Climate change impacts health in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... Research is showing that climate change is having major impacts on human health. Weather-related disasters are on the rise and water- and vector-borne diseases are spreading. Strategies to adapt to the effects of climate change may also pose unforeseen health risks. Read more about a project in ...

  5. The political abuse of international health system comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlke, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Though the science of medicine subscribes to learning from best practices and the transmission of superior treatment regimens across national boundaries, the same ethos does not inform political debates surrounding health system reform. The Canadian and English health systems have been used - and, more frequently - abused by American politicians in their quest to support their own model of reform, or preserve the status quo.

  6. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects.

  7. The role of internalized homonegativity in the faith and psychological health of lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Dane R; de St Aubin, Ed; Skerven, Kim

    2017-10-02

    Among lesbians, faith-based beliefs and behaviors may be associated with negative psychological health due to the interplay between religious and sexual identities. The present study examined health outcomes, faith-based beliefs (views of God as loving and controlling), faith-based behaviors (personal spiritual practices, religious activities), and internalized homonegativity in a sample of 225 self-identified lesbians. We hypothesized that internalized homonegativity would moderate the relationship between health outcomes and faith-based beliefs and behaviors among lesbians. Generally, results indicated that some faith-based beliefs and behaviors were related to negative health outcomes among lesbians with higher levels of internalized homonegativity, but among those with lower levels of internalized homonegativity, the negative associations with health were mitigated.

  8. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  9. Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam

    2009-01-01

    With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.

  10. Development of the International Guidelines for Home Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Mary; Farris, Cindy; Harris, Marilyn D; Hiong, Fong Yoke

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the world, healthcare is increasingly being provided in home and community-based settings. There is a growing awareness that the most effective, least costly, patient-preferred setting is patients' home. Thus, home healthcare nursing is a growing nursing specialty, requiring a unique set of nursing knowledge and skills. Unlike many other nursing specialties, home healthcare nursing has few professional organizations to develop or support its practice. This article describes how an international network of home healthcare nurses developed international guidelines for home healthcare nurses throughout the world. It outlines how the guidelines for home healthcare nursing practice were developed, how an international panel of reviewers was recruited, and the process they used for reaching a consensus. It also describes the plan for nurses to contribute to future updates to the guidelines.

  11. New insights into health financing: First results of the international data collection under the System of Health Accounts 2011 framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Morgan, David

    2017-07-01

    International comparisons of health spending and financing are most frequently carried out using datasets of international organisations based on the System of Health Accounts (SHA). This accounting framework has recently been updated and 2016 saw the first international data collection under the new SHA 2011 guidelines. In addition to reaching better comparability of health spending figures and greater country coverage, the updated framework has seen changes in the dimension of health financing leading to important consequences when analysing health financing data. This article presents the first results of health spending and financing data collected under this new framework and highlights the areas where SHA 2011 has become a more useful tool for policy analysis, by complementing data on expenditure of health financing schemes with information about their revenue streams. It describes the major conceptual changes in the scope of health financing and highlights why comprehensive analyses based on SHA 2011 can provide for a more complete description and comparison of health financing across countries, facilitate a more meaningful discussion of fiscal sustainability of health spending by also analysing the revenues of compulsory public schemes and help to clarify the role of governments in financing health care - which is generally much bigger than previously documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  13. Teaching corner: an undergraduate medical education program comprehensively integrating global health and global health ethics as core curricula : student experiences of the medical school for international health in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichholtz, Sara; Kreniske, Jonah Susser; Morrison, Zachary; Shack, Avraham R; Dwolatzky, Tzvi

    2015-03-01

    The Medical School for International Health (MSIH) was created in 1996 by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in affiliation with Columbia University's Health Sciences division. It is accredited by the New York State Board of Education. Students complete the first three years of the program on the Ben-Gurion University campus in Be'er-Sheva, Israel, while fourth-year electives are completed mainly in the United States (at Columbia University Medical Center and affiliates as well as other institutions) along with a two-month global health elective at one of numerous sites located around the world (including Canada, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Kenya, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, the United States, and Vietnam). The unique four-year, American-style curriculum is designed not only to prepare physicians who will be able to work at both an individual and community level but also at both of these levels anywhere in the world. In this way, it combines elements of medical and public health curricula not limited to an American perspective.

  14. International cooperation for science and technology development: a way forward for equity in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Priscila Almeida; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de

    2015-01-01

    Since 1990, international organizations have been increasingly involved in building an international sub-regime for research, development and innovation in health. This article analyzes the priorities of developing countries in health since the 1990s. It is a descriptive and analytical study that investigates the literature and contributions of key informants. Calling for the end of global inequities in the support for science and technology in health, international organizations recommend that developing countries focus their efforts on neglected diseases and operational research, an insufficient agenda for science and technology cooperation to effectively overcome the vulnerabilities between countries.

  15. Modelling and controlling infectious diseases | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team is exploring the potential of mathematical modelling to ... to China's health system and improvements to its medical research capacity. ... and on the scientific board of the Gates Foundation's Global Health program. ... He has published more than 400 research papers in national and international journals.

  16. Health | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Luces y sombras de la reforma de la salud en Colombia : Ley 100 de 1993. Language French. All economic activity depends on the environment. This simple fact has spurred the international community into giving more and more attention to the environment in general and the environmental performance ...

  17. Morality, consumerism and the internal market in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, T

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the managerially oriented reforms that have brought auditing and accounting into such prominence in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and which seem alien to the culture of the caring professions, consumerist reforms may seem to complement moves towards the acceptance of wide definitions of health, and towards increasing patient autonomy. The empowerment favoured by those who support patient autonomy sounds like the sort of empowerment that is sometimes associated with the patient's charter. For this reason moral criticism of recent NHS reforms may stop short of calling consumerism into question. This, however, would be a mistake: consumerism can be objectionable both within and beyond the health care market. PMID:9134485

  18. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  19. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 7. Taking stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the six papers published so far in this series on global trends in health science librarianship. Starting with a retrospective review of trends in the twentieth-century, the series has covered 6 different regions, with contributions from 21 countries. As this is the half-way point in the survey, it seems a useful point at which to reflect on what has emerged so far. The method of content analysis is used to identify key trends. The top five trends are explored. © 2013 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  20. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Gass, Margery L S

    2014-10-01

    In 2012, the Board of Directors of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and the Board of Trustees of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) acknowledged the need to review current terminology associated with genitourinary tract symptoms related to menopause. The 2 societies cosponsored a terminology consensus conference, which was held in May 2013. Members of the consensus conference agreed that the term genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a medically more accurate, all-encompassing, and publicly acceptable term than vulvovaginal atrophy. GSM is defined as a collection of symptoms and signs associated with a decrease in estrogen and other sex steroids involving changes to the labia majora/minora, clitoris, vestibule/introitus, vagina, urethra and bladder. The syndrome may include but is not limited to genital symptoms of dryness, burning, and irritation; sexual symptoms of lack of lubrication, discomfort or pain, and impaired function; and urinary symptoms of urgency, dysuria and recurrent urinary tract infections. Women may present with some or all of the signs and symptoms, which must be bothersome and should not be better accounted for by another diagnosis. The term was presented and discussed at the annual meeting of each society. The respective Boards of NAMS and ISSWSH formally endorsed the new terminology--genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)--in 2014.

  1. Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K; Skeff, Kelley M; Hall, Thomas L; Gardner, Pierce

    2009-03-01

    Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, despite inadequate guidance and support from most accreditation organizations and residency programs. Surveys of global health training, including international clinical rotations, highlight the benefits of global health training as well as the need for a more coordinated approach. In particular, international rotations broaden a resident's medical knowledge, reinforce physical examination skills, and encourage practicing medicine among underserved and multicultural populations. As residents recognize these personal and professional benefits, a strong majority of them seek to gain international clinical experience. In conclusion, with feasible and appropriate administrative steps, all residents can receive global health training and be afforded the accreditation and programmatic support to participate in safe international rotations. The next steps should address accreditation for international rotations and allowance for training away from continuity clinics by residency accreditation bodies, and stipend and travel support for six or more weeks of call-free elective time from residency programs.

  2. Understanding attrition from international Internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.

  3. International Networking Strategies in Academic Spin-off Companies: A study of international network building processes and the roles of the top management team and board in influencing internationalization speed and international network range

    OpenAIRE

    Witsø, Steinar Bukve

    2014-01-01

    AbstractPurpose International Entrepreneurship (IE) is a new field of multi-disciplinary enquiry that has its roots in studying the fascinating phenomenon of the emergence of born globals. These small- and medium sized firms internationalize at or near their founding and represent a growing number of entrepreneurial firms. A considerable number of born globals are spin-offs which utilize technology originally developed in academic institutions. Academic spin-offs (ASOs) have been studied fr...

  4. Health | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English ... Language French ... Language English ... this book discusses issues surrounding the use of natural sources of food for the prevention of ... for health care, for income generation, and for access to, and communication with, ...

  5. Health | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English ... Language French ... this book discusses issues surrounding the use of natural sources of food for the prevention of ... Language English ... for health care, for income generation, and for access to, and communication with, ...

  6. Boosting capacity for health research in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... But Africa's institutions of higher learning that are mandated to foster this ... in developing and implementing the ADDRF offers invaluable lessons to ... was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the ...

  7. Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; eds.

    1999-01-01

    Contains 28 papers and abstracts on sugar maple history and ecology; recent sugar maple declines; nutrient and belowground dynamics in northeastern forests; and interactions of forest health with biotic and abiotic stressors.

  8. Strengthening international health co-operation in Africa through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    ), as ... Introduction. The New Partnership for Africa's Development. (NEPAD) is ... are: better harmonization of the health policies of member ... cultural development, and the integration of .... promote regional public goods and combat regional.

  9. Mother and Child Health International Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...

  10. Climbing the health learning curve together | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Climbing the health learning curve together ... Many of the projects are creating master's programs at their host universities ... Formerly based in the high Arctic, Atlantis is described by Dr Martin Forde of St George's University ...

  11. Health | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... by IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program, examined the systemic blind spots ... NCDs, including stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. ... économique et environnementale place ces 1,2 million d'adolescents parmi ...

  12. Health | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... many NCDs, including stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. ... économique et environnementale place ces 1,2 million d'adolescents parmi ... Innovative interventions to improve maternal and child health in Nigeria were ...

  13. Health | Page 8 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    choice disabled" — vulnerable ... of paid and unpaid work on the mental health of Chilean workers, paying particular attention to gender issues. ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  14. 75 FR 80039 - U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... agenda for an open meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change...

  15. 76 FR 21703 - U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... agenda for an open meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change...

  16. 76 FR 53666 - U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... agenda for an open meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change...

  17. 75 FR 16438 - U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Tourism Advisory Board (Board) will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the travel and tourism...

  18. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  19. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  20. Workplace mental health: An international review of guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Kate; Martin, Angela; Bartlett, Larissa; Dawkins, Sarah; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the quality and comprehensiveness of guidelines developed for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace. An integrated approach that combined expertise from medicine, psychology, public health, management, and occupational health and safety was identified as a best practice framework to assess guideline comprehensiveness. An iterative search strategy of the grey literature was used plus consultation with experts in psychology, public health, and mental health promotion. Inclusion criteria were documents published in English and developed specifically for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace. A total of 20 guidelines met these criteria and were reviewed. Development documents were included to inform quality assessment. This was performed using the AGREE II rating system. Our results indicated that low scores were often due to a lack of focus on prevention and rather a focus on the detection and treatment of mental health problems in the workplace. When prevention recommendations were included they were often individually focused and did not include practical tools or advice to implement. An inconsistency in language, lack of consultation with relevant population groups in the development process and a failure to outline and differentiate between the legal/minimum requirements of a region were also observed. The findings from this systematic review will inform translation of scientific evidence into practical recommendations to prevent mental health problems within the workplace. It will also direct employers, clinicians, and policy-makers towards examples of best-practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  2. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  3. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  4. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. The importance of health behaviours in childhood for the development of internalizing disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu Yun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-12-12

    Poor mental health constitutes a considerable global public health burden with approximately half of all cases of poor mental health having their onset before the age of 14 years. The identification of modifiable risk factors early in life is therefore essential to prevention, however, there are presently very few longitudinal studies on health behaviours for mental health to inform public health decision makers and to justify preventive action. We examined the importance of diet quality, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours in childhood for internalizing disorder throughout adolescence. We linked data from a population-based lifestyle survey among 10 and 11 year old grade five students in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with physician diagnoses of internalizing disorders from administrative health records. We applied negative binomial regressions to examine the associations of health behaviours with the number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder. Of the 4875 students, 23.9% had one or more diagnoses for internalizing disorder between the age of 10 or 11 years and 18 years. The number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder was statistically significant higher among students with less variety in their diets, and among students who reported less PA and more time using computers and video games. The number of health care provider contacts was also higher for girls, and for students with low self-esteem and from low-income households. These findings suggest that diets and active lifestyles in childhood affect mental health during adolescence, and imply that succxessful health promotion programs targeting children's diets and activity will contribute to the prevention of mental health disorders in addition to the prevention of chronic diseases later in life.

  6. Commentary: linking health equity with economic development: insights from my year as Chairman of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2012-12-01

    Many urban areas struggle with significant health disparities. In Tulsa, Oklahoma, there is a 14-year difference in life expectancy between the predominantly African American population in north Tulsa and the predominantly Caucasian population in south Tulsa. The roots of Tulsa's health disparities can be linked, in part, to a long history of racial mistrust stemming from the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, arguably one of the worst race riots in U.S. history. In 2011, the author served as both a university campus president and chairman of the board of the Tulsa region's chamber of commerce. Through his work with the chamber, he discovered the business community's substantial resources and advocacy abilities. He also found that regional business leaders strongly supported health equity, diversity, and inclusion initiatives, both as moral obligations and regional economic development imperatives. After sharing the lessons he learned from working closely with business leaders, the author encourages other academic health centers (AHCs) to reach out to their business communities, which are likely willing and able to help them undertake similar initiatives. In doing so, AHCs and businesses can work together to improve the economic vitality of their regions.

  7. International trends in health science librarianship Part 10: The Greater China area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyun; Chan, Julia L Y; Lam, Louisa Mei Chun; Chiu, Tzu-Heng

    2014-06-01

    This is the 10th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The next issue will report on Japan and South Korea. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Katrina N.; Varga, Zolt?n M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding ...

  9. Economic context analysis in mental health care. Usability of health financing and cost of illness studies for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Hernández-Peña, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach to mental health studies on Financing of Illness (FoI) and health accounting, Cost of Illness (CoI) and Burden of Disease (BoD). In order to expand the mental health policies, the following are suggested: (a) an international consensus on the standard scope, methods to collect and to analyse mental health data, as well as to report comparative information; (b) mathematical models are also to be validated and tested in an integrated approach, (c) a better knowledge transfer between clinicians and knowledge engineers, and between researchers and policy makers to translate economic analysis into practice and health planning.

  10. Moving towards South-South International Health: debts and challenges in the regional health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the increased interest in health as an important dimension of the foreign policy and diplomatic concerns together with the emergence of a new framework for regional health integration and regional health diplomacy. Second, it seeks to understand the role and practices of new regional blocs in the field of health and whether they are conducting to the emergence of new strategies for addressing health regional policies in South America. The regional policy process relates to health as a right. Thus, some practices and processes in social policy are setting new standards for political and social cohesion in the construction of new regionalism. Health crosses national, regional, and global agendas in a multi-directional fashion, rather than via one-way, top-down policy transfer. A special feature of Unasur is upholding regional health sovereignty despite the unique fact that member countries retain national autonomy. Unasur has projected foreign policy that promotes social values in ways that seem innovative. Experience as Unasur shows that regional organisms can become a game changer in global diplomacy and an influential actor in the international agenda. Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar,investigar el creciente interés en la salud como una dimensión importante de la política exterior, en sintonía con el surgimiento de un nuevo marcopara la integración regional y la diplomacia en salud. En segundo lugar, comprender el papel y las prácticas de los nuevos bloques regionales en el campo de la salud y si estasconducena la emergencia de nuevas estrategias para abordar las políticas sanitarias regionales en América del Sur. Los nuevos procesos de integración regional se refieren a la salud como un derecho. Así, algunas prácticas y procesos de la política regional están estableciendo nuevos patrones de cohesión política y social en el avancede un nuevo regionalismo

  11. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  12. Communication, control, and co-operation: (Latin) American interchanges in the history of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Hochman, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of historical studies of international health since the 1980s, showing that the field has gained considerable density and complexity. The authors touch on various current research trends in the history of international health, including reconsideration of so-called centre-periphery and imperial-colonial relations. They emphasize the important, if often forgotten, role of Latin America in the history of international health and bring attention to the relevance of Canada to the international health field, especially in the last 30 years. The article concludes by introducing the articles that make up this special issue of CBMH, pointing out their most significant findings and cross-cutting themes.

  13. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research

  14. [Internal audit--the foundation of healthcare quality management in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiianov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The paper proved the need for internal audit as the basis for quality control of medical care in a health facility, developed the project milestones and explains what needs to be taken into account at every stage during its implementation.

  15. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  16. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  17. 22 August 2014 - Members of the International Business Council of the World Economic Forum led by Managing Director and Member of the Managing Board P. Rösler

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Visiting the LHC tunnel at point 5 with Director-General R. Heuer, Director of Accelerators and Technology F. Bordry, Head of International Relations R. Voss and Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis

  18. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  19. Solving Interoperability in Translational Health. Perspectives of Students from the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) 2016 Master Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Facelli, Julio C; Jaspers, Monique; Wetter, Thomas; Pfeifer, Daniel; Gatewood, Laël Cranmer; Adam, Terry; Li, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chin; Evans, R Scott; Beukenhorst, Anna; van Mens, Hugo Johan Theodoore; Tensen, Esmee; Bock, Christian; Fendrich, Laura; Seitz, Peter; Suleder, Julian; Aldelkhyyel, Ranyah; Bridgeman, Kent; Hu, Zhen; Sattler, Aaron; Guo, Shin-Yi; Mohaimenul, Islam Md Mohaimenul; Anggraini Ningrum, Dina Nur; Tung, Hsin-Ru; Bian, Jiantano; Plasek, Joseph M; Rommel, Casey; Burke, Juandalyn; Sohih, Harkirat

    2017-06-20

    In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This international biomedical and health informatics workshop was created to share knowledge and explore issues in biomedical health informatics (BHI). The goal of this paper is to summarize the discussions of biomedical and health informatics graduate students who were asked to define interoperability, and make critical observations to gather insight on how to improve biomedical education. Students were assigned to one of four groups and asked to define interoperability and explore potential solutions to current problems of interoperability in health care. We summarize here the student reports on the importance and possible solutions to the "interoperability problem" in biomedical informatics. Reports are provided from each of the four groups of highly qualified graduate students from leading BHI programs in the US, Europe and Asia. International workshops such as IPHIE provide a unique opportunity for graduate student learning and knowledge sharing. BHI faculty are encouraged to incorporate into their curriculum opportunities to exercise and strengthen student critical thinking to prepare our students for solving health informatics problems in the future.

  20. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making