WorldWideScience

Sample records for international governmental organizations

  1. Non-governmental organizations internal communication in reputation management

    OpenAIRE

    Vaicekauskaitė, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study is non-governmental organization’s internal communication and its role in reputation management. The aim of this study is to analyse the context of non-governmental organization reputation management and according to it find out the significance of the internal communication factors in non-governmental organization reputation management. The tasks of the study: to analyse the factors which have settled the need of non-governmental organization reputation management; t...

  2. Development Of International Non-Governmental Organizations And Legal Traditions Of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the role of international non-governmental organizations in the maintenance and creation of a positive attitude to national legal traditions. The basic stages of development of international non-governmental organizations. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Considered as the legal traditions of the Russian society are reflected in the activities of legal entities and individuals - members of international non-governmental organizations.

  3. Development Of International Non-Governmental Organizations And Legal Traditions Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of international non-governmental organizations in the maintenance and creation of a positive attitude to national legal traditions. The basic stages of development of international non-governmental organizations. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Considered as the legal traditions of the Russian society are reflected in the activities of legal entities and individuals - members of international non-governmental organizations.

  4. Chapter 3: International non-governmental organizations in the emerging world society: the example of ISPRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; von Groote, Per M; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Li, Leonard S W; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-09-01

    Using the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) as a case in point, the paper describes the complex world societal situation within which non-governmental organizations that address health issues have to operate.This paper describes the complex world societal situation within which non-governmental organizations (NGOs), that are addressing health issues have to operate. In particular, as an international organization in official relation with the World Health Organization (WHO), ISPRM is confronted with a variety of responsibilities and a true world health political mandate. The accompanying rights need to be played out in relation to its own internal member organization and external allies. The theory of the world society and the current situation are briefly reviewed. The role of international NGOs within the world health polity, rehabilitation and Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) is highlighted, whilst special emphasis is placed on NGOs in official relation with WHO. Functions, dysfunctions and challenges of international NGOs operating in the health sector are discussed. Against this background, key approaches to enhance ISPRM's political role are analysed. These include transparent and accountable development of the organization, the differentiation between internal and external policy relations, the harmonization of organizational structures and procedures, the consequential use of political structures available to influence WHO's agenda, and the identification of other policy players of major relevance to PRM in order to build strategic alliances with external partners and to enhance ISPRM's membership base.

  5. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  6. Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1985-01-01

    Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

  7. International Non-Governmental Organizations in Latin America and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs in developing countries promote interests of the poor, provide social services, and stimulate community engagement. The exponential growth of INGOs during the last four decades was accompanied by major financial scandals and corruption charges leading to an increase in research on the impact of INGOs on community well-being in developing countries. Due to sparse empirical studies that evaluate the role and functions of INGOs, the question of the impact of INGOs on community well-being has remained largely rhetorical. Our study attempts to provide preliminary evidence on the impact of socio-economic programs carried out by an International Governmental Organization (INGO, Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA, in four Latin American countries. Results from the quasi-experimental study suggest that communities with ADRA programs have a higher level of social capital than communities without them. While the results reported here may not be generalized to all INGOs, our study is unique in providing a valuable empirical approach toward examining the role of INGOs in developing countries.

  8. Non-governmental organizations in international health: past successes, future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, are increasingly instrumental to the implementation of international health programs. Following an overview of current conditions in global health and the problems that could be targeted by NGOs, this article describes the activities and philosophies of several representative approaches in this sector. The attributes of NGOs that increase their potential effectiveness are discussed, including ability to reach areas of severe need, promotion of local involvement, low cost of operations, adaptiveness and innovation, independence, and sustainability. A summary is provided of major future challenges in international health that may be addressed by NGOs, with particular emphasis on tobacco-related disease, communicable diseases and the AIDS epidemic, maternal mortality and women's health, injury prevention and control, and the need to secure durable financial support.

  9. Chapter 5: Organizational structures suited to ISPRM's evolving role as an international non-governmental organization in official relation with the world health organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Groote, Per M; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-09-01

    International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in official relation with the World Health Organization (WHO) face organizational challenges against the background of legitimate representation of their membership and accountable procedures within the organization. Moreover, challenges arise in the light of such an international NGO's civil societal mandate to help reach the "health-for-all" goals as defined by WHO and to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The objective of this paper is to examine how such an international NGO using the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) as a case in point can address these challenges. The specific aims are to analyse ISPRM's structures and procedures of internal organs and external relations and to develop solutions. These possible solutions will be presented as internal organizational scenarios and a yearly schedule of meetings closely aligned to that of WHO to facilitate an efficient internal and external interaction.

  10. Impact evaluation to communicate and improve conservation non-governmental organization performance: the case of Conservation International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Madeleine C; Mascia, Michael B; Yang, Wu; Turner, Will R; Bonham, Curan

    2015-11-05

    The rising prominence of more rigorous approaches to measuring conservation outcomes has included greater adoption of impact evaluation by conservation non-governmental organizations (CNGOs). Within the scientific literature, however, little consideration has been given to the unique and specific roles of CNGOs in advancing impact evaluation. We explore these issues in the context of one CNGO-Conservation International (CI)-and its experiences producing, using and funding impact evaluations over the past decade. We examine the contributions of impact evaluation to CI's mission at three different stages of CI's strategy: innovation, demonstration and amplification. Furthermore, we review incentives and barriers encountered by CI in its 10+ years' experience in impact evaluation. More coordinated and strategic use of impact evaluation by CNGOs would facilitate learning and promote accountability across the conservation community. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Travelling Policies and Global Buzzwords: How International Non-Governmental Organizations and Charities Spread the Word about Early Childhood in the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a web-search commissioned by an international charity to review the work of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and charities which promote and support early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the global South. The article examines examples of such initiatives. It is suggested that there is…

  12. International Non Governmental Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Saunier , Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    This entry considers the history of INGOs in the last two centuries and suggests possible venues for future research.; Cette entrée revient sur l'histoire des organisations internationales non gouvernementales au cours des deux derniers siècles et propose quelques pistes de recherche.

  13. Intercultural Competence in the Context of Youth Non-Governmental Organisations’ International Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvydė Palaimaitė; Asta Radzevičienė

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly growing necessity for international cooperation of Lithuanian youth non-governmental organization is analyzed in the article. The appropriateness of intercultural competence development for enhancing international activities of Youth non-governmental organization is examined. The results of empirical survey, which confirm the hypothesis that the lack of intercultural competence is the main barrier for international cooperation activities of youth non-governmental organizations, a...

  14. Chapter 4: A policy process and tools for international non-governmental organizations in the health sector using ISPRM as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; von Groote, Per M; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-09-01

    The politics of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) serve the function of selecting and attaining particular socially valued goals. The selection and attainment of goals as the primary function of political action can be structured along a policy process or cycle comprising the stages of strategic goal setting and planning of strategic pathways, agenda setting, resource mobilization, implementation, evaluation and innovation. At the various stages of this policy process different policy tools or instruments, which can be used to influence citizen and organizational behaviour in the light of defined goals, can be applied. The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe policy tools of potential relevance to ISPRM with regard to different policy functions and stages of the policy process.

  15. Introducing operations research into management and policy practices of a non-governmental organization (NGO): a partnership between an Indian leprosy NGO and an international academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J D H; Ogden, J A; Rao, P V Ranganadha; Rao, V Prabhakar; Rajesh, D; Buskade, R A; Soutar, D

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports on a partnership between LEPRA, a non-governmental organization (NGO), and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) to explore the feasibility and appropriateness of incorporating operations research into the management and decision-making of a leprosy NGO. A pilot study in Orissa was used to determine the advantages and disadvantages of introducing operations research to assist in decision-making and programme implementation within the organization. The results highlight the difficulty and complexity of the process, but point to several important themes: partnership, changing perspectives, use of time and priority-setting, identification of gaps in systems, and building institutional and personal capabilities. The results of the study provide support to encourage NGOs to become actively involved in research. Because of their work and service to local communities, NGOs have the opportunity to collect information about the perceptions, resources and constraints of individuals, families and the communities themselves in accessing appropriate care. Their proximity to communities gives them a feeling of responsibility for ensuring that this information is translated to the district, national and ultimately international level. This will help to ensure the creation of appropriate infectious disease control policies that support the needs of patients. 'Outside' academic institutions can help NGOs to facilitate this up-stream flow of information from the local to the national and international level, to help to ensure that international disease control policies are appropriately serving local communities.

  16. INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (INGOs IN THE EVENTS OF THE «ARAB SPRING» IN EGYPT: ROLE, MECHANISMS OF INTERFERENCE AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Шитова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Arab spring” has launched a process of large-scale political transformation of the countries in the North Africa and the Middle East. There are many “points of tension” in the region of North Africa, in which converge the political and economic interests of external actors, including international non-governmental organizations (INGOs. The lobbying of democratic values as opposed to clan interests led to the strengthening of the role of the West in relation to the state and public institutions of the North Africa and the Middle East. Moreover, academic community recognizes that currently INGOs actively participate in modern international relations, in internal policy of the countries where they perform their activities. Their actions have even more significant impact during the times when the political regimes change. This article aims to analyze the activities of INGOs before, during and after the change of H. Mubarak’s government in Egypt, under the governments of M. Mursi and A.F. As-Sisi (2010-2016 gg.. The article deals with several active INGOs of the “Arab Spring”, such as National Democratic Institute, International Republican Institute, Carter Center and other. The analysis of the activities of the above-mentioned INGO allows us to draw conclusions about their strategies, methods, and instruments of modern technologies facilitating the change of the political regime. The most common mechanisms of INGOs influence on political transition were participation in or-ganization of the electoral process, organization of election campaigns, seminars, consultations for civil society that promote the emergence of new potential political leaders. Great attention in this article is paid to the socio-economic situation in Egypt after the mass unrest. The author shows how the external forces behind foreign NGOs contributed to the political transition, and relates to the ambiguous results for population it has brought. Methodological

  17. Financing of Romanian Non-governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations (NGOs have become increasingly important in the last decade for the Romanian society. They raise public awareness for human rights, promote development of democracy and seek to improve the well-being of communities by being increasingly engaging in various development, educational, social or health projects. Unfortunately, many NGOs has to cope with significant financing problems since competition for resources amplified and some of the traditional donors cut or reduced support. This paper analyze financing issues in NGOs, based on a quantitative analysis, using a structured questionnaire. Since it is one of the very few studies covering Romania, the scope of the paper was to provide for those involved or interested in NGO sector new data concerning, for instance, sources of revenue or destination of resources, enabling NGOs executives to build financial sustainable organizations.

  18. Role Of Governmental And Non-Governmental Organizations In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used ...

  19. Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    This entry describes and analyzes Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality as an object and field of study, a chronological narrative, and a kind of power. It emphasizes the way in which it connects government to self-government, its distinctive approach to liberalism and neoliberalism as an ...... as an art of government, and its place within the contemporary social sciences as the subfield “governmentality studies.”...

  20. Health hazards and medical treatment of volunteers aged 18-30 years working in international social projects of non-governmental organizations (NGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, T; Rieke, B; Neppach, K; Morrison, A; Martin, J

    2014-01-01

    The specific health risk profile and diversity of treatments sought by young volunteers participating in international social projects should differ from those of their older colleagues. In the absence of any data to identify whether this was correct, a retrospective analysis was performed using a standardized questionnaire. Questions included what diseases occurred, and details of the frequency and types of treatment sought during their stay - (e.g. self-treatment, medical/dental intervention, or local healer). The 153 participants were aged 18-30 years and worked in a non-governmental organization for >6 months. The participants were: 53% female, mean age 20 years, and mean duration of stay was 11.2 months. Their NGO placement abroad was in Latin America 65.4%, 14.4% in Africa, and 9.8% in Asia. 83% of the young volunteers had received some advice regarding travel medicine before their departure. However, they suffered from more injuries compared to private travellers, and febrile infections were more common when compared to older studies. 21.2% suffered from dental problems and 50% of them sought medical treatment. This study highlights a previously unreported higher risk profile of specific health problems occurring in young NGO volunteers, including some potentially life-threatening diagnoses that differed from their older colleagues and normal travellers. It is recommended that young volunteers should receive age specific, comprehensive pre-departure training in health and safety, first aid, and management of common health problems. A medical check-up upon returning home should be mandatory. The provision of a basic first aid kit to each volunteer before departure is also recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Different challenges, different approaches and related expenditures of community-based tuberculosis activities by international non-governmental organizations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wai Wai; Saw, Saw; Isaakidis, Petros; Khogali, Mohammed; Reid, Anthony; Hoa, Nguyen; Zaw, Ko Ko; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing community-based tuberculosis (TB) care (CBTBC) in Myanmar since 2011. Although the National TB Programme (NTP) ultimately plans to take over CBTBC, there have been no evaluations of the models of care or of the costs of providing CBTBC in Myanmar by INGOs. This was a descriptive study using routinely-collected programmatic and financial data from four INGOs during 2013 and 2014, adjusted for inflation. Data analysis was performed from the provider perspective. Costs for sputum examination were not included as it was provided free of charge by NTP. We calculated the average cost per year of each programme and cost per patient completing treatment. Four INGOs assisted the NTP by providing CBTBC in areas where access to TB services was challenging. Each INGO faced different issues in their contexts and responded with a diversity of strategies. The total costs ranged from US$ 140 754 to US$ 550 221 during the study period. The cost per patient completing treatment ranged from US$ 215 to US$ 1 076 for new cases and US$ 354 to US$ 1 215 for retreatment cases, depending on the targeted area and the package of services offered. One INGO appeared less costly, more sustainable and patient oriented than others. This study revealed a wide variety of models of care and associated costs for implementing CBTBC in diverse and challenging populations and contexts in Myanmar. Consequently, we recommend a more comprehensive evaluation, including development of a cost model, to estimate the costs of scaling up CBTBC country-wide, and cost-effectiveness studies, to best inform the NTP as it prepares to takeover CBTBC activities from INGOs. While awaiting evidence from these studies, model of CBTBC that have higher sustainability potential and allocate more resources to patient-centered care should be given priority support.

  2. International non-governmental organizations' provision of community-based tuberculosis care for hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Kyaw Thu; Saw, Saw; van Griensven, Johan; Zhou, Shuisen; Win, Le; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Shah, Safieh; Mon, Myo Myo; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    National tuberculosis (TB) programs increasingly engage with international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), especially to provide TB care in complex settings where community involvement might be required. In Myanmar, however, there is limited data on how such INGO community-based programs are organized and how effective they are. In this study, we describe four INGO strategies for providing community-based TB care to hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, and assess their contribution to TB case detection. We conducted a descriptive study using program data from four INGOs and the National TB Program (NTP) in 2013-2014. For each INGO, we extracted information on its approach and key activities, the number of presumptive TB cases referred and undergoing TB testing, and the number of patients diagnosed with TB and their treatment outcomes. The contribution of INGOs to TB diagnosis in their selected townships was calculated as the proportion of INGO-diagnosed new TB cases out of the total NTP-diagnosed new TB cases in the same townships. All four INGOs implemented community-based TB care in challenging contexts, targeting migrants, post-conflict areas, the urban poor, and other vulnerable populations. Two recruited community volunteers via existing community health volunteers or health structures, one via existing community leaderships, and one directly involved TB infected/affected individuals. Two INGOs compensated volunteers via performance-based financing, and two provided financial and in-kind initiatives. All relied on NTP laboratories for diagnosis and TB drugs, but provided direct observation treatment support and treatment follow-up. A total of 21 995 presumptive TB cases were referred for TB diagnosis, with 7 383 (34%) new TB cases diagnosed and almost all (98%) successfully treated. The four INGOs contributed to the detection of, on average, 36% (7 383/20 663) of the total new TB cases in their respective townships (range: 15-52%). Community-based TB

  3. A new disclosure index for Non-Governmental Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazuk, Ayesha; Shabbir, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Website of Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a focal medium of sharing information in response to transparency demands and addressing trust deficits between stakeholders. Many researchers have proposed accountability approaches to measure information sharing trends through websites. This article discusses a new index to measure online disclosure trends along with the theoretical properties of the index and a practical application of data from NGOs working in Pakistan. The websites have been coded in 2016. Results show that NGOs with branch offices have better disclosure scores than single-office NGOs, and international NGOs score better than local NGOs. NGOs that are more often the subject of newspaper reports have better disclosure trends.

  4. Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations' implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Elizabeth; Edwards, Nancy; McDowell, Ian; Muga, Richard; Brown, Stephen

    2014-10-08

    Addressing inequities is a key role for international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) working in health and development. Yet, putting equity principles into practice can prove challenging. In-depth empirical research examining what influences INGOs' implementation of equity principles is limited. This study examined the influences on one INGO's implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS programs. This research employed a case study with nested components (an INGO operating in Kenya, with offices in North America). We used multiple data collection methods, including document reviews, interviews (with staff, partners and clients of the INGO in Kenya), and participant observation (with Kenyan INGO staff). Participant observation was conducted with 10 people over three months. Forty-one interviews were completed, and 127 documents analyzed. Data analysis followed Auerbach and Silverstein's analytic process (2003), with qualitative coding conducted in multiple stages, using descriptive matrices, visual displays and networks (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There was a gap between the INGO's intent to implement equity principles and actual practice due to multiple influences from various players, including donors and country governments. The INGO was reliant on donor funding and needed permission from the Kenyan government to work in-country. Major influences included donor agendas and funding, donor country policies, and Southern country government priorities and legislation. The INGO privileged particular vulnerable populations (based on its reputation, its history, and the priorities of the Kenyan government and the donors). To balance its equity commitment with the influences from other players, the INGO aligned with the system as well as pushed back incrementally on the donors and the Kenyan government to influence these organizations' equity agendas. By moving its equity agenda forward incrementally and using its reputational advantage, the INGO avoided

  5. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  6. The Developmental Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations: A Sociological Perspective. ... have a clearly defined constituency and are accountable to that constituency, have ... are self serving but geared towards humanitarian objectives and programmes.

  7. A new disclosure index for Non-Governmental Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Website of Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a focal medium of sharing information in response to transparency demands and addressing trust deficits between stakeholders. Many researchers have proposed accountability approaches to measure information sharing trends through websites. This article discusses a new index to measure online disclosure trends along with the theoretical properties of the index and a practical application of data from NGOs working in Pakistan. The websites have been coded in 2016. Results show that NGOs with branch offices have better disclosure scores than single-office NGOs, and international NGOs score better than local NGOs. NGOs that are more often the subject of newspaper reports have better disclosure trends. PMID:29466397

  8. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  9. Impact Of Non-Governmental Organizations\\' Activities In Creating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the impact of Non-Governmental Organizations\\' (NGOs) intervention in creating awareness and changing the mindset of people in typical rural communities in Kaduna State towards victims of HIV/AIDS. Structured questionnaire were used to collect data from adult male and female as well as young ...

  10. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of non-governmental organizations in rural transformation in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The activities they have engaged in and what result they achieved and how this impacted on rural livelihoods and development. A sample ...

  11. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN CREATING STANDARDS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation and influence of non-governmental actors in areas of international environmental governance has increased tremendously over the last decades. Some of these non-governmental organization (NGOs, like International Union for Conservation of Nature, World Wide Fund for Nature or Greenpeace, have a global character and an intense activity in promoting environmental protection. Of great importance is the fact that some NGOs have gained a consultative status in international and regional organizations influencing the process of drafting and adopting norms of international environmental law. The study analyses the contribution of NGOs in international environmental field and their essential role as ,,guardians of the environment” in promoting and respecting the provisions of international environmental agreements, in particular of Aarhus Convention.

  12. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance and Governmentality in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting

    for governmentality belong mainly to the cultural-cognitive pillar. Collectively these OEs provide for an ambidexterity of flexibility and stability, which allows organizations to align their internal characteristics with their organizational context. Managerial and theoretical implications of the results......This study identifies organizational enablers (OEs) for governance and governmentality in the realm of projects in project-based organizations (PBOs). We use a multiple case study design with six firms in Sweden and China to identify OEs. Institutional theory serves as theoretical perspective...

  13. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance and Governmentality in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2015-01-01

    for governmentality belong mainly to the cultural–cognitive pillar. Collectively these OEs provide for an ambidexterity of flexibility and stability, which allows organizations to align their internal characteristics with their organizational context. Managerial and theoretical implications of the results......This study identifies organizational enablers (OEs) for governance and governmentality in the realm of projects in project-based organizations (PBOs). We use a multiple case study design with six firms in Sweden and China to identify OEs. Institutional theory serves as theoretical perspective...

  14. The Effectiveness of International Non-Governmental Organizations' Response Operations during Public Health Emergency: Lessons Learned from the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Ah; Yeo, Jungwon; Jung, Kyujin

    2018-04-01

    International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs) have played critical roles in improving the quality of primary health care in ordinary time and, indeed, responding to epidemic crises in developing countries. Due to a lack of empirical research for effectiveness of their responding activities, the legitimacy and accountability of nonprofits' engagement in the health crisis as a critical responder is doubted. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of INGOs in a context of managing a fatal epidemic outbreak of Ebola in Sierra Leone during May-November, 2014; building healthcare infrastructures, providing medical supplies, educating local residents, and training response staffs. The analysis results show that development of healthcare infrastructures and provision of medical supplies have been significantly effective in terms of decreasing the severity of the crisis in chiefdoms. The findings imply that policy tools, which allow INGOs to enter to the field in a timely manner, can improve the effectiveness of INGOs' responses in current and future epidemic outbreaks in developing countries where people suffer from a lack of health infrastructures.

  15. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  16. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  17. Team effectiveness in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Khawaja Fawad; Williams, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of team context into research and practice regarding team effectiveness in NGOs projects is a constant challenge. The research seeks to address the gap and identify the critical determinants of team effectiveness in projects undertaken by non-governmental organizations. Using a systematic process, the study involved both literature and focus group discussions to generate the required items. A total of 157 respondents (Team Members and Team Leaders) were part of the study that filled the questionnaires. Using exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis, both convergent and discriminant validity was established. The present study found that team effectiveness in NGO social projects has a total of seven dimensions namely: Inter team coordination, community social linkage, team performance, knowledge, skills, and attitudes, leadership communication and engagement, decision making and information sharing, and team formation. There is a significant lack of research on team effectiveness in NGO projects. Where considerably large proportion of research on team effectiveness has focused on the corporate sector, the non-governmental teams have been neglected. This study clearly highlights the determinants that make up team effectiveness in NGOs. The determinants identified will help to specifically look at the effectiveness of teams in NGO projects. The study would help NGOs identify the dimensions in which they may be performing in a weaker manner and direct their energies in improving the factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTING THE INTERESTS OF PATIENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN HEALH POLICY

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    Gintarė Petronytė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on engagement in health policy of non-governmental organizations representing the interests of patients (NGOs. A qualitative study using a semi-structured interview method was performed in July–October 2015, involving nine representatives of NGOs from Vilnius and Kaunas. NGOs’ engagement in health policy was evaluated by applying the framework of the theoretical stakeholder participation ladder, which was developed by Arnstein and later extended by Friedman and Miles. NGOs’ engagement in health policy could be attributed to the levels of consultation and involvement, considering their collaboration with governmental institutions and political involvement. Their engagement in health policy could not be attributed to the level of delegated power (shared influence and responsibility when involved into the processes of decision formulation and decision-making. NGOs are involved in health policy by working groups and other working bodies established by governmental institutions. Financing, close interinstitutional collaboration, competencies of NGOs and their active participation are required for NGOs’ engagement in health policy. The main collaboration form between NGOs and the Ministry of Health is the Lithuanian patients’ forum, however, constant information, involvement in decision making processes and the initiation of collaboration are the key prerequisites for the development of closer collaboration. Internal and external barriers limit NGOs’ engagement in health policy: hierarchical relationships, the lack of equal collaboration and dialogue with governmental institutions, limited financial, time and human resources.

  19. The role of non-governmental organizations in the social and the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the definitions, objectives, fields and tasks of non-governmental organizations in social life, health system and health policy. In addition, the article addresses the issue of effectiveness and quality of NGOs' activity. The term "NGOs" (Non-governmental Organizations) includes different categories of entities that operate not to obtain financial gain, and also do not belong to the government sector. Non-governmental Organizations' fields of activity were described in the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO). NGOs are an integral part of a democratic society. Sociological sciences emphasize their importance in enhancing social integration, implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, building civil society, social dialogue and participatory democracy. The main tasks of NGOs in the health system are providing services and health advocacy. Provision of services includes medical, social and psychological services as well as, integration activities, care and nursing, material and financial support, educational and information services and training. Health advocacy is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program. An important task carried out by NGOs is participation in the formation of health policy. The increasing role of NGOs in providing social services and the participation in political processes, result in the need to confirm the validity and credibility of their operation. One of the ways could be to introduce the mechanisms to assess quality and efficiency, such as registration as a part of a legal system, self-regulatory activities (card rules, codes of ethics), certification, participation in networks, monitoring and audit.

  20. AREN - A non-governmental organization acting in public formation and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Anghelescu, Serban Mihnea

    1998-01-01

    The Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy - AREN, founded eight years ago as non-governmental and non-profit organization, is deploying its activity on a voluntary basis. The association comprises 248 fellows, as physical persons, 17 juridical supporting fellows and eight honorary fellows, outstanding personalities with special contributions in promoting Romanian nuclear power development, 'Ionel Purica' - prize winners. AREN co-operates with other domestic NGO's and other sister organizations from abroad, is a collective member of the General Association of Romanian Engineers and is affiliated to European Nuclear Society (ENS). For specialist and public information AREN is publishing and disseminating the following four publications: 1 - 'Energia Nucleara' (Nuclear Energy) journal; 2 - the bulletin 'Nucleus' brought from ENS and translated in Romanian language; 3 - the news 'NUC NET', adopted, worked up and translated in Romanian; 4 - the periodic bulletin 'Nuclear News'. Yearly, AREN organizes the 'Nuclear Energy Days' and the biennial International Symposium of Nuclear Energy (SIEN). (authors)

  1. Evolution Of International Governmental Organisations Concerning Danube River

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    Cristian Jura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The international rivers are water courses that separate or cross the territories of several states and which are navigable up to discharging in the sea. The Congress of Vienna (1815 sets forth certain principles of the regime of navigation on European international rivers and the notion of international rivers. The Conference of Berlin (1885 institutes the freedom of navigation on the rivers Congo and Niger. During the Conference of Barcelona (1921 a convention and a by-law were elaborated concerning the regime of navigable ways of international interest.

  2. Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations in China

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    Zhaojun Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In China, environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs play an important supervisory role to address ecological issues together with government regulation and enterprise implementation. This study examines the effect of ENGO presence on corporate environmental responsibility (CER performance, along with internal factors as covariate variables. With a sample of 677 enterprises, it operationalizes the independent variable in terms of the number of ENGOs within certain distances from each enterprise, and the dependent variable based on the corporate social responsibility report using the specific criteria in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI sustainability reporting guidelines. The results of Tobit regression analyses indicate that ENGO presence is conducive to CER performance, and asset size, power concentration, and industry type also make differences. The findings suggest that ENGOs are helpful in solving environment issues by bridging the gap between private and public sectors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. FORUM OF POLITICAL PARTIES, THINK TANKS AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS OF THE BRICS GROUP

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    E. Gladun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Joint International Forum of Political Parties, Think Tanks and NonGovernmental Organizations of the BRICS took place in Fuzhou, China on 10–12 June 2017. The event was hosted jointly by the International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the China Council for BRICS Think Tank Cooperation and the China NGO Network for International Exchanges.For the first time in the story of BRICS cooperation the countries’ representatives witnessed the renewed format of the BRICS Academic Forum – two traditional tracks (academic conference and civil track were supplemented by the assembly of political parties. Taking its turn in chairing the multinational BRICS association in 2017, China proposed this new Forum format and joined together three dialogues that had grown out of the BRICS Academic Forum, which took place now for the ninth time.1 Another innovation on China’s part was the outreach format – representatives of 28 countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Cambodia, Egypt, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Argentina, Chile and Mexico among others took part.The Joint International Forum was a truly large-scale international event – 37 political parties of 26 countries, 105 think tanks, and over 400 representatives of 79 civil society organizations were in attendance.2The Forum participants engaged in separate deliberations at the BRICS Academic Forum on “Pooling Wisdom and New Ideas for Cooperation,” the BRICS Civil Society Organizations Forum on “Stronger People-to-People Bond for Better Cooperation,” and the BRICS Political Parties Dialogue on the “Guiding Role of Political Parties in Promoting Cooperation.” The Forum was a complete success with broad consensus.

  4. Metaphors of Teacher Candidates' Regarding the Concept of "Non-Governmental Organizations" (NGOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanik-Ay, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a learning area in social studies curriculum called "Groups, institutions and social organizations" was used. It can be seen that an important role for teachers in a social studies programme is to benefit from non-governmental organizations. The aim of this study is to investigate primary school teacher candidates' social…

  5. The Role of environmental non-governmental organizations in citizens participation for environmental conservation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrainy, H.; Amini, F.

    2001-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of the environmental non-governmental organizations in Iran and also the evaluation of their performance in achieving public participation to protect environment. Findings of this research reveal that so far these organizations have lacked the ability to prepare the context for people involvement in environmental conservation, which is due to several major constraints. Political, legal, and judiciary factors have been the major obstacles against the establishment and smooth activities of these organizations. A few organizations which have overcome the difficulties and began their activities, have not been able to make significant impact on protecting the environment. Lack of experience, both in organization and people, were another factor in limiting the success of these organizations in Iran. To be successful, the environmental non-governmental organization in Iran, require proper political, legal, social and economic settings, as well as the knowledge and skill of running these kind of organizations

  6. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  7. Role of non-governmental organizations in formation of non-proliferation culture in new independent countries (NIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevchik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of the report is demonstrate the non-governmental organizations (NGO) role in formation of non-proliferation culture in former Soviet Union. Activity of Center of Non-proliferation Problems Investigation (CNPI) of Monterey Institute of International Investigations and its collaboration with existing in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) non-governmental organizations is considered as example. Brief information about CNPI and reasons for it representatives opening of in Kazakhstan and in other CIS-countries, as well as cooperation of NGO in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine for creation on Central Asia zone free from nuclear weapon ia given. Some measures which could promote to formation of non-proliferation culture in region are suggested

  8. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  9. The Spanish zoogenetic conservation from a non governmental organization (SERGA

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    J. V. Delgado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Society for the Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (SERGA starts its activities as a scientific association in 1988, responding to the demands of farmers, researchers and administrations regarding the lost of the rich zoogenetic patrimony of Spain. SERGA was formed as a presidential association with centralized management, but in 2002 was adapted to the federalist structure of Spain, creating sections by regions. SERGA was National Focal Point in FAO until 2000, and represents Spain in all forum related to animal genetic conservation. Also in 2000 we start collaboration with SPREGA, the Portuguese Society, developing several Iberic actions. We have done together seven international congresses with more than four hundred papers published in specific proceedings about three main subjects: Assisted reproduction; Zooethnology and Applied Genetics. We have participated in national Committees and assisted both nations in the preparations of the national inform for the FAO´s global strategy. Now we are trying to contact other Mediterranean initiatives to establish a common strategy revindicating the role of the region in Europe. The European Mediterranean count with more than 80% of the European domestic breeds, but few of our delegates are present in the decision points of the EU administration.

  10. Filling the Gaps: The Role and Impact of International Non-Governmental Organisations in "Education for All"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Pasqua Marina

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the involvement of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in transnational education policy-making, with particular reference to the global initiative Education for All (EFA). EFA is a policy process carried out by international governmental organisations (IGOs) with the main aim to achieve basic education for…

  11. Barriers to the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Governmental Organizations: Case of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Gelayol Safavi; Nikabadi, Mohsen Shafiei; Maleki, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    New developments in technology, particularly the information technology, have changed the perception of learning. These changes have made distance learning an important part of education. However, it seems that this technology does not have a strong position in governmental organizations yet. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to present…

  12. A conceptual model for supporting para-teacher learning in an Indian non-governmental organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these

  13. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations for the Development of Basic Education in Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the general working structure of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and to examine the services and facilities provided by NGOs for basic education in Punjab, Pakistan. The population comprised 112 NGOs working for the promotion of basic education in Punjab, 3980 teachers working in basic education…

  14. The strategic value of e-HRM: results from an exploratory study in a governmental organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from an exploratory study in a governmental organization on the strategic value of electronic human resource management (e-HRM). By applying the organizational capabilities approach, and by means of mixed research methods, data were collected on two generally acclaimed

  15. The organization of diversity in a boxing club : Governmentality and entangled rationalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortants, Marianne; Knoppers, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    This study answers a recent call for research on the complexity, locality, and use of power in the governing of diversity in organizations. We used the concepts of governmentally and of governing sameness and difference to explore multiple and heterogeneous ways of regulating gender diversity in

  16. Role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among HIV/AIDS persons in Kibera, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odindo, Margaret A; Mwanthi, Mutuku A

    2008-04-01

    This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced

  17. A study on the effect of knowledge management on customer orientation in governmental organization

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    Alireza Bakhshizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM plays an important role on increasing organizational performance especially governmental agencies where there are different skills and knowledge within the organization. In this study, we present a study to investigate the effect of KM on having more customer oriented organizations. We use a standard questionnaire among 146 randomly selected employees out of 170 people who work for four governmental organizations in city of Chahbahar, Iran. The collected information is analyzed using structural equation modeling and by validating the results using Cronbach alphas of more than the minimum desired level of 0.70, we determine the positive relationships between KM and three other variables including customer absorption, customer retention and customer relationship management. The results of this survey reveal that an increase of one unit in KM yields almost the same increase in three mentioned variables accordingly. In addition, an increase of one percent in KM will increase customer orientation by almost one percent.

  18. O papel das organizações não-governamentais na cooperação internacional em saúde pública The role of non-governmental organizations in international cooperation in public health

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    Marco Aurélio Antas Torronteguy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pergunta pela possibilidade de as ONGs atuarem na cooperação internacional sanitária e pelo modo como essa atuação é regulada. Primeiramente se apresenta a cooperação internacional e sua relação com a saúde pública. Então são referidos dados sobre a cooperação bilateral sanitária brasileira, nos quais se pode verificar o reconhecimento formal das ONGs como parceiras dos Estados. Isso permite refletir sobre o papel das ONGs na cooperação e se percebe que, embora o direito internacional legitime a atuação das ONGs, ele regula essa atuação de modo incipiente. Isso sugere importantes aspectos a serem aperfeiçoados na relação jurídica que as ONGs travam com Estados no campo da saúde pública.This article discusses the possibility of the NGOs acting on international health cooperation and how this acting is regulated. Firstly, the international cooperation and its relation with public health is presented. After that, data on Brazilian bilateral health cooperation are brought in, in which it is possible to find the formal recognition of NGOs as partners of States. This allows the consideration of the role of NGOs in health cooperation. Although the action of NGOs is legitimated by international law, their regulation is just beginning. This suggests important issues to be improved in the legal relation between NGOs and States in the field of public health.

  19. Social media as a tool for positioning of youth non-governmental organizations activity

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    M. A. Shvab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social media analysis, as an important tool of the mass media in the youth non-governmental organizations activity. The article is about special popularity of social media among youth because of the rapid information technologies development. The author emphasizes that social media is a main online channel of communication among young generation, that should be taken into the consideration during the external communication creation. Youth organizations often use social media for target audience involvement, information dissimilation and exchange, service promotion and online dialogue. The author analyses different social media tools, such as: blogs, microblogs (Twitter, social networking sites (Facebook, VKontakte, video-sharing websites (YouTube and others. All these tools are easy in use, do not need any special skills and resources, they are low-cost as well. The author considers that it would be useful to include the organization’s Internet addresses on all social media websites and in traditional media publications, to make it as easy as possible for customers to find the youth non-governmental organizations they are looking for among the broad range of social media communities and services.

  20. The IOC as an international organization

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    EFTHALIA CHATZIGIANNI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of the International Olympic Committee as an International Organization in the field of interdependent world politics. Contemporary international community is organized on the basis of international organizations that contribute to the cooperation and understanding of the people especially in areas that enjoy human recognition worldwide. These organizations may function as agents of world solidarity and aim directly or indirectly at the promotion of understanding between people and consequently at the establishment of peace. They also carry out activities that aim at influencing national and international politics relevant to their respective goals. In this field, the IOC, as the most important International Non-Governmental Organization in the field of sport, plays a significant role. With an activity spanning more than a century, the IOC has been able to unify nations under the notion of Olympic ideals. This article aims at contributing partly to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of the IOC to act as an International Non Governmental Organization and fit in the pieces of world governance in terms of structure and activities. More specifically, it examines this ability in relation to the following facts: a the IOC enjoys international recognition and has a well-established international network, b it has a dynamic character and c it has the authority and financial capacity to function on international and national level as the representative of its 202 members, the National Olympic Committees (NOCs.

  1. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  2. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AS A CHANGE PROMOTER WITHIN EUROPEAN POLICIES

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    Carmen Claudia ARUSTEI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the non-governmental organization (NGO in implementing specific activities and priorities of European policies increases continuously because of the new environment requirements. Through a qualitative research, our study aims to highlight the catalysts and the main constraints in operationalizing the European policies involving the civil sector. Our approach is integrative and nontheless sequential and it is based on a multi-player model with the identification of the role and types of actions specific to each party involved. A temporal comparative analysis is also made by highlighting the evolution in time of the strategic pillars, the constraints and problems specific to the NGOs. The conclusions of our study are going towards pro-active measures: a fair placement considering the role of NGOs within implementing European policies considering the fact that they can offer consistent support and can undertake innovative actions that generate benefits for the society, community and the organization itself.

  3. Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results

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    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.

  4. Organ Donation in Brazil: Analysis of Governmental Campaigns Under the Perspective of Social Marketing

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    Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Focus on Social Marketing: An analysis of the governmental campaigns about donation of organs in Brazil. Currently in Brazil the demand of organ donation is higher than the offer of them. Although the relevant legislation, which is identified in the country is a high demand of people waiting for a compatible organ donor and , on the other hand, a low supply of possible potential donors. Before this situation, the following research has as an objective to analyze the perspective of donors and potential organ donors in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil concerning social marketing strategies used by the government. To do so, a research in quantitative and qualitative approach was done. The data in the quantitative part was collected directly through a survey done with 412 individuals and for the qualitative part, 23 semi-structured interviews with people directly involved in the process of organ donation were held. The results indicate that one of the main factors which interfere negatively in the intention of donating organs is related to safety matters. It emphasizes, still, a low perception concerning the efficiency of social marketing campaigns towards organ donation. Yet, according to the interviewees , such campaigns should merge calls negative and positive in order to provide individuals in addition to the emotional awareness , emotional or cognitive imbalances.

  5. The effect of informal communication on the leadership styles in governmental organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available These days, it is not possible to accomplish tasks without having productive relationships with the rest of the world. Although there are some evidences, which indicate informal organizations normally face some limitations on their return but there are also some studies suggesting that informal organizations are the best ways for making significant changes. Recently, many people have suggested that informal organizations provide good infrastructures for organization's workflow many conflict of interests could be solved using informal communications. News can be distributed in organizations through informal units much easier and it is easier to handle them. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between informal communications with leadership style in some of governmental organizations located in free islands of Chabahar, in south east part of Iran. The proposed model of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among many people who are acting as managers in those firms. The preliminary results indicate that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between leadership style and informal relationships.

  6. Environmental non-governmental organizations – The actions of civil society in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area

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    Cleusa Mara WOLSKY CARNEIRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at achieving a diagnosis of the major actions of the environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs that actuate in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. It also studies the relations established by these organizations to build a place socially fair and environmental sustainable. In order to do that the main activities of these organizations in the last decades were raised through interviews with their representatives, visitations to the central office and verification of the institutional documents available. The paper explains that the NGOs search to make actions that raise a sustainable model of development, since they understand that the State reduced the participation in this sector and that the people gave them power for it. To achieve so, they need to create a net of relationships between the community, the private and public agents and the NGOs, with the objective of learn the problems, point at the solutions and to develop environmental interventions models to legitimize their actions. That way, the territoriality that these organizations seek to create depend of integrated decisions and of a continuous search of people, information and mobilization, to set up news socials actors and to ensure the development of the activities of these organizations.

  7. The Socially Engaged Corporation - Attitudes and Knowledge Related to Collaboration with Non-Governmental Organizations

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    Karwacka Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between business and non-governmental organizations (NGOs is a relatively new phenomenon in the Polish market. It appears, however, that corporations recognized as socially responsible in Poland are starting to see greater benefits than before in collaboration with the third sector. More and more often, the collaboration involves an exchange of different resources and not merely sponsorship of specific events or social campaigns. The present study stresses the developmental aspect of the business-NGO collaboration. The collaboration by entities has been analyzed on the basis of recent literature dealing with sustainability management, Corporate Social Responsibility and business- NGO relations, and also on own research. The study discusses the conceptions of socially responsible corporations reaching new markets and customers on the basis of collaboration with NGOs.

  8. Cross-Sector Social Partnerships for Social Change: The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations

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    Xinya Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex social and environmental issues call for broader collaboration across different sectors so as to instigate transformative social change. While previous scholars have emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in facilitating social change, they have not provided a nuanced assessment of NGOs’ different roles. We use the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO research partnership as a study case and explore NGO partners’ different roles in a large cross-sector social partnership (CSSP. By interviewing 12 NGO partners and 4 non-NGO partners involved in the PEPSO research partnership, our research results show that NGOs primarily have 10 roles in a CSSP. They include enabling roles such as consultant, capacity builder, analyst, and funder; coordinating roles such as broker and communicator; and facilitating roles such as initiator, leader, advocate, and monitor. These roles allow NGOs to fulfil their duties to make substantial contributions to a CSSP.

  9. The Role of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Promoting Adult Education for Social Change: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…

  10. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  11. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers’ trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society’s fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health.

  12. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  13. The Effectiveness of Cultural Property and Conservation Learning in Elementary Education and Evaluation of the Contribution of Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem UÇAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A definition of cultural heritage, with its tangible and intangible meanings, encompasses places that are a part of daily life, and brings them into the realm of conservation efforts. In this context, conservation becomes a concern of daily life and means that users of these places must shoulder more responsibility for them. With this in mind, people need to be aware of the values and importance of cultural heritage and their individual role in its conservation. To develop public awareness of conservation of cultural heritage, awareness studies need to begin in childhood education, and in recognition of this, cultural heritage concepts have been included in Turkish primary school education programs. Additionally, a number of awareness studies have been carried out by non-governmental organizations to date. This paper aims to evaluate the concept of cultural heritage in social science programs in elementary education, and discuss the potential contributions to the education system of awareness studies carried out by non-governmental organizations. The first part of the paper deals with the place of the individual in conservation studies, and is followed by cultural heritage learning areas in social science programs in elementary education. The third section examines the results of a survey held to evaluate students’ degrees of learning. The fourth part evaluates some awareness-raising studies carried out by national and international non-governmental organizations. The final part proposes a number of criteria to be considered when attempting to raise cultural heritage education among children.

  14. Non-governmental organizations, democracy, and HIV prevalence: a cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliff, Eric J; Shandra, John M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scale, reach, and global impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its study has remained largely at the purview of various micro-level analyses (e.g., Gutmann 2007; Levi and Vitória 2002). However, differences in prevalence rates at the national level suggest that other forces might be at work. Following the work of McIntosh and Thomas (2004), the only cross-national study of HIV/AIDS published to our knowledge, we conduct a cross-national analysis that examines world polity ideas that higher levels of health and women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should be associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence. Initially, we find no support for these hypotheses. However, we respecify our models to test a political opportunity structure hypothesis that democracy enhances the ability of health and women’s NGOs to deal with HIV. We test this line of reasoning by including an interaction term between democracy and the health and women’s NGO variables. In doing so, we find that health and women’s NGOs are associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence in democratic rather than repressive nations.

  15. Regional Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations: Between Resistance and Utopia, Some Reflections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara da Silva Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its main objective the comprehension and analysis of the environmental action effectiveness of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs which are inserted in the region of the Hydrographic Basins of rivers "Turvo" and "Grande", and their relation with the others who act in this interactive field in order to understand what is being built in these regions considering the environmental issue. Material and Methodology: direct research in the selected NGOs and bibliographic review: NGOs, environmental legislation and participative democracy. Results: Participation in the survey data for the diagnosis of the current situation of hydric resource and the establishment of guidelines for the Plan of Hydrographic Basins of "Turvo" and "Grande" – Report Zero and in the Basins of "Turvo" and "Grande" Committee, actions in Environmental Education and reforestation/revegetation of part of the riparian forest and the protection of water sources. Conclusion: The environmental NGOs have played the protagonist role in the process of social transformation, with representativeness and competence to add people, institutions and resources to defend environment. Their acts show evidences that it's possible to overcome the environmental damages and they contribute to a reflection about the environment, means of organization and popular participation. The NGOs actions are often blocked by the game of interests that feeds the backstage of environmental matter. Business people pressure, lack of political will from the politicians to break the favor culture that was taken forward in relation to big interests; all these factors take part in the inhibition circuit that hinders the NGOs acts many times.

  16. What Can International Comparisons Teach Us about School Choice and Non-Governmental Schools in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    All European states have a primary obligation to establish and maintain governmental schools everywhere, but as the result of political struggle and constitutional guarantees, they have also allowed and often financed non-state schools based on special pedagogical, religious or philosophical ideas. Depending on the level of state grants for…

  17. The role of non-governmental organizations in providing curative health services in North Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagub, Abdallah I A; Mtshali, Khondlo

    2015-09-01

    Conflict in North Darfur state, Western Sudan started in 2003, and the delivering of curative health services was becoming a greater challenge for the country's limited resources. NGOs have played an important role in providing curative health services. To examine the role that Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have played in providing curative health services, as well as to identify the difficulties and challenges that affect NGOs in delivering curative health services. Secondary data was collected from different sources, including government offices and medical organizations in Sudan and in North Darfur state. Primary data was obtained through interviews with government and NGOs representatives. The interviews were conducted with (1) expatriates working for international NGOs (N=15) (2) health professionals and administrators working in health sector (N= 45) in the period from November 2010 to January 2011. The government in North Darfur state spent 70% of its financial budget on security, while it spent it less than 1% on providing health services. The international NGOs have been providing 70% of curative health services to the State's population by contributing 52.9% of the health budget and 1 390 health personnel. Since 2003 NGOs have provided technical assistance to the health staff. As a result, more than fifty nurses have been trained to provide care and treatment, more than twenty-three doctors have been trained in laboratory equipment operation, and approximately six senior doctors and hospital directors have received management training. NGOs have been managing and supporting 89 public health facilities, and established 24 health centres in IDP camps, and 20 health centres across all the districts in North Darfur state. The NGOs have played an important role in providing curative health services and in establishing good health facilities, but a future problem is how the government will run these health facilities after a peaceful settlement has been

  18. Uranium exploration, non-governmental organizations, and local communities. The origin, anatomy, and consequences of a new challenge in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerola, Toni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of global warming has returned nuclear power to the agenda. Many countries, including Finland, have decided to construct more nuclear power plants. They will need uranium, and its price is rising in the international market. A new uranium exploration boom is going on. Finland is politically and economically stable, with good infrastructure and basic geodata, attracting foreign companies to explore the promising uranium showings of the country. However, this has triggered an extensive anti-uranium campaign in northern, eastern, and southern, but not in central Finland, which is related to anti-nuclear movement, green and leftist parties, and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs. The resistance, created mainly by lack of public awareness of geology and mining, surprised mining companies, the geological community, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, who found themselves in a completely new situation. Here we will examine the origin, anatomy, and consequences of this challenge and how to deal with it. The picture presented herewithin is based on author’s active participation in uranium exploration in Finland, discussions with other geologists and activists, following the issue in newspapers, web-pages, reviews, and participating in NGO meetings.

  19. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  20. The activities of non-governmental organizations for equal educational opportunities for children from the rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARZYNA PALKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the access to knowledge has a decisive influence on our future. A large number of children in Poland have difficulties with this access, because they are raised in impoverished, excluded, poorly educated families of low social status. This phenomenon is mainly related to rural areas. Nonformal education should provide important support for formal education. Nonformal education should be organized with the cooperation of schools, kindergartens, and non-governmental organizations. The educational activities proposed for children and their parents by non-governmental organizations complement formal education. These activities are of crucial importance in the equalization of educational opportunities for children from rural areas. It is essential that these activities be planned, long-term, and a part of the entire educational program

  1. Vertical funding, non-governmental organizations, and health system strengthening: perspectives of public sector health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen S; Sherr, Kenneth

    2013-06-14

    In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a "sector-wide approach" to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating

  2. Immunity and privilege of international organizations in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To speak for the Diplomatic Law (Immunities and Privileges in International Organizations, first, this topic briefly describes the international organizations, what are they, as established, as extinct, and finally, as a shared international organizations. They are not subject of this paper, but Immunity and Privileges in International Organizations are. This paper gives an overview of the history of the immunity and privileges in international organizations, conventions, laws of the country regarding Immunities and Privileges, where the seat of the International Organization, Immunities and privileges of diplomatic representatives in international organizations, Immunities and privileges of representatives of international organizations in the state where the seat of the Organization, immunity and privileges of members of the family, diplomatic representatives International Organizations, Immunities and Privileges in the European Union, the difference between the immunity and privileges of international organizations, and Immunity and Privileges between states. This paper analyzes also the immunity and inviolability of buildings of International Organizations, immunity and inviolability of the archives of international organizations, the immunity and privileges of goods to international organizations, the release from the obligation of tax payments, the release from the provision of the diplomatic staff of International Organizations, etc. However, the paper includes charts, respectively, some official data from countries where the headquarters of international organizations are situated and gives an overview of the number of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  3. Communist Party Organs and Non-governmental Organizations in People’s Republic of Tuva during Great Patriotic war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldyn-ool K. Kanzay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main directions, forms and methods of work used by Revolutionary Party organs and non-governmental organizations of the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT which helped ensure the participation of Tuvans in the Great Patriotic war of the USSR (WWII. To describe the forms and types of support the people of Tuva gave to the Soviet Union in its fight against the Nazi invaders, the author provides facts, statistics and quotations from Tuvan statesmen. These pieces of data come from both academically published sources and those found in the Central State Archives of the Republic of Tuva. The steps and measures initiated by the Revolutionary Party include the program of wartime rebuilding of the economy (adopted at the 2nd plenum of the Central Committee of Tuvan National Revolutionary Party (CC TNRP, June 26, 1941; plans of mass production of skis and warm clothes for the Red Army, of an increase in livestock and crop field areas, of enhancing competitive work and introducing ‘shock work’ practices (adopted at 3rd Plenum of CC TNRP, December 22, 1941; the resolution on the readiness to enlist Tuvan youth in the Red Army, adopted by the 3rd session of the PRT’s Small Khural, February 17, 1942; the joint order by the Cabinet of Ministers of PRT and the CC TNRP to set up a system of war training for the citizens of PRT and a national militia, adopted in July 1942; etc. The war years gave rise to a lot of grassroots initiatives of supporting the USSR, the most massive and fruitful among them being the movement to raise the money for the USSR’s Defense Fund. Donations included money transfers, providing spoils of the chase and livestock to the collective farms of Ukraine, and wheat and millet, to the Defense Fund. Among the donors were schools, Revolutionary Youth cells and private individuals. Mobilization in Tuva was accompanied by dedicated everyday organizational, explanatory and agitational work of the organs of the

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of a Locally Organized Surgical Outreach Mission: Making a Case for Strengthening Local Non-Governmental Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyedu, Adam; Gaskill, Cameron; Boakye, Godfred; Abantanga, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have a high prevalence of unmet surgical need. Provision of operations through surgical outreach missions, mostly led by foreign organizations, offers a way to address the problem. We sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of surgical outreach missions provided by a wholly local organization in Ghana to highlight the role local groups might play in reducing the unmet surgical need of their communities. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted by surgical outreach mission activities of ApriDec Medical Outreach Group (AMOG), a Ghanaian non-governmental organization. The total cost of their activities was also calculated. Conclusions about cost-effectiveness were made according to World Health Organization (WHO)-suggested parameters. We analyzed 2008 patients who had been operated upon by AMOG since December 2011. Operations performed included hernia repairs (824 patients, 41%) and excision biopsy of soft tissue masses (364 patients, 18%). More specialized operations included thyroidectomy (103 patients, 5.1%), urological procedures (including prostatectomy) (71 patients, 3.5%), and plastic surgery (26 patients, 1.3%). Total cost of the outreach trips was $283,762, and 2079 DALY were averted; cost per DALY averted was 136.49 USD. The mission trips were "very cost-effective" per WHO parameters. There was a trend toward a lower cost per DALY averted with subsequent outreach trips organized by AMOG. Our findings suggest that providing surgical services through wholly local surgical mission trips to underserved LMIC communities might represent a cost-effective and viable option for countries seeking to reduce the growing unmet surgical needs of their populations.

  5. Collaboration between non-governmental organizations and public services in health – a qualitative case study from rural Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Biermann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs have a key role in improving health in low- and middle-income countries. Their work needs to be synergistic, complementary to public services, and rooted in community mobilization and collective action. The study explores how an NGO and its health services are perceived by the population that it serves, and how it can contribute to reducing barriers to care. Design: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in remote Ecuador, characterized by its widespread poverty and lack of official governance. An international NGO collaborated closely with the public services to deliver preventative and curative health services. Data were collected using focus group discussions and semistructured interviews with purposively sampled community members, healthcare personnel, and community health workers based on their links to the health services. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used, focusing on manifest content. Results: Emerging themes relate to the public private partnership (PPP, the NGO and its services, and community participation. The population perceives the NGO positively, linking it to healthcare improvements. Their priority is to get services, irrespective of the provider's structure. The presence of an NGO in the operation may contribute to unrealistic expectations of health services, affecting perceptions of the latter negatively. Conclusions: To avoid unrealistic expectations and dissatisfaction, and to increase and sustain the population's trust in the organization, an NGO should operate in a manner that is as integrated as possible within the existing structure. The NGO should work close to the population it serves, with services anchored in the community. PPP parties should develop a common platform with joint messages to the target population on the provider's structure, and regarding partners’ roles and responsibilities. Interaction between the population and the providers

  6. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  7. Chinese non-governmental organizations involved in HIV/AIDS prevention and control: Intra-organizational social capital as a new analytical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Mei, Guangliang; Xu, Xiaoru; Zhao, Ran; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-11-15

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health and social problem worldwide, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an irreplaceable role in HIV/AIDS prevention and control. At the present time, however, NGOs have not fully participated in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in China. As an emerging focus on international academic inquiry, social capital can provide a new perspective from which to promote the growth of NGOs. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommends creating regional policies tailored to multiple and varying epidemics of HIV/AIDS. In order to provide evidence to policymakers, this paper described the basic information on NGOs and their shortage of social capital. This paper also compared the actual NGOs to "government-organized non-governmental organizations" (GONGOs). Results indicated that i) Chinese NGOs working on HIV/AIDS are short of funding and core members. GONGOs received more funding, had more core members, and built more capacity building than actual NGOs; ii) Almost half of the NGOs had a low level of trust and lacked a shared vision, networks, and support. The staff of GONGOs received more support from their organization than the staff of actual NGOs. Existing intra-organizational social capital among the staff of NGOs should be increased. Capacity building and policymaking should differentiate between actual NGOs and GONGOs. The relationship between social capital and organizational performance is a topic for further study.

  8. 75 FR 45134 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... governmental agencies, national and international organizations, including healthcare and healthcare provider...) collaborates with other CDC components, governmental agencies, private sector organizations and other outside... matters; (8) interacts with other CDC organizations, other governmental agencies, private organizations...

  9. The Role of Non-Governmental Non-Profit Organizations in the Provision of Social Services and the Palliation of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Bronić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available After introductory considerations, arguments are put forward for non-governmental organisations as exclusive providers of social services. The negative characteristics of the non-governmental organization are subject of the third part of the paper. In the fourth part, the meaning of the social funds is explained (they are a kind of non-governmental organisations, and in Part 5, we explain the importance of the synergy between the government and society in the provision of social services. After the explanation of the situation in Croatia, in the Part 6 of the paper we give our final considerations. In Croatia non-governmental organizations that provide social services are slowly developing. In their further strengthening it is necessary to change the general viewpoints concerning the role and importance of the non-governmental sector in the alleviation of poverty, as well as to achieve better coordination between the state and the sector.

  10. PROBLEMS OF RISK COMMUNICATION: NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC OPINION ON ISSUES OF POPULATION’S RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Events connected with the development and improvement of the nuclear industry are usually ambiguously perceived by the public. Mass-media and Internet play a leading role in the development of the public opinion on the most relevant public life issues, ecology and radiation safety in particular. Non-governmental organizations can impact the adequate perception of the issues of the radiation safety in the region by the public. Materials and methods: this study is focused on the primary evaluation of the data on the results of the sociological survey of three regions of the North-West of the Russian Federation: St-Petersburg, Leningrad and Murmansk regions; and the assessment of the websites of the non-governmental organizations, activities of the non-governmental organizations in the Internet and social networks. Results: the study indicated that non-governmental organizations actively use Internet and social networks in their practice. All the relevant non-governmental organizations have websites and social network accounts. Based on the number of the subscribers in social networks, it was possible to mark two non-governmental organizations: Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund (WWF with more than 400000 subscribers each. VKontakte social network was assessed as the most effective mean of communicating with the public; a total number of subscribers on the groups of major non-governmental organizations exceeds 500000 persons. These two organizations are the most popular and trusted by the public. Greenpeace is known to 26% of respondents; WWF – to 11%. The population of the Murmansk region is more informed about the actions of the non-governmental organizations. 48% of the respondents in the Murmansk region named at least one non-governmental organization answering the question “What non-governmental organizations active in the field of radiation protection do you know?” with the corresponding 18% and 29% in St-Petersburg and Leningrad region

  11. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  12. The comparative advantage of NGO (non-governmental organizations) in the health sector--a look at the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, A R; Green, A T

    1994-01-01

    Attention being given to the development of an appropriate public/private mix in health-care delivery should not exclude the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). There is a widely accepted thesis of NGO comparative advantage over government, but evidence to support this thesis is generally more anecdotal than analytical. This paper considers evidence available in the literature and from field research in southern Africa, especially with regard to efficiency, innovation and reaching grass-roots communities. The paper concludes that the comparative advantage of the NGO sector needs to be analysed in relation to both the private for-profit sector and the public sector.

  13. 77 FR 4562 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ..., and philanthropic organizations; international agencies; and other societal institutions as... governmental and non-governmental organizations for the development of policies and evaluation methods; (6...-governmental organizations, develops and promotes evidence-based policies, practices, and evaluation methods...

  14. Protecting American Interests Abroad: U.S. Citizens, Businesses, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Nearly half a century ago the renowned British novelist and international traveler, Evelyn Waugh, presciently observed that, "In a few years' time the world will be divided into zones of insecurity...

  15. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  16. Spanning the Globe: Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO) Information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Describes gateway systems that can be used to access intergovernmental organization (IGO) information via the Internet, especially IGOs belonging to or affiliated with the United Nations. Highlights include United Nations World Wide Web Site, United Nations Gopher, the World Wide Web Virtual Library, and the Library of Congress's MARVEL Gopher.…

  17. Vision change in a governmental R&D organization : The pioneering legacy as an enduring element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landau, Dana; Drori, Israel; Porras, Jerry

    The present research demonstrates how a defense R&D organization wishing to deal effectively with a changing reality developed a vision that accommodated somewhat contradictory sets of aspirations and goals: the old and nationalistic together with the new, economically motivated, and market

  18. Non governmental organizations and energy efficiency promotion; O terceiro setor e a promocao da eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de; Hahn, Andreas Alexandeer [IIEC - International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents actions from IIEC - International Institute for Energy Conservation, NGO which mission is to support social and economic transformation of developing countries, based upon efficient use of energy. It shows aspects such as innovation, organizational structure, decision-making process and ongoing and delivered projects in Brazil. The importance of the so-called 'Third Sector' (expression normally used) in Brazil is reinforced in this paper, presenting numbers and the increased importance of NGOs in Brazil, people involved and relevance to the economy. The paper focuses also the behaviour change when people migrate from consulting area to NGO, specially learning new meanings for profit and results. (author)

  19. RESTRICTION OF RIGHTS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN RUSSIA AS A SUBJECT OF JUDICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vinogradova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the regulation of the Russian state’s control over the activities of non-governmental organizations and the limits to that control. Important changes made in 2014–2016 in the regulation of the organization and activity of judicial power show that the tasks of transformation of the judicial power structure, establishment of effective control mechanisms and strengthening of the requirements on substantiation of court judgments have become more topical. Addressing this issue and taking it as the subject of study are motivated by the small number of works dealing with this issue. The task of enhancing the effectiveness of the exercise of their powers by public authorities necessitates consideration of special features of judicial control over disputes related to restriction of rights. The adoption of the Administrative Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and the statutory formalization of special features of judicial control with respect to certain non-commercial organizations imply changes in judicial practice related to challenging the decisions made by public authorities. In addition to special procedural features such changes also facilitate the spread in law enforcement practice of legal arrangements like the ‘proportionality test’ and determining the balance between competing constitutional values and conditions of public order observance. The analysis carried out by the author reveals tendencies of improvement in legislative action and allows identification of future lines of improvement in judicial practice.

  20. Governmental organization for the regulation of nuclear power plants. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Code of Practice recommends requirements for a regulatory body responsible for regulating the siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for safety. It forms part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. This Code has been prepared to provide recommendations for Member States embarking on a nuclear power programme and covers: (1) Establishing and maintaining a regulatory body to which is assigned the responsibility for authorizing the siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants after appropriate review and assessment (2) Organizing for and conducting the review and assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants (3) Conducting the necessary regulatory inspections and taking necessary enforcement actions during all stages of the licensing process in order to ensure that the limits and conditions of the licences are being complied with by the applicants/licensees and their contractors (4) Establishing regulations and criteria for nuclear-related health, safety and environmental protection

  1. Ethical self-regulation systems for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Aguiló

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical results of a study focusing on self-regulatory systems as the evaluative approach to the ethical performance of NGOs. Its aim is to analyse the current self-regulatory systems in NGOs in order to report their scope, identify the evaluative dimensions and variables used, and clarify their role in relation to other strategies and other apparently similar resources, such as quality control systems. From the literature survey and content analysis of the major databases and institutional documents of authors and managers of various self-regulatory systems, the current practices are described, compared and analysed. The results lead us to conclude that through self-regulation, primarily codes of conduct and certifications of good practices, a growing number of organizations are developing standards and shared rules of conduct to address and channel the emerging demand for transparency and accountability to their stakeholders. However, there is great disparity in the way they are used, along with their geographical distribution and content. Finally, we offer an integrative proposal of the different variables used to evaluate ethical management in the leading certification systems analysed.

  2. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  3. International organization at war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    number of practices for their power advantage to take its full effect. The article also illustrates how looking at practices helps to explain policy decisions, such as NATO’s decision to engage in Afghanistan, the establishment of an International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) strategy...... and the wording of policy papers. By studying a case of military diplomacy, the article contributes to the emerging scholarship aimed at bridging the gap between diplomatic studies and practice-based approaches to International Relations....

  4. Organizational Strategic Planning and Execution: Should Governmental Organizations Rely on Strategic Planning for the Success of the Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Competition that it faces. 16 The analysis of internal factors will include (IV) the company’s marketing mix ; (V) the internal resources; and (VI) a variety...Government; Economy; Socio-Demography; Technology) III Industry & Competition IV Marketing Mix (Outputs) A B C V Internal Resource

  5. Role Of Non-Governmental Organizations Leadership In The Implementation Of Community Development Projects In Arumeru District Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabu Ally Mtunge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of leadership in the implementation of community development projects by local non-governmental organizations in Arumeru District Tanzania. The study applied survey design which covered the sample of 46 respondents including District Executive Director District Social Workers Non-Governmental Organization leaders workers and volunteers and community members in Arumeru district Tanzania. The study employed simple random sampling technique in order to ensure equal chance of an individual being involved in this study as inferential statistics considered. Data collected from a sample of 46 NGOs employees using a semi-structured questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The collected data analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistical tools used included frequencies mean and standard deviation while inferential statistical tool used was correlation. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 19 used for analyzing the data collected. The study achieved a response of 46 out of a sample of 47 representing a response rate of 97.87. The results show that a significant number of NGOs 34.8 had not completed their projects 21.7 stated that less than five projects were complete and 43.5 of the respondents confirmed that more than five projects not completed over the last one year. Regarding the influence of leadership on implementation of project spearmans rank correlation revealed a very strong positive correlation 0.910 between of leadership vision and implementation of community development projects a strong positive correlation between communication and implementation of community development projects rho 0.730 n 46 p .001 strong positive correlation between commitment and implementation of community developmental projects which was statistically significant rs .601 p .000 and a positive correlation between accountability and

  6. From Charity to Development: Christian International Health Organizations, 1945-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bruchhausen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of the Red Cross the history of non-governmental international organizations in the field of health has received less attention from historians than intergovernmental organizations and national non-governmental organizations (NGOs. This article takes up the challenge of redressing this by examining the origins and policies of Christian agencies such as Medicus Mundi Internationalis (International Organisation for Medical Cooperation and the World Council of Churches Christian Medical Commission. Despite denominational and theological differences a story emerges of a common trajectory from a hospital-based focus on curative medicine to community-focused primary healthcare in the three decades or so after 1945.

  7. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  8. Collaboration between Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Delivering Curative Health Services in North Darfur State, Sudan- a National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I A Yagub, Abdallah

    2014-05-01

    North Darfur State has been affected by conflict since 2003 and the government has not been able to provide adequate curative health services to the people. The government has come to rely on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to provide curative health services. This study was conducted to examine the existing collaboration between government and NGOs in curative health service delivery in North Darfur State, and to identify the challenges that affect their collaboration. Documentary data were collected from government offices and medical organizations. Primary data were obtained through interviews with government and NGOs representatives. The interviews were conducted with (1) expatriates working for international NGOs (N=15) and (2), health professionals and administrators working in the health sector (N= 45). The collaboration between the government and NGOs has been very weak because of security issues and lack of trust. The NGOs collaborate by providing human and financial resources, material and equipment, and communication facilities. The NGOs supply 70% of curative health services, and contribute 52.9% of the health budget in North Darfur State. The NGOs have employed 1 390 health personnel, established 44 health centres and manage and support 83 health facilities across the State. The NGOs have played a positive role in collaborating with the government in North Darfur State in delivering curative health services, while government's role has been negative. The problem that faces the government in future is how health facilities will be run should a peaceful settlement be reached and NGOs leave the region.

  9. Living with HIV infection: perceptions of patients with access to care at a non-governmental organization in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Krishnan, A K; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Solomon, Suniti; Sikkema, Kathleen; Merson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Through interviews, we examined explanatory frameworks of living with HIV infection among 50 HIV-positive individuals (23 women, 27 men) receiving care at a non-governmental organization in Chennai, India. Results were analysed according to three sets of issues, all of which were found to differ by gender: causal beliefs about HIV, impact of HIV, and care/treatment of HIV. HIV-positive participants attributed their infection to biological, moral and social causes, and the physical, financial and relationship dimensions of their lives were impacted upon by the infection. Furthermore, HIV-related stigma evoked fears about isolation and discrimination. Regarding care/treatment, men were most usually first initiated into the healthcare system while women often entered as a consequence of their partner's condition. Non-adherence to medication was reported by 32% of the participants due to financial constraints or side-effects. Although all participants were hopeful about a cure for HIV, women were less positive than men about treatment. Results highlight the importance of a gender-sensitive approach to HIV care, nuanced to accommodate an individual's gender, marital status and social background.

  10. Establishment of a non-governmental regional approach to La Plata River Basin integrated watershed management promoted throughout three international workshops supported by UN and Japanese agencies, led by ILEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Alberto; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Mugetti, Ana

    2002-08-01

    The La Plata River Basin is one of the largest international river basins in the world, with an area of about 3 million km2. It spreads across five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), and its water resources are essential for their economic development. Together with reservoir development, extensive deforestation, intensive agriculture practices and large urban developments took place in the Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay basins, affecting environmental conditions and raising important issues concerning water resources use and conservation. Therefore, the need to promote participatory and cooperative efforts among water resources stakeholders, as well as the systematic exchange of information and experiences on common regional problems among organizations and experts from throughout the basin who are devoted to water resources use and management, was reported by researchers and managers gathered at the First and Second International Workshops on Regional Approaches for Reservoir Development and Management in the La Plata River Basin (held in 1991 and 1994). As a concrete response to this need, the efforts of a number of organizations from various countries within the basin, with the support of international and national governmental organizations, resulted in the foundation of La Plata River Basin Environmental Research and Management Network (RIGA) in March 2001. This was within the framework of the Third International Workshop, which was precisely one of the short-term activities included in the RIGA Action Plan. During the preparatory processes for the RIGA Network, the presence of Japanese cooperation supporting the La Plata River Basin Workshops through a non-governmental international organization (ILEC) played an important role in stimulating such an organization-based joint approach in the basin. This outcome, although not originally planned, constituted a welcomed byproduct of its main specific interest in the region, which was the

  11. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    . This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...

  12. Organizational Strategic Planning and Execution: Should Governmental Organizations Rely on Strategic Planning for the Success of the Organization?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Lester; Reynolds, Thomas E; Harris, II, Thomas L

    2007-01-01

    .... The utilization of this tool can yield positive results for many companies and organizations. On the other hand, if the strategic plan is not utilized, it becomes a costly paperweight on a table in the executive suite...

  13. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  14. Maintaining health sector collaborations between United States non-governmental organizations and North Korea through innovation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene S; Choi, Ricky Y; VanRooyen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Humanitarian agencies in North Korea operate within a complex sociopolitical environment historically characterized by a baseline of mistrust. As a result of operating within such a heated environment, health sector collaborations between such agencies and the North Korean government have followed unpredictable courses. The factors that have contributed to successful programmatic collaborations, as perceived by United States non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and North Korean officials were investigated. A qualitative, multi-case, comparative, research design using semistructured interviews was used. Expert North Korean informants were interviewed to generate a list of factors contributing to programmatic success, defined as fulfilling mutually established objectives through collaboration. The North Korean informants were asked to identify US NGOs that fulfill these criteria ("mission-compatible NGOs"). Representatives from all of the mission compatible NGOs were interviewed. All informants provided their perspectives on the factors that contributed to successful programmatic collaborations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. North Korean informants identified six mission-compatible US NGOs. The North Korean and US NGO informants provided a number of factors that contributed to successful programs. These factors were grouped into the following themes: (1) responsiveness to North Korean requests; (2) resident status; (3) program monitoring; (4) sincerity (apolitical objectives); (5) information gathering; and (6) interagency collaboration. Some US NGOs have devised innovative measures to work within a unique set of parameters in North Korea. Both US NGOs and North Korean authorities have made significant concessions to maintain their programmatic partnerships. In this manner, seasoned collaborators have employed creative strategies and a form of health diplomacy to facilitate programmatic success in North Korea by

  15. On the social construction of crises between governmental and corporate organizations. An inter-organizational and inter-systemic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, F.; Raupp, J.

    2010-01-01

    between governmental and corporate crisis communications and how this in turn might lead to institutional changes in the specific case of the financial crisis (2008). The theoretical framework and empirical illustration enriches crisis communication theory in three ways: firstly by documenting how

  16. Nuclear energy and international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, B.

    1975-01-01

    The historical perspectives of the international organizations' role concerning the development and spreading of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, taking into account the national interests within and towards these organizations, are portrayed. The difference in political status between the so-called nuclear and non-nuclear States, lodged in Articles I and II of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is an important factor. The effects so far of these differences in status on the interest of nuclear States to participate in organizations and on factors which might possibly lead to conflict between these two groups are presented. The author skirts the cooperation between organizations (international bureaucracies, group-formation of states). (HP/LN) [de

  17. International organizations and crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, E.-K.; Verbeek, J.A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis, international organizations (IOs) are often called upon for help. Such crises may have both domestic and transnational features. In 2012 the domestic revolt in Syria, which had started the previous year, escalated and the United Nations (UN) was asked to help work towards a

  18. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  19. International Organizations and Organizational Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje; Moschella, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to account for varieties of organizational change. In particular, we contend that in order to explain change in international organizations (IOs) we cannot simply dichotomize between change and the lack thereof. Rather, change is best conceptualized as made up of two...... in the field helps to account for the speed of change (slow vs. rapid), whereas the openness of the organization to the inputs coming from the field helps to explain the scope of change (incremental vs. radical). We illustrate our argument by comparing the changes in the International Monetary Fund's policies...... dimensions: speed and scope. The combination of the two dimensions leads to a taxonomy with four distinct types of policy change. The paper evaluates the emergence of different types of change by focusing on the relationship between IOs and their fields. Specifically, the position of the organization...

  20. The accreditation systems of the EFOMP and the IFMBE as non-profit non-governmental organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavtchev, A.; Todorov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, new higher demands on the education and training of the physicists and engineers who work in the field of medicine are imposed. It is in concert with the rapid progress of the latter and the emerging novel approaches and new technology. The European Federation of the Organizations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) worked out a program for establishment of national accreditation system for medical physicists in its member-states, recommended for introduction in other countries as well. A similar program in the field of biomedical engineering is under preparation by the International Federation on Medical and Biomedical Engineering (IFMBE) and expected to be introduced in its member-states. The Action Plan of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this matter is also presented. These programs could in short time and effectively enough be applied in Bulgaria with respect to our preconditions and traditions. (authors)

  1. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas

    data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...

  2. 75 FR 23247 - International Whaling Commission; 62nd Annual Meeting; Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... representing the positions of non-governmental organizations. Generally, only one non-governmental position is... representing the positions of non-governmental organizations. Generally, only one non-governmental position is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV73 International...

  3. Global energy governance: trade, infrastructure, and the diffusion of international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Baccini; Veronica Lenzi; Paul W. Thurner

    2013-01-01

    Why do states choose to join and form international governmental organizations (IGOs) that regulate energy policy? In this article we make three specific contributions to the literature on international cooperation and diffusion. First, we show that countries form and join energy IGOs in response to memberships previously gained by direct competitors among oil and gas producers and consumers. Moreover, we demonstrate that energy IGOs diffuse among countries that share oil and gas pipelines. F...

  4. 76 FR 28174 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Dual Nationals and Third-Country Nationals Employed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... territories of the governmental end-user or international organization. For example, such would be required to.... Furthermore, companies, international organizations, and foreign governmental entities bear significantly more...), to or within a foreign business entity, foreign governmental entity, or international organization...

  5. Big Data as Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....

  6. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  7. Netherlands as producer of energy knowledge. Dutch governmental efforts for energy R and D in an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duin, A.M.

    2006-04-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs aims to link its transition policy in a broader context to international energy - and climate policy. A clear view on the Dutch position in the field of energy research policy is an important aspect of this international anchoring of the transition policy. For that purpose this report offers a first insight in the scope, the quality and the focus of Dutch energy R and D budget in comparison with the situation in a number of other countries. Furthermore, the attention is directed at recent developments and issues involved in the organisation of energy research. Several instruments for priority setting and organisational issues are recommended for consideration in the process of the international anchoring of transition policy. With regard to the per capita budgets for energy R and D, the Netherlands is leading together with Japan and the United States. Concerning the knowledge position in the field of energy, as of yet no research has been conducted expressing this knowledge position in publications, citations and patents. However, in the programming for the Dutch energy research strategy (EOS) a positive picture is presented. The role of the Netherlands in the European Framework Programmes indirectly indicates a good position as well. However, the scope of the Dutch government budget for energy R and D has been relatively strongly decreasing over the past years. The private contributions to energy R and D in the Netherlands are reasonable (50%), but the Dutch government expects that these - as a result of liberalisation - will decrease as well. In the Netherlands a relatively great part of the budget is spent on sustainable energy and energy conservation (together 70%). The Netherlands spend more on biomass and in particular on wind energy and less on solar energy than is the case in the other countries. Compared to the other countries, the Dutch budget for energy conservation has been remarkably evenly divided over the

  8. Evaluation of the central libraries information security management at governmental universities located in Tehran, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 27002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Malekolkalami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the evaluation of information security management status in central Libraries of governmental universities located in Tehran, according to ISO / I.E.C. 27002. Research method applied for the study is descriptive Survey and a questionnaire was used for collecting information. The questionnaire was distributed between the 74 central library managers of governmental universities in Tehran according to the recent list on the website of Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, that includes 39 components based on 11 indicators of the standard ISO/ I.E.C. 27002. Analysis of data has been done by using both descriptive and inferential statistics by Microsoft Excel 2007and SPSS statistical softwares. The results of research showed that the mean for libraries in 11 indexes are as follows: The mean for the first index, Security policy, is 3.91 , in the second index, organization of information security, is 4.23, in the third index, asset security management, is 4.38, in the fourth index, Human Resources Security management, is 4, in the fifth index, physical and environment Security management, is 4.07, in the sixth index, operations management and communications, is 4.15, in the Seventh index, access controls management, is 4.38, in the eighth index, information system acquisition, development and maintenance, is 3.92, in the ninth index, information security incident management, is 3.84, in the tenth index, business continuity management, is 3.46, in the eleventh index, compliance, is 3.69 that match with the standard ISO / IEC. 27002. The results of Research shown that totally mean for standard ISO/I.E.C. 27002 in the field of information security management in the central libraries, is 4 being in a good condition and there is no significant differences between the performance of the Central libraries of the governmental Universities in Tehran, since It is not observed significant difference between them in the field of

  9. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  10. The impact of the global economic crisis on the finances of non-governmental sport organizations in Slovenia remains to be seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jurak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the global economic crisis on revenues on all non-governmental sport organizations (sport NGOs in Slovenia, as a small European economy. Five types of operating revenues of all sport NGOs from 2007 to 2010 have been analyzed. We found that the overall trend of sport NGOs revenues does not correspond exactly to the trends of the Slovenian economy. The greatest financial impacts were experienced in grassroots sport, while professional sport NGOs have increased their operating revenues, mostly due to increases of public revenues. The findings suggest that the true impact of the recession on Slovenian sport NGOs remains to be seen. We conclude that the ongoing recession will affect grassroots sport the least, while semi-professional and professional sport NGOs will be under financial threat. Because of the synergistic effects of different types of NGOs, this could affect the sustainability of Slovenian sport.

  11. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control is the ...

  12. Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography," by Michelle Brady in the previous issue.......A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography," by Michelle Brady in the previous issue....

  13. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities. Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO) in Catalonia (Spain) working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional) and opportunistic sampling (users) were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals), 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users). A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 37433 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... wishing to be observers representing international non- governmental organizations (which must have... not affiliated with an organization may not register as observers. An international non-governmental... information on these proposals; and provide information on how non- governmental organizations based in the...

  16. Bridging the Gap: Collaboration between a School of Pharmacy, Public Health, and Governmental Organizations to provide Clinical and Economic Services to Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajul Patel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Promoting healthy communities through the provision of accessible quality healthcare services is a common mission shared by schools of pharmacy, public health departments, and governmental agencies. The following study seeks to identify and detail the benefits of collaboration between these different groups. Methods: In total, 112 mobile clinics targeting Medicare beneficiaries were held in 20 cities across Northern/Central California from 2007 to 2016. Under the supervision of licensed pharmacists, trained student pharmacists provided vaccinations, health screenings, Medicare Part D plan optimization services, and Medication Therapy Management (MTM to patients at each clinic site. Clinic support was extended by public health departments, governmental agency partners, and a health professional program. Results: Since clinic inception, 8,996 patients were provided services. In total, 19,441 health screenings and 3,643 vaccinations were collectively provided to clinic patients. We assisted 5,549 beneficiaries with their Part D benefit, resulting in an estimated aggregate out-of-pocket drug cost savings of $5.7 million. Comprehensive MTM services were provided to 4,717 patients during which 8,184 medication-related problem (MRP were identified. In 15.3% of patients, the MRP was determined severe enough to warrant prescriber follow-up. In total, 42.9% of clinic patients were from racial/ethnic minority groups and 25.5% had incomes ≤150% of the Federal Poverty Level. Conclusion: Collaboration between a school of pharmacy, public health departments, and governmental organizations can effectively serve Medicare beneficiary populations and result in: 1 lower out-of-pocket drug costs, 2 minimization of medication-related problems, 3 increased vaccination uptake, and 4 increased utilization of health screenings. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate

  17. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics: Mission, Organization, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering

  18. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  19. Role of an international non-governmental organisation in strengthening health systems in fragile-state context: Evaluation results from South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso C. Rosales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available World Vision implemented the community-based Maternal and Child Health Transformation (MaCHT Project from September 2010 to September 2014 in fragile-state South Sudan. To document and measure health-related activities executed by an international nongovernmentalo rganisation to sustainably strengthen the capacity of the health system in delivering essential health services to pregnant women and children under two years of age, including new-borns and infants. A range of mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, observation, and uncontrolled cross-sectional before-and-after surveys using Henderson’s method were carried out. The unit of analysis was mothers of children under two years of age, and community health workers (CHWs. An estimated 39 000 children under age two were attended to by CHWs. Coverage of essential maternal and childhealth care (MCH increased in all single interventions, ranging from a minimum of 5% points to a maximum of 49% points during the implementation period. The capacity of the health system to deliver essential MCH services improved by building the supply and performance of the health workforce through task-shifting and in-service training. Likewise, operational linkages between community structures and local health services were strengthened. In conclusion, this program supported health system strengthening, mainly in the areas of service delivery, health workforce, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. The project also informed policy at district and national levels and repositioned the maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH agenda to further scale up these activities. An evaluation of a four year USAID-funded child survival project implemented by an international non-governmental organisation (NGO in fragile-state context showed progress and challenges in health system strengthening for maternal health practices and community case management of diarrhoea, pneumonia, and

  20. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO Libraries for The Visually Impaired in Nigeria: Alternative Format Use and Perception of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria's non-government organization (NGO libraries for the visually impaired has over the years been at the forefront of information services provision to persons with visual impairment. This study adopted a survey research design to investigate use of alternative formats and perceptions of information services to the visually impaired, focusing on two purposively chosen NGO libraries for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Using a complete enumeration approach, data were gathered from 180 users of the libraries through the use of a structured questionnaire with a reliability score (${\\alpha}=0.74$. Data from 112 (62.2% of the 180 administered copies of a questionnaire that were retrieved were analysed. The study found that Braille materials had a high level of utilization ($\\bar{x}=4.46$ and were the most frequently utilized (90.9%. Perception of information services by the visually impaired was positive while use of alternative formats was significantly and positively related to users' perception of information services (r = .041; p < 0.05. The study recommends improved transcription and investment in alternative formats and in e-resources. It also recommends collaborations to widen access as well as constant evaluation of services.

  1. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  2. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  3. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  4. The Oil and Gas Discourse from the Perspective of the Canadian and Albertan Governments, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three of the major players in the discussion of the production of oil and gas are: (1 government; (2 the oil and gas industry and (3 non-governmental organizations (NGOs. A comparison of contributions from these three sources using a list of positive and negative words from the General Inquirer Category Listings showed that industry provided a very positive message about the production and consumption of oil and gas that is generally reinforced by government whereas NGOs advocated for a reduction in the use of oil and gas. Messages delivered by each player are focused on the same topics in either a positive or negative way and are often contradictory. The authors submit to be properly informed the public must consider all the sources in order to avoid bias. A mind map is presented in a supplementary file which summarizes information from each source in a comprehensive way. This approach can be used by consumers when considering the choice of using oil and gas and can be extended to the discourse beyond Canada.

  5. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  6. International organizations and migrant health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda

    International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.

  7. Studies of Discourse and Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    have attempted to critically rethink Foucault’s ideas. This is the first volume that attempts to revisit and expand studies of governmentality by connecting it to the theories and methods of discourse analysis. The volume draws on different theoretical stances and methodological approaches including...... critical discourse analysis, conversation analysis, dialogic analysis, multimodal discourse analysis, the discourse-historical approach, corpus analysis and French discourse analysis. The volume is relevant to students and scholars in the fields of critical discourse studies, conversation analysis......, international studies, environmental studies, political science, public policy and organisation studies....

  8. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  9. Exploring governmentality as interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    from an interactionistic perspective, based on Goffman’s dramaturgy. The focal point is how Goffman's concepts of interaction order, rituals, role and role performance might be an point of entry for studying the techniques the self and the techniques of domination through which governmentality operates...

  10. Professional radiation protection societies and the international organizations – exploiting the synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Radiation protection covers many disciplines from science through philosophy to law, and interacts with many human activities and endeavors. Professional societies for radiation protection were established and evolved throughout the second half of the twentieth century in many countries, and presently represent more than twenty thousand professionals working in more than fifty countries. During the same period a number of international organizations were established, some devoted to radiation safety, others with a role to play in radiation safety; such organizations being either independent non-governmental organizations or intergovernmental organizations of both regional and international dimensions. The national, regional and international radiation protection societies and associations have become the vehicle to provide this conduit from the profession to the international organizations. This is achieved by IRPA having representation within the relevant committees of the various international bodies, such as the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC) of the IAEA. At a national level radiation protection professionals can gain access to all international developments in radiation protection through the national societies and their interactions with IRPA and also as individual members of IRPA. The possibility to provide consolidated comment and feedback to the international organizations through national societies provides excellent opportunities for societies to organize national workshops and discussion platforms on all important areas of radiation protection.

  11. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. (eds.) (USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  12. A Managerial Perspective on Common Identity-based and Common Bond-based Groups in Non-governmental Organizations. Patterns of Interaction, Attachment and Social Network Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena - Mădălina VĂTĂMĂNESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the common identity and common bond theories in analyzing the group patterns of interaction, their causes, processes and outcomes from a managerial perspective. The distinction between identity and bond referred to people’s different reasons for being in a group, stressing out whether they like the group as a whole — identity-based attachment, or they like individuals in the group — bond-based attachment.  While members of the common identity groups reported feeling more attached to their group as a whole than to their fellow group members and tended to perceive others in the group as interchangeable, in bond-based attachment, people felt connected to each other and less to the group as a whole, loyalty or attraction to the group stemming from their attraction primarily to certain members in the group. At this level, the main question concerned with the particularities of common identity-based or common bond-based groups regarding social interaction, the participatory architecture of the group, the levels of personal and work engagement in acting like a cohesive group. In order to address pertinently this issue, the current work was focused on a qualitative research which comprised in-depth (semi-structured interviews with several project coordinators from non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Also, to make the investigation more complex and clear, the research relied on the social network analysis which was indicative of the group dynamics and configuration, highlighting the differences between common identity-based and common bond-based groups.

  13. International Organizations: the Main Factors of Emergence and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the emergence of the first permanent intergovernmental (IIGO and non-governmental (INGO organizationsin the second half of the XIX-th century was due to common causes. He tries to justify the need to consider them not as independent objects of study, but as the phenomenon, caused by the high level of internationalization of economic life of states and of socio-economic consequences of the industrial revolution, reached in this period. The emergence of IIGOs, based on international treaty, was accompanied by establishment of a large number of INGOs operating in similar fields of human activity, which performed supplementary functions and regulated areas of cooperation and public needs, not covered by interstate agreements. The article presents the main factors that in later stages of internationalization and development of contemporary international relations gave the impetus to emergence and development of international organizations, including the military-technological revolution, that gave birth to mass destruction weapons and avalanche-like growth of the number of human and material losses during wars and military conflicts, the Cold War between world communism and world capitalism, the collapse of the colonial system and formation ofa new main contradiction of the world politics between the "Club of rich countries" and states of the "global periphery", beginning of development of regional integration processes and, finally, the emergence of global problems. The article emphasizes that both IIGOs and INGOs evolved from the supportive tools in implementation of multilateral interaction of sovereign states towards becoming an integral part of contemporary international relations, fulfilling many vital functions of modern human society and its citizens. Given the involvement of the overwhelming majority of modern sovereign states and tens of thousands of civil society organizations in activity of numerical IIGOs and INGOs

  14. 76 FR 34209 - International Whaling Commission; 63rd Annual Meeting; Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations. Generally, only one non-governmental... recommendations to the U.S. IWC Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations... International Whaling Commission; 63rd Annual Meeting; Nominations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  15. 77 FR 19646 - International Whaling Commission; 64th Annual Meeting; Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations. Generally, only one non-governmental... the U.S. IWC Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations. Generally... International Whaling Commission; 64th Annual Meeting; Nominations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  17. Assistance by governmental bodies of other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of the internationel agreements and cooperations between West Germany and foreign countries and organizations like the IAEA, of the assistance by Governmental organizations of other countries, the elements of technical assistance programs, of special arrangements concluded between agencies, research centres and other institutions. (HK) [de

  18. Trends in Governmental Enterprise Architecture: Reviewing National EA Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Christiansen, Peter Engelund

    2007-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of three, where we will analyze and evaluate governmental enterprise architecture policies and practices from an international perspective. This first article presents the overall findings from an international study, we have made about governmental EA, and i...

  19. Identities of states in international organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Dekker, I.F.; Dekker, Ige F.

    2015-01-01

    In academic debates on the responsibility of international organizations and their member States the different identities of States play a crucial role. However, apart from the difficulty to clearly separate ‘State’ and ‘member State’ identities, it is even more complex to distinguish between the

  20. International survey on gas technology organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The International Survey on Gas Technology Organizations has been prepared by the IEA International Centre for Gas Technology Information. 172 companies and R and D Institutions from 41 countries have contributed to the survey. The objective of the Survey is to develop an overview of identified organizations active in the development of new gas technology. As a quick reference guide the survey offers you short descriptions of a number of the most important organizations within gas technology on a world wide basis. Many R and D institutions around the world are working with topics of relevance to the gas industry. New gas technology draws on many different scientific and technical disciplines. This first issue of the survey includes only a part of the numerous organizations and institutions active within the development of new technology of relevance to the gas industry. The preparation of this survey has been a first step in the development of the information activities of the Centre. The information regarding organizations with R and D activities of relevance to the gas industry will continuously be expanded and updated for internal use in the Centre and will also be available to external users. The Centre plans to establish on-line access to these update versions during 1995. (EG)

  1. Governmentalities of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallentin, Steen

    2015-01-01

    by a lack of common direction and that we need to approach it on such terms. In order to provide a critical account of ‘the Danish model’ we apply a governmentality perspective that allows us to stress political difference. We argue that Danish government policy consists of three distinct regimes......This paper investigates the roles that Danish government has played in the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Denmark has emerged as a first mover among the Scandinavian countries when it comes to CSR. We argue that government has played a pivotal role in making this happen...

  2. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  3. 5 CFR 352.304 - International organizations covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.304... public international organization or international organization preparatory commission only when the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International organizations covered. 352...

  4. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Maurer, Caroline; Friedberg, Richard C

    2017-09-01

    The College of American Pathologists (CAP) offers a suite of laboratory accreditation programs, including one specific to accreditation to the international organization for standardization (ISO) 15189 standard for quality management specific to medical laboratories. CAP leaders offer an overview of ISO 15189 including its components, internal audits, occurrence management, document control, and risk management. The authors provide a comparison of its own ISO 15189 program, CAP 15189, to the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program. The authors conclude with why laboratories should use ISO 15189. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  5. Fairness : A Dire International Tax Standard with No Meaning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, I.J.J.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    In their discussions on corporate income tax systems the International Organizations (IOs) OECD, UN, IMF and World Bank, Supranational Organizations (SOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), associations of practitioners and Governments often refer to the concept of fairness without proper

  6. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  7. Legitimating New Forms of Organizing and New International Activities in the Eyes of Multiple Stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    The research on new venture legitimation strategies is emerging; although, it is yet to form a central line of enquiry in entrepreneurship research. To contribute to this development, this paper explores the process of legitimation in a non-for-profit venture (hereafter as NGO, non-governmental...... organization). The paper explores (1) how this NGO acquired cognitive legitimacy, defined as knowledge about the new form of organizing and new activity and what is needed to succeed in respective sector, and socio-political legitimacy, defined as the value placed on the new form of organizing and new activity...... by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...

  8. The Effectiveness of International Non-Governmental Organizations’ Response Operations during Public Health Emergency: Lessons Learned from the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Ah; Yeo, Jungwon

    2018-01-01

    International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs) have played critical roles in improving the quality of primary health care in ordinary time and, indeed, responding to epidemic crises in developing countries. Due to a lack of empirical research for effectiveness of their responding activities, the legitimacy and accountability of nonprofits’ engagement in the health crisis as a critical responder is doubted. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of INGOs in a context of managing a fatal epidemic outbreak of Ebola in Sierra Leone during May–November, 2014; building healthcare infrastructures, providing medical supplies, educating local residents, and training response staffs. The analysis results show that development of healthcare infrastructures and provision of medical supplies have been significantly effective in terms of decreasing the severity of the crisis in chiefdoms. The findings imply that policy tools, which allow INGOs to enter to the field in a timely manner, can improve the effectiveness of INGOs’ responses in current and future epidemic outbreaks in developing countries where people suffer from a lack of health infrastructures. PMID:29614756

  9. [Gradient of serotonergic innervation of internal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkova, A E

    2004-01-01

    The unidirectional synergistic effect of the vegetative nervous system departments was studied at the regulation of the activity of internal organs. It was shown that the sympathetic nerve intensification of the vagal stimulation of EMA of stomach, urinary bladder, ureters, uteruss, fallopian tubes and deferent duct is realized by means of activation of serotonergic fibrae preganglionares that transmit the activation to 5-NTS,4 serotonin receptors of intramural ganglia that, in their turn, activate 5-NT1,2 serotonin receptors of effector cells.

  10. Human resource management in international organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Treven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the author first presents various approaches to the management and recruitment of employees in subsidiaries that the company has established in different countries. Then, she turns her attention to the basic functions of international human resource management, among them recruitment and selection of new employees, development and training of employees, assessment of work efficiency, as well as remuneration of employees. As the expatriates are often given special attention by their work organizations, she concludes the paper with the description of the additional challanges occurring in the management of these employees.

  11. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.

  12. International organizations and their exercise of sovereign powers

    CERN Document Server

    Sarooshi, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the exercise of sovereign powers by international organizations that include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the European Union in order to answer fundamental questions about the relationship between an international organization and its member states. In their membership of international organizations, states must confer some of their sovereign powers upon those organizations. This book develops a three-tiered typology of conferrals which ranges from agency relationships, to delegations of authority, to full transfers of power. The legal aspects of these conferrals are examined, and their implications for the growing importance of international organizations in international relations are assessed.

  13. Threat of nuclear violence at the non-governmental level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    Safeguarding nuclear weapons from falling into the hands of non-governmental terrorist groups is discussed. Political and technical solutions are seen as necessary before international action can be achieved

  14. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to international...

  15. Governmentality and Relations of Inclusion/Exclusion: Social Intervention Devices Aimed at Immigrant Women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Galaz Valderrama, Caterine Joanna; Trabajo Social Universidad de Chile; Montenegro Martínez, Marisela; Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona

    2016-01-01

    International migration has emerged, in contemporary European societies, as an area of concern for control and governmentality processes, by means of its definition as a “social problem” that must be addressed by public organisms. Different laws, regulations, discourses, plans and intervention processes emerge from the need to manage these populations, generating as main effect the reproduction and solidification of power relations in host societies. Departing from different researches develo...

  16. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  17. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists

  18. 75 FR 7254 - International Whaling Commission; 2010 Intersessional Meetings; Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... recommendations to the U.S. IWC Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations... recommendations to the U.S. IWC Commissioner representing the positions of non-governmental organizations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU28 International...

  19. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  20. International protocol on volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    In August 1991, negotiations between Canada, the USA, and 33 European countries led to an international protocol on reducing the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are responsible for serious ozone pollution problems. This was the third transborder pollution agreement developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Certain aspects of negotiations related to an earlier protocol developed for SO 2 and nitrogen oxide emissions had reappeared during the VOC negotiations, and these aspects are discussed. The VOC protocol proposes three approaches to satisfy basic obligations: reducing VOC emissions of a country by 30%, reducing VOC emissions by 30% in certain regions, and ensuring a freeze in VOC emissions in a country starting on a specified date. The protocol also introduces a new concept, that of zones of tropospheric ozone management. In Canada, plans for management of nitrogen oxides and VOC have been adapted to the ozone problem, and the management plan has been developed by a consultation process involving all sectors of society including industry, environmental groups, and governments. In Canada, it will be sufficient to reduce total VOC emissions by 16% during a first phase and to increase these reductions slightly in the second phase. Special ozone management zones in the Quebec City/Windsor corridor and the Fraser River valley have been established

  1. 76 FR 69188 - Indian Tribal Governmental Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... of an international organization which is exempt from taxation by reason of the International... contributions required under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation by reason of the International Organizations Immunities Act Public Law 79-291 (59 Stat. 669...

  2. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS DISPOSITIVES OF NEOLIBERAL GOVERNMENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article of theoretical reflection investigates the social networks that emerge in the context of Web 2.0, such as Facebook, as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality in the sense proposed by Foucault. From the standpoint of government of self, the design of social networks establishes a competition for attention that tends to favor the neoliberal culture of performance. In terms of social organization, the way in which users intertwine their connections is paralleled by the neoliberal paradigm of spontaneous market order. Furthermore, the use of personal information on these users, encompassing all their activities within the networks, in order to set up databases to attract advertisers reflects the neoliberal tendency of colonization of the different realms of existence by economic forces. However, the tensions that accompany neoliberal governmentality in social networks reveal its limitations, opening the possibility for these networks to also act as instruments of resistance to neoliberalism.

  3. On the certification of forest concession: non-governmental organizations, enterprises, and the construction of a new institutional frame for the development of the lumber industry in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the construction process of forest certification in the Brazilian Amazon, emphasizing its importance for the new frame of lumber industry on that region. We sustain that one of the main results of the promotion of forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC in Amazon was the constitution of an alliance between the environmentalist Non-Governmental Organizations, representative segments of forest business and members of the state bureaucracy for the promotion of lumber exploration based on forest management. In this perspective, the results produced by certification must be understood as part of a process of promotion of forest resources access policies, such as the approval of the Public Forests Management Law, and the creation of state entities destined to the promotion of lumber extraction on Amazon.

  4. 75 FR 59277 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... with other federal, state, and local governmental agencies, academia, and nongovernmental organizations..., community-based organizations, academic institutions, and other federal, national, and international... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part C (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of...

  5. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  6. Governmentality in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    Objectives: Issues of governance in health promotion during the last 3-4 decades has increasingly been seen as characterized by health interventions and campaigns aimed at influencing the citizens to exhibit a certain desired behavior, that is an orientation towards generating self...... is not sufficient to ensure healthy behaviour. Such measures are used in the public as well as the private sector. In this paper we will give a number of examples of this development and a preliminary analysis of the social framework for its emergence. Methods: The paper will present a theoretical discussion...... was conducted as a case oriented search in relevant media and available documents illustrating the tendency towards using coercive measures to promote healthy behaviour. This was followed up through semi-structured interviews with actors from public authorities, organizations and companies with experience...

  7. 76 FR 30174 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... and consultation to domestic and international governmental and non-governmental organizations on... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part C (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of the Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and...

  8. CURRENT FEATURES OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ЯНІКІН, С.В.; ДВНЗ «КНЕУ імені Вадима Гетьмана», кафедра міжнародних фінансів

    2011-01-01

     This article describes a number of ways, which may facilitate the improvement of activities of international financial institutions at the present level of the global financial system development. Particular attention is paid to the problem of international public goods and their delivery by international financial institutions. Further, an approach of financial dedollarisation of IFIs is discussed as one of highly effective mechanisms. In addition, the article raised and examined in detail ...

  9. Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Aponte, W.V.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs, organized in associations, clusters, and cooperatives or as single companies, are dedicated to productive actives; the others are engaged in commercial and services activities. However, next to their po...

  10. Getting to Know Governmental GAAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the history and an overview of how generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are established and by what process the standards are created. School business officials are invited to participate in the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), established as the standard setting body for state and local governments. (MLF)

  11. Major Changes in Governmental GAAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1988-01-01

    The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) is the standard-setting body for establishing generally accepted accounting principles for school systems and all state and local governments. A brief summary of a statement prepared by GASB's staff outlines the proposed changes in school accounting and financial reporting. (MLF)

  12. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  13. Importance of Internal Audit and Internal Control in an organization - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bubilek, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive case study of a company. It presents concepts of the internal audit and internal control based on an example of a Finnish company. The research examines the role and importance that internal audit and internal controls have in an organization. The main research question is “What is the role and importance of internal audit and internal control in an organization” Additional sub-questions relating to the case company that will allow for better understanding of...

  14. Curricula and Organization of Primary Care Residencies in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The organization and curricula of internal medicine residencies programs that emphasize primary care are described and compared with traditional residencies in internal medicine. It is noted that primary care residents spend more time in ambulatory care and are allowed more electives in specialties outside of internal medicine. Out-of-hospital…

  15. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  16. Low sustainability, poor governance, and other challenges encountered by grassroots non-governmental organizations targeting HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in China - a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Yoona; Li, Jinghua; Gu, Jing; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Grassroots non-governmental organizations (NGOs) played pivotal roles in HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Their governance and sustainability issues were under-studied. This nation-wide study surveyed leaders of 202 of the HIV related NGOs in China.58.4% of the leaders believed that their NGO would last for ≤5 years; which was negatively associated with perceived good relationship with CDC. 65.3% mentioned ≥3 non-sustainability issues; associated factors included perceived inadequacies in prevention skills, management skills, policy support, technical support, operational support, and CDC's support; a reverse association was found for frequent collaboration with organizations in China. 30.6% of the leaders mentioned ≥7 governance issues; a stepwise model found a positive association with having no office and negative associations with number of full-time staff and core volunteers. These problems would severely limit the effectiveness of HIV prevention among MSM. Related improvements and support are warranted.

  17. Big Data as Governmentality in International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Statistics have long shaped the field of visibility for the governance of development projects. The introduction of big data has altered the field of visibility. Employing Dean's “analytics of government” framework, we analyze two cases—malaria tracking in Kenya and monitoring of food prices...... in Indonesia. Our analysis shows that big data introduces a bias toward particular types of visualizations. What problems are being made visible through big data depends to some degree on how the underlying data is visualized and who is captured in the visualizations. It is also influenced by technical factors...

  18. Public-private partnerships and responsibility under international law: a global health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between the public and private sectors are an increasingly accepted method to deal with pressing global issues, such as those relating to health. Partnerships, comprised of states and international organizations (public sector) and companies, non-governmental organizations, research

  19. A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations' elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunkwor, Obinna Francis; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; George, Philip Parikial; Arokiasamy, John; Yadav, Hemetram; Barua, Ankur; Shuaibu, Hassana Ojonuba

    2016-01-12

    There is a rapid increase in the population of the elderly globally, and Malaysia is anticipated to become an ageing nation in 2030. Maintaining health, social participation, reducing institutionalization, and improving quality of life of the elderly are public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Quality of life among elderly in Elderly Homes in Malaysia is under researched. This study aims to determine the quality of life and its associated factors among the Elderly in Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur. This was a cross-sectional study among 203 residents aged 60 years or more in eight randomly selected Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur in September 2014. Stratified simple random sampling was used to select participants. Study instruments included World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, and a questionnaire for Socio-demographic variables. Data collection was by face to face interview. Univariate and Multivariate analysis were used to determine associations, and P-value leisure activity, physical activity, duration of residence, type of accommodation, co-morbidities, and social support. This study confirms that multiple factors are associated with quality of life among elderly in elderly homes. Social support, chronic co-morbidities, gender and outdoor leisure activity were significantly associated with all the domains of quality of life. Among the four domains of quality of life, the physical domain had the highest score while the social domain had the lowest score. This emphasizes the need for more social support-related interventions in these homes.

  20. Organizing socially constructed internal and external resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A

    The analysis of economic institutions stands to gain from a consideration of the interactionist theory of institutions, a resource-based view of organizations to develop business and economic perspectives, and a linkage between the two and any theory of economic institutions. A resource-based view

  1. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    V.R. Kuchma; Zh.Yu. Gorelova

    2008-01-01

    The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age ph...

  2. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Ertl-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  3. Setting the research agenda for governmental communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vos

    2006-01-01

    The Research Group for Governmental Communication has carried out a trend study of governmental communication within The Netherlands (1). Research topics were: the major tasks for communication, current issues, profiling the communication department, and policy plans for communication. Another study

  4. The privileges and immunities of international organizations in domestic courts

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    International organizations are increasingly operating across borders and engaging in legal transactions in virtually all jurisdictions. This makes, familiarity with the applicable law and practice imperative for both international organizations and those who engage in legal relations with them. Furthermore, the issue of whether, how, and to what extent domestic courts take into account decisions of foreign and international courts and tribunals in their own decision-making has become increasingly important in recent years. This book provides a comprehensive empirical study of this transnational judicial dialogue, focusing on the law and practice of domestic jurisdictions concerning the legal personality, privileges, and immunities of international organizations. It presents a selection of detailed country-by-country studies, examining the manner of judicial dialogue across domestic jurisdictions, and between national and international courts. The approach taken in this book intersects with three highly topi...

  5. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  6. 28 CFR 0.26 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of International Programs... Deputy Attorney General with officials of foreign governments, foreign non-governmental organizations, and international organizations. (5) As required, advise the Deputy Attorney General on matters...

  7. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. [eds.] [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  8. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, Axel; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  9. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  10. Encouraging Educational Intra-Communications: Governmental Support for Educational Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of governmental support of school-university collaborations, both national and international, is reported. Examples are viewed within the models of J. I. Goodland (1988) and P. C. Schlechty and B. Whitford (1988) and reviewed in terms of the implications for educational intracommunications and development of lifelong learning strategies.…

  11. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (Badulescu Anastase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from general international bodies, reflecting on their business, on differentforeign markets. Knowledge of the international environment is possible only through an analysisof its components (Anastase, I., 2012, p.41.

  12. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 March 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Joint Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (Joint Plan) describes the interagency framework of preparedness for and response to an actual, potential or perceived nuclear or radiological emergency independent of whether it arises from an accident, natural disaster, negligence, nuclear security event or any other cause. The IAEA is the main coordinating body for development and maintenance of the Joint Plan. The Joint Plan is intended to support and underpin the efforts of national governments and seeks to ensure a coordinated and harmonized international response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. It is not intended to interfere with or replace the emergency preparedness and response arrangements of international organizations (or States).

  13. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang

    2014-04-04

    Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new 'learning organization' and using effective internal marketing. A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a 'learning organization', internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses.

  14. Organizational Enablers for Governance and Governmentality of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the organizational enablers for governance in the realm of projects. We first conceptualize organizational enablers as comprising of process facilitators and discursive abilities, each with its own factors and mechanisms. Then we apply this concept to the literature on proje......, and through development of self-responsible, self-organizing people for governmentality in project settings. Questions for future research are indicated....... governance, governance of projects and governmentality. Outcomes indicate that governance is enabled through different forms of flexibility at different levels of governance, institutional setup and authority at the project level, flexible structures and mindsets of people at the organizational level...

  15. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  16. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  17. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana (Badulescu) Anastase; Cornel Grigorut

    2016-01-01

    The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment) brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from ...

  18. Principles of the institutional law of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Amerasinghe-Chittharanjan, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Dr Amerasinghe starts with a brief history of international organizations. In fourteen substantive chapters, he then deals with subjects such as interpretation, membership and representation, the doctrine of "ultra vires", responsibility, liability of members to third parties, internal law and employment relations, privileges and immunities, dispute settlement, and, finally, dissolution and succession. There is a full and detailed examination of the problems connected with each of these subjects. The primary object of the book is to discuss principles, but Dr Amerasinghe also studies the law and practice of different organizations, using a rigourous analysis of the material alongside his functional examination of the law.

  19. Solid organ transplantation: the Italian experience in the international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni Costa, A; De Cillia, C; Di Ciaccio, P; Rizzato, L; Venettoni, S

    2011-01-01

    The Italian experience in the organization of transplantation procedures could represent a relevant example of an internal development at a national level, combined with a strengthening of international collaborations. These results can be attributed first to the creation of the Italian National Transplant Centre (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]), and then to an ongoing European process that is leading to a greater awareness of the importance of closer collaboration between the organizations already existing and operating in the field of transplantation. This article summarizes the role and the most significant achievements of the CNT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  1. 77 FR 60096 - Adding International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Certificate to List of Certificates a Recognized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Efficiency IMO International Maritime Organization MARPOL Protocol International Convention for the... rule. On July 15, 2011, in resolution MEPC.203(62), the International Maritime Organization's (IMO... think that your business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction qualifies as a small entity and...

  2. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  3. Brent Olson - Director, Office of Internal Audit | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    customers. Olson has more than 24 years' experience conducting and overseeing governmental audits at the organizations to assess their internal audit functions' conformance with The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA ) International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing. Prior to joining NREL, Olson's roles

  4. Towards Participation and Equality: The UN's International Labour Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in vocational rehabilitation and employment for people with disabilities is examined. The ILO's recent emphasis on community-based training and employment programs, social reintegration of disabled citizens through self-employment and union-generating activities, and special programs for…

  5. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  6. The organization of the International Electrotechnical Commission and present condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This book contains seven character with the introduction of the IEC, organization of the IEC and functions, proposal of the international standard of IEC, the procedures for the program of work and target dates, certification system of IECEE, IECQ and IECEX scheme, the recent trends of IEC and how to use of publication of the IEC.

  7. 39 CFR 3002.15 - Office of Public Affairs and Governmental Relations. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Public Affairs and Governmental Relations. [Reserved] 3002.15 Section 3002.15 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION §§ 3002.15 Office of Public Affairs and Governmental Relations. [Reserved] ...

  8. How to Brand an International Organization. NATO Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Mihaita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Branding products and companies has always been associated with private enterprises and less, if ever, with international intergovernmental organizations. International organizations now have a long history behind them, a history often marked by contradictory events. In the last decade the international organizations developed their own public relations department in an attempt to communicate promptly and transmit the general audience their version of reality. Having this in mind we will try to briefly present in the current work the main reasons why we believe that the international organizations, NATO in particular, have started to see themselves as brand and to create a so called “commercial identity” by becoming a brand. By applying the conceptual and analytical framework used in analyzing the marketing strategies of the private companies we will try to see whether NATO is about to become a brand. Our starting point will be a 2008 statement of Jean-François Bureau, deputy general secretary responsible with NATO’s public diplomacy: “We have the green light to think about a branding policy for NATO”. Nowadays global society, perceptions tend to become more important than reality itself, and thus positive perceptions tend to become crucial. NATO has suffered an image decline in the last decade, therefore some new communication measures tend to impose themselves. The distinction between soft power and propaganda must be carefully analyzed when we speak about branding NATO. Thus we hope to bring some necessary clarifications in the area of NATO branding. Is there a brand? Is a brand going to be constructed? How does it differ from a commercial society? Does NATO need its own TV channel? Raising questions and offering a new perspective is, in the end, our primary goal, as a debate on this subject is a must that offers a new perspective in the area of theory of international organizations.

  9. Presence in International Organisms: A Policy for a Collective Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What does the presence of Spaniards in international organisations signify and entail? Why, for what, and how should this be promoted? In order to answer such questions, the author analyses the meaning and implications of this presence in a globalised world in which a commitment to effective multilateralism entails a commitment to the international organisms as forums for and actors in global governance, and their presence in our societies and lives. This means both the promoting of Spanish presence in the administrations inwhich the proposals are formed which embody the general interest of the international organisations, like the multilateralisation of Spanish society. For this reason, in the framework of its multilateral policy, Spain is currently developing a policy of promoting the presence of Spaniards in international organisations in the areas of information, training, promotion and incentives, the outlines and results of which are described in this article.

  10. [Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2009-02-01

    Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.

  11. Organizations And Services In The System Of International Aviation Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Travnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the order of creation, structure, aims and objectives of national and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations, governing procedure for flight operations and providing direct air traffic control over sovereign territory and abroad. In this article, author notes that in the world there are three main organizational and legal forms of air traffic control systems to ensure coordination between civil and military air navigation services (agencies. In the Russian Federation, author notes that air navigation services on behalf of the State are made by the State Corporation for Air Traffic Management that has the legal status of the commercial organization - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Author analyzes the work of the Organization for the Civil Air Navigation Services (CANSO, the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers (IFATCA. During the study author also concludes that in the past decade, there is the steady trend of transferring functions of air navigation from the State to commercial organizations (joint stock companies and limited liability companies, which are financed from the funds received as payment for air traffic services. The responsibility for the improper maintenance of international air navigation, of course, is borne by the State. Author notes that regional and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations operate in respect of all aircraft (public, civil, experimental, i.e., perform general air navigation, unlike ICAO, which takes standards and recommended practices, rules and procedures for safety and air traffic services only to civil aircraft, that does not ensure the creation of a regulatory framework for the global unification of aeronautical processes.

  12. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)

  13. Organization of the internal dosimetry in the Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchena, P.; Soliet, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the beginning of the exploitation of the nuclear energy of Espanna, the nuclear facilities have had Services of Personal Dosimetry with the appropriate means to determine the dose. so much internal as external, of the personnel that mentioned facilities works. All the nuclear power stations use advanced systems of teams with object of detecting the radionuclides incorporation in the organism and calculation programs based on the recent recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the determination of the derived doses

  14. New worldwide horizons for the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, C A

    2000-12-01

    This Presidential Address deals with the new challenges and horizons of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) as we are marching towards the 21st century. The importance of Clinical Psychophysiology to humanity is emphasized. The special contribution of the International Journal of Psychophysiology to the future of Psychophysiology as a world forum is underlined. The status of Psychophysiology as a leading neuroscientific discipline is described and the role and major contributions of the late Dr Herbert Jasper as Co-Founding Honorary Fellow of IOP is highlighted.

  15. G20: Engaging with International Organizations to Generate Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Born in response to economic and financial crises which existing institutions were unable to address adequately, the G20 transformed from a crisis management group into the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Like its predecessor, the G7 (which was set up in 1975, and BRICS (established in 2009, G20 is an informal club or summit institution. To ensure continuity, legitimacy and efficiency in fulfilling their global governance functions of deliberation, direction-setting, decision-making, delivery and the development of global governance, the G20 members engage other international organizations. It is hypothesized that to maximize benefits from its engagement with international organizations, the G20 resorts to a combination of the “catalyst”, “core group” and “parallel treatment” approaches exercised by summit institutions. These include exerting an influence in promoting changes to international organizations through endorsement or stimulus, compelling them to reform, imparting a new direction by giving a lead that the other organizations would follow, and creating original mechanisms, working in parallel with existing institutions. The article tests this assumption. To trace the dynamics of G20 engagement with multilateral organizations and identify preferred models across the presidencies and policy areas, the analysis is carried out within the rational choice institutionalist paradigm, drawing on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of documents adopted by the G20. Findings from the study indicate that the intensity of the G20 engagement with the IOs is very high and G20 mostly resorts to a combination of the catalyst and core group approaches, though the pattern depends on the policy area, the IOs and the presidency agenda. The intensity of G20 engagement with the IMF, Financial Stability Board, World Bank, and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development by far exceeds the intensity of its

  16. A leitura nas organizações não governamentais e inter-relações com a escola pública Reading in non-governmental organizations and interrelations with the public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shitara Inglesi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o baixo grau de letramento dos alunos do ensino fundamental e médio no Brasil e, concomitantemente, o crescimento espantoso do número de organizações não governamentais (ONGs trabalhando no campo da educação nas últimas décadas, o presente trabalho procura estabelecer uma ponte entre essas duas faces da educação no Brasil. Nesta investigação, pretendeu-se compreender a dinâmica e a influência das ONGs brasileiras, mais especificamente no campo da leitura, tendo em vista o desenvolvimento do letramento. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, com características etnográficas, baseado, sobretudo, em observações feitas em campo das atividades de uma organização, as quais foram analisadas a partir das concepções de leitura propostas pelos teóricos da psicolinguística (SMITH, 1999, 2003 e da estética da recepção (JAUSS, 1994,2002. Com isso, procurou-se contribuir com os estudos sobre leitura e, principalmente, avançar nessas novas possibilidades educativas que hoje nos são apresentadas pela sociedade civil e que impulsionaram a busca por soluções alternativas para um problema que vem afligindo os educadores há décadas no Brasil. Assim, considera-se que, por meio da troca de ideias e experiências e da implementação de projetos envolvendo leitura, as instituições educacionais não governamentais podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma escola pública de qualidade, sem, no entanto, substituí-la, deixando para o governo a responsabilidade que lhe cabe.Considering the low level of literacy of pupils in fundamental and secondary education in Brazil and, at the same time, the astounding growth in the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs working in the field of education during the last decades, the present work attempts to throw a bridge across those two sides of Brazilian education. The investigation has tried to understand the dynamics and influence of Brazilian NGOs, more

  17. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  18. Self-organized internal architectures of chiral micro-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Clementina; Mazzulla, Alfredo; Desiderio, Giovanni; Pagliusi, Pasquale; De Santo, Maria P.; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Perrotta, Ida

    2014-01-01

    The internal architecture of polymeric self-assembled chiral micro-particles is studied by exploring the effect of the chirality, of the particle sizes, and of the interface/surface properties in the ordering of the helicoidal planes. The experimental investigations, performed by means of different microscopy techniques, show that the polymeric beads, resulting from light induced polymerization of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets, preserve both the spherical shape and the internal self-organized structures. The method used to create the micro-particles with controlled internal chiral architectures presents great flexibility providing several advantages connected to the acquired optical and photonics capabilities and allowing to envisage novel strategies for the development of chiral colloidal systems and materials

  19. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  20. Legislative/regulatory drivers the international maritime organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    I am pleased and honored to be here representing the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which is the cosponsor of this R ampersand D Forum with the Coast Guard. This is truly an international Forum - and it needs to be. I should like to turn now to the subject of IMO and, for the benefit of many here who do not know the Organization, describe very briefly what IMO is and what it does. IMO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with shipping matters. The Organization has 136 member-states and its headquarters is located in London on the bank of the Thames River. It has a permanent secretariat numbering about 300 international civil servants, headed by the Secretary-General. IMO is a technical organization, and it conducts its work through committees of the whole, with the help of standing subcommittees, working groups, and other groups or bodies formed as the need arises. We have with us today a representative of MED in the person of Commander David Pascoe, whom the U.S. Coast Guard has seconded to IMO for a two-year tour of duty. The purposes of IMO are, in short, to improve safety at sea and to prevent pollution from ships; i.e., IMO continuously strives for safer ships and cleaner oceans. IMO also promotes technical cooperation and assistance, particularly among developing countries, to help satisfy these purposes globally. The work product of IMO includes more than 30 multilateral treaties and 600 codes and sets of recommendations on maritime safety, marine environment protection, and other legal and technical issues involving worldwide shipping

  1. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  2. Governmentality and the Politics of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallentin, Steen; Murillo, David

    2012-01-01

    In this article we argue that an analytics of governmentality has an important contribution to make to the study of governmental approaches to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Looking at developments within the EU, we see government emerging as an enabling and empowering facilitator that a...... of power and governing that are prevalent in governmental approaches to CSR in general and in neoliberal modes of CSR governance in particular. Using EU and member states policy developments as an empirical backdrop, we provide a conceptual exploration of the prospects of applying governmentality...... to the study of the changing roles of government in CSR. We position our contribution within the critical literature on CSR as a political phenomenon....

  3. International Consultation on Peace Education and Research in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in Europe, 1986

    1986-01-01

    A January 1986 UNESCO international conference on the role of higher education in promoting international understanding, cooperation, peace, and respect for human rights focused on the nuclear threat and conventional warfare, the role of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, research and education for peace, and…

  4. The Role of Local Governmental Funding in Nonprofit Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Besel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.

  5. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Ingham, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller–Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics. (paper)

  6. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  7. 26 CFR 1.893-1 - Compensation of employees of foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thereunder. (c) Tax conventions, consular conventions, and international agreements—(1) Exemption dependent... government or international organization to its employees is exempt from Federal income tax, and the... or international organizations. 1.893-1 Section 1.893-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  8. International language management and diversity climate in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related to internatio......Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related...... to internationalization is how to develop and support an environment that is tolerant of the diversity which exists in multicultural organizations. Based on questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic multicultural departments, we examined the relation between the management of a common language and a positive...... diversity climate. Results showed that consistency in English management communication had strong positive relationships with all of the four investigated diversity climate variables; openness to linguistic, visible, value, and informational diversity. English communication consistency had a positive...

  9. 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Francisco; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan; 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations: Service and Cloud Computing

    2013-01-01

    The seventh International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO) brings together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on knowledge management in organisations.   KMO 2012 provides an international forum for authors to present and discuss research focused on the role of knowledge management for innovative services in industries, to shed light on recent advances in cloud computing for KM as well as to identify future directions for researching the role of knowledge management in service innovation and how cloud computing can be used to address many of the issues currently facing KM in academia and industrial sectors. The conference took place at Salamanca in Spain on the 11th-13th July in 2012.

  10. Governmental management of chemical risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: risk management in the government context; legal and regulatory decrees and directives for managing chemical risk; incentive-based approaches for regulating risk; risk management in the federal system; and traditional approaches and new initiatives for managing chemical risk

  11. Immunities of International Organizations before Domestic Courts : Reflections on the Collective Labour Case against the European Patent Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands is home to a substantial number of international organizations, which on the basis of international agreements are entitled to immunity from jurisdiction and enforcement before Dutch courts. This immunity grant has not stopped claimants from suing international organizations in The

  12. Direct optical imaging of nanoscale internal organization of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, Swathi; Varma, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Owing to its sensitivity and precise control at the nanoscale, polyelectrolytes have been immensely used to modify surfaces. Polyelectrolyte multilayers are generally water made and are easy to fabricate on any surface by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly process due to electrostatic interactions. Polyelectrolyte multilayers or PEMs can be assembled to form ultrathin membranes which can have potential applications in water filtration and desalination [1-3]. Hydration in PEMs is a consequence of both the bulk and surface phenomenon [4-7]. Bulk behavior of polymer membranes are well understood. Several techniques including reflectivity and contact angle measurements were used to measure the hydration in the bulk of polymer membranes [4, 8]. On the other hand their internal organization at the molecular level which can have a profound contribution in the transport mechanism, are not understood well. Previously, we engineered a technique, which we refer to as Bright-field Nanoscopy, which allows nanoscale optical imaging using local heterogeneities in a water-soluble germanium (Ge) thin film ( 25 nm thick) deposited on gold [8]. We use this technique to study the water transport in PEMs. It is understood that the surface charge and outer layers of the PEMs play a significant role in water transport through polymers [9-11]. This well-known `odd-even' effect arising on having different surface termination of the PEMs was optically observed with a spatial resolution unlike any other reported previously [12]. In this communication, we report that on increasing the etchant's concentration, one can control the lateral etching of the Ge film. This allowed the visualization of the nanoscale internal organization in the PEMs. Knowledge of the internal structure would allow one to engineer polymer membranes specific to applications such as drug delivering capsules, ion transport membranes and barriers etc. We also demonstrate a mathematical model involving a surface

  13. Algorithmic Finance and (Limits to) Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -frequency trading, such as how algorithms are designed to govern other market participants' anticipations of market dynamics. However, I also argue that, to fully understand the realm of algorithmic finance and high-frequency trading, it is important to supplement a governmentality approach with an analytical......In this essay I discuss algorithmic finance, specifically the use of fully automated trading, including high-frequency trading, in the light of Michel Foucault's notion of governmentality. I argue that a governmentality perspective offers a fruitful way of understanding particular aspects of high...... lexicon which is not primarily centred on productive forms of power. Specifically, I suggest that, according to media discourses on high-frequency trading, algorithmic finance often works in ways that are better grasped through, e.g. Elias Canetti's work on predatory power and Roger Caillois's work...

  14. Algorithmic Finance and (Limits to) Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this essay I discuss algorithmic finance, specifically the use of fully automated trading, including high-frequency trading, in the light of Michel Foucault's notion of governmentality. I argue that a governmentality perspective offers a fruitful way of understanding particular aspects of high......-frequency trading, such as how algorithms are designed to govern other market participants' anticipations of market dynamics. However, I also argue that, to fully understand the realm of algorithmic finance and high-frequency trading, it is important to supplement a governmentality approach with an analytical...... lexicon which is not primarily centred on productive forms of power. Specifically, I suggest that, according to media discourses on high-frequency trading, algorithmic finance often works in ways that are better grasped through, e.g. Elias Canetti's work on predatory power and Roger Caillois's work...

  15. A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New perspectives on discourse and governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul; Klausen, Julia Zhukova; Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2016-01-01

    in English (and French). We review the narrow impact that Foucault’s ideas have had on discourse studies and summarise the scant literature on discourse and governmentality across different disciplines. Then, we elucidate the new scholarly understandings of Foucault’s later work, as well as engage...

  17. But for vagaries of Governmental regulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    very supportive all along and encouraged me to take up research. But for the vagaries of governmental regulations, I might not have been part of the mathematics community! When I got the INRIA Scholarship to do my thesis in. Paris, France my parents although a bit hesitant initially, allowed me to go abroad in spite of the ...

  18. 76 FR 69172 - Determination of Governmental Plan Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation by reason of the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669). See section 414(d)(2) of the Code... under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation by reason of...

  19. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  20. The Development Trend of the Non-governmental Higher Education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dewen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In more than 30 years after China’s reform and opening to the outside world the non-governmental higher education has developed dramatically and enjoyed more and more favorable conditions, making great contributions to the popularization of higher education in China. According to the definition that “The non-governmental higher education is a major growth point for development of educational career and an important driving force in promoting educational reform”, quoting from The planning outline on the national medium and long-term educational reform and development (The Planning Outline for short issued in 2010 by China’s State Council, China has launched policies of greatly supporting the non-governmental higher education and designed the reform goals of the government as the main body of education, with the active participation of the whole society, and the mutual development of the governmental and non-governmental higher education. Soon afterwards, the nation has started the move of the non-governmental educational system, and positively explored the management of classification of profit and non-profit non-governmental educational institutions. Thus, the development of the Chinese non-governmental institutions of higher learning has been greatly influenced because of the policies and relevant practices. With the opening of the 18th national congress and the political direction mentioned in the report as “encouraging and guiding social organizations to initiate education”, the pace of development of the non-governmental institutions of higher learning will be accelerated and some new development trends will become clearer.

  1. International NGOs and their contribution to overcoming poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Hrachevska

    2014-04-01

    The article also characterizes existing strategies of combating poverty. It is argued that international non­governmental organizations, limited in their financial resources, cant be widely involved in them. Main challenges, facing international NGO in addressing problems of poverty, are also outlined.

  2. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  3. Development of international organizations in the context of evolution of global political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Kaverin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses general regularities of development of international organizations. Dynamics of international organizations is described with the equation of biological populations’ growth and is related to the evolution of international multilateral law and world development parameters. As the result of the research, the evolution of global political system is represented with the system of international governance based on the multilateral mechanisms and the model of social structures’ types. The transformations in the system of international organizations partially confirm the hypothesis of emerging World-organism.

  4. 26 CFR 1.892-6T - Income of international organizations (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-6T Income of international organizations (temporary regulations). (a) Exempt from tax. Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of international organizations (temporary...

  5. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Chronic Pain in Internal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic medicine seems to be efficient in the treatment of chronic pain in internal organs, especially when the pain has no known cause. It is quite surprising that while chronic pain can be one of the toughest challenges in the biomedical clinic, it is often one of the simplest things to alleviate in the holistic clinic. These pains are regarded as being caused by repressed emotions and are explained as psychosomatic reactions. Using holistic medicine, the patients can often be cured of their suffering when they assume responsibility for the repressed feelings. The holistic process theory of healing states that the return to the natural (pain free state of being is possible whenever the person obtains the resources needed for existential healing. This shift is explained by the related quality of life and life mission theories. The resources needed are “holding” or genuine care in the dimensions of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment, and acceptance with support and processing in the dimensions of feeling, understanding, and letting go of negative attitudes and beliefs. The preconditions for the holistic healing to take place are “love” and trust. Obtaining the full trust of the patient, therefore, seems to be the biggest challenge of holistic medicine, especially when dealing with a patient in pain.

  6. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaja, Iacopo; Gambarotta, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  7. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  9. Culture and Internal Security of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    subsistence farming , and only 17 percent (4.5 million) of the total population reside in urban areas.2 Per capita Gross Domestic Product is 562 United...people. The influx of hundreds of international non- governmental organizations and the mushrooming of media houses did a lot to create awareness in

  10. International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Washington, DC 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universitie...

  11. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The directory lists and describes governmental and voluntary agencies, research, and other resources in the field of mental retardation in foreign countries. The first section, on international organizations, gives names, addresses, names of directors, and one or more paragraphs of description for the United Nations and its specialized agencies,…

  12. Black Orpheus, Barack Obama’s Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Pease

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay constitutes a preliminary effort to explain the state fantasy with which Barack Obama hegemonized an alternative to the biopolitical settlement normalizing George W. Bush’s Global War on Terror (Pease 2009. In what follows, I intend to argue that Obama has not utterly displaced Bush’s Homeland State of Exception but that Obama’s governmentality presupposes it as the structuring logic through which he transformed the US state’s relationship with domestic and planetary peoples. I will be interested in particular in the role that Obama’s complex negotiation with the congeries of racial fantasies that he found condensed in the figure and the film Black Orpheus played in Barack Obama’s governmentality.

  13. Typology of the governmental services: terminological polemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Botvinov

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of the text of the Law of Ukraine “On Public Service” the following conclusion can be done that the statutory regulation of the governmental services of Ukraine is substantially insufficient, especially with regard to the fulfillment of governmental functions towards constitutional items. Most of all, this includes the maintenance of the State’s security. According to the author’s opinion, the Law of Ukraine “On Public Service” shall be amended by the chapter “On specialized government service”, which must rule the issues of legal, social and administrative status of the officials of the executive authorities, whose official activities have specific nature. Besides, it is necessary to perform the legal confirmation of the development of the law enforcement service.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. Prepared for the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security and Science and on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 99th Congress, 1st session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    To provide a handy reference for those concerned with ways to avoid the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs have since 1977 sponsored periodic publication of the Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. This fourth edition of the factbook includes a…

  15. International Organizations Involved in Cancer Radiotherapy. Chapter 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, A.; Valentini, V.; Jimenez, P.; Luciani, S.; Gospodarowicz, M.

    2017-01-01

    American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO): The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) was founded in 1958 with the goal of providing a unified voice for the emerging discipline of radiation oncology. Until the 1990s, its focus was primarily academic, organizing an annual scientific and educational meeting and providing research awards and recognition. In the 1990s, however, the important role of advocacy on behalf of the specialty in Washington, DC, became increasingly clear. As in the case of most other major specialty societies in the United States of America, this is now a major thrust of ASTRO’s activities, focusing on such issues as regulation, reimbursement and safety. Along with this, the educational and research components have continued to expand. The research mission has been strengthened by the formation of the Radiation Oncology Institute, which is funded by members and vendors and which finances studies of critical importance to the specialty. The annual meeting is now a major international event and has become the biggest radiation oncology meeting in the world, with over 12 000 attendees and 2000 presentations. Fifty per cent of the presentations now come from countries outside the USA. In addition, ASTRO leads or cosponsors nine other, smaller annual or biennial meetings, with the number of attendees ranging from 300 to 2000. These include: the multidisciplinary symposia on genitourinary, gastrointestinal and breast cancers sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology; a cancer imaging meeting with the Radiological Society of North America; head and neck and thoracic meetings; and intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy practicals with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO): ESTRO has recently articulated a primary vision that will shape and influence the direction of the society’s activities in the coming years. Thus

  16. 26 CFR 1.1441-8 - Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for International Settlements. 1.1441-8 Section 1.1441-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens...

  17. 75 FR 32977 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... Permit Opening Transactions by Market Makers To Accommodate Closing Transactions of Other Market... International Securities Exchange, LLC (``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  18. Meta-Strategies of the Internal Control Development within the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Voronko

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the influence of external and internal environment of the organization on the structure of the internal control system. A critical analysis is made on existing scientific researches and practice of setting internal control within the organizations. Determined the cause-and-effect relationship between the stages of development of the industry and business, on the one hand, and the development of the internal control structure on the other hand. It made it p...

  19. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  20. Page | 1 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Non-Governmental Organisations, United Nations, social change,. 1. ... networks offer citizens groups unprecedented channels of influence.”3 It is ..... phenomenon of two poles of Bio-power, namely, discipline and governmentality.

  1. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  2. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  3. The Prospects of Membership in International Organizations: The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Emini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspective of Kosovo and its membership in international organizations. There are three pillars upon which the analysis of the paper is built. Initially the general question of theoretical frameworks in general the organizations which focus on the elaboration of the very concept of statehood and state-building in general and specifically on Kosovo. The final section deals with a range of behaviors and initiatives of countries in general and the challenges for membership in international organizations. With the aim of contextualizing the subject, the paper focuses on the case of Kosovo state and membership in international organizations with a view to strengthening the international subjectivity and security in the international arena. Finally, the paper concludes that the importance of the accession countries, namely Kosovo's membership in international organizations, and the use of multilateral diplomacy are vital to their safety and welfare.

  4. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  5. On community as a governmental technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reinstatement of community as a historical practice and governmental technology in contemporary political discourses of European Union (EU), and more specifically in the context of higher education including the education and training of teachers...... in the Nordic countries. Our focus is not educational policy as a base for ways of thinking about and organising education in Europe, but as a base for ways of thinking about and constructing Europe as a community (Nóvoa, 2004; Larner & Walters, 2004). To do this we use a genealogical method inspired by Michael...

  6. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  7. Toronto 2001 Inter-governmental Declaration on Clean Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This formal declaration commits the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, the provincial government of Ontario, and the federal government in Ottawa to undertake certain specific actions to improve air quality in their respective areas of jurisdiction, recognizing the validity of claims made by experts in numerous studies, linking air pollution to premature deaths, illnesses and hospitalization in major Canadian cities. The declaration also recognizes the validity of scientific claims as to the relationship between solar radiation, ambient heat, ground level ozone and global climate change, and the role played in air pollution by fossil fuel combustion. The Declaration calls for cooperation of all governments operating in the Greater Toronto Area to take inter-governmental actions to improve air quality by following up on key issues identified at annual Summits and by supporting the planning of future Summits, by working together with the Toronto Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games to ensure that the 2008 Olympic Games will contribute to a legacy of clean air for the Toronto region, and by implementing a social marketing campaign to help householders reduce both home energy use and vehicle kilometres travelled by 20 per cent. Beyond these inter-governmental commitments, special commitments of individual municipalities, and the provincial and federal governments also form part of the Declaration

  8. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles

  9. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  10. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,575; TA-W-74,575D] International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business Manager Roles; One Teleworker Located in Charleston, WV; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

  11. 77 FR 34436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Temporarily... International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Clearing and Outsourcing Solutions, Inc. (``Apex Clearing'') as an ISE member organization, subject to Apex...

  12. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the inter-agency framework for preparedness for and response to a radiation5 incident or emergency irrespective of its cause. In particular, its objectives are: 1. To provide a common understanding of the emergency preparedness and response roles and responsibilities, objectives, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any relevant inter-agency arrangements; 2. To provide an overall concept of operations between the international organizations based on the emergency response objectives, responsibilities, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any existing inter-agency arrangements, in order to facilitate a timely, effective and co-ordinated response; 3. To facilitate development of agreements among the participating international organizations on practical issues, if appropriate; 4. To provide a common understanding of the process for improving and changing the inter-agency response arrangements; 5. To provide a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of the participating international organizations with respect to: international standards, supporting national capabilities through provision of guidance and training, relevant research, emergency exercises and other preparedness considerations; 6. To guide the managers in each participating organization who need to ensure that all appropriate arrangements are given the necessary support within their organization; 7. To facilitate the well founded development, maintenance and training of plans and procedures for each organization; 8. To draw the attention of personnel in States and international organizations6 to these arrangements and to facilitate the development of compatible arrangements, if appropriate. The Joint Plan describes the arrangements of the participating international organizations7 for responding to a radiation incident or emergency

  13. Internal marketing within a health care organization: developing an implementation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallums, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.

  14. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.; Radiologie-Trainer. Koerperstamm, innere Organe und Gefaesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, Axel [Orthopaedische Klinik Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Praxis; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit (eds.) [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-11-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  15. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  16. Studying the government of global climate change at the intersection of governmentality and proto-governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    nor global and, moreover, views those sites as negotiated in various, contingent and continuously accomplished longer and shorter connections (cf. e.g. Kendall, 2004). Considering this, the paper suggests an approach for studying the accomplishment of governmental rationalities of global citizenship...

  17. World health organization perspective on implementation of International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Maxwell Charles

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

  18. International nuclear energy organizations; Internationale Organisationen auf dem Gebiet der Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    The publication on International nuclear energy organizations describes the scope of work of the following organizations: IAEA, EURATOM, OECD-NEA, ENSREG, WANO, INSCEAR and ICRO. The issues covered by the organizations include nuclear electricity generation, radiation protection, nuclear safeguards, nuclear liability, public information, reactor safety, radioactive waste management, non-proliferation, marketing, safety technology, utility requirements, effects of nuclear radiation.

  19. A conceptual model for assessing the internal environment of a healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubonteng, P

    1997-01-01

    By understanding the opportunities and threats in the external environment and relating them to the organization's internal strengths and weaknesses, strategic managers can determine the distinctive competence of the organization. Distinctive competence refers to the strengths that will give an organization a competitive advantage.

  20. Organization of international practical training of students at the tourism university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirogova O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with organization of international practical training of students at the tourism university, provides a brief analysis of researchers on students’ practical training, makes the case for international practical training of students, gives classification of international practical training, shows advantages and disadvantages of students’ practical training abroad and the benefits of tourism university graduates as well who has experience in international practical training.

  1. 34 CFR 660.1 - What is the International Research and Studies Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the HEA by governmental, educational, and private-sector organizations and other studies assessing the... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the International Research and Studies Program...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM...

  2. Stories becoming sticky : how civic initiatives strive for connection to governmental spatial planning agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoep, van der H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to understand the phenomenon of self-organizing civic initiatives, how they engage in and connect to planning practices aimed at the improvement of the quality of places and why these connections lead to alteration or transformation of governmental planning agendas or

  3. 27 CFR 479.104 - Registration of firearms by certain governmental entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 479.104 Registration of firearms by certain governmental entities. Any State, any political subdivision thereof, or any official police organization of such a government entity engaged in criminal.... This section shall not apply to a firearm merely being held for use as evidence in a criminal...

  4. The international RESPO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  5. The Role Of Soft Law Acts In The Mechanism Of Functioning Of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shpakovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present article focuses on the norms of soft law in the framework of international organizations. Today majority of scientists become an interesting phenomenon decision of international organizations which are increasingly sound as a category of "soft law" and its influence on the development of international law in general. International organizations cease to be the "second" subject of international law, and if you have not won the first place, it is only a matter of time. In the article the role of soft law in the mechanism of international organizations functioning are shown, the legal nature and impact of these acts on the member states. In our opinion, norms of "soft law", as a rule, contained in resolutions of international organizations are non-binding and do not formally bind member states. Norms of "soft law" are often adheres by the states and moreover are implemented into the national legal systems by incorporating similar in content standards into the national legislation. This is due to the fact that norms of "soft law" has a weight of moral and political significance and, as a rule, are created by organizations that have a considerable authority. Jurists generally distinguish two kinds of acts of recommendatory force: model acts (laws and recommended acts which are not model, adopted in the framework of international organizations. In this connection the question of each mentioned method influence on the legislation of state. In our opinion, one of distinguishing features of the model recommendatory acts has is quite limited influence on the law of states and a narrow scope. At the same time, recommendatory acts of some specialized international organizations have a more complex effect on the development of national legislation, contain the highest level of standards, and as well develop international treaty provisions.

  6. Organic farming in the Peruvian Andes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Role of smallholders in organic agriculture (annex 44 of final technical report). Download PDF. Reports. Anti-sprouting, anti-microbial and insecticidal properties of plants from Cusco region of Peru to benefit potato tuber storage (annex 34 of final technical report). Download PDF. Reports. Food security radio programme ...

  7. International agri-food chains and networks. Management and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    This book brings together a rich collection of papers on management and organization in agri-food chains and networks. Producers, processors, traders and retailers of agricultural and food products operate in an economic and institutional environment that is increasingly dominated by global

  8. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Nordea is the first major international bank planning to operate important host country activities in branches as the Second European banking directive envisions rather than as subsidiaries. Nordea is the result of mergers of roughly equal-size universal banks in four Nordic countries...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  9. La cooperación no gubernamental española en Marruecos y la construcción de la “islamofobia” en las Relaciones Internacionales | Spanish non-governmental cooperation in Morocco and the construction of “Islamophobia” in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin ADLBI SIBAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo redefine el concepto de “islamofobia” desde el marco teórico “decolonial” con el objeto de analizar cómo se produce la construcción de la misma en las Relaciones Internacionales. El estudio de caso que aborda este trabajo es el de los discursos de los técnicos de la cooperación no gubernamental española en Marruecos. Las dos hipótesis que muestra este estudio son, en primer lugar, que la “islamofobia” es generizada en tres sentidos: quién la produce, cómo se produce y sobre quién incide en mayor grado. En segundo lugar, que la “islamofobia” en las relaciones internacionales o en un nivel macro-político, pasa necesariamente por su construcción en el nivel micro-político y discursivo, en la construcción de las subjetividades de los individuos. This paper redefines the concept of Islamophobia from a decolonial perspective. The objective of this research is to analyze how islamophobia is built within international relations. The case study in this paper looks at the discourse of the technical Spanish non-governmental cooperation in Morocco. The two hypotheses resulting from this study are, primarily, that Islamophobia is produced in three ways: who produces it, how it occurs and who affects it to a major extent. Secondly, that Islamophobia in international relations or at a macro-political level, will necessarily be built in the micro-political and within the discursive construction of individual subjectivities.

  10. Legal aspects of radiation protection at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazian, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review is made of the respective activities of the various international organizations concerned with radiation protection at the legal level. These organizations are either non-governmental (I.C.R.P., I.C.R.U.) or governmental in which case they can act at the world (U.N., I.A.E.A., I.L.O., W.H.O.) or regional level (N.E.A., EURATOM, COMECOM). The legal impact of the recommendations or directives they issue is specified [fr

  11. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  12. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  13. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  14. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  15. The politics of inter-regionalism: relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  16. Stress and turnover intent in international organizations: social support and work life balance as resources

    OpenAIRE

    Giauque, David; Anderfuhren-Biget, Simon; Varone, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether work opportunities have an impact on stress and the related turnover intentions of employees working in intergovernmental international organizations. It contextualizes the job resources and demands model within international organizations’ specific work conditions. The empirical test is based on original data from a survey administered in four major organizations of the United Nations system. Results demonstrate that social work opportunities and work-life bal...

  17. Hungarian experience in the role of a Technical Support Organization - Expert support and R and D activities in nuclear safeguards and forensics, participation in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeles, E.; Kovacs, A.; Biro, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Isotopes (IoI) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has been - since the mid-fifties - engaged not only in basic and applied research related to the use of radioisotopes in Hungary but also in the production, trade and safety of radioisotopes supported by the central accountancy at national level. Based on its experience and capabilities the technical tasks of nuclear safeguards and forensics have been delegated to the Institute by governmental decrees. Thus the Institute is one of the Technical Support Organizations of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) providing expert support in the areas mentioned above and maintaining the central isotope registry. An Agreement between HAEA and IoI specifies both routine and R and D activities supporting authority functions. These include the development and application of both non-destructive (i.e. gamma spectrometry, neutron-coincidence counting and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and destructive (i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical methods to satisfy domestic needs as well as to explore novel methods both for safeguards and nuclear forensics purposes. Methods have been developed to identify and quantify nuclear material in fresh and spent fuel assemblies and to characterize seized or found nuclear material of unknown origin and also environmental samples. The validation of these measurement methods have been performed in inter-laboratory comparisons organized by the Joint Research Centers of the European Union and by other international organizations such as IAEA and the International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling (ITWG). The presentation describes TSO activities both at domestic level and in potential international cooperation initiatives. The need of regional cooperation is emphasized discussing advantages and difficulties. (author)

  18. Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

    1988-01-01

    Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

  19. FINANCIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC DEBT’S PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA MAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of public debt is a process strictly connected with and dependent on fiscal and budget policy as well as on monetary policy. Under such circumstances the analysis of governmental public debt’s portfolio is carried out by taking into consideration both the internal macroeconomic evolutions and estimations (economic growth, inflation, budget incomes and the level of budget deficit, monetary conditions and structural reforms –pensions’ reform, the efficiency of capital internal market, and the evolution of world-wide economy influencing Romania’s loan terms on international financial markets. An important component of the management of governmental public debt is the management of the risks connected to debt’s portfolio that involves activities of identification, evaluation, and insurance against various categories of risk.

  20. 75 FR 66410 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Sales Value Fee October 22, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that, on October 14, 2010, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  1. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  2. 76 FR 47627 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Two Market Data Feeds August 1, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... on August 1, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed...

  3. 76 FR 51075 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Approval to a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Appointments to Competitive Market Makers August 11, 2011. I. Introduction On June 10, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities...

  4. 77 FR 37722 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Eliminate the Rules and Fees Related to the Second Market June 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 6, 2012, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange...

  5. 78 FR 24271 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Market Maker Plus Rebate Program April 18, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... hereby given that on April 10, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the...

  6. 77 FR 1757 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options January 5, 2012...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...

  7. 78 FR 17988 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Market Maker Quoting Requirements March 19, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... given that on March 5, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  8. 75 FR 62900 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on October 4, 2010, International Securities...

  9. 78 FR 45580 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Amend Certain Market Maker Fees July 23, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... hereby given that on July 11, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the...

  10. 76 FR 32382 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Second Market Fees May 27, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities..., 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the...

  11. 77 FR 31680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Qualification Standards for Market Makers To Receive a Rebate May 22, 2012...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 15, 2012, the International Securities Exchange...

  12. 76 FR 56832 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a New Market Data Feed September 8, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... on August 31, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  13. 77 FR 37944 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Allow Competitive Market Makers To Use Their Membership Points To Enter Multiple Quotes in an Options Class June 19... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 6, 2012, the International Securities...

  14. 76 FR 1488 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 28, 2010, the International...

  15. 76 FR 37863 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Appointments to Competitive Market Makers June 22, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... that on June 10, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE...

  16. 75 FR 2913 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 31, 2009, the International...

  17. 75 FR 42812 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Market Maker Incentive Plan for Foreign Currency Options July 15, 2010..., \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' or...

  18. 76 FR 64417 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Competitive Market Maker Trading Rights October 12, 2011. Pursuant to Section...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 3, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the...

  19. 75 FR 2915 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61317; File No. SR-ISE-2009-103] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market Data Fees January 8, 2010. I. Introduction On November 25, 2009, the International...

  20. 76 FR 64980 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65548; File No. SR-ISE-2011-39] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Orders October 13, 2011. I. Introduction On July 1, 2011, the International Securities Exchange...

  1. 77 FR 4852 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66234; File No. SR-ISE-2011-82] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Legging Orders January 25, 2012. I. Introduction On November 29, 2011, the International Securities...

  2. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  3. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  4. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  5. Laboratory Calibration Studies in Support of ORGANICS on the International Space Station: Evolution of Organic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiterkamp, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Halasinski, T.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Schmidt, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific overview and current status of ORGANICS an exposure experiment performed on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the evolution of organic matter in space (PI: P. Ehrenfreund), with supporting laboratory experiments performed at NASA Ames. ORGANICS investigates the chemical evolution of samples submitted to long-duration exposure to space environment in near-Earth orbit. This experiment will provide information on the nature, evolution, and survival of carbon species in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in solar system targets.

  6. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  7. The First World War and the Discussions on Establishing the Universal International Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Khodnev Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907) were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mecha...

  8. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.

  9. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services.

  10. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Agriculture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  11. Code on the safety of nuclear power plants: Governmental organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code recommends requirements for a regulatory body responsible for regulating the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for safety. It forms part of the Agency's programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to land based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  12. Non-governmental organizations and agricultural development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes the potential collaboration between agricultural research and NGOs in the dissemination of agricultural technologies at the Kenyan coast. An inventory of NGOs working in the region was established, and 11 out of 25 were found to be active in agricultural development. These 11 NGOs were visited and ...

  13. Impact of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) on Rural Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence, depth and severity of poverty of rural people and influencing rural poverty were investigated in the Southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure was used to collect data from 200 clients and 200 non-clients of NGOs in the study area. Linear multiple regression was used to ...

  14. Governmentality, Counter-conduct and Prefigurative Demonstrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest demonstra......This chapter attends to the micro-ethnographic detail of actual practices, procedures and technologies – the techne – of governance, especially those practices that manifest as what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’. The interactional and categorial practices of a prefigurative protest...... demonstration are examined using video recordings that were made of a theatrical protest event called “United Nathans weapons inspections” in February 2003. The chapter draws upon Mitchell Dean’s analytics of government and Carl Death’s analytics of protest. A first step in an analytics of protest is to uncover...... how fields of visibility, forms of knowledge, technologies and apparatuses, and subjectivities and identities are negotiated and accomplished collaboratively. Specific tools and methods that are well suited to investigating the situated practices, procedures and technologies of governmentality...

  15. Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, Reina A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called 'isodoses' as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named 'cloud') that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae

  16. The role of governmental authorities in the surveillance activities for quality assurance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsky, J.; Hrdlicka, Z.; Beranek, J.; Becvar, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with the legal and organizational aspects as well as with the principles and procedures of the quality assurance (QA) system for particular equipment of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia, and the role of governmental authorities in surveillance activities. The basic governmental document is the Decree No.5 (1979) of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CzAEC) on the QA of particular equipment in nuclear power plants with regard to nuclear safety. It is divided into ten sections: opening provisions; classification of the particular equipment; QA programmes; procedures of final elaboration of QA programme documentation; QA principles; QA during design; QA during manufacture, procurement, installation and commissioning; in-service inspection; QA during repair and modifications; and concluding provisions. Governmental surveillance is based on Governmental Resolution No.195 (1977). According to this resolution, inspection must be carried out by an organization which is independent of the manufacturing and operating organizations. This inspection is performed by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (for nuclear safety) and by the Czech Safety Work Office and the Slovak Safety Work Office (for technical safety), together with subordinated regional divisions. The activities of these authorities are discussed. (author)

  17. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  18. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  19. Internal emergency organization in the Beznau nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The successful mastering of every emergency situation is based on the strict adherence to frequently reviewed emergency instruction and practice on simulators. This is the primary duty of all plant employees. In addition, executive bodies are necessary. The highest authority in the emergency organization is the emergency staff. Under the leadership of the plant manager, this staff consists of all department heads and several specialists. Outside normal working hours, it can be expected of the emergency staff that it is fully functional within, at most, one hour. Until the emergency staff can take over, the on-duty engineer leads emergency procedures. Several other different teams are responsible to the emergency staff. There are five emergency teams: off-duty plant employees; fire fighters; radiation defence; first-aid; plant guards. Then there is the technical support center (TSC). The responsibilities of the TSC are: giving technical advise to the emergency staff; working out different options for fighting the emergency; checking up on special methods; communication with the reactor manufacturer for additional support. 1 fig

  20. 15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, and international inspections under the Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.11... Bureau of Industry and Security. (b) Governments—(1) Scope. The provisions of paragraph (b) authorize..., Korea (Republic of), New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan. (c) International...

  1. Drug user organizations in the Nordic countries--local, national, and international dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Anker, Jørgen; Tammi, Tuukka

    2012-04-01

    The article focuses on drug user organizations that represent and advocate for active "hard drug" users in the Nordic countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges that these organizations face in their search for legitimacy and political influence. The comparative perspective points at similarities and differences in national contexts that both support and challenges the existence of drug user organizations, including drug policy, social welfare policy, trends in drug use, and organizational conditions. The article also discusses the importance of international network and transnational organizations that support drug user organizations.

  2. Research Planning and Organization in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    Swedish research policy and organization, research areas, university research institutes, and international research and development (R&D) cooperation are discussed. Swedish research policy may be characterized as sectorized, decentralized, and pluralistic. The governmental bodies responsible for research direction include the Ministry of…

  3. ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PREVENTING THE COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES ENTRY INTO THE WORLD MARKETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukina, Valeryia; Dohnal, Jiri; Saloun, Jan

    2016-09-01

    30 years have passed since Conference of Experts on the Rational Use of Drugs was held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 25 to 29 November 1985, where the problem of counterfeit medicines was mentioned as the international for the first time. The problem of counterfeit medicines is not only a major threat to public health and national and private economy, but also it is of great interest for key decision-making actors at the international level. The authors analyzed what has been done since that time by international organizations. Combating the counterfeiting of medicines cannot be successfully achieved by the health sector alone - World Health Organization (WHO), - so the efforts of the other United Nations (UN) organizations relevant to counterfeiting were in need and were studied in the article: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Trade Organization (WTO), World Customs Organization (WCO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), etc. Today WHO is unable to coordinate all their activities, so the few existing proposals for establishing a new mechanism of international cooperation have been examined. Will the MEDICRIME Convention that will enter into force on January 1, 2016 be the start of the new era in the combating with the counterfeit medicines? - the authors offered their vision on the international developments.

  4. MONETARY CONFORMATION OF THE CORPORATE GOVERNMENTALITY III DESCRIPTION OF THE MONETARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rivera Vicencio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the current monetary system, identifying different components and the relationship between them. It is part of the Foucaultian approach of power relations and forms part of a body of work on the monetary conformation of corporate governmentality. It also forms part of the theoretical framework: the general monetary theory and, in particular, the quantity theory of money and the theory of business cycles. It describes four major components such as international organizations with effects on the money supply, states from dominant or dominated economies, the economy of large financial and non-financial companies and the real economy, made up of families and small and medium size companies. Within these four main components, there are different levels of action and influence in the money supply. The relationships, that are addressed, are the relationships which occur within each one of the components and the relationships between the different components. In these relationships between components of the monetary system, the creation of excess money supply is explained which produced the economic crisis as a result of the structure of the monetary system and its historical conformation. This document also describes the conformation of rent appropriation and yields, together with the process of the concentration of wealth, where the monetary system acts as an essential tool for achieving these purposes by large companies.

  5. Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Humphreys, Keith

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges of international alcohol research and policy is the variability in and lack of knowledge of how governments in different nations define a standard drink and low-risk drinking. This study gathered such information from governmental agencies in 37 countries. A pool of 75 countries that might have definitions was created using World Health Organization (WHO) information and the authors' own judgement. Structured internet searches of relevant terms for each country were supplemented by efforts to contact government agencies directly and to consult with alcohol experts in the country. Most of the 75 national governments examined were not identified as having adopted a standard drink definition. Among the 37 that were so identified, the modal standard drink size was 10 g pure ethanol, but variation was wide (8-20 g). Significant variability was also evident for low-risk drinking guidelines, ranging from 10-42 g per day for women and 10-56 g per day for men to 98-140 g per week for women and 150-280 g per week for men. Researchers working and communicating across national boundaries should be sensitive to the substantial variability in 'standard' drink definitions and low-risk drinking guidelines. The potential impact of guidelines, both in general and in specific national cases, remains an important question for public health research. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Standards and criteria of international organizations concerning agricultural aspects of radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.; Crick, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear facilities are not generally located in densely populated zones, but usually in rural rather agricultural environment. The Chernobyl accident has shown that farming activities may be affected over hundreds if not thousands kilometers from the accident site. Emergency plans must be implemented in order to trigger countermeasures aiming at reducing agricultural product contamination even in countries having not nuclear facilities or programmes of their own. In Introduction the paper presents the principal objectives to be taken into account by the governmental authorities (at central and local level) after an agricultural countermeasure strategy has been elaborated. The second section deals with the development of criteria and intervening levels. On the basis of the new Recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Guidelines concerning the Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency issued by an IAEA Consultative Group, IAEA and FAO have published in 1994 common directives concerning the measures to be taken at agricultural level in case of an accidental release of radioactivity. The section 3 presents the concepts and criteria for selecting efficient and appropriate countermeasures. It discusses the importance of planning and intervention preparations, the management of accidents and the proper protection measures. The generic activity levels requiring intervention for withdraw from market of alimentary products are presented in the Section 4. The paper discusses also specific level s of intervention (for milk and meat for instance adopted in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) as well as future prospects

  7. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief descript...

  8. Governmental regulation of nuclear power in Russia: Status and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.; Vishnevskij, Yu.G.

    1995-01-01

    Gosatomnadzor is responsible for governmental supervision of nuclear and radiation safety. Its sphere of competence covers nuclear power, research reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle complex, among others. The paper discusses the situation regarding the adoption of the draft Law of the Russian Federation on the Use of Atomic Energy and its basic formulations. The draft Law is based on the principle that priority be given to safety and the protection of human health, the environment and property over any economic interests in the area of atomic energy utilization. The most important respect in which the activities of Gosatomnadzor differ from those of its predecessors is that it has been assigned the functions of the regulatory authority for safety in the utilization of atomic energy. The paper discusses the main functions of Gosatomnadzor. An important task is to set up operating organizations, preparing the requirements for these organizations and monitoring compliance with those requirements. Gosatomnadzor has adopted safety analysis reports as the basic form of documentation to demonstrate the safety of facilities involving nuclear and radiation hazards. Independent assessment of safety and preparation of reference documents for its regulatory activities are other tasks of Gosatomnadzor. (author)

  9. Politics of Internationalism - Danish Women's Movements Participating in the Building of International Women's Organizations (1888-1919)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina; Nielsen, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    The struggle for universal enfranchisement in Denmark went on for almost 70 years and was part of a broader struggle for democratization. Granting women the vote was controversial and affected fundamental power structures and male privileges in marriage, in the labor market and in politics (Fiig...... & Siim 2008: 61). The context for this political and ideological struggle was primarily local and national; however there are reasons to investigate the international inspiration and activism as a central part of the debate and struggle for enfranchisement. In this article, we move beyond the “national...... container” (Beck XX) of Denmark in the time period of 1888-1915 and analyze both the international inspiration in relation to the women’s organizations and the Danish women’s movements’ important role on the international scene....

  10. The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Veton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

  11. 60th Anniversary of Turkish Librarian's Association: From the Association in the Public Interest Perspective to Non-Governmental Organization Perspective Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği’nin 60. Kuruluş Yıldönümü: Kamuya Yararlı Dernek Anlayışından Sivil Toplum Örgütlüğüne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the difference between the association which is public interest and the non-governmental organization in the context of 60th anniversary of Turkish Librarians' Association (TKD. Instead of discussing what is achieved or not achieved within these 60 years of TKD, The issue is associated with globalisation and the focus is on finding solutions to problems with the interactive contribution of colleagues and departments of information management, and on the concern that the international think tanks will intervene in our professional problems and we will alienate from our original professional culture. Bu makalede Türkiye'deki kamuya yararlı dernek ve sivil toplum örgütü kavramları arasındaki fark, kuruluşunun 60, yıldönümünde Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği (TKD bağlamında incelenmektedir. TKD'nin 60 yılda geldiği noktada yaptıkları veya yapamadıklarını tartışmaktan öte konu küreselleşme ile birlikte ele alınmakta olup, sorunlara meslektaşlar ve bilgi ve belge yönetimi bölümlerinin etkileşimli katkı sağlanması ile çözüm yollarının bulunabileceği aksi takdirde uluslararası düşünce üretme kuruluşlarının (think tank mesleki sorunlarımıza el atması ve giderek özgün mesleki kültürümüze yabancılaşacağımız kaygısı üzerinde odaklaşmaktadır.

  12. Actomyosin-based Self-organization of cell internalization during C. elegans gastrulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Christian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the conservation of gastrulation as a key event in Metazoan embryogenesis, the morphogenetic mechanisms of self-organization (how global order or coordination can arise from local interactions are poorly understood. Results We report a modular structure of cell internalization in Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation that reveals mechanisms of self-organization. Cells that internalize during gastrulation show apical contractile flows, which are correlated with centripetal extensions from surrounding cells. These extensions converge to seal over the internalizing cells in the form of rosettes. This process represents a distinct mode of monolayer remodeling, with gradual extrusion of the internalizing cells and simultaneous tissue closure without an actin purse-string. We further report that this self-organizing module can adapt to severe topological alterations, providing evidence of scalability and plasticity of actomyosin-based patterning. Finally, we show that globally, the surface cell layer undergoes coplanar division to thin out and spread over the internalizing mass, which resembles epiboly. Conclusions The combination of coplanar division-based spreading and recurrent local modules for piecemeal internalization constitutes a system-level solution of gradual volume rearrangement under spatial constraint. Our results suggest that the mode of C. elegans gastrulation can be unified with the general notions of monolayer remodeling and with distinct cellular mechanisms of actomyosin-based morphogenesis.

  13. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel; Douki, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  14. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  15. Symposium in honour of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization : 90 year of contribution to the creation of international civil service law

    CERN Document Server

    Colloque en l'honneur du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail : une contribution de 90 ans à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; 90 years of contribution of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization to the creation of international civil service law; Une contribution de 90 ans du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; Une contribution de 90 ans du TAOIT; 90 years of contribution of the ILOAT

    2017-01-01

    The present book arises out of a symposium that the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization organized on 5 May 2017 to celebrate the 90 years of its existence and its 125th Session held in 2017.

  16. The Effect of Competitive Rivalry on Internal Communication in Private Healthcare Organizations: Evidence from Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Altuntas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Both competitive rivalry and internal communication play a crucial role for a business to position itself in a favourable manner in order to succeed particularly in a hostile environment. While numerous studies present the importance of competitive rivalry and of communication, even internal communication separately, little is known about the specific linkage of how competitive rivalry affects communication in the literature. Within the framework of internal communication, this study focuses on the notion that competitive rivalry is related to the path and style of communication as well as to the usage of internal communication tools but not to quality of communication. Thus, our research presents the linkage and the interaction between competitive rivalry and internal communication, of which the results indicate that, overall, competitive rivalry has a significant direct positive influence on internal communication dimensions in terms of path, style and quality of communication, as well as usage of communication tools in healthcare organizations.

  17. Governmentality and the Power of Transnational Women’s Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Harrington

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Feminists have celebrated success in gendering security discourse and practice since the end of the Cold War. Scholars have adapted theories of contentious politics to analyze how transnational feminist networks achieved this. I argue that such theories would be enhanced by richer conceptualizations of how transnational feminist networks produce and disseminate new forms of global governmental knowledge and expertise. This article engages social movement theory with theories of global governmentality. Governmentality analysis typically focuses upon governmental power rather than political contention or the collective agency of political outsiders. However, I argue that governmentality analysis contributes to an account of feminist influence on the fields of development and security within global politics. The governmentality lens views politics as a struggle over truth and expertise. Since experts have authority to speak the truth on a given issue, governmentality analysis seeks to uncover the social basis of expertise. Such analysis of expertise can illuminate important aspects of the power of movements. The power of transnational women’s movements lies in production and dissemination of knowledge about women within global knowledge networks.

  18. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  19. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be voted, if it is voting stock, and has the right to receive dividends. (d) Definition of...: affirmation of membership on at least an annual basis and direct participatory rights in the governance of the... aspects of the organization's governance. (g) Additional considerations in determining membership...

  20. INFOMAT: The international materials assessment and application centre's internet gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Carmen Lucia; Colodete, Leandro Tavares

    2004-08-01

    INFOMAT is an electronic directory structured to facilitate the search and retrieval of materials science and technology information sources. Linked to the homepage of the International Materials Assessment and Application Centre, INFOMAT presents descriptions of 392 proprietary databases with links to their host systems as well as direct links to over 180 public domain databases and over 2,400 web sites. Among the web sites are associations/unions, governmental and non-governmental institutions, industries, library holdings, market statistics, news services, on-line publications, standardization and intellectual property organizations, and universities/research groups.

  1. Peaceful nuclear explosions as a provocation and tasks of international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. Freiherr von

    1975-01-01

    First there is a brief survey on how to make use of peaceful nuclear explosions and on the present state of technological development. Before their use on an international level materializes, a number of political, technical, legal, and ecological problems have to be solved at least provisionally. The extent to which international organizations can help to find these solutions is examined in detail. (HP/LN) [de

  2. International Land Coalition: Women's access to land

    OpenAIRE

    International Land Coalition (ILC)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Land Coalition (ILC) started as the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty. This is a global alliance of intergovernmental, governmental and civil-society organizations committed to rural poverty eradication. On their website, (on the left click on documents) the link presents a list of resources related to the role of women and access to land. There are case studies and country reports in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Nepal, as wel...

  3. Globalization, Credence Goods and International Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Krautheim, Sebastian; Verdier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The process of globalization is characterized by an impressive growth in global value chains, as well as the proliferation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) interacting with production and sourcing decisions of multinational firms. In this paper, we present a simple North-South model of international trade allowing for the joint emergence of firm offshoring to South and NGO activism financed by donations from the civil society. In our model northern consumers care about unobservable “c...

  4. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  5. Analysis of the Constitutional and Legal Relations of the Romanian Ombudsman Institution with the other Public and Non-Governmental National Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Cocosatu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the democratic states, the assertion and respect of the fundamental rights of the citizens represent an essential characteristic, both at the national, and at the international level. In this paper, we shall analyze the relations that are established with the Parliament, the executive power, the judicial power, the Constitutional Court and the non-governmental organizations. These relations are of collaboration, control or information, depending on the activity performed by the respective institution or structure. Prior work: I’ve tried to find and debate hermeneutical new regulations and doctrinal opinions in this domain very important for those who practice Administrative law and Constitutional law. Results: In European Union and Member States, the enforcement decisions of Ombudsman is viewed with great interest, being considered an important public authority. Value: We believe that the role of ombudsman is accentuated by the importance given to it by the public authorities, but also by the degree of the institution’s reception by the public opinion. In this sense, the relations between Ombudsman and the non-governmental organizations are of collaboration, focused, mainly, on two directions: in the field of preventing possible breaches of the citizens’ rights and liberties and in the field of the actual protection of the rights breached.

  6. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  7. Urban Regeneration Partnerships: A Figurational Critique of Governmentality Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critique of governmentally inspired accounts of urban regeneration and partnership working. Drawing on the work of Norbert Elias and prominent figurational sociologists, it discusses the changes taking place within and through the many partnerships set up by New Labour around the notion of ‘community safety’. Although recognizing the important insights provided by accounts of urban regeneration emerging through studies of governmentality, the article argues that such a...

  8. Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Examples are also provided for Italy and Belgium. The general conclusions that can be drawn from these acts are also discussed.

  9. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief description of the role played by these actors taking into account that they must create the fundamental condition for competitiveness: macroeconomic stability.

  11. Development of the individual agencies within international organizations: comparative-personological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. О. Калмиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting: Personalized activity of individuals holding offices of individual organs in the structure of international organizations is an essential part of the activities of these organizations. Meanwhile, today legal science researches this problem mainly in the context of the development of separate branches of international law. Recent research and publications analysis: From Max Weber, the development of individual organs was studied as a question how one transforms institutions that are led by high-profile individuals into institutions that have a life and energy of their own". Current international legal research in this regard provided by  H. H. Koh, F. Benua-Romer, H. Klebes, R. Kicker and the others. There are no relevant Ukrainian legal studies on this issue today. Paper objective: The purpose of the article is to review the issue on the example of a relatively new international bodies - the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe. The features of organs, crucial for the study are: the features of appointment (election of candidate, term of his office and special activities scheduled for each of these positions. Paper main body: Comparing the Institute of the High Commissioner and the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe in personological view, we note that the personal characteristics and expert practices of the first, second and third Council of Europe Commissioner largely matches with the same first three (in same order United Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights. This fact suggests that the election of candidates for these positions is a part of strategic transformation of the body. There is a reason to believe that the strategy of the international organizations, not only related to their desire to be effectively involved in actions within their mandate, but also with the desire to increase their influence in comparison with the

  12. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well as via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry.

  13. Effective practices of international volunteering for health: perspectives from partner organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J; Tiessen, Rebecca; Lasker, Judith N

    2018-01-24

    The demand for international volunteer experiences to promote global health and nutrition is increasing and numerous studies have documented the experiences of the international volunteers who travel abroad; however, little is known about effective practices from the perspective of partner organizations. This study aims to understand how variables such as the skill-level of volunteers, the duration of service, cultural and language training, and other key variables affect partner organizations' perceptions of volunteer effectiveness at promoting healthcare and nutrition. This study used a cross-sectional design to survey a convenience sample of 288 volunteer partner organizations located in 68 countries. Principle components analyses and manual coding of cases resulted in a categorization of five generalized types of international volunteering. Differences among these types were compared by the duration of service, skill-level of volunteers, and the volunteers' perceived fit with organizational needs. In addition, a multivariate ordinary least square regression tested associations between nine different characteristics/activities and the volunteers' perceived effectiveness at promoting healthcare and nutrition. Partner organizations viewed highly-skilled volunteers serving for a short-term abroad as the most effective at promoting healthcare and nutrition in their organizations, followed by slightly less-skilled long-term volunteers. The greatest amount of variance in perceived effectiveness was volunteers' ability to speak the local language, followed by their skill level and the duration of service abroad. In addition, volunteer training in community development principles and practices was significantly related to perceived effectiveness. The perceptions of effective healthcare promotion identified by partner organizations suggest that program and volunteer characteristics need to be carefully considered when deciding on methods of volunteer preparation and

  14. International Practica Experiences as Events of Influence in a Teacher Candidates' Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Nancy; Allison, John; Julien-Schultz, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Experience may influence beliefs and beliefs may influence practices. Following these premises, we investigated teacher candidates' post experience reflections nine months after an international practicum where they taught for three weeks in rural Kenya. Teacher candidates were placed in non-governmental organization (NGO) sponsored schools on the…

  15. Historical Development of the Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Safety in Japan. Annex I of Technical Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The governmental and public organizations responsible for policy and safety regulation in Japan have evolved significantly during the period in which the Japanese nuclear power industry has operated. The IAEA’s Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Japan in 2007 commended Japan’s updating of its legislative and governmental framework to strengthen arrangements for nuclear safety in light of the incidents which had occurred. A view of these past developments is helpful to understand the origins of the regulatory framework in place at the time of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), and to assess the prospects for the further institutional reforms that Japan has implemented following this accident. Shiroyama has identified three periods in the evolution of the governmental and regulatory organizations prior to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP

  16. Performance measurement in governmental agencies using BSC-AHP: A case study of Civil Registry Office in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Valashjerdi Majd Abad Kohneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the performance of governmental organizations plays an important role on increasing public satisfaction in any society. One of the effective models for assessing the organizations performance is balance scorecard (BSC model, which investigates all aspects of organizations. In this paper, we use a hybrid of analytical hierarchy process along with BSC to measure the performance of five different civil registry offices in Tehran, Iran. We use fuzzy terms to handle uncertainty in input numbers and using some technique convert fuzzy numbers into crisp values. The results of our survey indicate that learning and development is number one priority with relative importance of 0.491, followed by customer with relative importance of 0.293, internal process with relative importance of 0.173 and financial affairs comes at last with relative weight of 0.043. The study uses organizational researchers, training, quality, customer satisfaction, performance measurement, expenses and annual budget as major components for analyzing five regions. We have also performed sensitivity analysis to see the effects of different changes on ranking.

  17. 77 FR 15417 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66566; File No. SR-ISE-2012-21] Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a... Ownership Interest in ISE Holdings, Inc. to a Newly Formed Swiss Corporation, Eurex Global Derivatives AG...

  18. LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY A PATIENT WITH ACUTE CALCULOSE CHOLECYSTITIS AND RECIPROCALLY TRANSPOSED INTERNAL ORGANS – CASE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Černi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Situs inversus viscerum totalis (reciprocally reversed position of internal organs is a rare case with genetic predisposition, inherited autosomnously recessive. The presented case involves an older patient with complete transposition of internal organs having acute calculous cholecystitis, which was successfully performed the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whilst the production of biliary stones in a case of transposed internal organs is very rare, it may well represent a diagnostic problem. It is not, however, the contraindication for laparoscopic surgery.Patients and methods. The case presents a 64-year-old patient, whose persistent biliary colic trouble eventually resulted in acute cholecystitis. Following routine diagnostics, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the patient was released in domestic care after three day hospitalization.Conclusions. The laparoscopic cholecystectomy may also be safely performed in a patient with reciprocal transposition of all internal organs, but it is imperative to consider the fact that the extra-hepatic anatomy of gall bladder and vascular system is the mirror image of normal, right-hand positioned liver.

  19. Electronic Records Management and Archives in International Organizations: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, Charles M.

    This study is a review of trends in information-handling technology and significant developments which are changing or will change the general environment within which archivists and records managers in international organizations will have to work. Trends in microelectronics, electronic storage, software, data transmission, computer architecture,…

  20. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio

    2015-07-01

    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  1. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  2. Uncovering the Images and Meanings of International Organizations (IOs) in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Madden, Meggan

    2015-01-01

    Employing Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we examine how international organizations (IOs) are presented in the higher education literature. This paper examines how IOs, such as the World Bank, OECD, and UNESCO, are conceptualized and represented by higher education researchers. We focus on three main representations of IOs in the higher…

  3. 75 FR 42801 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... at or under the threshold are charged the constituent's prescribed execution fee. This waiver applies... members to execute large-sized FX options orders on the Exchange in a manner that is cost effective. The...

  4. 78 FR 6155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... virtually impossible for any exchange to identify, and thus assess fees such as an ORF on, each executing... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68711; File No. SR-MIAX-2013-01] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  5. GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL REPORTS: BETWEEN VARIETY AND INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei R. CRIŞAN

    2014-01-01

    Governments in general provide two main types of financial information: Government Finance Statistics (GFS), used for macroeconomic analysis and General Purpose Financial Reports (GPFR), more or less according with International Public Sector Accounting Standards, used for making decisions in the public sector entities. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison between GFS and GPFR to extract the similarities and differences between them. The documents of GFS and GPFS will be compared row...

  6. DDR and the Internal Organization of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McQuinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR trajectories of non-state armed groups are shaped by a group’s internal organization. Extensive research by political scientists has demonstrated a correlation between internal features of armed groups and their behaviour (e.g. extent of violence used against local communities. I extend this analysis to DDR outcomes by illustrating how two features of an armed group’s internal organization – command profile and financing architecture – influence post-conflict DDR trajectories. To substantiate the theory, four case studies from Colombia, Nepal and Libya are reviewed. The article concludes with the limitations and opportunities of this approach, including the potential of predicting DDR challenges.

  7. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  8. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  9. The use of CT density changes at internal tissue interfaces to correlate internal organ motion with an external surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaede, Stewart; Yu, Edward; Van Dyk, Jake; Battista, Jerry [Radiation Oncology Program, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Carnes, Gregory; Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-01-21

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a cine mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move due to breathing on multiple axial slices and measured the mean CT number versus respiratory phase. Tumour motion was directly correlated with external marker motion, acquired simultaneously, using the sample coefficient of determination, r{sup 2}. Only three of the ten patients showed correlation higher than r{sup 2} = 0.80 between tumour motion and external marker position. However, after taking into account time shifts (ranging between 0 s and 0.4 s) between the two data sets, all ten patients showed correlation better than r{sup 2} = 0.8. This non-invasive method for monitoring the motion of internal organs is an effective tool that can assess the use of external markers for 4D-CT imaging and respiratory-gated radiotherapy on a patient-specific basis.

  10. Changes in vascularization of internal organs in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, treated with protein hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, K.; Popdimitrov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vascularization of the internal organs of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis was studied by the method of Sapirstein with 86 rubidium. Experiments were carried out on male Chinchilla rabbits, fed cholesterol in a dose of 0,2 g/kg of body weight daily for a period of 90 days. Part of the animals were treated with protein hydrolysate in a dose of 5 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously and the remaining - with physiologic saline. There was reduced vascularization in the heart, kidneys, intestines, liver, adrenals, pancreas and other internal organs in rabbits fed cholestrol and treated with physiologic saline. Administration of protein hydrolysate had protective effect on organ vascularization. Accumulation of 86 rubidium in a large part of the animals was greater than in control group. It is shown that protein hydrolysate amino acids stabilize the endothelial cells and stimulate the local vascularization. (author)

  11. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Aditi; Khatiwada, Prashant; Shrestha, Bikram; Chettri, Radheshyam Khatri

    2013-01-18

    Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997-2017). A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government's priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions

  12. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Asakawa, Naoki [Division of Molecular Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Matsubara, Kiyohiko [KOOROGI LLC, 6-1585-1-B Sakaino-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-0002 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said “homeostatic” behavior or “noise robustness” against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  13. Evaluación de un programa de monitoría de la calidad de los servicios otorgados por una Organización no Gubernamental Evaluation of a quality-monitoring program for services provided by a Non-Governmental-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Lucila Sauceda-Valenzuela

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto de un programa de monitoría de la calidad sobre la presencia de eventos centinela y las actitudes y conductas del personal ante la presencia de los mismos en una Organización no Gubernamental. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De acuerdo con un diseño cuasi-experimental del tipo antes y después para evaluar el efecto del programa de monitoría de la calidad se realizó este trabajo de 1998 a 1999, en 13 clínicas de una Organización no Gubernamental. Para la valoración de los cambios en actitudes y conductas se utilizó la comparación de diferencia de medias, y un análisis de varianza entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: Los eventos centinela se redujeron de 32 detectados inicialmente a sólo dos en la evaluación. Se observaron diferencias de medias en el orden de +1.1 y +1.2 para actitudes y conductas en todos los eventos centinela (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a quality-monitoring program on the occurrence of sentinel events and on attitudes and behaviors of personnel's responses in a Non-Governmental-Organization (NGO. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 1999, a quasi-experimental design of the before-after type was conducted in 13 NGO clinics. Analysis of changes in attitudes and behaviors consisted in differences of means and analysis of variance between groups. RESULTS: The number of sentinel events decreased from 32 events detected before the quality-monitoring program to only 2 after it. Attitudes and behaviors improved, with differences of means of +1.1 and +1.2 (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The quality-monitoring program achieved the expected effects. It is noteworthy that attitudes and behaviors to prevent the occurrence of sentinel events were more prevalent after the intervention.

  14. International ITER fusion energy organization. Paving the way to power generation from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen-Liebenstein, R. von

    2006-01-01

    ITER (Latin: the way) is the acronym of a new international large research facility gradually taking shape after the meeting of Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik in 1985. Under the auspices of the IAEA, worldwide scientific and industrial cooperation with 'home teams' of each of the ITER partners began at that time which were commissioned to accumulate the knowledge and the technology of nuclear fusion in the participating countries. At the end of the preparation and decisionmaking process, the design draft of the ITER reactor was elaborated in international cooperation as the basis of the ITER Convention. After lengthy negotiations among the international ITER partners, a European site for the ITER organization and its reactor was found at Cadarache, France. As the first ITER member, Europe now initiated worldwide cooperation in research and development, seeking to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of tapping fusion power for peaceful purposes. The Council of the European Union (competitiveness), at its meeting on September 25, 2006, decided to sign the ITER Convention about the establishment of the International ITER Fusion Energy Organization ('ITER Organization') and about the mutual obligation to make the necessary contributions towards the construction of ITER. (orig.)

  15. A Condition Analysis for Advancing Exalted Level of Nuclear International Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. H

    2008-02-15

    This paper aimed at developing the strategy for facilitating the Korean participation as a higher staff in the nuclear related international organizations. - For that purpose, this Study focused on the following three subjects ; (1) to analyze the job situation of international organizations, (2) to analyze the background information and the procedure of appointment, (3) to suggest a facilitating strategy. - There are over 40 higher staff members including Director-General, six Deputy Director-General and 36 Directors in IAEA. Analysis shows that there are three main factors which influence the appointment of those higher position; geographical distribution, members' contributions towards the regular budget and a nation's influencing power to the international community. We can categorize into two case in aspect of the agency's appointment procedure. A director's position is generally decided through the open competition. In the case of Deputy Director-General or higher position, however, it is a practice that the Agency appoints the candidates through a unofficial procedure considering political situation. - There are twelve higher staffs in NEA. Influencing power and members' contributions towards the regular budget are the major criteria of higher staff's appointment. - It is expected that this study will contribute to the facilitation of Korean participation as a higher staff in the international organization by supplying the basic strategy.

  16. Evolution of deceased organ donation activity vs. efficiency over a 15 year period: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F

    2018-04-19

    The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.

  17. A self-organized internal models architecture for coding sensory-motor schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú eEscobar Juárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive robotics research draws inspiration from theories and models on cognition, as conceived by neuroscience or cognitive psychology, to investigate biologically plausible computational models in artificial agents. In this field, the theoretical framework of Grounded Cognition provides epistemological and methodological grounds for the computational modeling of cognition. It has been stressed in the literature that textit{simulation}, textit{prediction}, and textit{multi-modal integration} are key aspects of cognition and that computational architectures capable of putting them into play in a biologically plausible way are a necessity.Research in this direction has brought extensive empirical evidencesuggesting that textit{Internal Models} are suitable mechanisms forsensory-motor integration. However, current Internal Models architectures show several drawbacks, mainly due to the lack of a unified substrate allowing for a true sensory-motor integration space, enabling flexible and scalable ways to model cognition under the embodiment hypothesis constraints.We propose the Self-Organized Internal ModelsArchitecture (SOIMA, a computational cognitive architecture coded by means of a network of self-organized maps, implementing coupled internal models that allow modeling multi-modal sensory-motor schemes. Our approach addresses integrally the issues of current implementations of Internal Models.We discuss the design and features of the architecture, and provide empirical results on a humanoid robot that demonstrate the benefits and potentialities of the SOIMA concept for studying cognition in artificial agents.

  18. GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL REPORTS: BETWEEN VARIETY AND INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei R. CRIŞAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments in general provide two main types of financial information: Government Finance Statistics (GFS, used for macroeconomic analysis and General Purpose Financial Reports (GPFR, more or less according with International Public Sector Accounting Standards, used for making decisions in the public sector entities. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison between GFS and GPFR to extract the similarities and differences between them. The documents of GFS and GPFS will be compared row by row, relieving the common and the different components. Our proposal is to create a unique informational system which generates both GFS and GPFS. This system could bring significant benefits such as saving time or reducing costs.

  19. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  20. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  1. Organization of the ITER Co-ordinated Technical Activities International Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At its meeting in Toronto on 7 November 2001, the ITER Co-ordinated Technical Activities (CTA) project board took note of the organizational arrangements for the CTA International Team at the Garching and Naka joint work sites. The organization chart of the team remains almost unchanged from that of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA). However, there is no special division responsible for plasma and field control. Activities in plasma control will be taken over by the Physics Unit. This newsletter also includes the ITER CTA International Team structure

  2. From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM at Versailles, France, in 1972 set organic food and farming on a strong future trajectory. It was an initiative of France’s Nature et Progrès, and driven by its then President, Roland Chevriot. IFOAM was founded with the support of a small cluster of kindred organisations: Rodale Press of the USA; the Soil Association of the UK; the Soil Association of South Africa; and the Swedish Biodynamic Association. None of these five organisations bore the term ‘organic’ in their title, nevertheless, the choice of name acknowledged ‘organic’ as the term to signify their common cause. It secured ‘organic’ as the core narrative element and as the international descriptor of what is now a clearly identifiable and differentiated segment of the global food and farming sector. From the outset ‘biodynamic’ was accepted as a special case of ‘organic’. The formation of IFOAM created an entity which united the aspirations, the philosophies and the hopes of disparate groups each with roles primarily restricted to national advocacy. IFOAM has grown to a federation of 804 organisations from 111 counties. Organic production statistics are now reported by IFOAM from 154 countries and organic sector retail sales are reported to be US$51b annually. IFOAM is based in Bonn, Germany, and as the global umbrella advocacy group for the organic sector it is without peer.

  3. Changing the internal health and safety organization through organizational learning and change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organization is marginalized in most companies, and it is difficult for the professionals to secure a proper role in health and safety on the companies' present agenda. The goal of a Danish project involving a network...... of I I companies was to search for a solution to this problem. The health and safety managers and safety representatives played the role of "change agents" for local projects aiming to develop the health and safety organization. The study showed that 3 of the 11 companies proved to be able to implement...

  4. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acceptance of governmental communication in catastrophes and media coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhrmann, G.; Kohring, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technology policy - like every political field - has to deal with conflicts, in which different partial interests are negotiated. Technological catastrophes are based on past decisions in technology policy. From there specific problems of acceptance in catastrophes can only be understood according to this social and temporal context. Acceptance deficits of the government result from the insufficient consideration of the interests non-governmental actors express(ed) with regard to technological risk decisions. Therefore governmental risk and crisis communication should communicate the rationales underlying technology decisions, at the same time giving other actors the possibility of further negotiation. The media coverage plays an important role in this communication process. Following their own specific rules the media create a public sphere, in order to give different groups and institutions an orientation for their social acting. Governmental communication should not consider journalism as a transmission belt for its information policy - rather, in order to be effective, it should respect the specific journalistic conduct. (orig.) [de

  6. Organization of the ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] Project - Sharing of information and procurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is expected to fully confirm the scientific feasibility and to address the technological feasibility of fusion power. Consequently, the machine must be designed for controlled ignition and extended burn of deuterium-tritium plasma. It must also demonstrate and perform integrated testing of components required to utilize fusion power for practical purposes. Cooperation among four countries/organizations (United States, Soviet Union, Japan, and EURATOM) to build a single experimental reactor will reduce the cost for each country and provide an international pool of scientific and engineering resources. This paper describes ITER organization for conceptual design activity, schedule for conceptual design activities, ITER operating parameters, conceptual project schedule and cost, future plans, basic principles and problems related to task sharing, and basic principles in handling of intellectual property

  7. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  8. 48 CFR 225.7303-2 - Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reasonable and allocable costs of doing business with a foreign government or international organization... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization. 225.7303-2 Section 225.7303-2 Federal...

  9. Peran International Organization for Migration (Iom) Dalam Mengatasi Perdagangan Manusia Di Indonesia Tahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    ", Afrizal; Arif, Ghani Wal

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of international organization for migration in antisipated human trafficking in Indonesia in 2010-2014. The growth of human trafficking case in Indonesia has incerase a significant, nowdays Indonesia as a state from and to a human trafficking. So the government of Indonesia have to do action to antisipation a case of human trafficking..The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects data from books, enc...

  10. THE IMPACT of CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, and POWER, on STAFF MOTIVATION in the CONTEXT of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Erciyes, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of culture, leadership, and power, on staff motivation in selected international organizations (IOs), and develops a theoretical framework to assist with the practice of workforce motivation. The main research question is: “How can supervisors motivate their staff in the context of IOs?” Utilizing critical theory as a paradigm of inquiry, the study’s philosophical perspective leans heavily on “phenomenology”. Conducting this research led to the realization ...

  11. [The transition from 'international' to 'global' public health and the World Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Within the context of international public health, 'global health' seems to be emerging as a recognized term of preference. This article presents a critical analysis of the meaning and importance of 'global health' and situates its growing popularity within a historical context. A specific focus of this work is the role of the World Health Organization - WHO in both 'international' and 'global' health, and as na agent of transition from one to the other. Between 1948 and 1998, the WHO went through a period of hardship as it came up against an organizational crisis, budget cuts and a diminished status, especially when confronted with the growing influence of new, power players like the World Bank. We suggest that the WHO has responded to this changing international context by inititating its own process of restructuring and repositioning as an agent for coordinating, strategically planning and leading 'global health' initiatives.

  12. RESHAPING ORGANIZATIONS – MANAGING PEOPLE THROUGH HR STRATEGIES AND INTERNAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cioclov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims at presenting key concepts in regard to the interconnectivity between two similar and frequently confused practices – Human Resource Management and Internal Marketing. Therefore, it is intend to present both fields distinctively, in order to emphasise in the end the added value of the two working together. Given the fact that, in the specialised literature, there are different approaches on this subject and many questions raised regarding the separation of the instruments and particular objectives of the two practices, the paper presents a simplified approach on the HRM Cycle in comparison with the IM Cycle. Therefore, the paper is structured as follows: (1 HRM’s impact on the general activity of an organization – whether it is a manufacturing company or a service provider; (2 IM’s impact on the internal and external environment of the organization; (3 Analysis on the connection and in-/inter-/dependency of the two concepts and their meaning. Although HRM seems to bring numerous advantages to the organization, the current paper states that HR cannot be done at the same efficiency level in the absence of good Internal Marketing practices that allow the word - of - mouth to spread between the present and possible future employees. It is about a good branding that has to exceed the company’s geographical boundaries and to create the need, not only in terms of product consumer’s behavior, but also in regard to employees that want to be part of the brand.

  13. Mechanisms of endothelium and internal organs dysfunction associated with exposure to cobalt chloride (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Gigolaeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt administration in the human body is a risk factor for developing pulmonary and cardiovascular health problems. In this paper we report the results of functional studies and biochemical mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and pathology of internal organs in cobalt intoxication in experiment. System-organ nature of the activation of oxidative processes is identified according to the increase of MDA secondary product in erythrocytes and homogenates of internal organs as well as the participation of AOC imbalance in the development of lipid peroxidation, the peculiarities of the violations of NO release endothelial function and participation in this process of L-arginine and an analogue of endogenous inhibitor of expression eNOS -L–NC - arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or L-nitro-arginine-methilester with cobalt intoxication in conditions of activation of oxidative processes. Chronic cobalt intoxication in rats leads to the activation of oxidative processes, thus there is inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity and the concentration of catalase and ceruloplasmin increased. Cholesterol metabolism is disturbed, as well as impaired nitric oxide production and its bioavailability, which is accompanied by the change of the microcirculatory hemodynamics of the visceral organs. The evaluation of the internal organs’ functional state according to the activity of the Na+,K+-ATPase in homogenates is performed, as well as due to the activity of organ-specific and excretory enzymes in blood serum on the background of cobalt toxicity. The role of changes of cholesterol metabolism is established – as a risk factor of atherogenesis in violation of the bioavailability of nitric oxide. For the pathogenetic correction of violations we applied the method using the endogenous antioxidant coenzyme Q10 and regulators of the expression eNOS L-arginine, L-NAME and their combination with coenzyme Q10.

  14. The ILO from dictatorship to democracy in Argentina: contributions about the role of international organizations in the process of reconfiguration of labor relations during the first half of the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Basualdo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the role of the ILO from the last dictatorship (1976-1983 to the initial years of the ensuing democratic government (1983-1985, as a step towards further and deeper research on the role of international labor organizations in the reconfiguration of labor relations in the 1980s. First, it focuses on particularly relevant dimensions of the ILO action during the dictatorship, paying special attention to the case 842 of the Committee of Freedom of Association concerning the violation of labor rights in Argentina, and the yearly conferences in Geneva as well as other relevant forms of interaction. Second, the paper analyzes the role of this organization during the first two years of the democratic government (1983-1985, based on newly available archival sources as well as coverage by the national press. Even though there are valuable contributions about the topic, few of them focus specifically on the role of international labor organizations and the influence on the definition of State policies towards the trade-union movement and the working class. This section analyzes some of the main governmental projects for the labor movement, particularly the so-called Mucci Law, a project of trade-union reorganization, some of the ways in which the international labor organizations participated in the public debate and discussions about it, the impact of the defeat of this governmental project in Congress and the ways in which connections and contacts with the ILO continued ahead. In terms of the conclusions of this paper, it is significant to notice that although there had been during 1976-1983 an accumulation of evidence and analysis about the evolution of the labor movement and labor conditions in Argentina at different ILO offices, the ILO officials do not seem to have taken advantage of these valuable resources from 1983 to 1985 to face the challenges and puzzles in the initial times of the new democratic government. A

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31...

  16. 75 FR 504 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... on consumer rights as part of its program on private international law. Three proposals have been put... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6255] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of American States (OAS) Specialized Conference on Private International Law...

  17. Cooperation Agreement. The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  18. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [fr

  19. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  20. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  1. Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  3. The First World War and the Discussions on Establishing the Universal International Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodnev Aleksandr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907 were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mechanisms of preventing its repetition had to be looked for in the bloody conflict. The situation in the USA and in the UK differed significantly. The censorship rules that did not allow publishing essays about peace or any negotiations with the enemy were introduced. In the US they could freely discuss these issues. In the US the university academicians, businessmen, and representatives of various faiths, and prominent politicians were involved in the discussions. In the UK, the League of Nations theme was discussed by the pressure groups such as Fabian Society and selected intellectuals such as Leonard Woolf. During 1916–1917 the views of the governments and various social organizations about the League of Nations significantly differed. The public opinion and social groups demanded the creation of the international organization immediately, or as part of the post-war settlement structure. The UK government recognized the need for the creation of the League of Nations only as a part of the United States involving into the war and the strengthening of the British Empire. As a result of the League of Nations carried out signs of hybridity in a dangerous form.

  4. Costos y calidad de la prueba de detección oportuna del cáncer cervicouterino en una clínica pública y en una organización no gubernamental Comparison of cervical cancer screening program costs and quality of care between a public clinic and a Non-Governmental Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Gómez-Jauregui A.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar los costos y la calidad de la prueba de detección oportuna del cáncer cervicouterino, entre una clínica pública y una organización no gubernamental (ONG. Material y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de abordaje cuantitativo y cualitativo hecho en dos establecimientos asistenciales de la ciudad de Cuernavaca, Morelos, entre abril y julio de 1999. Mediante un estudio transversal se comparó el costo del proceso de producción de la prueba, desagregado en cuatro componentes, y para la evaluación de la calidad se utilizó el marco conceptual estructurado por Bruce, que incluye la percepción de las usuarias -acerca de la información recibida y el tiempo de espera- y de los proveedores -disponibilidad de espacio y de equipo-. Resultados. Los costos totales del proceso de producción completo de la clínica pública (144 pesos fueron 26% más altos que los costos de la ONG (114 pesos. Por lo que se refiere a la calidad, las usuarias de la ONG informaron una mayor satisfacción con los servicios recibidos. La inconformidad de las mujeres que se realizaron la prueba en la clínica pública se relacionó con el tiempo de espera para la toma de la muestra y para la entrega de los resultados. Conclusiones. Las diferencias en los costos y los indicadores de calidad de la atención entre ambos proveedores sugieren que las ONG deben contemplarse como una alternativa para ofrecer servicios de detección oportuna de cáncer cervicouterino. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To compare the costs and quality of cervical cancer screening between a non-governmental organization (NGO and a Ministry of Health clinic. Material and methods. A quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 1999, in two healthcare clinics in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Cervical cancer screening production processes were compared along four

  5. Alternative Organizations by which Russia is Trying to Impose on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Security or insecurity dominates the current context of international relations. It is a situation generated by the collapse of the Eastern European communist bloc and the USSR in the late 80s and early 90s, or the resistance impact to the New World Order fueled by the negative phenomena of globalization. One of the concerns of any policymakers is to know well the power relations at global and regional levels, as from their substance they will know which are the margins of action, towards one direction or another. Therefore, it will always seek to find out who is stronger and who could take domination on the scenes of international politics. Therefore, we will briefly review the factors that make the countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa unable to defeat the global dominance of the US and its major allies, only to budge it a little. Vladimir Putin has created two organizations competing to G7 and NATO. Two summits were held in Ufa, Russian Federation: the Summit of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation (comprised of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and the group BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the summit the organization was invited Belarus president, Alexander Lukashenko, as the leader of a country member in the Eurasian Economic Union countries. The Kremlin is trying to play the leading role in these organizations, but according to the International experts, such attempts did not succeed because Moscow cannot go beyond the shadow of Beijing's de facto leader of both structures.

  6. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  7. Governmental, Political and Pedagogic Subjectivation: Foucault "with" Ranciere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a Foucaultian perspective, the article draws attention to current developments that neutralise democracy through the "governmentalisation of democracy" and processes of "governmental subjectivation". Here, ideas of Ranciere are introduced in order to clarify how democracy takes place through the paradoxical process of "political…

  8. Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Janicke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

  9. Governmental service channel positioning: history and strategies for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Governmental agencies have various service channels at their disposal for the service interactions with their citizens. The rise of the Internet as a service channel led many to believe the Internet would make all other service channels obsolete. Until now this expectation remains unfulfilled, as

  10. Special Education in America: Its Legal and Governmental Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The text presents six chapters on the legal and governmental bases of special education. In the Introduction, F. Weintraub and J. Ballard cite the legislative and litigative history of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and briefly address information sources on such policy issues as procedural safeguards, underserved…

  11. The effects of using of mineral and organic toxin absorbents on broiler performance and internal organs weight in experimental aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Heidarpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds is a problem of major concern in all over the world. Profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of these toxins on the performance. Aflatoxins, a group of closely related and biologically active mycotoxins, are produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They commonly occur as natural contaminant of poultry feeds. Domestic animal species such as chickens, ducks, cattle and turkeys consuming sublethal doses of aflatoxins for several days developed a toxic syndrome in which liver damage was the most significant change. The biological effects of aflatoxins could be categorized into two groups, long term and short term effects. Long term effects included chronic toxicity, cancer, birth defects and genetic alterations. Aflatoxins affected all poultry species, although they generally take relatively high levels to cause mortality, low levels can be detrimental if continually fed. Material and Methods This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mineral, organic toxin absorbents, humic acid and yeast cell wall on performance and internal organs weight of broilers in experimental aflatoxicosis. This study was conducted in a completely randomize design with 432 Ross-308 broilers with 9 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 broilers in each replicate. Treatments included diet without aflatoxin, 2: diet contaminated with aflatoxin, 3: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.20 Humic acid, 4: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.40 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.60 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 6: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 7: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 1.00 Humic acid, 8: diet

  12. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  13. Organizing irresponsibility? The (inter)national management of a nuclear accident damages as discursive regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Sezin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical process related to the international organization of responsibilities and the management of the damages in case of a nuclear disaster. The author shows that the political and legal settings on which the discourse of an 'international regime of civil responsibility' (that emerged in the 1960's) relies, have globally aimed at maintaining a 'historical and spectacular gap' between the damages the nuclear operators are taking responsibility for, and the real and extensive damages engendered by a major accident. She argues that the existence of such a 'gap' is inherent to the nuclear sector, that it is a form of government (both of economic affairs and of the public space) which was historically constructed, and that the existence of such a gap is crucial for the survival of the nuclear industry itself. Thus the notion of 'responsibility' in the nuclear sector appears to serve mainly as a discursive regime, as a means to organize not only responsibilities but also irresponsibilities, whatever the geographic scale (national or international) at which they should be managed

  14. Distribution of 137Cs in Meat and Internal Organs of Wild Boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Marovic, G.; Skoko, B.; Vickovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most common species of game on the territory of Croatia. Similarly to other game, it can accumulate fission products more effectively than domestic animals. Therefore, it is a good biondicator for radioactive contamination of ecosystems. The purpose of our research has been to investigate current radioactive contamination of wild boars by 137Cs and its distribution inside the animal body. Therefore, during the winter of 2009 and summer of 2010, we collected samples of meat, internal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and liver) and bones from 11 animals. All the animals were from the area of the research locality S umbar . The average activity concentration of 137Cs found in meat samples was (1.47 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , and in bones (0.12 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 . Activity concentration found in organs was (in ascending order): lungs (1.63 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , spleen (2.29 ± 0.04) Bqkg -1 , liver (2.54 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , heart (2.70 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , and kidney (3.18 ± 0.06) Bqkg -1 . We also calculated the values of the ratio of activity concentrations in internal organs and meat. Comparison of the obtained values with those for samples collected after the Chernobyl accident shows that the present ones are higher for liver and kidney, while those for heart are almost the same. Since vital organs of wild boars are more loaded than meat and bones, the impact of radioactive contamination on health of these animals should be more closely investigated. Also, these results imply that kidney is the most accumulating organ for 137Cs.(author)

  15. Role of international organizations in promoting nuclear medicine in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.

    1992-01-01

    Today, because of the diversity of its applications - radiation and radionuclides for medical and biological purposes are used in more countries and in more laboratories than any other application of atomic energy. International organizations, mainly the IAEA and the WHO, have played a significant role in the spread of this nuclear technology in developing countries. There are altogether 112 member states of the Agency, about 71 of them can be classified as developing countries. Out of them, nearly 56 have some kind of nuclear medicine. By that I mean there is some medical use of radioisotopes, be it imaging, radioimmunoassay or the old thyroid uptake. In most of these countries, the personnel working in nuclear medicine has been trained abroad. Training can be as short as few weeks abroad in the form of attendance at one of the four or six week training courses offered by an international organization. Occasionally it is through a fellowship offered by the same organizations. In terms of technology and training, Nuclear Medicine, in its present form, can thus be considered a high technology imported medicine in many of these countries

  16. Role of international organizations in promoting nuclear medicine in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofal, M

    1993-12-31

    Today, because of the diversity of its applications - radiation and radionuclides for medical and biological purposes are used in more countries and in more laboratories than any other application of atomic energy. International organizations, mainly the IAEA and the WHO, have played a significant role in the spread of this nuclear technology in developing countries. There are altogether 112 member states of the Agency, about 71 of them can be classified as developing countries. Out of them, nearly 56 have some kind of nuclear medicine. By that I mean there is some medical use of radioisotopes, be it imaging, radioimmunoassay or the old thyroid uptake. In most of these countries, the personnel working in nuclear medicine has been trained abroad. Training can be as short as few weeks abroad in the form of attendance at one of the four or six week training courses offered by an international organization. Occasionally it is through a fellowship offered by the same organizations. In terms of technology and training, Nuclear Medicine, in its present form, can thus be considered a high technology imported medicine in many of these countries

  17. Non-governmental organizational health operations in humanitarian crises: the case for technical support units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, P Gregg; Nazerali, Rahim; Fink, Sheri; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    As the humanitarian health response industry grows, there is a need for technical health expertise that can build an evidence base around outcome measures and raise the quality and accountability of the health relief response. We propose the formation of technical support units (TSUs), entities of health expertise institutionalized within humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which will bridge the gap between the demand for evidence-based, humanitarian programming and the field capacity to accomplish it. With the input of major humanitarian NGOs and donors, this paper discusses the attributes and capacities ofTSUs; and the mechanisms for creating and enhancing TSUs within the NGO management structure.

  18. Comparison between legal regulations on radiation protection issued by two governmental bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchev, L.

    1996-01-01

    Legal problems evolving from the equivalence of the rights and obligations of two Bulgarian governmental regulatory bodies: the Ministry of Health and the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes (CUAEPP) are discussed. The adequate texts in the legal regulations showing some contradictory and conflicting topics are considered. Special attention is paid to the issues of licensing and regulatory responsibilities of both organizations as well as liquidation of accident consequences. Some proposals for elimination of the discrepancies in those documents are given. 8 refs. (author)

  19. Globalization of health insecurity: the World Health Organization and the new International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2006-12-01

    The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.

  20. Performance analysis of an organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger having zeotropic working fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranis Deethayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of a 50 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE having R245fa/R152a zeotropic refrigerant with various compositions was investigated. The IHE could reduce heat rate at the ORC evaporator and better cycle efficiency could be obtained. The zeotropic mixture could reduce the irreversibilities during the heat exchanges at the ORC evaporator and the ORC condenser due to its gliding temperature; thus the cycle working temperatures came closer to the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink. In this paper, effects of evaporating temperature, mass fraction of R152a and effectiveness of internal heat exchanger on the ORC performances for the first law and the second law of thermodynamics were considered. The simulated results showed that reduction of R245fa composition could reduce the irreversibilities at the evaporator and the condenser. The suitable composition of R245fa was around 80% mass fraction and below this the irreversibilities were nearly steady. Higher evaporating temperature and higher internal heat exchanger effectiveness also increased the first law and second law efficiencies. A set of correlations to estimate the first and the second law efficiencies with the mass fraction of R245fa, the internal heat exchanger effectiveness and the evaporating temperature were also developed.

  1. Pathways to use of communication campaigns' evaluation findings within international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Glenn; Bauer, Martin W

    2018-08-01

    This article presents a study on the pathways and processes regarding the use of evaluation findings of communication campaigns from two international organizations, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Several years after the completion of the campaigns and their evaluations, our research identified 28 instances of use and six instances of non-use of the evaluation results, of which the large majority being surprising in nature. Results showed that evaluation use facilitated formal and informal changes at the individual and the organizational level; and, this pattern occurred in a predominantly non-linear fashion, interconnected and overlapping, while gradually decreasing in time and space. Evaluation use was mostly unpredictable, which reflected how meanings are constructed by staff members, as they adjusted and interpreted the findings in opportunistic ways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Audiovisual Documentation of an International Seminar : Case: LIME

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Kirsti; Rönnberg, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create a documentary video of an international seminar held in Kerava, Finland, in June 2013. The seminar was called Learning on Immigration and Multicultural Education (LIME) and it was conducted by Kerava Adult Education Center (later Keravan Opisto). LIME was a two-year intercultural project funded by the European Union. Different non-governmental organizations and adult education centers from eight European countries took part on the project. The ai...

  3. Secondary sulfate is internally mixed with sea spray aerosol and organic aerosol in the winter Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpes, Rachel M.; Bondy, Amy L.; Bonanno, Daniel; Moffet, Ryan C.; Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Ault, Andrew P.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    Few measurements of aerosol chemical composition have been made during the winter-spring transition (following polar sunrise) to constrain Arctic aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks. Herein, we report the first measurements of individual particle chemical composition near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), Alaska, in winter (seven sample days in January and February 2014). Individual particles were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX, 24 847 particles), Raman microspectroscopy (300 particles), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS, 290 particles). Sea spray aerosol (SSA) was observed in all samples, with fresh and aged SSA comprising 99 %, by number, of 2.5-7.5 µm diameter particles, 65-95 % from 0.5-2.5 µm, and 50-60 % from 0.1-0.5 µm, indicating SSA is the dominant contributor to accumulation and coarse-mode aerosol during the winter. The aged SSA particles were characterized by reduced chlorine content with 94 %, by number, internally mixed with secondary sulfate (39 %, by number, internally mixed with both nitrate and sulfate), indicative of multiphase aging reactions during transport. There was a large number fraction (40 % of 1.0-4.0 µm diameter particles) of aged SSA during periods when particles were transported from near Prudhoe Bay, consistent with pollutant emissions from the oil fields participating in atmospheric processing of aerosol particles. Organic carbon and sulfate particles were observed in all samples and comprised 40-50 %, by number, of 0.1-0.4 µm diameter particles, indicative of Arctic haze influence. Soot was internally mixed with organic and sulfate components. All sulfate was mixed with organic carbon or SSA particles. Therefore, aerosol sources in the Alaskan Arctic and resulting aerosol chemical mixing states need to be considered when predicting aerosol climate effects, particularly cloud

  4. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  5. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  6. Russia’s 2015 BRICS Presidency: Models of Engagement with International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the first 2009 summit in Yekaterinburg, the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa has established its identity as an informal global governance forum. The members have consistently consolidated their cooperation, expanded and deepened their agenda, coordinated efforts aimed at the recovery and growth of their economies, and engaged with other international organizations. This work continued during the Russian presidency in 2015. This article focuses on one dimension of BRICS performance: its engagement with international organizations. Atleast three reasons define the relevance of this analysis. First, since its launch the BRICS members collectively committed tobuilding a multipolar, fair and democratic world order, which would not be possible without cooperating with key international organizations. Second, the objective of enhancing the sustainability, legitimacy and effectiveness of the global governance architecture defines the need for the flexible combination of different models of engagement of summit institutions with other international institutions. Third, according to Russia’s BRICS Presidency Concept, one of its priorities was to transition to a qualitatively new level of engagement with international organizations.The analytical framework for this study thus builds on the theory of rational choice institutionalism. The calculus approach fits the analysis of summit institutions bringing together states from a wide range of cultures, continents and economic development. Its distinctive features clearly apply to the analysis of the origin and performance of the BRICS. First, members act in a highly strategic manner to attain their priorities. Second, summitry presents an arrangement where strategic interaction among leaders plays a major role in determining political outcomes. Third, rational choice institutionalism offers the greatest analytical leverage to settings where consensus among

  7. Contested spacing: International non-profit organizations and the mobility of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The importance of examining space from an organizational standpoint is timely, not the least because the use of this concept has critical and often unintended social, and political effects (Mengis, Nicolini & Gorli, 2016). The global refugee crisis following the post-2015 Syrian conflict is perhaps...... one indicative situation of the highly contested ways in which international non-profit organizations (INGOs) create spaces for their organizational activities (e.g., build informal settlements to provide emergency aid), and thus affect how individuals (e.g., asylum seekers) get re-settled, confined...... to, or even restricted from living in such spaces. These matters are relevant since in the contexts where both the opportunities to move freely and being at peace are challenged, space is not only a neutral structure in which such contested organizing takes place (Mengis et al., 2016). Rather...

  8. Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-08-01

    At present, clinicians routinely apply ultrasound endoscopy in a variety of interventional procedures that provide treatment solutions for diseased organs. Ultrasound endoscopy not only produces high-resolution images, but also is safe for clinical use and broadly applicable. However, for soft tissue imaging, its mechanical wave-based image contrast fundamentally limits its ability to provide physiologically specific functional information. By contrast, photoacoustic endoscopy possesses a unique combination of functional optical contrast and high spatial resolution at clinically relevant depths, ideal for imaging soft tissues. With these attributes, photoacoustic endoscopy can overcome the current limitations of ultrasound endoscopy. Moreover, the benefits of photoacoustic imaging do not come at the expense of existing ultrasound functions; photoacoustic endoscopy systems are inherently compatible with ultrasound imaging, thereby enabling multimodality imaging with complementary contrast. Here we present simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasonic dual-mode endoscopy and show its ability to image internal organs in vivo, thus illustrating its potential clinical application.

  9. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  10. Anthropological characteristics, internal organs measurements, and food consumption of Indonesian people, 1989-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, C.; Bangun, M.; Singh, A.; Yazir, Y.; Alrasyid, H.; Hutagalung, H.

    1998-01-01

    This study has been conducted to obtain, assess and interpret data on morphological, anatomical, chemical and metabolic characteristics of Indonesian population of all ages for establishing an Indonesian Reference Man. The paper presents age and sex specific data on physical anthropometric measurements, and on weights and dimensions of internal organs of normal and healthy Indonesian people. In addition, the content of selected elements in main organs and foodstuff, and the data of daily food consumption of well nourished individuals in three different regions of Indonesia are also presented. Approximately 804 people of all ages were measured to obtain the physical/anthropometric data. The people chosen were from 3 Indonesian regions representing the middle class socioeconomic population. The average body weight and total body height of the age group 20-39 years were found to be 53.5 kg (range: 40-70 kg) and 160.4 cm (range: 147.3-179.8 cm) for males and 48.9 kg (range: 32.7-79.5 kg) and 150.9 cm (range: 141.8-167.3 cm) for females. The weights and dimensions of internal organs data were collected in Jakarta from about 155 sudden death victims. The weight of most male organs was generally about 1% to 19% larger than those of females. However, the female thyroid was 5.6% larger dm the males. The age specific food consumption were obtained in three regions of Indonesia. The content of elements in the selected foodstuffs are also included in this report. The results show that rice is consumed three times a day by most subjects. Milk and eggs are widely consumed and the intake tends to be higher in the younger age groups. Among the meat group, beef is the most popular and consumed with the highest frequency, followed by chicken both in popularity and quantity consumed. Vegetables, particularly the colored vegetables, are used daily in high amounts. (author)

  11. Law, justice and a potential security gap: the 'organization' requirement in international humanitarian law and international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Fortin, K.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ‘organizational’ or ‘organization’ criterion for both non-international armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL) and crimes against humanity under international criminal law (ICL) and considers how it affects the ability to address armed violence carried

  12. Avaliação do capital intelectual desenvolvido em organizações não governamentais: comparação entre entidades brasileiras e portuguesas = Intellectual capital’s assessment developed in non-governmental organizations: comparing portuguese and Brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Souza Lúcio Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As organizações exigem uma gestão cada vez mais dinâmica e atualizada e o capital intelectual possui uma parcela significativa na criação de vantagens competitivas nas entidades. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo consiste em investigar a presença do capital intelectual em entidades sem fins lucrativos portuguesas e as atitudes dos gestores acerca de sua gestão, além de comparar os resultados aos encontrados por Colauto e Avelino (2008 em entidades sem fins lucrativos brasileiras. O delineamento da pesquisa caracteriza-se como estudo exploratório. Os dados são primários e foram levantados por meio da aplicação de um questionário em entidades sem fins lucrativos portuguesas em 2009. As questões foram agrupadas em três categorias com 8 questionamentos para cada grupo, cuja intenção foi mapear os elementos relacionadas ao Capital Humano, Capital Estrutural e Capital de Relacionamentos. Para a quantificação dos elementos investigados, empregou-se uma escala Likert para detectar o grau de concordância/discordância dos respondentes em relação às assertivas propostas. Os resultados corroboram os de Colauto e Avelino (2008 e indicam tendência das entidades portuguesas em concordar com as proposições efetuadas para identificar os elementos relacionados ao Capital Humano, Capital Estrutural e Capital de Relacionamentos. Nas entidades portuguesas, o Capital Humano foi a categoria que apresentou resultados mais significativos (média do grau de concordância = 83%, enquanto nas entidades brasileiras destaque maior foi dado ao Capital de Relacionamentos (média do grau de concordância = 83%.The organizations require a more dynamic and updated management and the intellectual capital has a significant part in creating a competitive advantage in the entities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the intellectual capital presence in nonprofit Portuguese organizations and their managers’ attitudes, beyond compare the

  13. The ITER programme. Successful European inter-governmental cooperation in the scientific and technical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haignere, C.; Bigot, B.

    2008-01-01

    At a time when energy questions - be it global warming or the depletion of sources of fossil fuels - are increasingly in the news, nuclear fusion seems, in the very long term, to raise the possibility of providing humanity with virtually inexhaustible energy. Europe is in the forefront of research in this field. It is the leader in a major international collaborative exercise which should lead to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. After a presentation of the issues surrounding fusion, Claudie Haignere and Bernard Bigot, who are closely involved, through their respective activities, in this venture, outline the genesis of the ITER project and the manifold inter-governmental negotiations - both between EU member states and with the other members of the project (Japan, USA, Russia etc.) - that have accompanied its development. Those negotiations led to the signing in November 2006 of a precise cooperation agreement on the ITER programme (with sharing of the financial burden), which came into force in October 2007. ITER (which is to be built at Cadarache in France) thus represents a particularly successful example of inter-governmental cooperation in the scientific and technical fields. For this reason, the authors see it as a model to be followed in many other fields included within the European Research Area (ERA), which the EU intends to develop in the coming years. (authors)

  14. Conflict Resolution in Africa: Challenges for the International Community, The Organization of African Unity and the Sub- Regional Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wamala, Edward

    2000-01-01

    .... It will discuss in detail the common causes of the conflicts, highlight the roles of external players, the challenges and roles of the international community, the Organization of African Unity (OAU...

  15. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  16. Incidental Detection of Metastatic Lobular Breast Carcinoma in the Female Internal Genital Organs 2 Years Following Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Fang Lee

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The present case provides evidence of breast cancer metastasis to the female internal genital organs. We suggest close gynecologic follow-up after surgical and medical management of breast cancer.

  17. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440

  18. Evaluation of Maintenance Management in Iraqi Governmental Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Mohammed Doos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact of buildings in Iraq and other countries on the environment is obvious; this problem began to take scientific and humanitarian dimensions in order to reduce and eliminate this problem. This impact can be seen through the energy, water and raw materials consumed for the establishment, operation and maintenance of these buildings, as well as the emissions of hazardous gases and generations of solid wastes. This work was conducted to assess the current maintenance managerial practice for the governmental buildings to stand on the main obstacle and extrapolation of measures by means of interviews with experts to determine the effective factors and closed questionnaire to state the features and the need for new building maintenance management system which may assist for modeling new building maintenance management system which may help to reduce the deterioration levels of governmental buildings and the emission of hazardous gases and solid waste with cost efficient approach.

  19. Benchmarking of Governmental Support Measures for University-Industry Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Rõigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to benchmark Estonian governmental support measures targeted toward enhancing university-industry collaboration to European best practice and make suggestions for the development of these measures. The intensity and scope of university-industry cooperation support measures varies heavily in Europe. The survey of European University-Business Cooperation, Pro Inno Europe and Erawatch database of policy measures, and Community Innovation Survey reveal that Finnish, German and Austrian support systems are best balanced and provide good university-industry cooperation intensity. The cooperation measures in Estonia are weak and improvement should be made by increasing the Estonian governmental funding, mandatory cooperation in support measures, networking and applied research in universities, on-going application possibilities, reducing the bureaucracy, and improving the timing of measures.

  20. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT OF MANGROVE SNAPPER, Lutjanus argentimaculatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is one of highly economic value of marine fish commodity. Culture of this species has been developed a few years ago. Basic data on biological aspect is still limited whereas those kinds of information are needed. Histological study to determine development of internal organs of the larvae of mangrove snapper was conducted. Amount of 15-20 larvae each from 1 day after DAH hatching (1 DAH up to 30 days after hatching (30 DAH were collected, fixed in Bouin’s solution for 4-6 hours and then transferred into 70% alcohol. The samples were then embedded in paraffin wax and the sections were stained with haematoxylineosin (H&E. Results showed that the eye retina of the mangrove snapper larvae well developed on 3 DAH, whereas their digestive tract was on 5 DAH. Under this condition, the larvae started feeding as showed by present of natural food tissues in the intestine. Development of digestive tract and other internal organs reached their complete form like in adult fish after 20 DAH.

  1. Abstracts and papers of the 2002 International RERTR Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    This 24th RERTR meeting has been organized in cooperation with the IAEA. It was attended by almost 200 participants coming from almost 30 different countries. Among them we have representatives from governmental and international organizations, private companies, reactor operators, fuel developers, regulators. The papers presented during following sessions: national and international RERTR programs, fuel development, manufacturing and qualification; fuel performance; HEU and LEU fuel cycle; LEU target development; licensing, safety and core assessment; reactor core conversion; acceptance program and spent fuel transportation; spent fuel management

  2. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-01-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. Those properties commonly change through reaction with other particles or gases, resulting in complex internal mixtures. Using transmission electron microscopy, we measured ~8000 particles (25 samples) with aerodynamic diameters from 0.05 to 0.3 μm that were collected in March 2006 from aircraft over Mexico City (MC) and adjacent areas. More than 50% of the particles consist of internally mixed soot, organic matter, and sulfate. Imaging combined with chemical analysis of individual particles show that many are coated, consist of aggregates, or both. Coatings on soot particles can amplify their light absorption, and coagulation with sulfates changes their hygroscopic properties, resulting in shorter lifetime. Our results suggest that a mixture of materials from multiple sources such as vehicles, power plants, and biomass burning occurs in individual particles, thereby increasing their complexity. Through changes in their optical and hygroscopic properties, internally mixed soot particles have a greater effect on the regional climate than uncoated soot particles. Moreover, soot occurs in more than 60% of all particles in the MC plumes, suggesting its important role in the formation of secondary aerosol particles.

  4. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-04-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Internalization of Consumed TiO2 Nanoparticles by a Model Invertebrate Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Novak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little in vivo data concerning the fate of ingested TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2. We report here experiments aimed at assessing if ingested nano-TiO2 accumulates in the digestive gland epithelium or are internalized elsewhere in the body of the terrestrial isopod crustaceans. The animals (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea fed for 3, 7, or 14 days on food dosed with 100 or 1000 μg nano-TiO2 showed no evidence of internalization of Ti measured by microparticle-induced X-ray emission method. The effect of ingested nanoparticles was measured by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change, and mortality and did not indicate any toxicity. However, cell membrane of digestive glands, measured with a modified method for assessing cell membrane stability, was affected already after 3 days of exposure to 1000 μg nano-TiO2 per gram dry weight of food indicating cytotoxic potential of ingested nanoparticles. Our results confirmed hypothesis on low toxic potential and no internalization of consumed TiO2 nanoparticles by a model invertebrate organism. However, cytological marker unequivocally indicated adverse effect of ingested nano-TiO2. We conclude that the isopod model system could be used for studying the fate and effect of ingested nanoparticles.

  6. CSAIO – a progressive tool at the service of staff associations of international organizations and European agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Every year in autumn, a two-day CSAIO (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations) conference is organized for staff associations of international organizations based mainly in Europe, as well as European agencies. Creation, objectives and progress CSAIO, created by the staff associations of CERN and OECD in 2000, invites about 30 staff associations to share their experiences and ideas to better identify the expectations and aspirations of a personnel evolving at the heart of international and European organizations. Over time, the preparation of the conference has evolved to better accommodate the requests of the staff representatives coming from different horizons. For two years, there has been an initiative to institutionalize the informal follow-up, during the first half-day of the conference, of themes discussed the previous year. This follow-up allows participants to share their experience on the implementation and impacts of certain propositions as reflected in their organizations ...

  7. Technical nuclear safety in France. Control by the governmental authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    In publishing this latest edition, we have endeavoured to provide the reader with the information necessary to obtain a full understanding of the regulatory system applied to ensure technical nuclear safety in France. As the reader will discover in the following pages, technical nuclear safety is a matter which must be settled in advance of the actual operation of civil nuclear installations; the primary requirement is to mobilize those involved to anticipate and prevent. The fundamental options on which the French system is based, the relationship between the operator and the safety authority must be clearly stated: independence of judgement and decision, complementarity of responsibilities. It is for the governmental authorities to determine the technical nuclear safety objectives, which are becoming more and more consistent if not unified throughout the world. It is for the operator to propose technical provisions in order to achieve these objectives. It is for the governmental authorities to verify, by technical safety analyses, the adequacy of the provisions in terms of the defined objectives. It is for the operator to properly implement these approved provisions. And, finally, it is for the governmental authorities to verify, by sampling, the quality of their implementation and to make from them the necessary regulatory inferences. This sequence of events requires permanent frank in-depth dialogue. The effectiveness of the regulatory action must therefore reside not in close technical restraint but in the interactions between responsible partners

  8. Technical nuclear safety in France. Control by the governmental authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-15

    In publishing this latest edition, we have endeavoured to provide the reader with the information necessary to obtain a full understanding of the regulatory system applied to ensure technical nuclear safety in France. As the reader will discover in the following pages, technical nuclear safety is a matter which must be settled in advance of the actual operation of civil nuclear installations; the primary requirement is to mobilize those involved to anticipate and prevent. The fundamental options on which the French system is based, the relationship between the operator and the safety authority must be clearly stated: independence of judgement and decision, complementarity of responsibilities. It is for the governmental authorities to determine the technical nuclear safety objectives, which are becoming more and more consistent if not unified throughout the world. It is for the operator to propose technical provisions in order to achieve these objectives. It is for the governmental authorities to verify, by technical safety analyses, the adequacy of the provisions in terms of the defined objectives. It is for the operator to properly implement these approved provisions. And, finally, it is for the governmental authorities to verify, by sampling, the quality of their implementation and to make from them the necessary regulatory inferences. This sequence of events requires permanent frank in-depth dialogue. The effectiveness of the regulatory action must therefore reside not in close technical restraint but in the interactions between responsible partners.

  9. The normative power of the international commission of radiation protection on the approval of the international and communal jurisprudence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoinie, O.

    2006-01-01

    From an original synthesis of the jurisprudence given by the regular control agency of the international work organization concerning the Convention OIT 115 relative to the protection of workers against the ionizing radiations, as well as an alternative analysis of a communal jurisprudence (CJCE, C-376/90, 25 November 1992: Commission of the European Communities against the Belgium kingdom), this work aims to bring a new way to see the power that exerts a non governmental organization with a scientific character: the International Commission for Radiologic Protection (ICRP) when it gives its 'recommendations'. (O.M.)

  10. Electrical and Optical Enhancement in Internally Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Michael Dane

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have made tremendous technological progress in the past two decades and have emerged as a top competitor for next generation light-emitting displays and lighting. State-of-the-art OLEDs have been reported in literature to approach, and even surpass, white fluorescent tube efficiency. However, despite rapid technological progress, efficiency metrics must be improved to compete with traditional inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) technology. Organic materials possess specialized traits that permit manipulations to the light-emitting cavity. Overall, as demonstrated within, these modifications can be used to improve electrical and optical device efficiencies. This work is focused at analyzing the effects that nanopatterned geometric modifications to the organic active layers play on device efficiency. In general, OLED efficiency is complicated by the complex, coupled processes which contribute to spontaneous dipole emission. A composite of three sub-systems (electrical, exciton and optical) ultimately dictate the OLED device efficiency. OLED electrical operation is believed to take place via a low-mobility-modified Schottky injection process. In the injection-limited regime, geometric effects are expected to modify the local electric field leading to device current enhancement. It is shown that the patterning effect can be used to enhance charge carrier parity, thereby enhancing overall recombination. Current density and luminance characteristics are shown to be improved by OLED nanopatterning from both the model developed within and experimental techniques. Next, the optical enhancement effects produced by the nanopatterned array are considered. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are used to determine positional, spectral optical enhancement for the nanopatterned device. The results show beneficial effects to the device performance. The optical enhancements are related to the reduction in internal radiative

  11. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  12. [International legal aspects of responsibility of states and international organizations for the spread of epidemics, pandemics and mass disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Sazonova, K L

    2015-08-01

    The present article deals with international legal issues that arise in case when various mass diseases go beyond any national jurisdiction. The emphasis is made on the problem of international responsibility, which different actors have to bear in such cases. The authors also examine the implementation of responsibility mechanism, including the indentication of the relevant international court, authorized to establish such liability and identify the specific forms of its realization.

  13. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  14. International atomic energy agency organization (IAEA) in case of extra territorial accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, K.; Nogueira de Oliveira, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article sums up the actual activities of IAEA in terms of preparation and responses to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The Agency has established in 1986 a surveillance unit 24 h/24 h and an operational unit: the center of response to emergencies (C.R.U). The C.R.U. is the principal operational unit in charge of acting in case of nuclear emergency notification and to answer to the demand of information or help during an incident or emergency. It receives the reports of an authority of any state, on an incident and checks any report that is not confirmed. It establishes the first functional links with the state at the origin o the report and any state potentially concerned. It establishes links with W.H.O (world health organization), W.M.O.(world meteorological organization), (B.C.A.H.) the office of coordination of humanitarian affairs of united nations, the FAO ( food and agriculture organization).The principal lessons got from interventions made during real events have been the following ones: first, official information communicated by the Center for the IAEA emergency interventions have contributed to avoid the propagations of hearsay and panic, secondly a fast international cooperation and the presence of the team of IAEA center on the premises during an intervention in case of event with multi sectorial consequences are extremely important. (N.C.)

  15. Trust and power as means of co-ordinating the internal relations of the organization : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides a conceptual framework for analysing trust and power in the internal relationships of the organization. It adopts a neo-institutionalist view focussing on the structural inventory and the social embeddedness of the organization in the process of developing trust between

  16. Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century South Africa. ... An account is also given of the modes of governmentality embodied by the South African Translators' Association. Southern ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  18. 「其實你不懂我的心!」檢視臺灣吸引國際學生策略與學生來臺經驗落差之研究 “You Don’t Know What Really Matters to Me!” Examining the Gaps Between Governmental Policies and Student Perspectives in International Student Recruitment Practices in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王秀槐 Hsiou-Huai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 在競爭激烈的全球化時代,對於招募全球人才的理念與實踐進行省思更為重要。本研究以臺灣為個案,以瞭解一個非英語系國家如何採取招募策略以吸引國際學生。臺灣政府相關政策傾向於以全英語授課環境與足夠的獎學金吸引國際學生來臺,且期待進一步與國際學生的母國建立或堅固與臺灣之間的政治與外交關係。然而,對國際學生而言,他們來臺灣求學主要是受到學習中文/文化、良好社會環境與未來工作機會等誘因所吸引。本研究透過政策分析、問卷調查、學生訪談等方式瞭解在政府政策與學生期待之間產生的落差內涵,並提出藉由重新定位政策、建立國際學生輔導系統、強化臺灣利基等建議,以供未來招募國際學生政策與實踐的實質建議。 In the present era of competitive globalization, rethinking the ideals and rationales involved in recruiting global talent is crucial. This study used Taiwan as a case study to explore the approaches adopted by a non-English speaking country for recruiting international students. The Taiwan government believes that it should foster an English language teaching environment in universities and provide sufficient financial support to international students in order to establish and strengthen political and diplomatic relationships with the students’ home countries. However, international students emphasize cultural, linguistic, social, and vocational elements in their motives for studying abroad. Gaps apparently exist between governmental policies and students’ perceptions. Suggestions for bridging these gaps were provided with regard to policy clarification, system building, and niche strengthening in the age of global competition.

  19. Neuronal Regression of Internal Leg Vibroreceptor Organs in a Cave-Dwelling Insect (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae: Dolichopoda araneiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Animals' adaptations to cave habitats generally include elaboration of extraoptic senses, and in insects the receptor structures located on the legs are supposed to become more prominent in response to constant darkness. The receptors for detecting substrate vibrations are often highly sensitive scolopidial sensilla localized within the legs or the body. For troglobitic insects the evolutionary changes in vibroreceptor organs have not been studied. Since rock is an extremely unfavorable medium for vibration transmission, selection on vibration receptors may be weakened in caves, and these sensory organs may undergo regressive evolution. We investigated the anatomy of the most elaborate internal vibration detection system in orthopteroid insects, the scolopidial subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Dolichopoda araneiformis (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Rhaphidophoridae). This is a suitable model species which shows high levels of adaptation to cave life in terms of both phenotypic and life cycle characteristics. We compared our data with data on the anatomy and physiology of the subgenual organ complex from the related troglophilic species Troglophilus neglectus. In D. araneiformis, the subgenual organ complex contains three scolopidial organs: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the accessory organ. The presence of individual organs and their innervation pattern are identical to those found in T. neglectus, while the subgenual organ and the accessory organ of D. araneiformis contain about 50% fewer scolopidial sensilla than in T. neglectus. This suggests neuronal regression of these organs in D. araneiformis, which may reflect a relaxed selection pressure for vibration detection in caves. At the same time, a high level of overall neuroanatomical conservation of the intermediate organ in this species suggests persistence of the selection pressure maintaining this particular organ. While regressive evolution of chordotonal organs has been documented for

  20. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ee

    2009-03-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.