WorldWideScience

Sample records for international future transportation

  1. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  2. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    . However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise......, the environment and the future development of cities....

  3. Future of Transport?- Future of Cities!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future of transport, whatever it will be, cannot be consideredseparately from that of cities. But what, where and whenis the city today? The ability to provide opportunities for humaninteraction is the essential reason for cities to exist. In thepre-industrial past this required high-density, compact urbanforms. Modem transport and communication techniques havehowever increasingly offered human beings ways of interactingat a distance. Physical proximity is no longer needed by manytypes of urban activities. As a result, cities have decentralised,as industry first, then residences and services have fled the diseconomiesof high-density agglomerations. For the future,some even predict the advent of an entirely diffuse, 'virtual' city.Actual evidence is at best mixed. Next to ongoing decentralisation,there are also signals that point in the opposite direction,as there are activities that show a tendency to physicallyconcentrate, underscoring a persistent need for physical humaninteraction. These activities include business and financial services,the emerging sectors of culture, entertainment and themedia, but also certain types of residences and of production.As a result, rather than decentralisation or concentration, contemporarycities show a complex combination of decentralisationand concentration.How will these contrasting movements shape the cities ofthe future? Are telecommunication technologies going to radicallyalter current trends? Or will the quest for sustainability dothis? And what will the role of transp01tation- as cause and effect-be? The diffuse urban-regional accessibility warranted bythe car and the inter-metropolitan connections provided by theaeroplane have been essential conditions for the urbanisationpatterns of the recent past. But will the car and the aeroplanealso be the transportation means of the cities of the future?

  4. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  6. THE FUTURE OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN DUMITRU MATIȘ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the purpose of internal audit has continued to evolve and expand, managing to successfully transition from its traditional function of monitoring financial statements to the strategic and operational efforts of checking the organization’s compliance at all levels. Regarding the future, it is assumed that the internal audit will play an important advisory role, becoming an important catalyst of business development, focusing organizations on emerging risks. This transformation of the whole internal system, consisting in both control and audit, which seeks to promote a risk-centered organizational culture, is in the process of evolution, but it complexity, the conflicts of interest, the little understanding of most companies when it comes to implementing such a system as well as various issues of credibility, limit the pace of development for now. Our belief, however, is that this slow evolution is favorable for the alternative purpose of building the functions of the new internal control and audit on a more credible and relevant foundation for the organizational management.

  7. SYNTHETIC APPROACH ON INTERNAL AND INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORT LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Road freight transport is one of the main activities involved in the operation and development of an economyand its practice and organization emphasizes its importance from two points of view: one as it is the necessary tool forthe establishment and functioning of national and international markets and two because international freight becamea more significant modern sector in industrialized countries; in many countries as Switzerland or Germanytransportation is a professional occupation.I think that the theme in achieving this article is useful, permanent, necessary, timely and appropriate. Usefulbecause the results of this research lead to improved performance in carrying out road freight transport, permanent asthe theme of the article highlights the fact that road freight transport is a permanent factor promoting and stimulatingthe economic growth, necessary because without efficient logistics for road freight transport, moving them by landwould be poor, timely because the dynamics of transport logistics development focus increasingly more on themovement of goods and products in space with motor vehicles and towed resources, and appropriate as the continuousimprovement of road freight transport is source of income both from the point of view of firms and in terms of state.The article aims to highlight a number of synthetic issues related to road freight transport logistics, myapproach in this research leaves room for future additions that will certainly help performance improvement intransportation logistics.

  8. Future trends in international terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins

    1985-12-01

    This survey offers a depressing but conservative view of future trends in terrorism. Terrorism persists. It may double in volume, but the world does not end in terrorist anarchy. Few changes are foreseen in terrorist tactics or targets. Terrorists will escalate their violence, their attacks will become more indiscriminate, we may see political demands based upon threats of food contamination, but terrorists probably will not enter the Armageddon world of mass destruction. Terrorism will become institutionalized as a mode of armed conflict for some, no less legitimate than other modes of conflict. The media will increase its ability to cover terrorist incidents; we will see even more terrorism. The extraordinary security measures taken against terrorism will have become a permanent part of the landscape, of our life style. They will no longer attract comment. That may be the most insidious and perhaps the most worrisome development in the coming years. Terrorism will become an accepted fact of contemporary life--commonplace, ordinary, banal, and therefore somehow tolerable.

  9. International relations: challenge of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R R

    1989-01-01

    The AHRA has made considerable progress in the past few years in expanding its liaison activities to an international level. Mr. Osborn, the association's Coordinator for International Relations, traces the development of this effort and looks at goals and objectives for the future.

  10. International business: past, present and futures

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joanne; Fuller, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This article provides the context for futures thinking in the field of international business (IB). The article begins by considering the nature of IB. Its historical development is then elaborated, before its current significance and trends are considered. Building on the review of past and present we speculate briefly on the possible futures of IB. In so doing, we provide a basis from which the contributions to this Special Issue on the Futures of IB can be understood and situated in a broa...

  11. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  12. The PolicyRelevance of WearEmissions fromRoad Transport,Nowand in the Future-An InternationalWorkshop Report and Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Janssen, N.; Harrison, R.M.; Hulskotte, J.; Johansson, C.; Jozwicka, M.; Keuken, M.; Krijgsheld, K.; Ntziachristos, L.; Riediker, M.; Cassee, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions

  13. 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present the latest information on intelligent- transportation technologies and their applications in real-world cases. The Second International Conference on Intelligent Transportation was held in Chengdu, China on November 25–27, 2015, to present the latest research in the field, including intelligent-transportation management, intelligent vehicles, rail transportation systems, traffic transportation networks, as well as road traffic element simulations and their industrial development. The aim of conference was to bring together academics, researchers, engineers and students from across the world to discuss state-of-the-art technologies related to intelligent transportation.

  14. Future transport power sources. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautavirta, M.; Jaaskelainen, S.

    2013-09-15

    On 17 January 2012 Minister of Transport Merja Kyllonen appointed a working group to explore alternative propulsion systems for the transport of the future. The task of the group was to examine .. on the basis of the current modes of transport and their expected renewal rate .. what forms of propulsion would be possible in Finland in the future, to what extent they could be used, and on what timetable they could be adopted. In addition, the working group was to issue recommendations on what measures should be taken. The group's vision is that passenger car traffic, rail transport and boating will be almost entirely independent of oil in 2050. Liquid and gaseous biofuels should cover at least 70 per cent of the fuels used in heavy-goods transport by 2050, and electricity should have an equally large share in bus and delivery transport in urban areas. In aviation, biokerosine would replace 40 per cent of the current fuels and in shipping, the use of sustainable alternative fuels would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50 per cent. Transport in airport and port terminals would be nearly emission-free as early as 2030. To achieve the goal for private motoring, the working group proposes that an interim target be set whereby all new private cars registered in 2030 should be capable of using alternative fuels. In addition, energy-efficiency needs to improve by nearly 50 per cent from the 2013 level. As far as maritime transport is concerned, the LNG Action Plan must be implemented by as early as 2020. On the basis of its study, the working group puts forward recommendations for measures to be implemented by 2020 and indicators for monitoring the implementation. (orig.)

  15. Announcement by the Internal Transport Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets, freight containers and lids that are no longer in use to contact the Internal Transport Service of the GS department (George Truelove), which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. Please also contact Mr. Truelove if you receive an order that is not meant for you. Internal Transport Service

  16. Future Tasks of the International Calvin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Neuser

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available With the word international, we think specifically of the worldwide research on Calvin. The term international also points to  the  international Calvin Congresses, of which, until now, six have been held. At the Congresses we try to combine the international research as well as to give a fresh impetus for research. The lectures of all the previous Congresses have been printed, with exception of the last Congress in Edinburgh, 1994, which is now being printed. The results of these Congresses are therefore easy to obtain - everyone can read them.The task leads to a double question:Which topics of Calvin research have been analysed and discussed succesfully until now? Which topics  should urgently be researched in future?The first answer includes both a review of the previous six Congresses as well as a glance at recent Calvin literature; the second answer will be developed in the overview which follows, titled The future tasks of Calvin research.

  17. Marine Transportation in Turkey and A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet BALIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is one of the indicator and determining sectors of state economies. It’s shaped in parallel with the economic structure of the coastal countries in increasing or decreasing volumes. Especially with a significant advantage in international trade, sea transport is increasingly been competitive with other modes of transport. Considering the geographic location of Turkey, evaluating from criticial perspectives and developing meaningful proposals for effective solutions to such issues as strenghtening the alternative routes in seaborne trade and privitazing the ports that are to make further technological investments will enable to take effective and proactive measures concerning the future of this industry. In this study, the existing and likely expansions in the structure of shipping industry both in Turkey and in the world have been examined. In this examination, certain secondary data sets, such as the relevant literature and the recent statistical data, have been used.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  20. International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA. .

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. International aircraft ECMO transportation: first French pediatric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud, Jerome; Léger, Pierre L; Porlier, Ludovic; Larroquet, Michelle; Raffin, Herve; Pierron, Charlotte; Walti, Herve; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Refractory severe hemodynamic or respiratory failure may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Since some patients are too sick to be transported safely to a referral ECMO center on conventional transportation, mobile ECMO transport teams have been developed. The experiences of some ECMO transport teams have already been reported, including air and international transport. We report the first French pediatric international ECMO transport by aircraft. This case shows that a long distance intervention of the pediatric ECMO transport team is feasible, even in an international setting. Long distance ECMO transportations are widely carried out for adults, but remain rare in neonates and children.

  3. Impulse Artificial Neural Networks in Internal Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochelska-Mierzejewska Joanna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The second most important function of a warehouse, apart from the storing of goods, is internal transport with a focus on time-effectiveness. When there is a time gap between the production and export of products, the goods need to be stored until they are dispatched to the consumers. An important problem that concerns both large and small warehouses is the selection of priorities, that is handling the tasks in order of importance. Another problem is to identify the most efficient routes for forklift trucks to transport goods from a start-point to a desired destination and prevent the routes from overlapping. In automated warehouses, the transport of objects (the so called pallets of goods is performed by machines controlled by a computer instead of a human operator. Thus, it is the computer, not the man, that makes the difficult decisions regarding parallel route planning, so that the materials are transported within the warehouse in near-optimal time. This paper presents a method for enhancing this process.

  4. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  5. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM. CURRENT RESEARCH AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Naudé

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This publication was first published by the Journal of International Affairs, Volume 32/Number 1, of Columbia University, City of New York. The editors are both connected with this university.

  6. The future of the international monetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. TRIFFIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work argues that neither stable, nor floating exchange rates can function satisfactorily in the absence of any international control, and restraints, over the fantastic explosion of international liquidity provided to the market, in recent years, by the monetary authorities and the commercial banking system. The author focuses on the inflationary aspects of this phenomenon, neglecting the problems of recession and unemployment.

  7. Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment (GITAGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The title project aims to map the transport implications of current world-wide globalisation trends, with a particular view to the consequences of increased transport (of both passengers and goods) for global environmental quality as reflected in Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (notably, but not exclusively CO2). In this study, environmental and climate consequences of globalisation are assessed in a quantitative sense for various modes of transport - in relation to international trade and person mobility - in a medium- to long-term perspective by using results and knowledge from the CPB World Scan Model and the IVM information base on global emissions. Four globalisation scenarios (quantified with WorldScan) formed the basis for various transport scenarios (on different scale levels) of which the consequences in terms of emissions were shown. Besides, the importance and possibilities of innovations in transport were clarified as this is of major importance in mapping out the future of transport. Also attention was paid to the possible impact of policy intervention. Under high economic growth and little political concern about climate change, CO2 emissions from transport might double to quadruple, depending on the region, in the period 1995-2020. It appears that European and Dutch emission levels can only be limited to around 1995 levels if, simultaneously, economic growth is limited, if under a trend towards sustainability transport intensities of economies decline and if all technical opportunities for reduction Of CO2 emissions are exploited. However, since transport is mainly a derived demand, the conclusion is that the transportation sector in itself has only a limited potential to offer a significant contribution towards a reduction in CO2 emissions. Transportation technology and logistics are mainly driven by competitive behaviour, so that an autonomous role of the transport sector in shaping a world characterised by sustainable development is rather limited. This

  8. Geoconservation : international advancements and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Brilha, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, geoconservation has been gradually entering into the geosciences’ community. Recently, Henriques et al. (2011) presented a theoretical framework justifying geoconservation as an emerging geoscience. Geological heritage – materialized in geosites properly managed – establishes multiple links with the society. In spite of this general positive trend, geoconservation faces some future challenges.

  9. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  10. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  11. 41 CFR 109-40.103-3 - International transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation. 109-40.103-3 Section 109-40.103-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.1-General Provision § 109-40.103-3 International transportation. See 4 CFR 52.2 for a certificate required in nonuse of U.S. flag vessels or...

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemente

  14. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemente

  15. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  16. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Transport and energy policy. Looking to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T. [European Commission (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    In the quest of filling human needs, transport and energy do not appear to be the most exciting territories. They come in only later in the vast chain of commodities and services necessary in the smooth operation of a modern market economy. However, current concerns about pollution and the future of our planet have lifted these issues to the top of the agenda. The objective of this paper is to give a glance at the complexity of possible futures facing us. Indeed, one of the main objectives is to show that there are different paths to be taken and we can influence our future. Furthermore, it will be shown that a key element in planning for different futures is the proper choice of energy policy objectives and instruments. An even bigger impact could be expected from the changing paradigms in transport demand patterns. (au)

  18. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  19. Recommendations for future development in cattle transport in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J; Marahrens, M; von Holleben, K

    2003-03-01

    Every year millions of calves and cattle are transported across, from and to Europe. Most of these animals are going to slaughter houses in the respective countries or in another community state or coming or going abroad (extra-EU). These transports give cause for concern for at least three reasons: First, it can cause severe stress in animals entailing poor welfare. Second, stressful transports may have a negative effect on meat quality. Third, there is the risk of spread of infectious diseases over large distances. Existing legislation does not provide enough protection to transported animals especially over long distances largely because considerable parts of the regulations are not sufficiently based on scientific evidence. In recent years some research is carried out including the EU financed CATRA research project (contract QLK5-CT 1999-0157) concentrating on the welfare and meat quality aspects of cattle transport. This paper summarises important results of this recent research and gives some recommendations for future legislation. The welfare of the animals is limited by their needs not by a fixed maximum transport time, if vehicle and transport conditions are appropriate. Bulls, steers and heifers are reacting differently on transport. Adapt transport schemes to the needs of the animals. Meat quality is only effected in extreme situations. Some animals develop an energy deficit after 6 h of transport. Develop appropriate feeding regimes for long transport. Abolish stressful loading and unloading in staging posts (injuries, infectious diseases). Staging posts are particularly stressful for bulls. Educate handlers and drivers more intensively. Pay drivers inverse to losses. Develop monitor systems for long and short distance transport (e.g. records, GPS). Improve vehicle design (e.g. vibration).

  20. Comparison of Turbulent Transport Models and Transport Simulation of Internal Transport Barrier Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuru

    2005-10-01

    In order to predict the performance of ITER plasma, it is important to validate the existing theory-based turbulent transport models by systematicallycomparing them with the experimental observations. Taking experimental data from the ITPA profile database, we have carried out transport simulations with the CDBM, GLF23 and Weiland models by the one-dimensional diffusive transport code TASK/TR. The results are evaluated by the six figures of merit as specified in ITER Physics Basis^1. From the simulation on 55 discharges, it is found that each model has unique dependence on devices and operation modes and the CDBM model gives the most satisfactory results. We have incorporated the dependence on the elongation on the CDBM model^2 and confirmed that the accuracy of the prediction is improved for H-mode discharges. Single-particle-species heat transport simulations have indicated that the CDBM model reproduces Ti profiles more accurately than Te profiles. We will also show the results of the predictive simulations coupling TASK/TR and TASK/EQ, two-dimensional equilibrium code, for high performance plasmas with internal transport barriers like the high βp and reversed shear plasmas. [1] ITER Physics Basis Expert Groups, Nucl. Fusion, 39, 2175 (1999) [2] M. Yagi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 66, 379 (1997)

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  2. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  3. The International Space Station: a pathway to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H; Gerstenmaier, William H; Bartoe, John-David F; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 6 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  4. Internal transport barriers in W7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Ulrich [Institut fuer Experimentelle und AngewandtePhysik, Kiel (Germany); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Hartfuss, Hans; Laqua, Heinrich [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The three-dimensional magnetic configuration of a stellarator offers a specific mechanism for a transition to improved particle and energy confinement. The pathway opens due to the layer of a strongly varying radial electric field which is present in the transitional region from neoclassical electron to ion-root confinement. This type of improvement acts on turbulent transport. (author)

  5. Trade in International Transport Services: The Role of Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); I. Wooton

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe are concerned with trade in transport services (not cabotage but rather international shipping, transport, and related logistical services) and the importance of competition and market structure in the sector. We examine implications of liberalization for profits, trade, and national

  6. Safety : the challenge of today for transportation safety in the future. General report on theme -V "Safety" at the 14th International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Strasbourg, September 7-10, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transportation (un)safety is the result of a complex process in the transportation system. A large number of variables (characteristics of the system elements) with many interactions, produce a complex network of relationships expressed in "system behaviour". In this network of relationships, man as

  7. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    Internationalization, one of the most important forces in higher education today, presents a powerful challenge and an opportunity for medical schools. Factors encouraging internationalization include (1) globalization of health care delivery, (2) governmental pressures, (3) improved communication channels, (4) development of a common vocabulary, (5) outcome-based education and standards, (6) staff development initiatives, and (7) competitiveness and commercialization. A three-dimensional model--based on the student (local or international), the teacher (local or international), and the curriculum (local, imported, or international)-offers a range of perspectives for international medical education. In the traditional approach to teaching and learning medicine, local students and local teachers use a local curriculum. In the international medical graduate or overseas student model, students from one country pursue in another country a curriculum taught and developed by teachers in the latter. In the branch-campus model, students, usually local, have an imported curriculum taught jointly by international and local teachers. The future of medical education, facilitated by the new learning technologies and pedagogies, lies in a move from such international interconnected approaches, which emphasize the mobility of students, teachers, and curriculum across the boundaries of two countries, to a transnational approach in which internationalization is integrated and embedded within a curriculum and involves collaboration between a number of schools in different countries. In this approach, the study of medicine is exemplified in the global context rather than the context of a single country. The International Virtual Medical School serves as an example in this regard.

  8. Social media and international advertising: Theoretical challenges and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Taylor, Charles R. (Charles Robert)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The primary aim of this article is to identify theoretical foundations that can be used in research on social media in the context of international advertising research. An additional objective is to identify future research directions for theory building in this research area. Design/methodology/approach – The article draws on the extant literature to identify three key theoretical foundations that can be used in research on advertising in media from an advertising p...

  9. The International DORIS Service: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudarin, Laurent; Ferrage, Pascale; Saunier, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French DORIS tracking system and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). Since its start, the organization has continuously evolved, leading to additional and improved operational products from an expanded set of DORIS Analysis Centers. IDS is now based on a reinforced structure with two Data Centers, six Analysis Centers, several associated groups and a Combination Center. Using the experience gained in the preparation of the ITRF2008 and ITRF2014, many improvements were made both in data analysis and on technical aspects. This presentation addresses the organizational aspects of the IDS and the recent achievements made by its components. We also discuss the future plans in terms of new products and activities.

  10. Globalisation, international transport and the global environment. A scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The project 'Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment' aims to investigate the consequences of globalisation for international transport for global environmental quality as reflected in greenhouse gases in a very general sense. The policy aim (global/European) is to analyse the influence of international policy (Kyoto/IPCC/changes in carbon taxes) on transport volumes, intermodal substitutions or vehicle size and its implications for the environment. This short-paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of the title project. Attention will be paid to the assessment of trends, the scenario method, the conceptual framework and four qualitative globalisation scenarios. 16 refs.

  11. Directed transport in a ratchet with internal and chemical freedoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider mechanisms of directed transport in a ratchet model comprising, besides the external freedom where transport occurs, a chemical freedom that replaces the familiar external driving by an autonomous dynamics providing energy input, and an internal freedom representing a functional mode of a motor molecule. The dependence of the current on various parameters is studied in numerical simulations of our model. In particular, we point out the role of the internal freedom as a buffer between energy input and output of mechanical work that allows a temporary storage of injected energy and can contribute to the efficiency of current generation.

  12. 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiongyao; Sun, Jian; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yinong; ITASC

    2017-01-01

    This book presents research advances in intelligent transportation and smart cities in detail, mainly focusing on green traffic and urban utility tunnels, presented at the 3rd International Symposium for Intelligent Transportation and Smart City (ITASC) held at Tongji University, Shanghai, on May 19–20, 2017. It discusses a number of hot topics, such as the 2BMW system (Bus, Bike, Metro and Walking), transportation safety and environmental protection, urban utility design and application, as well as the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in city design. By connecting the theory and applications of intelligent transportation in smart cities, it enhances traffic efficiency and quality. The book gathers numerous selected papers and lectures, including contributions from respected scholars and the latest engineering advances, to provide guidance to researchers in the field of transportation and urban planning at universities and in related industries. The first conference in the ITASC series sta...

  13. Improving the Transportability of CBT for Internalizing Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R. Meredith; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Santucci, Lauren C.; Barlow, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Research provides strong support for the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood internalizing disorders. Given evidence for limited dissemination and implementation of CBT outside of academic settings, efforts are underway to improve its transportability so that more children with mental…

  14. Improving the Transportability of CBT for Internalizing Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R. Meredith; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Santucci, Lauren C.; Barlow, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Research provides strong support for the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood internalizing disorders. Given evidence for limited dissemination and implementation of CBT outside of academic settings, efforts are underway to improve its transportability so that more children with mental…

  15. Benchmarking of the mono-energetic transport coefficients-results from the International Collaboration on Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators (ICNTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C. D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Allmaier, K. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Isaev, Maxim Yu [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Kasilov, K. [Insitute of Plasma Physics, NSC-KhIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine; Kernbichler, W. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Leitold, G. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Maassberg, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Schmidt, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Tribaidos, V. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Wakasa, A. [Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.

  16. Internet-marketing v mezhdunarodnoi torgovle i na transporte = Internet marketing in the international trade and transport international transport corridors / Vladimir Zaitsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" käsitleb Interneti rolli ja võimalusi rahvusvaheliste transporditeenuste turunduses

  17. Internet-marketing v mezhdunarodnoi torgovle i na transporte = Internet marketing in the international trade and transport international transport corridors / Vladimir Zaitsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" käsitleb Interneti rolli ja võimalusi rahvusvaheliste transporditeenuste turunduses

  18. Angular Momentum Transport via Internal Gravity Waves in Evolving Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Brown, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Recent asteroseismic advances have allowed for direct measurements of the internal rotation rates of many sub-giant and red giant stars. Unlike the nearly rigidly rotating Sun, these evolved stars contain radiative cores that spin faster than their overlying convective envelopes, but slower than they would in the absence of internal angular momentum transport. We investigate the role of internal gravity waves in angular momentum transport in evolving low mass stars. In agreement with previous results, we find that convectively excited gravity waves can prevent the development of strong differential rotation in the radiative cores of Sun-like stars. As stars evolve into sub-giants, however, low frequency gravity waves become strongly attenuated and cannot propagate below the hydrogen burning shell, allowing the spin of the core to decouple from the convective envelope. This decoupling occurs at the base of the sub-giant branch when stars have surface temperatures of roughly 5500 K. However, gravity waves can s...

  19. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  20. 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes the proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITITS 2015) which was held in Xi’an on December 12-13, 2015. The conference provided a platform for all professionals and researchers from industry and academia to present and discuss recent advances in the field of Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems. The presented information technologies are connected to intelligent transportation systems including wireless communication, computational technologies, floating car data/floating cellular data, sensing technologies, and video vehicle detection. The articles focusing on intelligent transport systems vary in the technologies applied, from basic management systems to more application systems including topics such as emergency vehicle notification systems, automatic road enforcement, collision avoidance systems and some cooperative systems. The conference hosted 12 invited speakers and over 200 part...

  1. THE INTERNATIONAL MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OF HAZARDOUS GOODS AND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Carosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international multimodal transport of hazardous goods and waste is a sector of remarkable economic importance. This transport activity is connected to several productive sectors and it can have considerable repercussions on the environment and health as well as on the safety of the workers and third parties that study in the same field. A certain part of the transport of hazardous goods and waste is managed by organized criminals who can obtain enormous savings by neglecting the measures necessary to protect the environment and safety. The legitimate economy is thus damaged and, above all, the efforts the International Community has made since the fifties-sixties, concerning the regulation of the complex aspects of this activity, are undermined. Two distinct judicial models exist at an international level concerning hazardous waste and goods: “transboundary movement” and “international transport”. The purpose of these models is to regulate a phenomenon which, although very complex and articulated, requires a homogeneous view. The international multimodal transport judicial model is here examined in 3 subsequent stages: (1 the general aspects and the details along the entire chain, starting from the loading operations, then going on to the transport itself and ending up with the unloading at its final destination; (2 the controls on the respect of international legislation on this topic; (3 a study case is conducted pertaining to the extensive PCB category which, from a judicial point of view, in certain cases can be considered hazardous goods and in other cases hazardous waste. The aim of the study is to supply decision makers with indications that can be used to improve the efficacy and the effectiveness of the regulations at a UN level and of the cascading particular agreements for the various means of transport. The international multimodal transport judicial model suffers from the uncertainties that were already

  2. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particula...... to supply long-haul heavy trucks and aviation modes that require energy intensive liquid fuels (IEA, 2009). Sustainability criteria can help create a clear framework to producers/business/ investors necessary to help minimize threads and to maximize opportunities for market development...

  3. [Future development of radioecological investigations--new international projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzharova, N I

    2014-01-01

    Information is given on the future development of nuclear power engineering and the need to ensure environmental safety. The complexity of the emerging problems requires a wide international integration of scientific investigations. Also described are ecological projects that have been implemented by the IAER after the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as a new project, MODARIA, which will pay special attention to the improvement of models for radionuclide transfer and estimation of radiation effects on both humans and biota. The strategy and agenda for the development of radioecological studies in the 21st century are described which are being realized by the nine key research centers (European Radioecology Alliance) under the EC project STAR.

  4. International conference on past, present and future climate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, P. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publications contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Past, Present and Future Climate, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 22-25 August 1995. Conference was organized to serve at least two purposes. First, it was the fourth meeting in a series of Nordic climate conferences. Earlier Nordic meetings had been held in Copenhagen (1978), Stockholm (1983) and Tromsoe (1990). Secondly, the conference formed part of the integration activities of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). Four central themes were selected for the conference: (1) climatic changes since the last glaciation inferred from proxy data,(2) detection of climate change from the instrumental record,(3) changes in atmospheric composition, (4) predicting future climate. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change was in its sixth and final year at the time of the conference. One of the aims of the meeting was to foster the communication of SlLMU`s results to the scientific community at large. On the other hand, feedback from overseas colleagues was expected to be beneficial for the final reporting of the results of the research programme. Altogether 117 scientific contributions were submitted and more than 140 scientists attended the conference

  5. International Conference in Computational Cell Biology: From the Past to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    International Conference in Computational Cell Biology : from the past to the future The first International Conference on Computational Cell ...their latest research and discussed challenges in computational cell biology research and education. The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...International Conference in Computational Cell Biology : from the past to the future Report Title The first International Conference on Computational Cell

  6. Internal transport barrier with ICRH minority heating on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, G.T.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Antar, G.; Aniel, T.; Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Devynck, P.; Lasalle, J.; Martin, G.; Saint-Laurent, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Budny, R.V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., N.J. (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Recently reversed magnetic shear (s) operation was performed using only ion cyclotron resonance frequency minority heating (ICRH) during current ramp-up. A wide region of reserved magnetic shear has been obtained. For the first time, an electron internal transport barrier sustained by ICRH is observed, with a dramatic drop of density fluctuations. This barrier was maintained, on the current flat top, for about 2 s. (authors)

  7. Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

    2012-09-01

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.

  8. Directed transport in a ratchet with internal and chemical freedoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, T., E-mail: tdittrich@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Naranjo, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2010-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Directed currents in a ratchet including a chemical freedom that provides energy input and an internal freedom modeled as a functional mode of a motor molecule show a direct relation to the structure of the underlying attaractor, limit cycle or chaotic, as reflected in their dependence on the coupling between external and chemical degrees of freedom. - Abstract: We consider mechanisms of directed current in a ratchet model comprising, besides the external freedom where transport occurs, a chemical freedom that replaces the familiar external driving by an autonomous dynamics providing energy input, and an internal freedom representing a functional mode of a motor molecule. The dependence of the current on various parameters is studied in numerical simulations of our model. In particular, we point out the role of the internal freedom as a buffer between energy input and output of mechanical work that allows a temporary storage of injected energy and can contribute to the efficiency of current generation.

  9. The Role of Personality Traits through Habit and Intention on Determining Future Preferences of Public Transport Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A complex set of factors may affect transportation mode choice. While earlier studies have often considered objective factors in determining preferences of public transport use as a sustainable transportation, subjective factors such as personality traits are underexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of personality traits on the number of future public transport use. Additionally, “car habit” and “intention toward using public modes” were considered to be important. For this purpose, a case study from departure passengers at Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA, Tehran, Iran was conducted between January and February 2015 at IKIA. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM shows that only neuroticism and extraversion personality traits were significant in determining future public transportation mode choice. However, the model indicates that these traits indirectly influence intention and car habit. Neuroticism was found to have a total effect of −0.022 on future public transport use, which represents a negative association with public transport use, while extraversion positively influenced future public transport use with a total effect of 0.031. Moreover, the results found interestingly that car access had a better fit to the data than the number of cars in household (NCH; both had significant positive effect on car habit, but only car access had a significant influence on intention. Furthermore, the effect of socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, educational level, income level, and body mass index (BMI were determined to be significant in identifying choice of future transport mode to airports, which is explained in the discussion section of this paper.

  10. The Role of Personality Traits through Habit and Intention on Determining Future Preferences of Public Transport Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mahdi; Hadji Hosseinlou, Mansour

    2017-02-17

    A complex set of factors may affect transportation mode choice. While earlier studies have often considered objective factors in determining preferences of public transport use as a sustainable transportation, subjective factors such as personality traits are underexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of personality traits on the number of future public transport use. Additionally, "car habit" and "intention toward using public modes" were considered to be important. For this purpose, a case study from departure passengers at Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA, Tehran, Iran) was conducted between January and February 2015 at IKIA. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that only neuroticism and extraversion personality traits were significant in determining future public transportation mode choice. However, the model indicates that these traits indirectly influence intention and car habit. Neuroticism was found to have a total effect of -0.022 on future public transport use, which represents a negative association with public transport use, while extraversion positively influenced future public transport use with a total effect of 0.031. Moreover, the results found interestingly that car access had a better fit to the data than the number of cars in household (NCH); both had significant positive effect on car habit, but only car access had a significant influence on intention. Furthermore, the effect of socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, educational level, income level, and body mass index (BMI) were determined to be significant in identifying choice of future transport mode to airports, which is explained in the discussion section of this paper.

  11. The Role of Personality Traits through Habit and Intention on Determining Future Preferences of Public Transport Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mahdi; Hadji Hosseinlou, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    A complex set of factors may affect transportation mode choice. While earlier studies have often considered objective factors in determining preferences of public transport use as a sustainable transportation, subjective factors such as personality traits are underexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of personality traits on the number of future public transport use. Additionally, “car habit” and “intention toward using public modes” were considered to be important. For this purpose, a case study from departure passengers at Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA, Tehran, Iran) was conducted between January and February 2015 at IKIA. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that only neuroticism and extraversion personality traits were significant in determining future public transportation mode choice. However, the model indicates that these traits indirectly influence intention and car habit. Neuroticism was found to have a total effect of −0.022 on future public transport use, which represents a negative association with public transport use, while extraversion positively influenced future public transport use with a total effect of 0.031. Moreover, the results found interestingly that car access had a better fit to the data than the number of cars in household (NCH); both had significant positive effect on car habit, but only car access had a significant influence on intention. Furthermore, the effect of socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, educational level, income level, and body mass index (BMI) were determined to be significant in identifying choice of future transport mode to airports, which is explained in the discussion section of this paper. PMID:28218641

  12. Assessing the Global and Arctic Transport of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Under Present and Future Climate and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C. L.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the present and potential future atmospheric transport and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. PCBs are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals whose production and use have been banned internationally. PCBs continue to cycle through the global atmosphere, however, because of their persistence, passive emissions from remaining stocks, and release from natural storage reservoirs such as oceans or soils. In particular, PCBs have been shown to transport long distances in the atmosphere to locations remote from emissions, such as the Arctic, where they can accumulate in wildlife and humans, putting health at risk. Previous studies have suggested that PCBs may be remobilized in a changing climate because higher temperatures will cause greater re-emissions from surface reservoirs. Here, we modify GEOS-Chem to simulate atmospheric PCB transport and investigate the relative effects of predicted climate changes and projected declines in primary emissions, especially on transport to the Arctic. We quantify changes in atmospheric concentrations of two PCBs (CB28 and CB 153) under 2050 climate ("FC"); 2050 emissions ("FE"); and 2050 climate and emissions combined ("FCFE"); relative to a 2000 climate, 2000 emissions control scenario, and determine the major processes affecting these changes. In the version of the model presented here, only soil-atmosphere surface interactions are considered, though future versions will include interaction with other surface media. Our results suggest projected 2050 emissions will play a stronger role than 2050 climate in controlling PCB concentrations of different volatilities. Temperature increases under FC cause increases in emissions of only 4% at most, resulting in negligible concentration changes relative to the FE scenario, in which primary emissions are projected to decline to temperature changes under FC.

  13. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  14. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Wong; W.W. Heidbrink; E. Ruskov; C.C. Petty; C.M. Greenfield; R. Nazikian; R. Budny

    2004-11-12

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed.

  15. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  16. Internal transport barrier formation in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, F; Giruzzi, G; Artaud, J F; Mazon, D [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-06-15

    The characteristics of the safety factor profile (q) have been studied for a database of discharges featuring internal transport barrier phenomena under different heating and current drive conditions in the Tore Supra tokamak. The presence of a recurrent link between the time of formation of an internal barrier and the central safety factor (q{sub 0}) crossing a low order rational surface is reported on and discussed for a database of {approx}40 discharges. Other relevant features of the current profile (e.g. the minimal q value, the magnetic shear and the presence of magnetic islands in the plasma) have been investigated, yielding to little or no correlation with the time and location of the barrier.

  17. Astrobiology: guidelines and future missions plan for the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L.; Miller, D.

    The search for extra-terrestrial life has been going on ever since humans realized there was more to the Universe than just the Earth. These quests have taken many forms including, but not limited to: the quest for understanding the biological origins of life on Earth; the deployment of robotic probes to other planets to look for microbial life; the analysis of meteorites for chemical and fossil remnants of extra - terrestrial life; and the search of the radio spectrum for signs of extra-solar intelligence. These searches so far have yielded hints, but no unambiguous proof of life with origins from off Earth. The emerging field of astrobiology studies the origin, distribution, and future of life in the Universe. Technical advances and new, though not conclusive, evidence of extinct microbial life on Mars have created a new enthusiasm for astrobiology in many nations. However, the next steps to take are not clear, and should a positive result be returned, the follow-on missions are yet to be defined. This paper reports on the results of an eight-week study by the students of the International Space University during the summer of 2002. The study created a source book that can be used by mission designers and policy makers to chart the next steps in astrobiology. In particular, the study addresses the following questions:1.What is the full set of dimensions along which we can search forextra-terrestrial life?2.What activities are currently underway by the internationalcommunity along each of these dimensions?3.What are the most effective next steps that can be taken by theinternational space community in order to further this search (from a policy,sociological and mission point of view)?4.What are the proper steps for eliminating possible contaminationof the Earth's biosphere?5.What are the issues with planetary quarantine with regards tounwanted contamination of other biospheres with terrestrial organisms? Integrating all the considerations affecting the search for

  18. A Study on Competitiveness of Sea Transport by Comparing International Transport Routes between Korea and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-seop Moon

    2015-03-01

    Route 1 was found the most competitive, and Route 5, the most widely used sea way was ranked the lowest. In addition, the new transport routes, Route 1 and 6 are shown to be more competitive than the currently available routes, Route 2, 3 and 4. However, these routes need national level supports (rail construction for Route 1 and subsidy plan for Route 6 for the commercial use in the future.

  19. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  20. Galactic cosmic ray transport methods: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Costen, R. C.; Bodavi, F. F.; Lankin, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The developement of the theory of high charge and energy (HZE) ion transport is reviewed. The basic solution behavior and approximation techniques will be described. An overview of the HZE transport codes currently available at the Langley Research Center will be given. The near term goal of the Langely program is to produce a complete set of one-dimensional transport codes. The ultimate goal is to produce a set of complete three-dimensional codes which have been validated in the laboratory and can be applied in the engineering design enviroment. Recent progress toward completing these goals is discussed.

  1. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging World" (J.…

  2. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  3. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  4. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  5. Education, Social Cohesion, and the Future Role of International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes social cohesion issues within education, concerns over how education performs this function, and implications for international organizations. The paper reviews the purposes of public education, discusses some modern challenges to these traditional functions and why it may be important for international organizations to assume a new…

  6. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  7. THE ROLE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LOGISTICS PLATFORM IN THE INTERN AND INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The logistics of the company is a challenge and in the same time a necessity for its introduction the management activity, which in our opinion means more than the simple supply with merchandise of the means due to the fact that the manager of the company ,that has logistics problems, must know very well which are the existent internal and external infrastructures and that are organized in logistic platforms that will be introduced in the company strategy, for the saving of the resources and the surface sizing storage. The aim of this paper is to highlight the fact that the creation of an effective logistics system by a company lead to the decrease of the negative effects of the merchandise transportation and also the creation of the conditions for a sustainable development. This is projected so that it allows the usage of an informational system that enables the application of some effective programs for optimal routing of the means of transportation for the accomplishment of the proposed objectives, meaning the transportation of the merchandise to the beneficiary at the established deadlines and in quality conditions. The insurance of the transportation of the merchandise to the clients in safety and quality conditions requires that the logistics manager of the company assures logistics platforms as effective solutions for the saving of the resources; these represent objectives of the logistic system that realizes shipment operations of the merchandise stored, packed, sorted and grouped with the view of shipping them to the beneficiaries (clients.

  8. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1990-12-01

    Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial transport of electron and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document.

  9. Transportation: Design, Build, and Manage the Future for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A safe, efficient, and effective transportation system is critical to the growth and stability of the U.S. economy, America's ability as a nation to compete in increasingly competitive global markets, and as a commuter network that provides access to jobs and recreational facilities that are important to quality of life for all Americans. The…

  10. Academic general internal medicine: a mission for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Keating, Nancy L; Landry, Michael; Crotty, Bradley H; Phillips, Russell S; Selker, Harry P

    2013-06-01

    After five decades of growth that has included advances in medical education and health care delivery, value cohesion, and integration of diversity, we propose an overarching mission for academic general internal medicine to lead excellence, change, and innovation in clinical care, education, and research. General internal medicine aims to achieve health care delivery that is comprehensive, technologically advanced and individualized; instills trust within a culture of respect; is efficient in the use of time, people, and resources; is organized and financed to achieve optimal health outcomes; maximizes equity; and continually learns and adapts. This mission of health care transformation has implications for the clinical, educational, and research activities of divisions of general internal medicine over the next several decades.

  11. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  12. The Third Wave: Future Trends in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman; Seng, Michael Sim Yaw

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the second half of the twentieth century saw the development of a global market in international education, so that by the 1990s, the systems of many host nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, United Stated, United Kingdom, and New Zealand) had become more market focused and were adopting professional marketing strategies to recruit…

  13. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irastorza, I G; Avignone, F T; Cantatore, G

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ (≳) few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IAXO...

  14. Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Øyvind; Sørgârd, Eirik; Sundet, Jostein K.; Dalsøren, Stig B.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berglen, Tore F.; Gravir, Gjermund

    2003-09-01

    Emission generated by the international merchant fleet has been suggested to represent a significant contribution to the global anthropogenic emissions. To analyze the impacts of these emissions, we present detailed model studies of the changes in atmospheric composition of pollutants and greenhouse compounds due to emissions from cargo and passenger ships in international trade. Global emission inventories of NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) are developed by a bottom-up approach combining ship-type specific engine emission modeling, oil cargo VOC vapor modeling, alternative global distribution methods, and ship operation data. Calculated bunker fuel consumption is found in agreement with international sales statistics. The Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue system (AMVER) data set is found to best reflect the distributions of cargo ships in international trade. A method based on the relative reporting frequency weighted by the ship size for each vessel type is recommended. We have exploited this modeled ship emissions inventory to estimate perturbations of the global distribution of ozone, methane, sulfate, and nitrogen compounds using a global 3-D chemical transport model with interactive ozone and sulfate chemistry. Ozone perturbations are highly nonlinear, being most efficient in regions of low background pollution. Different data sets (e.g., AMVER, The Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)) lead to highly different regional perturbations. A maximum ozone perturbation of approximately 12 ppbv is obtained in the North Atlantic and in the North Pacific during summer months. Global average sulfate loading increases with 2.9%, while the increase is significantly larger over parts of western Europe (up to 8%). In contrast to the AMVER data, the COADS data give particularly large enhancements over the North Atlantic. Ship emissions reduce methane lifetime by approximately 5%. CO2 and O3 give positive radiative forcing (RF), and

  15. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewab...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  16. Future of regional transport; Kinkyori koku yuso no shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, W.

    2000-01-05

    The short-distance air transportation has been developing for these 20 years backed by deregulation. At the beginning, this business started with small reciprocating plane and turboprop plane which took over air taxi, and it now developed to a business having a scale of more than ten times as large as that of 20 years ago in both Europe and the U.S. The so-called commuter airline changed from turboprop to jet, and the short-distance route has been expanding to the long-distance route. However, the crowdedness and standstill at airport caused by the increase of passengers are becoming a big problem. As a mean to solve the problem, a thought of using helicopter without using runway for the short-distance transportation is increasing. However, since there are problems in transportability and economical efficiency, tiltrotor plane started to be considered in the 1990. In the U.S., a civil tiltrotor development advisory committee was established for the study. As a result, it is predicted that the demand for tiltrotor will be 1,085-1,450 planes worldwide. (NEDO)

  17. 7th FTRA International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Victor; Wang, Cho-Li; Shon, Taeshik; Advances in Complex Data Modeling and Computational Methods in Statistics

    2012-01-01

    This book is about Future Information Technology, Application, and Service (FutureTech 2012 volume 2). The topics of FutureTech 2012 cover the current hot topics satisfying the world-wide ever-changing needs. The FutureTech 2012 is intended to foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization. The FutureTech 2012 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in this area. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories, modeling, and practical applications in many types of future technology. The main scope of FutureTech 2012 is as follows. Hybrid Information Technology Cloud and Cluster Computing Ubiquitous Networks and Wireless Communications Multimedia Convergence Intelligent and Pervasive Applications Security and Trust Computing IT Management and Service Bioinfo...

  18. Future car transport, Evaluating optimal solutions for future transport in the Netherlands focussing on the electric and hydrogen car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The modern world we are living in today, consumes fasts amounts of fossil fuels in many sectors. One of these sectors is transport which is almost completely dependent on oil derivatives. This heavy dependency on oil and other types of fossil fuel makes i

  19. Future car transport, Evaluating optimal solutions for future transport in the Netherlands focussing on the electric and hydrogen car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The modern world we are living in today, consumes fasts amounts of fossil fuels in many sectors. One of these sectors is transport which is almost completely dependent on oil derivatives. This heavy dependency on oil and other types of fossil fuel makes i

  20. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. The Bifurcation of International Law: Two Futures for the International Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This short paper argues that in the next decades we are likely to see a fundamental separation in the form and contents of the international rule of law. In a sizeable, but relatively small group of states, international law transforms itself from its international roots and interconnects and

  4. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    the experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building...

  5. Impacts of Future Climate Change on Ukraine Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    Transportation not only affects climate, but are strongly influenced with the climate conditions, and key hubs of the transportation sector are cities. Transportation decision makers have an opportunity now to prepare for projected climate changes owing to development of emission scenarios. In the study impact of climate change on operation of road transport along highways are analyzed on the basis of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Data contains series of daily mean and maximum temperature, daily liquid (or mixed) and solid precipitation, daily mean relative humidity and daily mean and maximum wind speed, obtained for the period of 2011 to 2050 for 8 cities (Dnipropetrovsk, Khmelnytskyi, Kirovohrad, Kharkiv, Odesa, Ternopil, Vinnytsia and Voznesensk) situated down the highways. The highways of 'Odesa-Voznesensk-Dnipropetrovsk-Kharkiv' and 'Dnipropetrovsk-Kirovohrad-Vinnytsia-Khmelnytskyi-Ternopil' are considered. The first highway goes across the Black Sea Lowland, the Dnieper Upland and Dnieper Lowland, the other passes through the Dnieper and Volhynia-Podillia Uplands. The both highways are situated in steppe and forest-steppe native zones. For both scenarios, significant climate warming is registered; it is revealed in significant increase of average monthly and yearly temperature by 2-3°C in all cities in questions, and also, in considerable increment of frequency of days with maximum temperature higher than +30 and 35°C, except Kharkiv, where decrease number of days with such temperatures is observed. On the contrary, number of days with daily mean temperature being equal to or below 0°C decreases in the south of steppe, is constant in the north of steppe and increases in the forest-steppe native zone. Extreme negative temperatures don't occur in the steppe zone, but takes place in the forest-steppe zone. Results obtained shows that road surface must hold in extreme maximum temperature, and in the forest-steppe zone hazards of extreme negative temperatures

  6. 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering and the 10th International Conference on Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Han-Chieh; Arabnia, Hamid; Yen, Neil; Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering : Future Information Technology; MUE-15; FutureTech 2015

    This volume brings together contributions representing the state-of-the-art in new multimedia and future technology information research, currently a major topic in computer science and electronic engineering. Researchers aim to interoperate multimedia frameworks, transforming the way people work and  interact with multimedia data. This book covers future information technology topics including digital and multimedia convergence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, intelligent computing and applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, human-centric computing and social networks, adaptive and context-aware computing, security and trust computing and related areas.  Representing the combined proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE-15) and the 10th International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech 2015), this book aims to provide a complete coverage of...

  7. Biosolids disposal: An international overview of current and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1993-03-01

    The current trend in wastewater treatment is toward optimization, reuse, and beneficial use of biosolids. Key considerations in the selection of a sludge management process include long-term viability, sludge quality, markets for sludge-derived products, storage requirements, and whether the project will be able to obtain approvals. Beneficial uses of biosolids include agriculture and landscaping, construction materials, and energy; emerging technologies for utilizing sludges include biobrick production, animal feed production, vermiculture, pyrolysis of sludge to produce oil, manufacturing cement using sludge, and sludge liming for use in agriculture. An important use of sludge in Canada will be the use of solids as fertilizer in cleared-out areas of forest. A review is presented of practices in sludge disposal and utilization in Canada, the USA, Europe, and Japan. Some future trends are also noted. 4 tabs.

  8. PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Stadoleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Paneuropean development of patients’ rights represent a relatively recent concern, the legislative norms of which aim at granting to patients real-time access to all sorts of medical services. To this end, the European Union implemented a unitary normative professional and juridical background: Directive 2011/24/U.E. on the rights of patients to international treatments. Consequently, the patients are free to choose themselves the suppliers of medical services which do not include hospitalization, without a previous authorisation (country, doctor and medical institution while, in the case of long-term treatments, a principial authorisation will be necessary. In both cases, the carrier of the therapeutic service receives the payment for his actions at the level of those established at national level, the difference being usually payed by the patient.

  9. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J.G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Isern, J; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IAXO are an increased magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics.

  10. The Growth Path and Future of London International Financial Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清娟

    2013-01-01

    London has grown up quickly to be a global financial center as a Phoenix in the past 100years,recorded history dating back to over 500 years ago.Though the financial services in London were berated to be "greedy"and as part of a giant casino led to the recession,this view was not accurate.London international financial center has become the core of the global financial industry,and played a crucial role in the development of the global economy.This article mainly discusses:the influence of London financial center on the world economy,the support to real economic development,the status of historical stages,and the development trend of the City.

  11. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA): 1976 to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Roy

    2016-12-01

    The origins of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) are described, together with its role in the particle physics community; also discussed are some of its past and current major activities.

  12. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  13. Trends in CO2 Emissions from China-Oriented International Marine Transportation Activities and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for marine transportation and its associated CO2 emissions are growing rapidly as a result of increasing international trade and economic growth. An activity-based approach is developed for forecasting CO2 emissions from the China-oriented international seaborne trade sector. To accurately estimate the aggregated emissions, CO2 emissions are calculated individually for five categories of vessels: crude oil tanker, product tanker, chemical tanker, bulk carrier, and container. A business-as-usual (BAU scenario was developed to describe the current situation without additional mitigation policies, whilst three alternative scenarios were developed to describe scenarios with various accelerated improvements of the key factors. The aggregated CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 419.97 Mt under the BAU scenario, and 258.47 Mt under the optimal case, AD3. These predictions are 4.5 times and 2.8 times that of the aggregated emissions in 2007. Our analysis suggests that regulations for monitoring, reporting, and verifying the activities of vessels should be proposed, in order to quantify the CO2 emissions of marine transportation activities in Chinese territorial waters. In the long-term future, mitigation policies should be employed to reduce CO2 emissions from the marine trade sector and to address the climatic impact of shipping.

  14. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  15. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  16. Hydrogen - the source of energy for future transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, M.; Schubert, J.

    2001-07-01

    Although the European laws for the limitation of emissions proved to be very efficient in leading to very good results, it is doubtful whether gasoline and diesel can be used as fuels in motor vehicles for an unlimited period of time. The problem of the 'greenhouse-effect' generated partly by the release of CO{sub 2} from combustion engines along with the limitation of the natural reserves of oil and natural gas call for the search for an alternative fuel. Hydrogen is currently the undisputed alternative for the future. Therefore a lot of tests have already been done with hydrogen powered vehicles in Germany. The most successful concepts are those in which the fuel cell is implemented to produce on-board power. On assignment of the Ministry for Environment and Traffic of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) the short-term, medium-term and long-term effects of the introduction of hydrogen powered fuel cell busses are being analyzed by means of three scenarios taking the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg as an example. The evaluation of the economic effects is intended to illustrate the supplementary costs arising for the bus operators due to the new actuation concept. The ecological and economic effects are being estimated in dependence of the presentation of energy consumption and emissions occurring in the case of implementation of hydrogen powered fuel cell busses in comparison to values furnished by diesel powered busses. (orig.)

  17. PROSPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE EAST-WEST DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł DROŹDZIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the assets of building broad-gauge lines in Europe. The delivery time for international transport of goods affects international business in terms of the capital put into goods and subsequently affects its turnover rate. The current disproportion of different line gauges in Europe causes significant problems in the transport of goods especially in commodity streams in the East - West direction. Based on previous research of commodity streams in international trade and a comprehensive analysis of all performed studies for building broad gauge lines, the assets of building these lines included the development of employment, increasing the transport capacity and the building of transshipment stations in Slovakia. The current geopolitical developments have also a significant impact on international transport and important transport links, therefore diversifying these risks is a logical consideration to ensure the smooth delivery of goods and thus the development of international trade.

  18. APPROACH TO BUILDING A MODEL OF THE FUNCTIONING TRANSPORT PROCESS IN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model to determine the profit of trucking companies, which takes into account the probabilistic properties of transport process elements when performing single orders in international cargo transportation is prognosed. The proposed criterion makes it possible to obtain a probabilistic assessment of trip results in both directions and choosing the most effective directions of cargo transportation.

  19. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... Radioactive Material (TS-R-1), to promote the safe and secure transportation of radioactive material. The...

  20. International Trade with Increasing Returns in the Transportation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this general equilibrium framework, the transportation sector is modeled as a distinct sector with increasing returns. A more advanced technology has a higher fixed cost but a lower marginal cost of production. Even with both manufacturing firms and transportation firms engaged in oligopolistic competition and optimally choosing their technologies, the model is tractable and results are derived analytically. Technology adoptions in the manufacturing sector and transportation sector are rei...

  1. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    The transport sector has been recognised as one of the most challenging sectors with regard to ensuring energy security and combating climate change due to its high dependence on oil products and the lack of mature alternatives with low-carbon emissions. Such challenges of the energy use...... in transport have been clearly observed in China. Strategies in relation to sustainable transport development need to both stabilise the energy demand and replace the oil use by alternatives with low-carbon emissions. Electricity, hydrogen and biofuels derived from biomass are three potential alternative...... vehicle fuels to replace the oil use and possibly introduce renewable energy into transport. Biomass resources are limited and can hardly cover the expected future transport energy demand on their own. The benefits of oil independence and low carbon emissions in transport due to electricity and hydrogen...

  2. Impact of Wireless Power Transfer in Transportation: Future Transportation Enabler, or Near Term Distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While the total liquid fuels consumed in the U.S. for transportation of goods and people is expected to hold steady, or decline slightly over the next few decades, the world wide consumption is projected to increase of over 30% according to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 [1]. The balance of energy consumption for transportation between petroleum fuels and electric energy, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced consuming either, is of particular interest to government administrations, vehicle OEMs, and energy suppliers. The market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) appears to be inhibited by many factors relating to the energy storage system (ESS) and charging infrastructure. Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been identified as a key enabling technology to increase the acceptance of EVs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in many research areas related to understanding the impacts, opportunities, challenges and costs related to various deployments of WPT technology for transportation use. Though the initial outlook for WPT deployment looks promising, many other emerging technologies have met unfavorable market launches due to unforeseen technology limitations, sometimes due to the complex system in which the new technology was placed. This paper will summarize research and development (R&D) performed at ORNL in the area of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). ORNL s advanced transportation technology R&D activities provide a unique set of experienced researchers to assist in the creation of a transportation system level view. These activities range from fundamental technology development at the component level to subsystem controls and interactions to applicable system level analysis of impending market and industry responses and beyond.

  3. Fuel cells for future transportation: The Department of Energy OTT/OUT partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.G.; Milliken, J.; Gronich, S.; Rossmeissl, N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies; Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    1997-12-31

    The DOE Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is currently engaged in the development and integration R and D activities which will make it possible to reduce oil imports, and move toward a sustainable transportation future. Within OTT, the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies is supporting development of highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems as an alternative to internal combustion engines. The objectives of the program are: By 2000, develop and validate fuel cell stack system technologies that are greater than 51% energy efficient at 40 kW (maximum net power); more than 100 times cleaner than EPA Tier II emissions; and capable of operating on gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and hydrogen gas or liquid. By 2004, develop and validate fuel cell power system technologies that meet vehicle requirements in terms of: cost--competitive with internal combustion engines; and performance, range, safety and reliability. The research, development, and validation of fuel cell technology is integrally linked to the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and other major US policy objectives, such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Established in 1993, PNGV is a research and development initiative involving seven Federal agencies and the three US automobile manufacturers to strengthen US competitiveness. The PNGV will develop technologies for vehicles with a fuel efficiency of 80 miles per gallon, while maintaining such attributes as size, performance, safety, and cost. To help address the critical issue of fuel and fuel infrastructure development for advanced vehicles, the DOE Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) has directed the Hydrogen Program to provide national leadership in the research, development, and validation of advanced technologies to produce, store, and use hydrogen. An objective of the Program is to work in partnership with industry to advance hydrogen systems to the point where they are cost effective and

  4. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  5. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  6. 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering & 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Choo, Kim-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE2017) and the 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech2017), held in Seoul, South Korea on May 22–24, 2017. These two conferences provided an opportunity for academic and industrial professionals to discuss recent advances in the area of multimedia and ubiquitous environments including models and systems, new directions, and novel applications associated with the utilization and acceptance of ubiquitous computing devices and systems. The resulting papers address the latest technological innovations in the fields of digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience, HCI, and security and trust computing. The book offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, including students, academic researchers, and...

  7. Nursing Informatics Research Priorities for the Future: Recommendations from an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Topaz, Maxim; Ronquillo, Charlene; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Badger, Martha K; Ali, Samira; Lewis, Adrienne; Georgsson, Mattias; Jeon, Eunjoo; Tayaben, Jude L; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Islam, Tasneem; Sommer, Janine; Jung, Hyunggu; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    We present one part of the results of an international survey exploring current and future nursing informatics (NI) research trends. The study was conducted by the International Medical Informatics Association Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group (IMIA-NISIG) Student Working Group. Based on findings from this cross-sectional study, we identified future NI research priorities. We used snowball sampling technique to reach respondents from academia and practice. Data were collected between August and September 2015. Altogether, 373 responses from 44 countries were analyzed. The identified top ten NI trends were big data science, standardized terminologies (clinical evaluation/implementation), education and competencies, clinical decision support, mobile health, usability, patient safety, data exchange and interoperability, patient engagement, and clinical quality measures. Acknowledging these research priorities can enhance successful future development of NI to better support clinicians and promote health internationally.

  8. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  9. 75 FR 53686 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... question: ``[s]hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste... Doc No: 2010-21867] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of...

  10. 75 FR 64720 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Co-chairs of the Commission requested the formation of the T&S Subcommittee to answer the question: `` hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of...

  11. 75 FR 45608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste while one or more final disposal..., processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Co-chairs of the... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department...

  12. 75 FR 43518 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... question: `` hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste... see first-hand a shutdown reactor facility currently storing spent nuclear fuel pending final disposal... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department...

  13. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T;

    2016-01-01

    The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implement......The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation...

  14. THE IMPROVEMENT OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CALCULATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Vnukova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested to bring in changes into the Rules of Complex Payments applied by the states-participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States in payments for international freight transportations.

  15. En route: Transport and embodiment in international medical travel journeys between Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    International medical travel is increasingly big business. Using Indonesian patient-consumers’transport experiences in the pursuit of private medical care in Malaysia, this paper explores howtransport operators and infrastructure are responding and adjusting to the embodied specificities of the

  16. Decomposing passenger transport futures : Comparing results of global integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412493373; McCollum, D. L.; van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Daly, H.; Fujimori, S.; Kitous, A.; Kyle, P.; Ó Broin, E.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Sano, F.

    The transport sector is growing fast in terms of energy use and accompanying greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used widely to analyze energy system transitions over a decadal time frame to help inform and evaluating international climate policy. As part of this, IAMs

  17. International Market Selection and Prospects for Future Internationalization: Case Harju Solutions Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Leino, Tuulia

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces International market selection and prospects for future internationalization research for micro-enterprises, as well as small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The purpose was to create a thesis that would be helpful aid for Harju Solutions Oy and other small companies during the internationalization process. The study concentrates on the topic of international market selection that includes market screening, market analysis and choosing feasible markets for the case c...

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  2. Comparison of Edge and Internal Transport Barriers in Drift Wave Predictive Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, J.; Crombe, K.; Mantica, P.;

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only p...

  3. 75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Administration International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting...

  4. India–EU engagement and international migration: Historical perspectives, future challenges, and policy imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant Kumar Potnuru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a multilateral framework and a rule based global structure for the governance of international migration of people in all its complexities, countries engage in bilateral or regional cooperation in an attempt to engage and harmonize international movements and work towards a win–win situation. The current paper examines if and how the bilateral relationship or engagement between India and the EU has historically evolved and influenced international migration flows between them, and what potential future challenges and policy options they face for a successful engagement and facilitation of movement of people.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures: Key Opportunities and Tools for Decision Makers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examines underexplored greenhouse gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities by consolidating transportation energy knowledge, conducting advanced analysis, and exploring additional opportunities for sound strategic action. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal is to provide analysis to accompany DOE-EERE's long-term transportation energy planning by addressing high-priority questions, informing domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments. Research and analysis were conducted with an eye toward short-term actions that support long-term energy goals The project looks beyond technology to examine each key question in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. This updated fact sheet includes a new section on initial project findings.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Tianjin Cathy Future Art Troupe Attends International Children’s Summer Camp in DPRK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Tianjin Municipal People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries organized and sent a delegation consisting of 15 members of the Cathy Future Children’s Art Troupe to attend the International Children’s Camp in Songdowon,DPRK.

  9. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Collaboration Program Overview: Interactions, Agreements, and Future Direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.

    2010-02-10

    As the lead U.S. agency for the environmental cleanup, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) carries out international activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding accelerated risk reduction and remediation of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To achieve this, EM pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. An initiative of the International Program is to link international experience and expertise to the technical needs of the overall EM mission and to foster further collaboration with international partners to promote those needs. This paper will provide an overview of the current international program and how it plans to leverage existing, and when necessary, new international partnerships to support the overall EM cleanup mission. In addition it will examine the future vision of the international program to promote the EM mission through a focus on transformational solutions, science, and technology development.

  10. Future International Trends as Predicted from the International Situation of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the international strategic situation descended into "chaos" just as in the ten years following "9.11", and in each of the 20 years following the end of the Cold War. Japan experienced the Fukushima nuclear disaster, while in Europe there was escalation in the debt crisis. In the United States there was a "strategic shift eastward", while Russia proposed the "Eurasian Union" program, and dealt with unrest caused by its election. Elsewhere there was outbreak of war in Libya, and civil unrest in Syria. Both Bin Laden and Gaddafi lost their lives. There were several climaxes in the "Arab spring", and the campaign to "Occupy Wall Street" spread worldwide. In the UK there were widespread riots in London and strikes by civil servants. Iranian students attacked the British Embassy. Norway faced terrorist attacks, NATO warplanes attacked the Pakistan frontier inspection station, the South China Sea situation escalated, and the United States actively promoted the TPP (Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement) whilst stationing its military in Darwin,

  11. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private...... sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify...

  12. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences. What are the implications for future transport? (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    , and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when growing old. In order to understand how the aging boomers may impact the future travel demand, their travel behaviour and expectations were analysed based on 1772 standardized telephone interviews. Baby boomers reported in general being...... healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They also showed optimism regarding the level of mobility, use of different transport modes, and leading an independent life in the future. However, there were significant gender differences in terms of present and expected car use in old age somewhat similar...

  13. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  14. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  15. Study Regarding the Provision of Security and Safety in the International Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana POPA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The security in transport has become a crucial issue internationally, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 2001 and even more recently. Maritime, along with aviation, is considered a sensitive and of high-risk transport sector, in terms of security. Moreover, topics related to safety in maritime transport have become very important over the past decades mostly because of the numerous maritime accidents putting in danger both human lives and the environment. Taking into account the global dimension of maritime transport along with the fact that the participation of Asia in the world trade during the past decade has been substantial, the current maritime safety and security practices apply for all areas. This can only be achieved through the application of high standards and regulations setting the prerequisites for safe and secure navigation. In this direction, a significant number of Directives, Regulations and Initiatives on maritime safety and security have been introduced by international and European organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization, (I.M.O., the International Labour Organization (I.L.O. and the European Union (EU. In the framework of this analysis, the levels of compliance of European and Asian countries, regarding the international legislation, is examined while special emphasis is given on the problems and difficulties encountered during the implementation processes. Furthermore, a number of recommendations aiming to enhance the existing levels of safety and security in maritime transport in both examined area is provided.

  16. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  17. International Price Relationship and Volatility Transmission Between Stock Index and Stock Index Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArIsmail bin Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international price relationship and volatility transmissions betweenstock index and stock index futures of Malaysia, Hong Kong and Japan. Vector Autoregression(VAR GJR-GARCH model was applied to the nine years daily price. Japanesemarkets are the main information producer to the market price changes. International marketinterdependence only affected the domestic volatility transmission of spot and futuresmarket in Hong Kong. Asymmetric effects exist in all markets and the volatility persistence ineach market is high. Finally, the overall conditional correlation estimates for spot and futuresmarkets are higher in the unrestricted model form compared to the restricted modelform.Keywords: spot-futures, lead-lags, volatility, VAR GJR-GARCH, Asian financial markets

  18. International Society for Disease Surveillance Conference 2011: Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    supplement, Complete

    2011-01-01

    The International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) celebrates its 10th annual meeting with the arrival of the 2011 ISDS Annual Conference, ‘Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance’. This milestone in the Society’s history is punctuated not only by the achievements of the disease surveillance community but also by the promise of what lies ahead. The Annual Conference brings together a community of researchers and practitioners focused on monitoring, understanding and improving...

  19. Present and Future : International Cooperation of Engineering Higher Education for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Manabu; Ueda, Daisuke

    Nowadays, human resource development through international cooperation is high demand in the field of engineering higher education in developing countries. This is firstly due to the important asset for sustainable development of countries and secondly due to the rapid progress of science and technology in the world. Two JICA projects are explained as a case study. The paper summarizes present situation and future issues under JICA activities in engineering higher education.

  20. Air Transport and Operations. Proceedings of the Third International Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Fischer, L.; Pérez, D.; Klein, K.; Hoekstra, J.; Roling, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Air transport must evolve if it is to optimize its value in the 21st century. The mood in the aerospace industry is positive with regard to economic recovery, but the focus in this transitional time must be on sustaining value, without losing sight of environmental and safety priorities

  1. Measurement of the internal magnetic fluctuation by the transport of runaways on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Jiang, Z. H.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, Z. P.; Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of internal magnetic fluctuation is important for the study of transport in tokamak plasmas. The runaway electron transport induced by the sawtooth crash can be used to obtain the internal magnetic fluctuation. Inversed sawtooth-like activities on hard x-ray (HXR) fluxes following sawtooth activities were observed after the application of electrode biasing on J-TEXT tokamak. The runaway diffusion coefficient Dr is deduced to be about 30 m2/s according to the time delay of HXR flux peaks to the sawtooth crashes. The averaged value of normalized magnetic fluctuation in the discharges with electrode biasing was increased to the order of 1 × 10-4.

  2. Possibility of internal transport barrier formation and electric field bifurcation in LHD plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Toda, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1999-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing a internal transport barrier. Within this simple model, the plasma with internal barriers is predicted to be realized for the parameters of T{sub e}(0) {approx} 2 keV and n(0) {approx_equal} 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}. (author)

  3. 17th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Facilities Search

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    NuFact15 is the seventeenth in a series that started in 1999 as an important yearly workshop with emphasis on future neutrino projects. This will be the first edition in Latin America, showing the scientific growth of this field. The main goals of the workshop are to review the progress on studies of future facilities able to improve on measurements of the properties of neutrinos and charged lepton flavor violation as well as new phenomena searches beyond the capabilities of presently planned experiments. Since such progress in the neutrino sector could require innovation in neutrino beams, the role of a neutrino factory within future HEP initiatives will be addressed. The workshops are not only international but also interdisciplinary in that experimenters, theorists and accelerator physicists from the Asian, American and European regions share expertise with the common goal of designing the next generation of experiments.

  4. Update of the International Consensus on Palliative Radiotherapy Endpoints for Future Clinical Trials in Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hoskin, Peter [Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Mitera, Gunita; Zeng Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Lutz, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Blanchard Valley Regional Cancer Center, Findlay, OH (United States); Roos, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Linden, Yvette van der [Radiotherapeutic Institute Friesland, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Hartsell, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advocate Good Samaritan Cancer Center, Downers Grove, IL (United States); Kumar, Eshwar [Department of Oncology, Atlantic Health Sciences Cancer Centre, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, NB (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To update the international consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases by surveying international experts regarding previous uncertainties within the 2002 consensus, changes that may be necessary based on practice pattern changes and research findings since that time. Methods and Materials: A two-phase survey was used to determine revisions and new additions to the 2002 consensus. A total of 49 experts from the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology who are directly involved in the care of patients with bone metastases participated in this survey. Results: Consensus was established in areas involving response definitions, eligibility criteria for future trials, reirradiation, changes in systemic therapy, radiation techniques, parameters at follow-up, and timing of assessments. Conclusion: An outline for trials in bone metastases was updated based on survey and consensus. Investigators leading trials in bone metastases are encouraged to adopt the revised guideline to promote consistent reporting. Areas for future research were identified. It is intended for the consensus to be re-examined in the future on a regular basis.

  5. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  6. The use of animals in agriculture and science: historical context, international considerations and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, A C D

    2005-08-01

    As the final contribution to this important World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) publication, this paper provides some relevant background and contextual information and identifies a number of strategically significant international activities that will influence the future direction of animal welfare internationally. The assumption of an animal welfare leadership role by the OIE, with the full support of its 167 Member Countries, is an international development of major strategic significance. As an inter-governmental organisation, the OIE is committed to a science-based approach to the development of animal welfare guidelines and standards and to working closely with all stakeholders. This paper covers the use of animals in both agriculture and science, reflecting the OIE's dual remit for both animal health and animal welfare and the importance of animal-based research and testing to the OIE's animal health and reference laboratory roles.

  7. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  8. Phytoplankton transport to coral reefs by internal solitons in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Huai

    2016-09-01

    Evidence is presented that waters containing high concentrations of chlorophyll are transported by internal waves to the fore-reef slope of Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea. High vertical resolution mooring measurements of temperature, pressure, and chlorophyll fluorescence revealed that the internal soliton cores could transport chlorophyll vertically downward and increase concentrations by an order of magnitude near the seafloor, compared to background levels. The reef areas that are potentially nourished by the pulses of phytoplankton are dominated by alcyonacean soft corals, while other reef areas that are less or not at all affected by internal waves are dominated by scleractinian hard corals. This suggests that the delivery of phytoplankton by internal solitons provides a plentiful food source that benefits the growth of soft corals.

  9. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  10. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... internationally recommended best practices in transportation financing P3s. Based upon the study findings, a checklist in then proposed that can be used by U.S. state and local governments to assess their current or proposed transportation financing P3 policies and procedures. The article makes a contribution...

  11. Dependence of Streptococcus lactis Phosphate Transport on Internal Phosphate Concentration and Internal pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POOLMAN, B; NIJSSEN, RMJ; KONINGS, WN

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of phosphate by Streptococcus lactis ML3 proceeds in the absence of a proton motive force, but requires the synthesis of ATP by either arginine or lactose metabolism. The appearance of free Pi internally in arginine-metabolizing cells corresponded quantitatively with the disappearance of extr

  12. Quality management for the international transportation of non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Elmore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Safe and humane transportation of live animals requires dedicated, informed personnel who carefully plan and attend to the details of appropriate animal care and handling throughout the shipping process. Specifically, although transportation of non-human primates shares goals common to all live animal transport, it also poses unique challenges stemming from the nature of these animals. Some of these unique challenges of transporting non-human primates, include the impact of public perception of non-human primates as cargo, maintaining biosecurity of non-human primate cargo, safety of both the non-human primate and public contacts, meeting the vital husbandry needs of varying species of non-human primates and compliance with numerous regulatory agencies, which may have overlapping responsibilities. This discussion will focus on these important considerations, as they relate to the legal international transportation of non-human primates for scientific use.

  13. Real-Time Scheduling Approaches for Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we study the problem of scheduling and dispatching vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems within warehouses and production facilities. We develop and use two rolling horizon policies to solve real-time vehicle scheduling problems. To solve static instances of

  14. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorenian, Armineh

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation to their…

  15. En route: Transport and embodiment in international medical travel journeys between Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    International medical travel is increasingly big business. Using Indonesian patient-consumers’transport experiences in the pursuit of private medical care in Malaysia, this paper explores howtransport operators and infrastructure are responding and adjusting to the embodied specificities of the grow

  16. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Krol, Maarten; Visschedijk, Antoon; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally fuelled road traffic is a major source of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 and CH4) affect the global atmosphere and contribute to global warming. The pollutants emitted by vehicles (e.g. CO, NOx, SO2, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds) are toxic for man and environment and decrease air quality especially in highly populated areas. Burning H2 produces only water, thus H2-powered vehicles are seen as a possibility to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality; because of this, H2 usage as a fuel is foreseen to significantly increase in the future. Large scale usage of H2 as a fuel has the potential to affect the atmospheric composition in different ways. On one hand, emissions associated to fossil fuel burning will decrease. On the other hand, large quantities of H2 used will likely lead to increased H2 emissions from leakages during production, transport and storage. Additional H2 in the atmosphere will affect the chemistry of many species, in principal by decreasing the availability of OH radicals, with the result of increasing the lifetime of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Thus the net effect of H2 vehicles on the atmospheric composition depends on the relative strength of these two contrary effects. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2 road transportation on local and regional air quality, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the future (2020) using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that in general the air quality in 2020 will be significantly better than at present in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict

  17. Possibility of electric field bifurcation and internal transport barrier formation in LHD plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Heiji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ida, Katsumi; Toda, Shin-ichiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-02-01

    Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing internal transport barrier. Within the present simple model, the electric field bifurcation associated with the internal transport barrier is predicted to be realized for the parameter of T{sub e}(0) {approx_equal} 2 keV and n(0) {approx_equal} 10{sup 18} (m{sup -3}). The boundary of the region of multiple solution is characterized by a scaling T{sub e}(0) {approx} [n(0)]{sup 0.4}. (author)

  18. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Future Runoff Change and its Implications for International Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füssel, H.; Popp, A.; Rost, S.; Gerten, D.

    2008-12-01

    We apply probabilistic runoff projections to assess the implications of greenhouse gas-induced changes in runoff on international equity. Projections of future runoff are taken directly from a GCM ensemble and from a dynamic global vegetation and hydrological model (LPJmL 3.2) driven by climate projections from several GCMs. We investigate the relationship between various national indices of socio-economic development on the one hand and change in average runoff and agreement about the direction of runoff change on the other. Projections of change in runoff from the GCMs and from LPJmL are strongly correlated but there is no significant relationship between the confidence of these projections from the GCMs and from LPJmL. We find a weak positive relationship between baseline runoff and projections of runoff change from the GCMs, which would increase current inequities, but not from LPJmL. Future change in runoff is not significantly correlated with the level of greenhouse gas emissions per capita or with any of three national development indices (human development index, index of human wellbeing and water poverty index) but we do find a strong positive relationship between these development indices and agreement about the direction of runoff change from the GCMs. In summary, this analysis does not suggest that future changes in average runoff vary systematically between developing and industrialized countries. Combining data on current water poverty with projected changes in runoff indicates, however, that future hotspots of water poverty will concentrate in poor countries, in particular in Southern Africa, North Africa and the Middle East. Furthermore, this probabilistic analysis suggests that the direction of future runoff change is more uncertain in countries at low levels of socio-economic development, which implies that anticipatory adaptation is particularly difficult for currently disadvantaged countries. Future work will investigate the robustness of these

  20. Monitoring the International Monetary System: Its Development in the West, and Future in the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Barry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “gold standard” is frequently mentioned in text books, but few without an economics background can fully understand it. This paper thus begins in 1896, when U.S. Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan declared, “You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold.” Since going back to the middle ages, the world has had numerous monetary systems, which are here explained in comprehensible terms. A modern reoccurring idea is to return to some form of the gold standard, while some argue for switching to the Chinese yuan or another international reserve currency, which the International Monetary Fund (IMF will adopt in their Special Drawing Rights starting in October, 2016. This paper is normative in that it comments on the current international structure, but uses economic principles to support its argument in favor of an internationally strong dollar. It thus traces the history of a topically contentious subject, with a basic regression indicating important predictive factors for the future. It offers that a new gold standard would not be in the world’s interest, interfering with monetary policy, while emerging market countries would be best to import more and financially deepen, which the regression shows was why the Chinese yuan was adopted by the IMF, then looking ahead to other parts of Asia and towards bitcoins.

  1. Emissions from international shipping: 2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, V.; KöHler, H. W.; Lauer, A.; Lemper, B.

    2005-09-01

    In this study the today's fleet-average emission factors of the most important ship exhausts are used to calculate emission scenarios for the future. To develop plausible future technology scenarios, first upcoming regulations and compliance with future regulations through technological improvements are discussed. We present geographically resolved emission inventory scenarios until 2050, based on a mid-term prognosis for 2020 and a long-term prognosis for 2050. The scenarios are based on some very strict assumptions on future ship traffic demands and technological improvements. The four future ship traffic demand scenarios are mainly determined by the economic growth, which follows the IPCC SRES storylines. The resulting fuel consumption is projected through extrapolations of historical trends in economic growth, total seaborne trade and number of ships, as well as the average installed power per ship. For the future technology scenarios we assume a diesel-only fleet in 2020 resulting in fuel consumption between 382 and 409 million metric tons (Mt). For 2050 one technology scenario assumes that 25% of the fuel consumed by a diesel-only fleet can be saved by applying future alternative propulsion plants, resulting in a fuel consumption that varies between 402 and 543 Mt. The other scenario is a business-as-usual scenario for a diesel-only fleet even in 2050 and gives an estimate between 536 and 725 Mt. Dependent on how rapid technology improvements for diesel engines are introduced, possible technology reduction factors are applied to the today's fleet-average emission factors of all important species to estimate future ship emissions. Combining the four traffic demand scenarios with the four technology scenarios, our results suggest emissions between 8.8 and 25.0 Tg (NO2) in 2020, and between 3.1 to 38.8 Tg (NO2) in 2050. The development of forecast scenarios for CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter is driven by the requirements for global model

  2. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Effect of pedestal height and internal transport barriers on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor target steady state simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Kessel, C.; McCune, D. C.; Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The Tokamak simulation code (TSC) is used to provide initial conditions for predictive TRANSPort and integrated modeling code (PTRANSP) simulations of ITER target steady state scenarios. The PTRANSP simulations are carried out using the new multi-mode (MMM7.1) and the gyro-Landau-fluid (GLF23) transport models. It is found that there are circumstances under which the total fusion power decreases with increasing pedestal temperature height. When the total current (from magnetic axis to plasma edge) is fixed, an increased fraction of the current is concentrated in the pedestal region as the pedestal height is increased. As a consequence of the fixed total current, this results a smaller fraction of the current in the core plasma and, consequently, lower energy confinement. In previous simulations of ITER, in which the fusion power increased with increasing pedestal temperature height, the plasma current from the top of the pedestal to the magnetic axis was held fixed independent of the pedestal temperature. Simulations presented in this paper also indicate that improvement in fusion power production occurs when the lower hybrid current drive is replaced with electron cyclotron current drive. Again, the improvement results from the redistribution of plasma current since the lower hybrid power generally drives current closer to the plasma edge than does the electron cyclotron power. ITER simulation results obtained using the MMM7.1 transport model are compared with those using the GLF23 model. It is found that, in simulations of target steady state scenarios, momentum transport and flow-shear suppression features of the new MMM7.1 model can lead to predictions of internal transport barriers in temperature and rotation frequency.

  6. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  7. 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities (NUFACT 2014) that was held at the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom) from 25-30 August 2014. This edition of the NUFACT annual meetings, which started in 1999, consisted of 24 plenary and 92 parallel talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 124 delegates. Furthermore, the International Neutrino Summer School 2014 was held from 10-22 August 2014 at St Andrews, Scotland, in the two weeks before NUFACT 2014. It was intended for young scientists with an interest in neutrino physics in such a way that they would be able to participate and contribute to the NUFACT workshop as well. The objectives of the NUFACT workshops are to review progress on different studies for future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation facilities, with the goal to discover the mass hierarchy of neutrinos, CP violation in the leptonic s...

  8. Root internalization, transport and in-planta survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in sweet basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, Elena; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Pinto, Riky; Bernstein, Nirit

    2013-02-01

    It is now acknowledged that food-borne pathogens present in the irrigation water or soil can become associated with crop plants in the field, penetrate internal plant tissues via the root, translocate and survive inside plants. Only little information is available concerning interaction between enteric pathogens and plants. The present study evaluated the potential for contamination of the aromatic plant, sweet basil during cultivation, by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. Root internalization was plant-age-dependent, with the highest susceptibility occurring at the beginning of the rapid growth phase of the root. Higher incidence of internalization was detected in vegetative than reproductive plant organs, pointing at bacterial transport in the transpiration stream. Internalized Salmonella survived only basil.

  9. 2013 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhigang; Qin, Yong; Zhao, Minghua; Diao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation (EITRT2013) collects the latest research in this field, including a wealth of state-of-the-art research theories and applications in intelligent computing, information processing, communication technology, automatic control, etc. The objective of the proceedings is to provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers, engineers, academics and industrial professionals to present the most innovative research on and developments in the field of rail transportation electrical and information technologies. Contributing authors from academia, industry and the government also offer inside views of new, interdisciplinary solutions.

  10. Observation of internal transport barrier in ELMy H-mode plasmas on the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Li, G. Q.; Zhang, T.; Zeng, L.; Liu, Y. K.; Wu, M. Q.; Kong, D. F.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Wang, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Lyu, B.; Li, Y. Y.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhong, F. B.; Li, K.; Xu, L. Q.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Y. W.; Qian, J. P.; Ding, B. J.; Liu, Z. X.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, C. D.; Xiang, N.; Liang, Y. F.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Wan, Y. X.; EAST Team

    2017-08-01

    The internal transport barrier (ITB) has been obtained in ELMy H-mode plasmas by neutron beam injection and lower hybrid wave heating on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ITB structure has been observed in profiles of ion temperature, electron temperature, and electron density within ρ beta, β N, increases from 1.5 to near 2. The fishbone activity observed during the ITB phase suggests the central safety factor q(0) ˜ 1. Transport coefficients are calculated by particle balance and power balance analysis, showing an obvious reduction after the ITB formation.

  11. Chernobyl vis-à-vis the nuclear future: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J

    2007-11-01

    The paper aims to provide an international perspective on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident vis-à-vis the future development of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It describes the major international initiatives that were undertaken over the years in order to quantify the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and also analyzes the impact of the accident on the development of nuclear energy taking account of the perception of its consequences. The paper revisits the historical saga flowing since the fateful explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine 20 y ago. It looks at some of the misunderstandings about the consequences of the accident and explores the worldwide nuclear stagnation that followed Chernobyl, surveying the negative public reaction and also the possibilities of a nuclear revival. It finally searches for a way forward, concluding that an effective international nuclear safety regime is urgently needed with the purpose of preventing catastrophes like Chernobyl from occurring and also that the Chernobyl consequences need to be readdressed properly. The paper concludes with an appeal to the radiation protection community to resolve once and for all the difficult issues of attributing health effects to low-level radiation exposure.

  12. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Nils; Castro, José Luis; Jones, Sinéad; Rusen, I D; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Fussell, Mark; Fujiwara, Paula I; Harries, Anthony D; Enarson, Donald A

    2009-12-01

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organization involved in the fight against tuberculosis. This review documents the history and structure of The Union up to 2009, and describes the achievements that have taken place in the field of tuberculosis and lung health. The progress made in tackling the major killer (pneumonia) of children less than 5 years of age, the barrier to affordable essential asthma medicines, the complex issue of tobacco control, the move into the realm of HIV and AIDS, and new ideas and activities around the increasingly important domain of operational research are described and discussed. Finally, as with many institutions that have seen a rapid phase of growth, expansion and decentralisation to regional offices around the world, the review highlights the internal strategic initiative that aims to fine-tune the organisational structure, clarify lines of authority, create more efficient business, human resource and financial systems and revise, where necessary, The Union's guiding mission, vision and values for the future.

  13. The Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX): Its structure, connection to other international initiatives and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, T; Hogue, T; Schaake, J; Duan, Q; Gupta, H; Andreassian, V; Hall, A; Leavesley, G

    2006-05-08

    The Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) is an international project aimed at developing enhanced techniques for the a priori estimation of parameters in hydrologic models and in land surface parameterization schemes connected to atmospheric models. The MOPEX science strategy involves: database creation, a priori parameter estimation methodology development, parameter refinement or calibration, and the demonstration of parameter transferability. A comprehensive MOPEX database has been developed that contains historical hydrometeorological data and land surface characteristics data for many hydrologic basins in the United States (US) and in other countries. This database is being continuously expanded to include basins from various hydroclimatic regimes throughout the world. MOPEX research has largely been driven by a series of international workshops that have brought interested hydrologists and land surface modelers together to exchange knowledge and experience in developing and applying parameter estimation techniques. With its focus on parameter estimation, MOPEX plays an important role in the international context of other initiatives such as GEWEX, PUB and PILPS. This paper outlines the MOPEX initiative, discusses its role in the scientific community and briefly states future directions.

  14. The serotonin transporter undergoes constitutive internalization and is primarily sorted to late endosomes and lysosomal degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of surface resident....... Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analogue JHC1-64, and by reversible and pulse chase biotinylation assays showing evidence...

  15. Internal hydration of a metal-transporting ATPase is controlled by membrane lateral pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Fischermeier, E. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pospisil, P. [A.S.C. R., Prague (Czech Republic). J. Heyrovsky Inst. Physical Chemistry; Solioz, M. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Sayed, A.; Hof, M.

    2017-07-01

    The active transport of ions across biological mem branes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P{sub 1B}-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nano-discs (NDs). Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

  16. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    The demographic grand challenge of population ageing will be reflected in most areas of society and, to a great extent, in the area of transportation as well. It will have an impact on, for example, travel demand, infrastructure needs, traffic safety and the climate. The post-World War II cohorts......, the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...

  17. Baby boomers’ mobility patterns and preferences: What are the implications for future transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The demographic grand challenge of population ageing will be reflected in most areas of society and, to a great extent, in the area of transportation as well. It will have an impact on, for example, travel demand, infrastructure needs, traffic safety and the climate. The post-World War II cohorts......, the so-called “baby boomers”, will comprise a large share of tomorrow’s older population, and it is expected that they will differ from their parents’ generation when they grow old. In order to better understand how the ageing baby boomers may affect future travel demand, the travel behaviour...... and expectations of Danish baby boomers were analysed based on 1772 standardised telephone interviews. In general, the baby boomers reported being healthy, independent and highly (auto)mobile. They were also optimistic regarding their level of mobility, capability to use a variety of travel modes and ability...

  18. Determination of level of physical preparedness of future engineers of railway transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefremova A.Y.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Directions of increase of level of physical preparedness of student young people are considered. 48 students took part in research. The level of physical preparedness of students on the indexes of speeding up, co-ordination, flexibility and force was determined. Professional duties are certain and requirement to physical and psychological physical preparation of specialists to the controller-operator groups of railway transport. Directions of maintenance of health of student young people and improvement of level of its general physical preparedness are offered in the process of employments. It is shown that progress and productivity of future professional activity of students depends on the state of health, psychological firmness, capacities for a concentration and switching of attention, possibilities to work in emotional nervous tension at the deficit of time. Directions optimization of process of physical preparation of students are shown, development of physical qualities.

  19. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  20. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  1. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rockett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1, as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of

  2. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI) and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of these changes is

  3. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  4. Research on International Space Station - Building a Partnership for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl, Heinz; Scheimann, Jens; Shirakawa, Masaki; Suvorov, Vadim; Uri, John J.

    2004-01-01

    As its name implies, the International Space Station is a platform where the research programs of 16 partner nations are conducted. While each partner pursues its own research priorities, cooperation and coordination of the various national and agency research programs occurs at multiple levels, from strategic through tactical planning to experiment operations. Since 2000, a significant number of experiments have been carried out in the Russian ISS utilization program, which consists of the Russian national program of fundamental and applied research in 11 research areas and international cooperative programs and contract activities. The US research program began with simple payloads in 2000 and was significantly expanded with the addition of the US Laboratory module Destiny in 2001, and its outfitting with seven research racks to date. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have made use of international cooperative arrangements with both the US and Russia to implement a variety of investigations in diverse research areas, and in the case of ESA included the flights of crewmembers to ISS as part of Soyuz Science Missions. In the future, ESA and JAXA will add their own research modules, Columbus and Kibo, respectively, to expand research capabilities both inside and outside ISS. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident and the temporary grounding of the Space Shuttle fleet, all ISS logistics have relied on Russian Progress and Sopz vehicles. The Russian national program has continued as before the Shuttle accident, as have international cooperative programs and contract activities, both during long-duration expeditions and visiting taxi missions. In several instances, Russian international cooperative activities with JAXA and ESA have also involved the use of US facilities and crewmembers in successful truly multilateral efforts. The US research program was rapidly refocused after the

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  8. 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Yang, Xin-She; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Smith, Martin; Loureiro, Rui

    2014-07-01

    It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future, sponsored by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement, Middlesex University, Festo Limited GB, National Instruments UK & Ireland, the Sector Skills Council for Science, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies and our proceedings publisher Institute of Physics Publications. This is the second time Middlesex University has played host to this longstanding international conference, last time being the 12th edition in 1996. The subject content of the conference remains current, focusing on cutting edge developments in research. The conference themes this year are divided into seven themes, Product Development and Sustainability, Modelling and Simulation, Automation, Robotics and Handling Systems, Advanced Quality Systems Tools and Quality Management, Human Aspects in Engineering Activities, Emerging Scenarios in Engineering Education and Training, and Emerging Technologies in Factories of the Future. The conference is organised into seven sessions running in parallel over three days, providing a platform to speakers from 16 different countries. The programme also features four eminent keynote speakers and a hands-on workshop organised by National Instruments. Organising an event such as this would not be possible without the help of many colleagues. I am grateful to the members of the Organising Committee, the International Scientific Committee, our sponsors and all those colleagues who helped in the review of many abstracts and consequently full papers. This required meticulous attention to detail and strict adherence to very tight deadlines. However large or small a conference is, the effort required to make the local arrangements work for all is not insignificant. The conference organisers acknowledge the particular efforts of Miss Mita Vaghi in providing her expertise in event management and her diligent support and Anete

  9. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article.

  10. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  11. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  12. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  13. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  14. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    efficient roadmap to successfully propel the entire future transportation sector.

  15. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., (United Kindgom); Patera, E.S. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  16. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  17. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2 to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change high-emitting scenario (A1FI and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1, as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two

  18. Partitioning internal variability and model uncertainty components in a multireplicate multimodel ensemble of hydrometeorological future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingray, Benoit; Saïd, Mériem; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Gailhlard, Joël; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2014-05-01

    be experienced for any given future period is therefore very high. For both discharge and precipitation, even the sign of future realizations is uncertain at a 90% confidence level. These findings have important implications. As for GCM uncertainty, SDM uncertainty cannot be neglected. The same applies for both components of internal variability. Climate change impact studies based on single SDM realizations are likely to be no more relevant than those based on single GCM runs (or small ensembles). When they are intended to provide information for climate change adaptation, they may lead to poor decisions. In the present case, it would be better to adapt to IV of precipitation than to the precipitation decrease obtained from the mean climate change response of simulation chains. Hingray, B., Hendrickx, F., Bourqui M., Creutin, J.D., François, B., Gailhard, J., Lafaysse, M., Lemoine, N., Mathevet, T., Mezghani, A., Monteil, C., RIWER2030:Climats Régionaux et Incertitudes, Ressource en Eau et Gestion de 1860 à 2100.Projet ANR VMCS 2009-2012. Rapport Final. LTHE,EDF,Grenoble. Hingray, B., Saïd, M. (in revision). Partitioning internal variability and model uncertainty components in a multimodel multireplicate ensemble of climate projections. J.Climate Lafaysse, M., Hingray, B., Gailhard, J., Mezghani, A., Terray, L. (in revision). Internal variability and model uncertainty components in a multireplicate multimodel ensemble of hydrometeorological projections. Wat. Resour. Res.

  19. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  20. Study of internal transport barriers in the initial phase of Ohmic discharges in TUMAN-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askinazi, L G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bulanin, V V [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 (Russian Federation); Vildjunas, M I [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golant, V E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gorokhov, M V [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 (Russian Federation); Kornev, V A [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krikunov, S V [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S V [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petrov, A V [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 (Russian Federation); Rozhdestvensky, V V [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tukachinsky, A S [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zhubr, N A [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-05-01

    A regime with electron heat confinement improvement was recently found in the initial phase of discharges in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in this regime was confirmed by Thomson scattering measurements and by transport modelling. Two possible reasons for the ITB formation are discussed in the paper: by reduction of turbulent transport in the presence of low magnetic shear or by plasma sheared rotation. It is demonstrated that low magnetic shear formation is possible in the current ramp-up phase of the Ohmic discharge. The low magnetic shear does not seem to be the only reason for the transport reduction. Results of Doppler reflectometry measurements of poloidal rotation of density fluctuations are presented. It is found that core confinement improvement correlates with the appearance of sheared rotation of the density fluctuations and with a burst of the MHD activity. The ITB formation in the regime seems to be a result of a combined action of reduced magnetic shear and plasma sheared rotation.

  1. 6th International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Isabel; Paixão, José

    1995-01-01

    This proceedings volume consists of papers presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transpon, which was held at the Fund~lio Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon from July 6th to 9th, 1993. In the tradition of alternating Workshops between North America and Europe - Chicago (1975), Leeds (1980), Montreal (1983), Hamburg (1987) and again Montreal (1990), the European city of Lisbon was selected as the venue for the Workshop in 1993. As in earlier Workshops, the central theme dealt with vehicle and duty scheduling problems and the employment of operations-research-based software systems for operational planning in public transport. However, as was initiated in Hamburg in 1987, the scope of this Workshop was broadened to include topics in related fields. This fundamental alteration was an inevitable consequence of the growing demand over the last decade for solutions to the complete planning process in public transport through integrated systems. Therefore, the program of thi...

  2. Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.

  3. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  4. ED51: Using International Networks to Develop the Future Global Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E. E.; Pangman, P.; Jacobs, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Developed nations face the immediate need to replace the current wave of retiring geoscientists at the same time developing nations need to build an infrastructure to train future geoscientists. But what does a successful geoscientist look like? Recruiters seem to favor candidates from respected universities that pair applied book knowledge with excellent communication skills and the ability to take a multidisciplinary approach to challenges. Students should be global thinking, business minded, and socially aware. The Society of Exploration Geophysicists as a successful global society addresses the needs of a growing diverse membership through an international approach. Student membership has doubled over the past five years to almost 10,000. The Society is building momentum through targeted, yet diverse programs. Students are eager to participate in the unique SEG/Chevron Student Leadership Symposium, SEG/ExxonMobil Student Education Program, Challenge Bowls, Student Expositions, Honorary Lecturer presentations and related events. These are transformative educational opportunities that provide the impetus for expanded and very effective international networking and transfer of knowledge. As SEG's students build on these relationships and newly acquired leadership skills, they affect the scope and breadth of SEG Student Chapter activities. There has been a resulting increase in multi-country field camps. The Geoscientists Without Borders° humanitarian program provides cross-cultural field opportunities that demonstrate how applied geoscience can make a difference in the global society, while providing students with valuable workforce skills that employers seek. These collaborative efforts are facilitated by social media and on-line communities that cause boundaries to dissolve and time zones to become irrelevant.

  5. Transport of Delights: Meeting Places: international residency, funded by Arts Council Wales

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Anna-Marie

    2012-01-01

    I was invited to take part in an international artist’s residency offered to twenty artists with theme,‘Meeting Places: transport of delights’. The residencies were part of the Harlech Biennale X – 2012. The residency was funded by Arts Council Wales. This resulted in a public exhibition at the Harlech WEA college. The research focus of the residencies was to ‘create an audience participation work which will connect with the spectator as the recipient’ a focus that fit very well with my own p...

  6. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  7. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  8. DTU international energy report 2013. Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidtfeldt Larsen, H.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage, thermal storage and other forms of energy storage, for example conversion of biomass to liquid fuel and conversion of solar energy directly into hydrogen, as well as storage in transmission, grid storage etc. Finally, the report covers research, innovation and the future prospects and addresses the societal challenges and benefits of the use of energy storage. (Author)

  9. ON FORECASTING STOCK OPTIONS VOLATILITY: EVIDENCE FROM LONDON INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FUTURES AND OPTIONS EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA ASANDULUI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Options’ volatility forecasting represented, in the last decades, a very interesting and frequent domain of research in financial econometrics due to its importance in option pricing, portfolio selection, risk management and other financial activities. The aim of this study is to realize a comparative analysis of the performances obtained by several forecast models in forecasting stock options volatility.For this, we consider the volatility of the 4 most traded options at Euronext London International Financial Futures and Options Stock Exchange (Euronext.Liffe in the period 2009-2010.When analyzing and forecasting these stock options we use the period January 2009-May 2011; using this base period, we determine the models that describe better the evolution of the volatility. Based on these models we realize forecasts that are finally compared with the real values recorded in the next 10 trading days.In relation with the differences that appear, we determine the forecast errors and by these we identify the best models and the ones that generate the biggest errors.

  10. Guardando al futuro del Sistema Monetario Internazionale (Looking to the Future International Monetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'Adda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo passa brevemente in rassegna diversi argomenti che riguardano il funzionamento del Sistema Monetario Internazionale dopo il 1971, quali cambi flessibili e cambi fissi, aree monetarie ottime, crescenti movimenti di capitali, volatilità dei cambi, crisi valutarie, disavanzo esterno degli Stati Uniti. Pur in assenza di un disegno a priori, la successione di questi problemi ha preparato la strada alla recente proposta di Mundell e Cooper per una moneta mondiale.Questa proposta non costituisce una semplice via d’uscita dalle odierne preoccupazioni. Nondimeno essa lascia intravedere la possibilità di un futuro migliore.     This article briefly reviews various issues concerning the functioning of the International Monetary System after 1971, such as flexible exchange rates and fixed exchange rates, optimal currency areas, increasing capital movements, exchange rate volatility, currency crises, external deficit of the United States. Even in the absence of an a priori design, the sequence of these problems has paved the way to the recent proposal of Mundell and Cooper for a world currency. This proposal is not a simple way out of today's concerns. Nevertheless, it suggests the possibility of a better future.  JEL Codes: F30, F33Keywords: Sistema Monetario Internazionale, Mundell, Cooper, moneta mondiale.

  11. Expanding Thinking Through a Kaleidoscopic Look Into the Future: Implications of the Mixed Methods International Research Association’s Task Force Report on the Future of Mixed Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Donna M.; Bazeley, Patricia; Bowleg, Lisa; Fielding, Nigel; Maxwell, Joseph; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Niglas, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    The field of mixed methods research abounds with opportunities for creative development in terms of methodological advances and potential to contribute to important and complex societal problems. Inspired by issues that arose in the Mixed Methods International Research Association task force report on the future of mixed methods, this article contemplates its implications for challenges and opportunities for the mixed methods community for advancement in philosophy and methodology, innovative...

  12. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Leslie Rosenfeld,; John Largier,

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  13. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to freigh

  14. Internal Transport Barrier Broadening through Subdominant Mode Stabilization in Reversed Field Pinch Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, R.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Martines, E.; Terranova, D.; Sattin, F.

    2016-05-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) device RFX-mod features strong internal transport barriers when the plasma accesses states with a single dominant helicity. Such transport barriers enclose a hot helical region with high confinement whose amplitude may vary from a tiny one to an amplitude encompassing an appreciable fraction of the available volume. The transition from narrow to wide thermal structures has been ascribed so far to the transport reduction that occurs when the dominant mode separatrix, which is a preferred location for the onset of stochastic field lines, disappears. In this Letter we show instead that the contribution from the separatrix disappearance, by itself, is marginal and the main role is instead played by the progressive stabilization of secondary modes. The position and the width of the stochastic boundary encompassing the thermal structures have been estimated by applying the concept of a 3D quasiseparatrix layer, developed in solar physics to treat reconnection phenomena without true separatrices and novel to toroidal laboratory plasmas. Considering the favorable scaling of secondary modes with the Lundquist number, these results open promising scenarios for RFP plasmas at temperatures higher than the presently achieved ones, where lower secondary modes and, consequently, larger thermal structures are expected. Furthermore, this first application of the quasiseparatrix layer to a toroidal plasma indicates that such a concept is ubiquitous in magnetic reconnection, independent of the system geometry under investigation.

  15. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Microstructures: Making Sense of the Internal Framework Affecting Gas Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeffrey

    Optimal electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells will combine high porosity for gas diffusion, high phase connectivity for ion and electron conduction, and high surface area for chemical and electrochemical reactions. Tracer-diffusion simulations are used to gain a better understanding of the interplay between microstructure and transport in porous materials. Results indicate that the coefficient of diffusion through a porous medium is a function of the details of the internal geometry (microscopic) and porosity (macroscopic). I report that current solid-oxide fuel cell electrodes produced from high-temperature sintering of ceramic powders severely hinder gas transport because the resulting structures are highly tortuous, complex three-dimensional networks. In addition, poor phase connectivities will assuredly limit ion and electron transport, as well as the density of active sites for power-producing reactions. With new access to a wide range of technologies, micro- and nano-fabrication capabilities, and high-performance materials, there is a new ability to engineer the fuel cell electrode architecture, optimizing the physical processes within, increasing performance, and greatly reducing cost per kilowatt. Even simple packed-sphere and inverse-opal architectures will increase gas diffusion by an order of magnitude, and provide a higher level of connectivity than traditional powder-based structures.

  16. Scaling and transport analyses based on an international edge turbulence database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P.; Ramisch, M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Dinklage, A.; Endler, M.; Marsen, S.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U.; Tamain, P.; Wilcox, R.

    2014-09-01

    Microscopic turbulence properties in the edge of toroidally confined fusion plasmas are studied by comparative analysis of experimental data from seven devices, collected in an international edge turbulence database. The database contains Langmuir probe measurements of fluctuations in the floating potential and ion saturation current across the last closed flux surface. They are used to address statistical properties and particle transport. Universal features of plasma edge turbulence such as an increase in skewness across the scrape-off layer (SOL) as footprints of density blobs are recovered in all devices. Analysis of the correlation lengths and times reveals power law scaling relations with macroscopic drift-wave parameters, albeit weaker than would be expected for drift-wave turbulence. As a result, the turbulent diffusivity scales with the inverse of the magnetic field strength, which is closer to Bohm-like scaling than to gyro-Bohm scaling. Nearly identical scaling relations are determined in the confined plasma edge and the SOL, pointing to a strong connection between drift-wave turbulence in the edge and blobs in the SOL. The contributions of blobs and holes (negative density spikes) to the radial particle transport are analyzed qualitatively with a conditional averaging approach. Blobs are connected to outward transport in the SOL of all devices whereas holes exhibit no uniform propagation pattern.

  17. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  18. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Chorover, Jon D.; Ewing, Robert P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, E.; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-03-16

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments and soil aggregates. These domains, which we term internal domains in porous media (IDPM), contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse porous media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and hydrocarbon storage. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM. In this review we: discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate what has been learned about their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Three key findings are noteworthy. 1) A combination of methods now allows complete characterization of the porosity spectrum of natural materials and its connectivity; while imaging microscopies are providing three dimensional representations of the interconnected pore network. 2) Chemical reactivity in pores <10 nm is expected to be different from micro and macropores, yet research performed to date is inconclusive on the nature, direction, and magnitude of effect. 3) Existing continuum reactive transport models treat IDPM as a sub-grid feature with average, empirical, scale-dependent parameters; and are not formulated to include detailed information on pore networks. Overall we find that IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydrofracking systems, organic matter stabilization and recalcitrance in soil, weathering and soil formation, and long term inorganic and organic contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. We conclude with an assessment of impactful research opportunities to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their important effects in reactive transport models

  19. Small Misfolded Tau Species Are Internalized via Bulk Endocytosis and Anterogradely and Retrogradely Transported in Neurons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jessica W.; Herman, Mathieu; Liu, Li; Simoes, Sabrina; Acker, Christopher M.; Figueroa, Helen; Steinberg, Joshua I.; Margittai, Martin; Kayed, Rakez; Zurzolo, Chiara; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Duff, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of Tau into aggregates is associated with key pathological events in frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTD-Tau) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent data have shown that misfolded Tau can be internalized by cells in vitro (Frost, B., Jacks, R. L., and Diamond, M. I. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 12845–12852) and propagate pathology in vivo (Clavaguera, F., Bolmont, T., Crowther, R. A., Abramowski, D., Frank, S., Probst, A., Fraser, G., Stalder, A. K., Beibel, M., Staufenbiel, M., Jucker, M., Goedert, M., and Tolnay, M. (2009) Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 909–913; Lasagna-Reeves, C. A., Castillo-Carranza, D. L., Sengupta, U., Guerrero-Munoz, M. J., Kiritoshi, T., Neugebauer, V., Jackson, G. R., and Kayed, R. (2012) Sci. Rep. 2, 700). Here we show that recombinant Tau misfolds into low molecular weight (LMW) aggregates prior to assembly into fibrils, and both extracellular LMW Tau aggregates and short fibrils, but not monomers, long fibrils, nor long filaments purified from brain extract are taken up by neurons. Remarkably, misfolded Tau can be internalized at the somatodendritic compartment, or the axon terminals and it can be transported anterogradely, retrogradely, and can enhance tauopathy in vivo. The internalized Tau aggregates co-localize with dextran, a bulk-endocytosis marker, and with the endolysosomal compartments. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous Tau can be taken up by cells, uptake depends on both the conformation and size of the Tau aggregates and once inside cells, Tau can be transported. These data provide support for observations that tauopathy can spread trans-synaptically in vivo, via cell-to-cell transfer. PMID:23188818

  20. Small misfolded Tau species are internalized via bulk endocytosis and anterogradely and retrogradely transported in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jessica W; Herman, Mathieu; Liu, Li; Simoes, Sabrina; Acker, Christopher M; Figueroa, Helen; Steinberg, Joshua I; Margittai, Martin; Kayed, Rakez; Zurzolo, Chiara; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Duff, Karen E

    2013-01-18

    The accumulation of Tau into aggregates is associated with key pathological events in frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTD-Tau) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent data have shown that misfolded Tau can be internalized by cells in vitro (Frost, B., Jacks, R. L., and Diamond, M. I. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 12845-12852) and propagate pathology in vivo (Clavaguera, F., Bolmont, T., Crowther, R. A., Abramowski, D., Frank, S., Probst, A., Fraser, G., Stalder, A. K., Beibel, M., Staufenbiel, M., Jucker, M., Goedert, M., and Tolnay, M. (2009) Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 909-913; Lasagna-Reeves, C. A., Castillo-Carranza, D. L., Sengupta, U., Guerrero-Munoz, M. J., Kiritoshi, T., Neugebauer, V., Jackson, G. R., and Kayed, R. (2012) Sci. Rep. 2, 700). Here we show that recombinant Tau misfolds into low molecular weight (LMW) aggregates prior to assembly into fibrils, and both extracellular LMW Tau aggregates and short fibrils, but not monomers, long fibrils, nor long filaments purified from brain extract are taken up by neurons. Remarkably, misfolded Tau can be internalized at the somatodendritic compartment, or the axon terminals and it can be transported anterogradely, retrogradely, and can enhance tauopathy in vivo. The internalized Tau aggregates co-localize with dextran, a bulk-endocytosis marker, and with the endolysosomal compartments. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous Tau can be taken up by cells, uptake depends on both the conformation and size of the Tau aggregates and once inside cells, Tau can be transported. These data provide support for observations that tauopathy can spread trans-synaptically in vivo, via cell-to-cell transfer.

  1. The International Space Analogue Rock Store (ISAR): A key tool for future planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to prepare the next in situ space missions we have created a « lithothèque » of analogue rocks for calibrating and testing future (and existing) space flight instruments. This rock collection is called the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR) and is hosted in the CNRS and the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en Region Centre (OSUC) in Orléans. For maximum science return, all instruments on a single mission should ideally be tested with the same suite of relevant analogue materials. The ISAR lithothéque aims to fulfill this role by providing suitable materials to instrument teams [1]. The lithothèque is accompanied by an online database of all relevant structural, textural, and geochemical data (www.isar.cnrs-orleans.fr).The data base will also be available during missions to aid interpretation of data obtained in situ. Mars is the immediate goal for MSL-2011 and the new international Mars 2018 mission. The lithothèque thus presently contains relevant Mars-analogue rock and mineral samples, a preliminary range of which is now available to the scientific community for instrument testing [2]. The preliminary group of samples covers a range of lithologies to be found on Mars, especially those in Noachain/Hesperian terrains where MSL will land (Gale Crater) and where the 2018 landing site will most likely be located. It includes a variety of basalts (tephrite, primitive basalt, silicified basalt; plus cumulates), komatiites, artificially synthesized martian basalts [3], volcanic sands, a banded iron formation, carbonates associated with volcanic lithologies and hydrothermalism, the clay Nontronite, and hydrothermal cherts. Some of the silicified volcanic sands contain traces of early life that are good analogues for potential martian life [4]. [1] Westall F. et al., LPI contribution 1608, 1346, 42nd LPSC, 2011; [2] Bost N. et al., in review (Icarus); [3] Bost N. et al., in review (Meteoritics); [4] Westall et al., 2011, Planetary and Space

  2. A View on the Future of an International Philosophy of Music Education: A Plea for a Comparative Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Frede V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, a member of the International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education (ISPME), shares his views on the future of the "philosophy of music education." According to him, the "philosophy of music education" can be and is, many different things. He argues that the ISPME should develop an open and…

  3. FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. REGGIANI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of European policy on the interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU. In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future – both international (EU and national (the Alpine countries – freight transport development. The paper is organised to briefly describe the main objectives of EU transport policy, to generally introduce the concept of intermodal transport with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport and to describe past, present and future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport. The scenarios of future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport have been particularly analysed.

  4. Mechanisms of nanoparticle internalization and transport across an intestinal epithelial cell model: effect of size and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannunah, Azzah M; Vllasaliu, Driton; Lord, Jennie; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of nanoparticle size (50 and 100 nm) and surface charge on their interaction with Caco-2 monolayers as a model of the intestinal epithelium, including cell internalization pathways and the level of transepithelial transport. Initially, toxicity assays showed that cell viability and cell membrane integrity were dependent on the surface charge and applied mass, number, and total surface area of nanoparticles, as tested in two epithelial cell lines, colon carcinoma Caco-2 and airway Calu-3. This also identified suitable nanoparticle concentrations for subsequent cell uptake experiments. Nanoparticle application at doses below half maximal effective concentration (EC₅₀) revealed that the transport efficiency (ratio of transport to cell uptake) across Caco-2 cell monolayers is significantly higher for negatively charged nanoparticles compared to their positively charged counterparts (of similar size), despite the higher level of internalization of positively charged systems. Cell internalization pathways were hence probed using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors aiming to establish whether the discrepancy in transport efficiency is due to different uptake and transport pathways. Vesicular trans-monolayer transport for both positively and negatively charged nanoparticles was confirmed via inhibition of dynamin (by dynasore) and microtubule network (via nocodazole), which significantly reduced the transport of both nanoparticle systems. For positively charged nanoparticles a significant decrease in internalization and transport (46% and 37%, respectively) occurred in the presence of a clathrin pathway inhibitor (chlorpromazine), macropinocytosis inhibition (42%; achieved by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyi)-amiloride), and under cholesterol depletion (38%; via methyl-β-cyclodextrin), but remained unaffected by the inhibition of lipid raft associated uptake (caveolae) by genistein. On the contrary, the most prominent reduction in

  5. The Role of Air Transport in the Development of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are close links between air transport and international tourism. The latter, in a significant way has an impact on the development and stimulation of changes in aviation and, in particular, this applies to establishing new routes or increasing competition by the emergence of new air carriers. The essence of aviation is manifested in the aviation business travel and learning about the new States. Therefore, a change that has been made in aviation in the second half of the 20th century is a breakthrough. It is about a liberalization of this sector, which has enabled the development of international tourism. There are plenty of benefits for the development of tourism coming from the liberalization of aviation sector. Thanks to competitive prices and continually increasing offer of air connections to various places in the world, demand for tourism is growing trend. Among the factors hampering the development of aviation tourism, the following should be included: maintaining the visa requirement for many countries, the threat of terrorist attacks, a set of factors in the structure of tourism and safety issue. When it comes to Europe, along with the implementation of the common policy of the European Union, the sector of the tourism industry started to develop. Eliminating internal barriers and the gradual implementation of the freedom of movement of persons, services and capital has led to an increase in the demand for tourism in the EU. Europe is an attractive tourist destination in the world.

  6. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Painter, Scott L.; Gable, Carl W.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-08-01

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer-scale field-scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.

  7. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO{sub 2}, calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. {yields} 7.7 Mt of CO{sub 2} estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. {yields} 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. {yields} The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. {yields} Detailed approach for international transport emissions

  9. The potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in future transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013) contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity) of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003) identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further development...

  10. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 6: Impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Consequences that might occur if certain technological developments take place in intercity transportation are described. These consequences are broad ranging, and include economic, environmental, social, institutional, energy-related, and transportation service implications. The possible consequences are traced through direct (primary) impacts to indirect (secondary, tertiary, etc.) impacts. Chains of consequences are traced, reaching as far beyond the original transportation cause as is necessary to identify all impacts felt to be influenced significantly by the technological development considered.

  11. Communications and Positioning by Satelhte in the International Road Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the basic technology of satellite .I'Stemsrelated to the geostationary satellites particular(v with regardto the .\\'Stem of satellites in the European network ofEUTELSAT (European Telecommunications Satellite Organizationcovering Europe, North Africa and part of the MiddleEast.This enables positioning of vehicles in the internationalroad transport system in the territory which has been covered bythe satellite signal.The EUTELTRACS system within the EUTELSAT organizationenables not only positioning with preciseness ofabout 300 m, but also two-way communications between vehiclesand company headquarters, which is an advantage comparedto the other positioning systems.EUTELTRACS service belongs to the land mobile satelliteservices with secondary status (it must not impose any interferenceto other radio-communication services and cannot claimprotection from other services.The use of frequency bands is for the up-links 14.0-14.25GHz, and for the down-links 10.25-11.20 GHz, 11.45-11.70GHz and 12.50-12.75 GHz.The EUTELTRACS system provides services by means ofOmniTRACS terminals and CEPT (European Conference ofPostal and Telecommunications Administrations administrationsissue type approvals, designating the terminal markingand make decisions regarding free circulation of terminals inconformity with their national regulations.The OmniTRACS terminal.l'stem has been specially presentedas well as the fixed part of EUTELTRACS .\\'Stem withthe satellite segment.Every transport company has been considered as a subscriberto an authorised EUTELTRACS service provider.The service for tracing trucks in the international trafficthroughout Europe and Middle East can be fully expressed byincluding the stronger transport companies (more than 10trucks which can establish the transport more rationallythrough EUTELTRACS service.The implementation of the EUTELTRACS service hasbeen imposed on the Croatian companies, whose internationaltransport could

  12. Aluminum Consumption of China’s Transport Industry Has A Rosy Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>December 12- at the recent China Aluminum Industrial Economy Forum, industry analysts indicated that, China transport industry aluminum consumption will enjoy a favorable prospect during the 12th Five-Year Plan period. In 2010, China’s transport sector demanded for

  13. Local Turbulence Suppression and Flow Shear Dynamics During qmin-Triggered Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M. W.; McKee, G. R.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Austin, M. E.; Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.

    2007-11-01

    Turbulence is observed to transiently decrease locally during the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) following the appearance of low-order rational qmin surfaces in negative central shear discharges on DIII-D. Simultaneously, increased poloidal flow shear is observed. To further study this phenomenon, localized 2D density fluctuation measurements of turbulence and turbulence flow were obtained over 0.3 < r/a < 0.7 via the high-sensitivity beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Both the reduction in fluctuations and the poloidal velocity shear are found to propagate radially outward at about 1 m/s. Initial observations suggest that these effects follow the q=2 surface. Related GYRO simulations suggest transient zonal flows form near the q=2 surface to trigger these ITBs. High-frequency poloidal velocity measurements will be used to examine this mechanism.

  14. The effect of stochastic perturbations on plankton transport by internal solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stastna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal solitary and solitary-like waves are a commonly observed feature of density stratified natural waters, including lakes and the coastal ocean. Since such waves induce significant currents throughout the water column they can be responsible for significant transport of both passive and swimming biota. We consider simple models of moving zooplankton based on the Langevin equation. The small amplitude randomness significantly alters the nature of particle motion. In particular, passage through the wave leads to strongly non Gaussian particle distributions. When the plankton swims to return to its equilibrium photic level, a steady state that balances randomness, swimming and wave-induced motions is possible. We discuss possible implications of this steady state for organisms that feed on plankton.

  15. Stability of tokamak plasmas with internal transport barriers against high n ideal magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Bing-Ren; Qu Wen-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    A ballooning mode equation for tokamak plasma, with the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects included, is derived for a shift circular flux tokamak configuration. Using this equation, the stability of the plasma configuration with an internal transport barrier (IT2 against the high n (the toroidal mode number) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning mode is analysed. It is shown that both the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects are stabilizing.In the ITB region, these effects give rise to a low shear stable channel between the first and the second stability regions.Out of the ITB region towards the plasma edge, the stabilizing effect of the Shafranov shift causes the unstable zone to be significantly narrowed.

  16. Hydrogen as a fuel for the transportation sector: possibilities and views for future applications in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Osta, W.; Zeghlam, J. [Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libya)

    2000-04-01

    World-wide energy consumption in the transportation sector accounts for about one quarter of the total energy consumption. This implies that thousands of tons of pollutants are emitted each year. The total pollutants include CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and soot particles. In Libya, the transportation sector counts for a big share of the total energy demand. So if this sector would be changed to clean fuel, the pollution will be reduced dramatically. Hydrogen is proposed (hypothetically) to be used for the transportation sector in Libya. This paper will review the advancement of this technology world wide, in a sense of hydrogen production, storage, transportation and refuelling systems. The possibilities of using hydrogen in the transportation sector in Libya and the expected advantages, obstacles and constraints associate with its application and public acceptance. (Author)

  17. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  18. Production of internal transport barriers via self-generated mean flows in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, C. L.; Ernst, D. R.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Mikkelsen, D.; Howard, N. T.; Lee, Jungpyo; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Ma, Y.; Rowan, W. L.; Bespamyatnov, I.

    2012-05-01

    New results suggest that changes observed in the intrinsic toroidal rotation influence the internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [E. S. Marmar and Alcator C-Mod group, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51, 261 (2007)]. These arise when the resonance for ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) minority heating is positioned off-axis at or outside of the plasma half-radius. These ITBs form in a reactor relevant regime, without particle or momentum injection, with Ti ≈ Te, and with monotonic q profiles (qmin 1.5 × 105 rad/s) in the region where the ITB foot is observed. Gyrokinetic analyses indicate that this spontaneous shearing rate is comparable to the linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) growth rate at the ITB location and is sufficient to reduce the turbulent particle and energy transport. New and detailed measurement of the ion temperature demonstrates that the radial profile flattens as the ICRF resonance position moves off axis, decreasing the drive for the ITG the instability as well. These results are the first evidence that intrinsic rotation can affect confinement in ITB plasmas.

  19. Mass transport induced by internal Kelvin waves beneath shore-fast ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    StøYlen, Eivind; Weber, Jan Erik H.

    2010-03-01

    A one-layer reduced-gravity model is used to investigate the wave-induced mass flux in internal Kelvin waves along a straight coast beneath shore-fast ice. The waves are generated by barotropic tidal pumping at narrow sounds, and the ice lid introduces a no-slip condition for the horizontal wave motion. The mean Lagrangian fluxes to second order in wave steepness are obtained by integrating the equations of momentum and mass between the material interface and the surface. The mean flow is forced by the conventional radiation stress for internal wave motion, the mean pressure gradient due to the sloping surface, and the frictional drag at the boundaries. The equations that govern the mean fluxes are expressed in terms of mean Eulerian variables, while the wave forcing terms are given by the horizontal divergence of the Stokes flux. Analytical results show that the effect of friction induces a mean Eulerian flux along the coast that is comparable to the Stokes flux. In addition, the horizontal divergence of the total mean flux along the coast induces a small mass flux in the cross-shore direction. This flux changes the mean thickness of the upper layer outside the trapping region and may facilitate geostrophically balanced boundary currents in enclosed basins. This is indeed demonstrated by numerical solutions of the flux equations for confined areas larger than the trapping region. Application of the theory to Arctic waters is discussed, with emphasis on the transport of biological material and pollutants in nearshore regions.

  20. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rockett; Dubey, M.K.; Wuebbles, D. J.; S. C. Olsen; W. Jia; Wang, D.

    2012-01-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheri...

  1. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D.; W. Jia; S. C. Olsen; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M.K.; A. A. Rockett

    2013-01-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and che...

  2. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  3. Highlights of the tenth International Conference on Trichinellosis: past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupouy-Camet J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tenth International Conference on trichinellosis, organized by the International Commission on Trichinellosis, gathered together 147 scientists from 34 countries. The 173 presentations ranged over most aspects of this parasitic zoonosis: history, epidemiology, speciation, biology, immunology, biochemistry, human and anima pathology, new diagnostic methods and control.

  4. NGO participation in international lawmaking and democratic legitimacy : The debate and its future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, scholars - mainly in the field of law and international relations - have argued that NGOs are indispensable in making international law more democratically legitimate. This study refers to this as the ‘NGO democratic legitimacy thesis’. The thesis is presented as a

  5. Emerging Futures for Sao Tome & Principe’s International Airport Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-03

    34 PIIOTO I]V lAY A, BIESZKF Figure 2: Abandoned plamation home at Agua lze. A once thriving ~ocoa planta . tion. thi, run-down esrare is located on the...machinery, and transportation equipment. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS In 2001, STP and Nigeria reached an agreement on joint exploration for petroleum in... transportation between Sao Tome and the rest of the world. If the airport physically expands, the displacement of village residents will have several

  6. The Future of the International Investment Law and Policy Re-gime:Options for Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl P.Sauvant; Federico Ortino

    2014-01-01

    The international investment regime faces broader chal-lenges, as reflected especially in the discussions regarding the investor-state dispute-settlement mechanism and the quest to make the international investment regime more oriented toward sustainable development objectives and to strengthen disciplines for the behavior of multinational enterprises. A number of options of how the regime can be improved are laid out in this article, including engaging in fact finding processes; establishing consen-sus-building working groups; formulating a model international investment agreement; building specific mechanisms to improve the investment re-gime;and commencing intergovernmental processes.An international in-vestment consensus-building process is advocated to facilitate the improve-ment of the international investment regime.

  7. Towards the future: The promise of intermodal and multimodal transportation systems. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.E.; Easley, R.B.; Fowler, T.M.; Gabler, W.L.; Govind, S.

    1995-02-01

    Issues relating to intermodal and multimodal transportation systems are introduced and defined. Intermodal and multimodal transportation solutions are assessed within the framework of legislative efforts such as Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Federal involvement in state intermodal transportation systems, and state responses to the growing intermodal and multimodal trends are also reviewed. The roles and responsibilities of the Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) in the post-ISTEA world is examined and the impacts of legislative mandates considered. As a case study, the workings of the Houston MPO are examined. Private sector intermodal and multimodal involvement is addressed, including issues in management, regulatory, financial, economical, environmental, and even physical constraints. Effects of regulation on private sector intermodalism are discussed, as are case studies in partnering and management.

  8. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  9. Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelley A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Woodruff, David; Jones, Timothy; Restom, Teresa; Mejia, Monica; Clearwater, Michael; Campanello, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated

  10. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  11. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  12. The role of legal regulation and place of international organisations in transport companies’ development at foreign market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Lyashuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the market of international trucking transport companies. The study is based on statistics and works of domestic and foreign scholars on the issue of current state and prospects of market development. Dedicated dynamics and structure of international trucking market, features of export, import and transit trucking. Identified the main priorities for the development and growth of the market.

  13. Modeling aeolian transport in response to succession, disturbance and future climate: Dynamic long-term risk assessment for contaminant redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, D.D.; Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, J.J.; Field, J.P.; Allen, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian sediment transport is a fundamental process redistributing sediment, nutrients, and contaminants in dryland ecosystems. Over time frames of centuries or longer, horizontal sediment fluxes and associated rates of contaminant transport are likely to be influenced by succession, disturbances, and changes in climate, yet models of horizontal sediment transport that account for these fundamental factors are lacking, precluding in large part accurate assessment of human health risks associated with persistent soil-bound contaminants. We present a simple model based on empirical measurements of horizontal sediment transport (predominantly saltation) to predict potential contaminant transport rates for recently disturbed sites such as a landfill cover. Omnidirectional transport is estimated within vegetation that changes using a simple Markov model that simulates successional trajectory and considers three types of short-term disturbances (surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced plant mortality) under current and projected climates. The model results highlight that movement of contaminated soil is sensitive to vegetation dynamics and increases substantially (e.g., > fivefold) when disturbance and/or future climate are considered. The time-dependent responses in horizontal sediment fluxes and associated contaminant fluxes were sensitive to variability in the timing of disturbance, with longer intervals between disturbance allowing woody plants to become dominant and crown fire and drought abruptly reducing woody plant cover. Our results, which have direct implications for contaminant transport and landfill management in the specific context of our assessment, also have general relevance because they highlight the need to more fully account for vegetation dynamics, disturbance, and changing climate in aeolian process studies. ?? 2011.

  14. Space experiment BTN-NEUTRON on INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION - CURRENT STATUS and future stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, V. I.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Laygushin, V. I.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Pronin, M. A.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Sanin, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Space experiment BTN (Board Telescope of Neutrons) was suggested in 1997 for the Russian segment of International Space Station. The first stage of this experiment was started in February 2007 with instrumentation BTN-M1, which contain two separate units: 1) the electronics unit for commanding and data handling, which is installed inside the Station; 2) the detector unit, which is installed at the outer surface of Russian Service Module "Zvezda". The total mass of this instrument without cables is about 15 kg and total power consumption is about 18 Watts. Detector unit of BTN-M1 has the set of four neutron detectors: three proportional counters of epithermal neutrons with 3He covered by cadmium shields and polyethylene moderators with different thickness and stylbene scintillator for fast neutrons at the energy range 0.4 Mev - 10 Mev. There are three sources of neutrons in the near-Earth space. Permanent flux of neutrons is produced due to interaction of energetic particles of galactic and solar cosmic rays with the upper atmosphere of the Earth ("natural neutrons") and with the body of the spacecraft ("technogenic neutrons"). The third transient sources of neutrons are active regions of the Sun, which may sporadically emit energetic neutrons during strong flares. Some of these particles have sufficiently high energy to neutrons cover the distance to the Earth before decay Data from BTN-M1 after 2 years of space operations is sufficient for preliminary estimation of neutron component of radiation environment in the near-Earth space. BTN-M1 detector unit is equal to the Russian instrument HEND, which also operates now onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter since May 2001. Simultaneous measurements of neutron radiation on orbits around Mars and Earth give the unique opportunity to compare neutron radiation environment around two planets. The technogenic component of neutron background may be estimated by analysis of data for different stages of flight. After evaluation

  15. Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus : recommendations and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, A.; Hecking, M.; de Vries, A. P. J.; Porrini, E.; Hornum, M.; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S.; Berlakovich, G.; Krebs, M.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Schernthaner, G.; Marchetti, P.; Pacini, G.; Ojo, A.; Takahara, S.; Larsen, J. L.; Budde, K.; Eller, K.; Pascual, J.; Jardine, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Valderhaug, T. G.; Jenssen, T. G.; Cohney, S.; Saeemann, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientists,

  16. Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus : recommendations and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, A.; Hecking, M.; de Vries, A. P. J.; Porrini, E.; Hornum, M.; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S.; Berlakovich, G.; Krebs, M.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Schernthaner, G.; Marchetti, P.; Pacini, G.; Ojo, A.; Takahara, S.; Larsen, J. L.; Budde, K.; Eller, K.; Pascual, J.; Jardine, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Valderhaug, T. G.; Jenssen, T. G.; Cohney, S.; Saeemann, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientists,

  17. Reflections on solute transport in rivers: Historical developments, present approaches, and future promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years after Bencala and Walters' landmark paper on transient storage seems like a good time to reflect on our understanding of hyporheic exchange and solute transport in rivers. Bencala and Walters' work, and the related fieldwork of many others at the U.S. Geological Survey, changed the paradigm for flow in river corridors. Previously, the prevailing view had been that in-stream transport was regulated primarily by advection and dispersion. This thinking was rooted in well-established theory derived from the work of G.I. Taylor on dispersion processes, and supported by extensive fieldwork in the 1960's and 1970's. River and groundwater flow were strictly separated at the channel boundary. After Bencala and Walters (and a lot of follow-up work!) we now understand that water continuously exchanges across stream channel boundaries. This has profound implications for not only solute transport in rivers, but also a wide variety of biogeochemical, ecological, and even geomorphological processes. In this talk, I will review the historical development of theory for solute transport in rivers, try to convey why Bencala and Walters was so important to both hydrology and biogeochemistry, and discuss how recent developments in measurement methods and stochastic transport theory can be used to further advance our understanding of surface-groundwater connectivity.

  18. The Current Situation and Future Prospects of International Relations in Japanese Higher Education Related Engineering Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Shigenori

    With ongoing globalization, the role of higher education in developing excellent human resources who can play an active role in international society, among other things is becoming increasingly important. Recently, the international competition among higher education institutions to recruit the best and brightest students has been heating up increasingly. In this section, we present the outline of recent trend of internationalization in higher education with reference to policy of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) .

  19. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  20. Spin transport at the international linear collider and its impact on the measurement of polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Moritz

    2013-12-15

    At the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), the longitudinal beam polarization needs to be determined with an unprecedented precision. For that purpose, the beam delivery systems (BDS) are equipped with two laser Compton polarimeters each, which are foreseen to achieve a systematic uncertainty of {<=} 0.25 %. The polarimeters are located 1.6 km upstream and 150 m downstream of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point (IP). The average luminosity-weighted longitudinal polarization P{sup lumi}{sub z}, which is the decisive quantity for the experiments, has to be determined from these measurements with the best possible precision. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the spin transport in the BDS is mandatory to estimate how precise the longitudinal polarization at the IP is known from the polarimeter measurements. The envisaged precision for the propagation of the measurement value is {<=} 0.1 %. This thesis scrutinizes the spin transport in view of the achievable precision. A detailed beamline simulation for the BDS has been developed, including the simulation of the beam-beam collisions at the IP. The following factors which might limit the achievable precision is investigated: a variation of the beam parameters, the beam alignment precision at the polarimeters and the IP, the bunch rotation at the IP, the detector magnets, the beam-beam collisions, the emission of synchrotron radiation and misalignments of the beamline elements. In absence of collisions, a precision of 0.085% on the propagation of the measured longitudinal polarization has been found achievable. This result however depends mainly on the presumed precisions for the parallel alignment of the beam at the polarimeters and for the alignment of polarization vector. In presence of collisions, the measurement at the downstream polarimeter depends strongly on the intensity of the collision and the size of the polarimeter laser spot. Therefore, a more detailed study of the laser-bunch interaction is

  1. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  2. Highlights From the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/ International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion: From the Bench to the Bedside - Clinical Pharmacology Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, P T; Bauer, B; El-Kattan, A F; Shen, H; Salphati, L; Louie, S W

    2016-11-01

    The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion was held with the objective of discussing innovative advances in transporter pharmacology. Specific topics included (i) transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (ii) emerging transport proteins; (iii) recent advances in achieving hepatoselectivity and optimizing clearance for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates; (iv) utility of animal models for transporter studies; and (v) clinical correlation of transporter polymorphisms. Here, we present state-of-the-art highlights from this workshop in these key areas of focus.

  3. The influence of future non-mitigated road transport emissions on regional ozone exceedences at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. E.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Tang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Road Transport emissions (RTE) are a significant anthropogenic global NOx source responsible for enhancing the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere. Here we analyse a multi-model ensemble which adopts the realistic SRES A1B emission scenario and a “policy-failure” scenario for RTE (A1B_HIGH) for the years 2000, 2025 and 2050. Analysing the regional trends in RTE NOx estimates shows by 2025 that differences of 0.2-0.3 Tg N yr-1 occur for most of the world regions between the A1B and A1B_HIGH estimates, except for Asia where there is a larger difference of ˜1.4 Tg N yr-1. For 2050 these differences fall to ˜0.1 Tg N yr-1, with shipping emissions becoming as important as RTE. Analysing the seasonality in near-surface O3 from the multi-model ensemble monthly mean values shows a large variability in the projected changes between different regions. For Western Europe and the Eastern US although the peak O3 mixing ratios decrease by ˜10% in 2050, there is an associated degradation during wintertime due to less direct titration from nitric oxide. For regions such as Eastern China, although total anthropogenic NOx emissions are reduced from 2025 to 2050, there is no real improvement in peak O3 levels. By normalizing the seasonal ensemble means of near-surface O3 (0-500 m) with the recommended European Commission (EC) exposure limit to derive an exceedence ratio (ER), we show that ER values greater than 1.0 occur across a wide area in the Northern Hemisphere for boreal summer using the year 2000 emissions. When adopting the future A1B_HIGH estimates, the Middle East exhibits the worst regional air quality, closely followed by Asia. For these regions the area of exceedence (ER > 1.0) for 2025 is ˜40% and ˜25% of the total area of each region, respectively. Comparing simulations employing the various scenarios shows that unmitigated RTE increases the area of exceedence in the Middle East by ˜6% and, for Asia, by ˜2% of the total

  4. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  5. Road transportation impact on Ghana's future energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faah, George

    2008-11-07

    This research work explored the environmental and socio-economic benefits derived, if some proportion of daily passenger trips made using private cars in Ghana could be shifted to the use of public transport. The research applied the computer software COPERT III in estimating road transport Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption in Ghana for the base year 2005 and forecast years 2010 and 2020. The research reveals that if no major change occur in policies or economic determinants in meeting road transport and energy in Ghana, then the 2005 total emissions value is expected to rise by 36% in 2010 and over double in 2020 i.e. from 4.6 to 6.25 in 2010 and to 9.77 Mt CO{sub 2}e in 2020. However, if just 10% of daily passenger trips using private cars can be shifted towards the use of public transport, then the end results in reduction in emissions could earn Ghana about USD 6.6million/year under the Kyoto Protocol CDM initiative. The research also demonstrated that with a further 10% daily passenger trip shift, the outcome could be more promising, increasing to USD 13million/year. (orig.)

  6. The Potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in Future Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Attard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013 contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003 identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further developments in the use of geographic information systems (GIS and a greater disposition by the public to provide volunteered geographic information (VGI, the potential of information is not only integrated across modes but also user-generated, real-time and available on smartphones anywhere. This geographic information plays today an important role in sectors such as politics, businesses and entertainment, and presumably this would extend to transport in revealing people’s preferences for mobility and therefore be useful for decision-making. The widespread availability of networks and smartphones offer new opportunities supported by apps and crowdsourcing through social media such as the successful traffic and navigation app Waze, car sharing programmes such as Zipcar, and ride sharing systems such as Uber. This study aims to develop insights into the potential of governments to use voluntary (crowdsourced geographic information effectively to achieve sustainable mobility. A review of the literature and existing technology informs this article. Further research into this area is identified and presented at the end of the paper.

  7. The Potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in Future Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Attard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013 contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003 identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further developments in the use of geographic information systems (GIS and a greater disposition by the public to provide volunteered geographic information (VGI, the potential of information is not only integrated across modes but also user-generated, real-time and available on smartphones anywhere. This geographic information plays today an important role in sectors such as politics, businesses and entertainment, and presumably this would extend to transport in revealing people’s preferences for mobility and therefore be useful for decision-making. The widespread availability of networks and smartphones offer new opportunities supported by apps and crowdsourcing through social media such as the successful traffic and navigation app Waze, car sharing programmes such as Zipcar, and ride sharing systems such as Uber. This study aims to develop insights into the potential of governments to use voluntary (crowdsourced geographic information effectively to achieve sustainable mobility. A review of the literature and existing technology informs this article. Further research into this area is identified and presented at the end of the paper.

  8. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  9. Impacts of Future Climate Change on Aerosol Transport to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic climate is sensitive to small concentrations of light-absorbing aerosols like black carbon, and hence the impacts of global climate change on aerosol transport to the Arctic are of interest. Here, we explore how climate warming under the RCP 8.5 scenario would impact Arctic aerosol distributions via changes in atmospheric transport and removal processes. We modify the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model to track distributions and fluxes of 200 black carbon-like tracers emitted from different locations, and we conduct idealized experiments with and without active aerosol deposition. Changing wind patterns, operating in isolation, cause the Arctic burdens of tracers emitted from East Asia and West Europe during winter to increase about 20-30% by the end of the century, while decreasing the Arctic burdens of North American emissions by 20-40%. These changes are caused by an altered winter polar dome structure that results from Arctic amplification and inhomogeneous sea-ice loss and surface warming, both of which are enhanced in the Chukchi Sea region. The resulting geostrophic wind favors Arctic transport of East Asian emissions while inhibiting poleward transport of North American emissions. When active deposition is also considered, however, Arctic burdens of emissions from northern mid-latitudes show near-universal decline. This is a consequence of increased precipitation and wet removal, particularly within the Arctic, leading to decreased Arctic residence time. Simulations with present-day emissions of black carbon indicate a 17% reduction in the Arctic annual-mean burden by the end of the 21st century, due to warming-induced transport and deposition changes.

  10. International standard for future automotive 42 V supply voltages (PowerNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Wolfgang

    The development of innovative automotive systems is determined by the demand for cut in fuel consumption and increase in fuel efficiency, reduction of environmental pollution and comfort improvement. A basic condition for such developments is the introduction of a 42 V power supply in future vehicles. The characteristics of future power supplies and the resulting consequences for the system, the components and the whole vehicle power supply architecture need standardisation in different areas. The electrical stress for the vehicle components is addressed in the standard ISO 21848 and this paper gives details about the status of the standardisation work.

  11. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  12. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  13. Considerations on legislation, transportation and international trade of mineral commodities containing NORM; Consideracoes sobre legislacao, transporte e comercio internacional de commodities minerais contendo NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Borges, Flavia Luiza Soares; Villegas, Raul Alberto Sodre

    2016-07-01

    The radiation protection and transport procedures of the main importing countries of the Brazilian minerals, which are related to radioactive minerals are presented. The references and an overview about the safety procedures and guides, norms and regulations about NORM related to radiation limits for the public and personnel are also commented. The exemption values in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA recommendations and the legislation of the main importers of Brazilian mineral goods: China, Europe and Community and United States are introduced.

  14. Australian intern pharmacists’ perceived preparedness for practice, and their expectations and experiences of the internship year and future career intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak VSL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vivienne SL Mak,1,2 Geoff March,2 Alice Clark,2 Andrew L Gilbert21Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: A key objective of Australia's health care reform is a skilled, flexible, and well-trained workforce. To meet these requirements, the training of health professionals, including pharmacists, needs to be focused on patient care processes, and students must develop competencies in the delivery of patient care. Pharmacy graduates need to be well prepared for new and alternative career pathways through their education and training, to be a part of the future workforce. This study explores Australian intern pharmacists' perceived preparedness for practice, the match between their expectations and experience to meet the requirements of health professionals in Australia's health care reforms, and their future career intentions.Methods: Two questionnaires were sent by post to all 136 intern pharmacists in South Australia; one was sent early in their internship and the second follow-up questionnaire was sent near the completion of their internship.Results: Pharmacy graduates felt prepared for patient care, medicines information, and primary health care roles. A mismatch between expectations and actual experiences was found. By the end of the internship, 45% agree/strongly agree that they wanted to do something else other than being a practicing pharmacist.Conclusion: The current internship model no longer meets the needs and expectations of knowledgeable and skilled pharmacy graduates. An alternative internship model, which considers the expectations of graduates, is required.Keywords: intern pharmacist, preparedness, expectations, experiences, internship, future career

  15. Spin transport and polarimetry in the beam delivery system of the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.; Vauth, A.; Vormwald, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; List, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Polarised electron and positron beams are key ingredients to the physics programme of future linear colliders. Due to the chiral nature of weak interactions in the Standard Model - and possibly beyond - the knowledge of the luminosity-weighted average beam polarisation at the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point is of similar importance as the knowledge of the luminosity and has to be controlled to permille-level precision in order to fully exploit the physics potential. The current concept to reach this challenging goal combines measurements from Laser-Compton polarimeters before and after the interaction point with measurements at the interaction point. A key element for this enterprise is the understanding of spin-transport effects between the polarimeters and the interaction point as well as collision effects. We show that without collisions, the polarimeters can be cross-calibrated to 0.1 %, and we discuss in detail the impact of collision effects and beam parameters on the polarisation value relevant for the interpretation of the e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data.

  16. Spin Transport and Polarimetry in the Beam Delivery System of the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Moritz; Vauth, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Polarised electron and positron beams are key ingredients to the physics programme of future linear colliders. Due to the chiral nature of weak interactions in the Standard Model - and possibly beyond - the knowledge of the luminosity-weighted average beam polarisation at the $e^+e^-$ interaction point is of similar importance as the knowledge of the luminosity and has to be controlled to permille-level precision in order to fully exploit the physics potential. The current concept to reach this challenging goal combines measurements from Laser-Compton polarimeters before and after the interaction point with measurements at the interaction point. A key element for this enterprise is the understanding of spin-transport effects between the polarimeters and the interaction point as well as collision effects. We show that without collisions, the polarimeters can be cross-calibrated to 0.1 %, and we discuss in detail the impact of collision effects and beam parameters on the polarisation value relevant for the inte...

  17. The Stability Study of Globe Transportation Center of Beijing Capital International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; ZHOU Dai; ZHU Zhong-yi; LIU Jie

    2006-01-01

    The stability of long span steel arch structure of globe transportation center (GTC) in the Beijing Capital International Airport was studied. Different objective models such as single arch model, composite arch model and global structural model were introduced to analyze the structural stability by means of the finite element technique.The eigen buckling factor of the steel arch structure was analyzed. The geometrical nonlinearity, elastic-plastic nonlinearity and initial imperfection were taken into account in the investigation of the structural buckling, and the nonlinearity reduction factors for the steel arch structure were discussed. The effects of geometrical nonlinearity and initial imperfection on the structural buckling are light while the effect of material nonlinearity is quite remarkable. For a single steel arch, the dominant buckling mode occurs in out-of-plane of arch structure. The out-of-plane buckling factor of the composite steel arch is greater than that of the single steel arch while the in-plane buckling factor of the former is somewhat less than that of the latter. Moreover, the webs near the steel arch feet have the lowest local buckling level and the local buckling is more serious than the global buckling for the global structure.

  18. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  19. Training Future Leaders of Academic Medicine: Internal Programs at Three Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morahan, Page S.; Kasperbauer, Dwight; McDade, Sharon A.; Aschenbrener, Carol A.; Triolo, Pamela K.; Monteleone, Patricia L.; Counte, Michael; Meyer, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews need for internal leadership training programs at academic health centers and describes three programs. Elements common to the programs include small classes, participants from many areas of academic medicine and health care, building on prior experience and training, training conducted away from the institution, short sessions, faculty…

  20. Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Angela; Alzouebi, Khadeegha

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses.…

  1. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  2. Reschooling and the Global Future: Politics, Economics and the English Experience. Monographs in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James

    This book analyzes attempts by governments and international development agencies to neutralize the school as an independent and democratizing institution. The volume contains four chapters and a conclusion. Chapter 1, "The Diminished School," highlights the trend away from the liberal and professionally led systems characteristic of the…

  3. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in

  4. International Symposium to assess present and future promise of world's most powerful particle colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    Goshaw, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    "An international group of researchers will meet May 22-26 at Duke University for this year's Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. Participants will review the latest results from what is now the world's most powerful subatomic particle smasher and review final planning for its even more powerful successor now nearing completion."

  5. Ultrasound for internal medicine physicians: the future of the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P internal medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Back to the UK Future: Trends in Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don

    2009-01-01

    Globalisation is transforming the international marketplace and accelerating unprecedented socio-economic, cultural, social, political and educational change across the globe. This global transformation has served as a catalyst for increasing deliberation, dialogue and consensus among government, business and higher education to create, attract…

  7. Preparing Preservice English Teachers and School Counselor Interns for Future Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffner, Melanie; Wachter Morris, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The authors believe that by working together, teachers and school counselors can better support students and more effectively work for their success. In this article, we present our efforts in creating a collaborative class for preservice English teachers and school counselor interns. While offering an overview of English teachers and school…

  8. School Leadership for the Future: Heroic or Distributed? Translating International Discourses in Norwegian Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Hedvig; Aas, Marit

    2016-01-01

    School leadership as a key for school reforms has become a dominant theme in education, as demonstrated by a growing body of research during the last 15 years. Still, little attention has been paid to how changing international discourses on school leadership are translated into national public policy documents during the last decade. As such,…

  9. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  10. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in f

  11. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182981630; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in f

  12. TRIPOLI: a general Monte Carlo code, present state and future prospects. [Neutron and gamma ray transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the most important features of the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-2. This code solves the Boltzmann equation in three-dimensional geometries for coupled neutron and gamma rays problems. A particular emphasis is devoted to the biasing techniques, which are very important for deep penetration. Future developments in TRIPOLI are described in the conclusion. (author).

  13. Future trends in worldwide river nitrogen transport and related nitrous oxide emissions : a scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.; Domingues, R.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either assume that current trends continue or that nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems are reduced as a result of changes in agriculture pr

  14. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technology...... and energy resources. Especially challenging transition is envisaged for heavy-weight, long-range vehicles and airplanes. A detailed literature review was carried out in order to detect the current state of the research on clean transport sector, as well as to point out the gaps in the research. In order...... demand for energy resources exists, i.e. 3069 TWh of additional biomass was needed in the case of biofuels utilization scenario while 2775 TWh of electricity and 925 TWh of heat were needed in the case of renewable electrofuels produced using solid oxide electrolysis scenario....

  15. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... the integration of intermittent renewable energy. Such integration is one of the major barriers in implementing an overall renewable energy system. Some vehicles using electricity and hydrogen have the ability to assist this integration. However, the ability is not enough to achieve the large-scale renewable...... energy development in China. The transport technologies have to be part of a broader solution which also involves improving the transmission grid capacity, developing more flexible energy conversion and storage technologies. Electricity is the most promising alternative in the development of sustainable...

  16. New method for estimating current and future transport aircraft operating economics. Contractor report, Jan 1976--Oct 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed by which the operating cost associated with variations in aircraft design and technology characteristics can be assessed. This methodology addresses aircraft related operating cost elements and is based on an in-depth examination of airline operating experiences and relevant operating data. The assessment method produces a base line estimate of the operating cost elements relating to such design specification features as seat capacity, avionic equipment, design range, and design definition features such as maximum takeoff gross weight, and number of engines. Means for determining the deviations from this base line of the design or technological difference at the specific ATA System level are provided. The methodology was applied to assess the operating cost of one potential future advanced technology transport aircraft. An analysis was included to show the relative sensitivity of the operating cost to design parameters. Areas of potential future research on operating cost related technologies are identified.

  17. Impact of Transport Costs on International Trade: The Case of Spanish Ceramic Exports

    OpenAIRE

    I. Martínez-Zarzoso; L García-Menéndez; C. Suárez-Burguet

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the determinants of maritime and overland transport costs and the role they play in deterring trade across countries. We estimate a transport cost function using data on maritime and overland transport of the ceramic sector (tiles) obtained from interviews held with Spanish logistics operators. We also study the relationship between transport costs and trade and estimate an import demand model for ceramic products. Additionally, we present a discussion on the se...

  18. International medical graduates: lessons from the past and hopes for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The high levels of unemployment among international medical graduates (IMGs) in the UK and the skewed career structure of the NHS may stem from the 1930 withdrawal of General Medical Council recognition for Indian degrees forcing Indian colleges to align more closely with Western medical practices. From 2001 emigration to the UK surged just when UK medical schools were increasing their output. The result was severe unemployment among IMGs. The visa restrictions put in place to correct this make it difficult for IMGs to come to the UK even for short periods of experience. However, the Medical Training Initiative visa category offers an alternative and allows them the opportunity to gain up to two years' UK experience. The NHS has been in debt to IMGs and the countries that trained them since its inception. We must look for new ways to maintain international links and for the NHS to play a positive role in the global health economy.

  19. 78 FR 36723 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Restrictions on International Transportation of Freight and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... readers where to find additional information regarding bilateral or multilateral air transport agreements... provided under a bilateral or multilateral air ] transport agreement, to which the United States Government... is provided under a bilateral or multilateral air transportation agreement to which the United States...

  20. MIND GAMES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: THE FUTURE OF THE NATION STATE AND HEGEMONIC SYSTEM CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Doç.Dr. Fatih

    2015-01-01

    With the Second World War, the world economic order has been changed from the colonial system to the hegemonic system. In this process, many new nation-states had given struggle for survival post-war in the new world order. Today, led to the culmination of globalization has metamorphosed in the structure of the nation-state. Within the framework of game theory, modern nation-state structure shows significant progress strategic moves in terms of political relations and international economy. I...

  1. Internal deformation and kinematic indicators within a tripartite mass transport deposit, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, Matheus S.; Kneller, Ben; Alsop, G. Ian; Milana, Juan Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The role of mass transport deposits (MTDs) in redistributing sediment from the shelf-break to deep water is becoming increasingly apparent and important in the study of basins. While seismic analysis may reveal the general morphology of such deposits, it is unable to provide information on the detailed geometry and kinematics of gravity-driven transport owing to the limits of seismic resolution. Outcrop analysis of ancient MTDs may therefore provide critical observations and data regarding the internal deformation and behavior during slope failure. One such field area where geometry and kinematics are clearly exposed is Cerro Bola in the Paganzo Basin of northwestern Argentina. This 8 km strike section exposes a mid to late Carboniferous succession, comprising fluvio-deltaic sediments, turbidites and MTDs. Our work focuses on the main MTD that is up to 180 m thick and is characterized by a silty matrix, containing sandstone blocks and siltstone rafts. Although we consider a single slope failure as the most likely scenario, a possible double failure might also explain the occurrence of a folded turbidite marker in the upper zone of the MTD. The MTD is host to a variety of deformational features such as folding, boudinage, shear zones, allochthonous strata, and secondary fabrics among others. These deformational features vary in intensity, scale and style, both vertically and laterally across the deposit. The vertical variation is the most notable, and the entire deposit can be subdivided into lower, middle and upper zones according to variations in texture and structures, including sandstone blocks, sand streaks and blebs in the matrix, folding on a variety of scales, and shear zones. The middle part of the MTD is characterized by the abundance of siltstone rafts. Various models are proposed for the origin of blocks and rafts within the MTD: erosion of underlying strata; fragmentation of the original protolith; or a mixture of both. Significantly, specific strain

  2. Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA/DSM/DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., Dept. of Physics, University of Craiova (Romania); Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R. [Association Euratom-Etat Belge sur la Fusion, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2002-02-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier. Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as L{<=}1). For values of L{>=}1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable {psi} asymptotically grows in a diffuse manner as (L{sup 2}t) with a L{sup 2} scaling as expected, but that the average radial position r{sub m}(t) asymptotically grows as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a sub-diffusive manner as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t{sub {phi}} of the order of the escape time defined by x{sub m}(t{sub {phi}}) {approx}1, the motion

  3. Guidance for transport planning and policymaking in the face of an uncertain future

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of outcome is widely recognised as a concern facing decision-makers and their advisors. In a number of spheres of policy, it appears uncertainty has intensified in the face of globalisation, economic instability, climate change, technological innovation and changing consumer preferences. How can planners and policymakers plan for an uncertain future? There is growing interest in, and use of, techniques that can help decision-making processes where deep uncertainty is involved. Thi...

  4. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  5. Integration of a Folding Electric two-wheeler vehicle for a future commuting transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Bjami Freyr; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    The paper issues the development, building and testing of a Folding Electric Motorbike, a lightweight, low cost and all-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure. The technology offers drivers to combine transportation methods, lowering cost, and greenhouse......-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure is very prospective. The alpha-prototype was successfully constructed and is considered to be ready for further laboratory testing and test driving before continuations on a fully designed beta-prototype....

  6. Training pediatric clinical pharmacology and therapeutics specialists of the future: the needs, the reality, and opportunities for international networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, Madlen

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid and marked increase in global recognition of the need for better medicines for children, with various initiatives being implemented at global and regional levels. These exciting developments are matched by recognition of the need to build greater capacity in the field of pediatric clinical pharmacology and therapeutics to help deliver on the promise of better medicines for children. A range of pediatric medicines researchers, educators, clinical therapeutics practitioners, and experts in drug evaluation, regulation, and broader medicines policy are needed on a larger scale, in both developed and developing world settings. The current and likely future training needs to meet these diverse challenges, the current realities of trying to meet such needs, and the opportunities for international networking to help meet future training needs are discussed from a global perspective.

  7. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  8. Enabling the environmentally clean air transportation of the future: a vision of computational fluid dynamics in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Jeffrey P.; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan J.; Darmofal, David L.; Gropp, William D.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    As global air travel expands rapidly to meet demand generated by economic growth, it is essential to continue to improve the efficiency of air transportation to reduce its carbon emissions and address concerns about climate change. Future transports must be ‘cleaner’ and designed to include technologies that will continue to lower engine emissions and reduce community noise. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be critical to enable the design of these new concepts. In general, the ability to simulate aerodynamic and reactive flows using CFD has progressed rapidly during the past several decades and has fundamentally changed the aerospace design process. Advanced simulation capabilities not only enable reductions in ground-based and flight-testing requirements, but also provide added physical insight, and enable superior designs at reduced cost and risk. In spite of considerable success, reliable use of CFD has remained confined to a small region of the operating envelope due, in part, to the inability of current methods to reliably predict turbulent, separated flows. Fortunately, the advent of much more powerful computing platforms provides an opportunity to overcome a number of these challenges. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent NASA-funded study that provides a vision for CFD in the year 2030, including an assessment of critical technology gaps and needed development, and identifies the key CFD technology advancements that will enable the design and development of much cleaner aircraft in the future. PMID:25024413

  9. Tate Medal for International Leadership in Physics Talk: Nuclear Fusion Power: Are we really serious about our future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Gustav-Adolf

    2010-02-01

    There's a frantic search under way for new energy sources that do not damage global climate. In the public discussion of this subject, nuclear fusion is hardly ever mentioned. Yet nuclear fusion is the answer to the problem. It's the best way to generate large amounts of baseload power, needed in the intermediate and far future. The long-standing joke about fusion always being ``just 50 years away'' illustrates the unfavourable attitude most people have towards fusion technology, and while this is understandable in the light of fusion's history, it is unwarranted. We need a strong international effort to develop this energy source to help avoid climate change turning into global disaster. )

  10. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  11. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics—An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  12. On the Way to Future's High Energy Particle Physics Transport Code

    CERN Document Server

    Bíró, Gábor; Futó, Endre

    2015-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) needs a huge amount of computing resources. In addition data acquisition, transfer, and analysis require a well developed infrastructure too. In order to prove new physics disciplines it is required to higher the luminosity of the accelerator facilities, which produce more-and-more data in the experimental detectors. Both testing new theories and detector R&D are based on complex simulations. Today have already reach that level, the Monte Carlo detector simulation takes much more time than real data collection. This is why speed up of the calculations and simulations became important in the HEP community. The Geant Vector Prototype (GeantV) project aims to optimize the most-used particle transport code applying parallel computing and to exploit the capabilities of the modern CPU and GPU architectures as well. With the maximized concurrency at multiple levels the GeantV is intended to be the successor of the Geant4 particle transport code that has been used since two decades succe...

  13. Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus: recommendations and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharif, A.; Hecking, M.; de Vries, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientists......, which met with the aim to review previous guidelines in light of emerging clinical data and research. Recommendations from the consensus discussions are provided in this article. Although the meeting was kidney-centric, reflecting the expertise present, these recommendations are likely to be relevant......-based and intended to serve as a template for planned guidelines update, based on systematic and graded literature review, on the diagnosis and management of PTDM...

  14. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: past and future perspectives on mouse phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the function of all mammalian genes remains a major challenge for the biomedical science community in the 21st century. The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) over the next 10 years is to undertake broad-based phenotyping of 20,000 mouse genes, providing an unprecedented insight into mammalian gene function. This short article explores the drivers for large-scale mouse phenotyping and provides an overview of the aims and processes involved in IMPC mouse production and phenotyping. PMID:22940749

  15. Accessing data from the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: state of the art and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vivek; Melvin, David; Morgan, Hugh; Parkinson, Helen; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) (http://www.mousephenotype.org) will reveal the pleiotropic functions of every gene in the mouse genome and uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. Comprehensive informatics solutions are vital to ensuring that this vast array of data is captured in a standardised manner and made accessible to the scientific community for interrogation and analysis. Here we review the existing EuroPhenome and WTSI phenotype informatics systems and the IKMC portal, and present plans for extending these systems and lessons learned to the development of a robust IMPC informatics infrastructure. PMID:22991088

  16. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  17. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  18. A future of living machines?: International trends and prospects in biomimetic and biohybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Tony J.; Lepora, Nathan; Vershure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Research in the fields of biomimetic and biohybrid systems is developing at an accelerating rate. Biomimetics can be understood as the development of new technologies using principles abstracted from the study of biological systems, however, biomimetics can also be viewed from an alternate perspective as an important methodology for improving our understanding of the world we live in and of ourselves as biological organisms. A biohybrid entity comprises at least one artificial (engineered) component combined with a biological one. With technologies such as microscale mobile computing, prosthetics and implants, humankind is moving towards a more biohybrid future in which biomimetics helps us to engineer biocompatible technologies. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of biomimetic and biohybrid systems focusing particularly on technologies that emulate living organisms—living machines. Based on our recent bibliographic analysis [1] we examine how biomimetics is already creating life-like robots and identify some key unresolved challenges that constitute bottlenecks for the field. Drawing on our recent research in biomimetic mammalian robots, including humanoids, we review the future prospects for such machines and consider some of their likely impacts on society, including the existential risk of creating artifacts with significant autonomy that could come to match or exceed humankind in intelligence. We conclude that living machines are more likely to be a benefit than a threat but that we should also ensure that progress in biomimetics and biohybrid systems is made with broad societal consent.

  19. The future role of alternative powertrains and fuels in the German transport sector : a model based scenario analysis with respect to technical, economic and environmental aspects with a focus on road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk

    2012-01-01

    The transport sector is facing the challenges of satisfying the ever increasing transport demand on the one hand and achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets without compromising economic development on the other hand. There are various alternative fuels and powertrains which might play a role in the future of the German transport sector. Amongst these options, biofuels are considered to help lower GHG emissions. However, they are severely criticized to create an additional s...

  20. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  1. Seeking a Role for the Ocean and Ocean Scientists in the Future of International Climate Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, N.; Eddebbar, Y.; Le, J. T.; Netburn, A. N.; Niles, J. O.; Sato, K.; Wilson, S.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The oceans cover 71% of the world and are essential to the climate regulation of the planet, but they are severely underrepresented in international climate negotiations. While marine ecosystems were mentioned in the preamble to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), they have since been left out of the text of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Treaty, and ocean-focused events are lacking at UNFCCC meetings. However, marine ecosystems sustain severe impacts from climate change including warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, and these changes have economic implications for ocean-dependent nations including on tourism, fisheries sustainability, shoreline protection, and human livelihood. Ocean scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and members of Ocean Scientists for Informed Policy have partnered with the newly-formed Ocean and Climate Platform to raise ocean issues at the UNFCCC meeting in Paris through both official side event presentations within the meeting venue and offsite events for the public. This study focuses on how the role and recognition of the ocean in the UNFCCC negotiations has evolved from COP19 (2013) to COP21 (2015), what may be expected for the role of the ocean in international climate negotiations beyond the Paris Agreement, and addresses what role ocean scientists can play in this conversation.

  2. The Future of Foreign Direct Liability? Exploring the International Relevance of the Dutch Shell Nigeria Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Enneking

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, The Hague District Court in the Netherlands rendered a groundbreaking verdict in a civil liability suit against Royal Dutch Shell and its Nigerian subsidiary (SPDC. The lawsuit had been brought before it by four Nigerian farmers and the Dutch NGO Milieudefensie, in response to a number of oil-spill incidents from SPDC-operated pipelines in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Although the majority of the claims were dismissed, the district court in its ruling did grant one claim that related to spills from an abandoned wellhead, ordering SPDC to pay compensation for the resulting loss. This judgment has international relevance, as this Dutch Shell Nigeria case forms part of a worldwide trend towards foreign direct liability cases. Growing numbers of similar lawsuits have been brought before the courts in other Western societies, but judgments on the merits have so far remained scarce. The relevance of the case has further increased with the US Supreme Court’s April 2013 ruling in the case of Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., which has significantly limited the scope of the Alien Tort Statute. This article explores The Hague District Court’s decision in the Dutch Shell Nigeria case, and places the case within the socio-legal context of the contemporary trend towards foreign direct liability cases, the international debates on corporate accountability and business & human rights, and the Supreme Court's judgment in the Kiobel case.

  3. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  4. Enhancing the Quantitative Representation of Socioeconomic Conditions in the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) using the International Futures Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, D. S.; Siraj, A.; Hughes, B.

    2013-12-01

    The international research community is currently in the process of developing new scenarios for climate change research. One component of these scenarios are the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which describe a set of possible future socioeconomic conditions. These are presented in narrative storylines with associated quantitative drivers. The core quantitative drivers include total population, average GDP per capita, educational attainment, and urbanization at the global, regional, and national levels. At the same time there have been calls, particularly by the IAV community, for the SSPs to include additional quantitative information on other key social factors, such as income inequality, governance, health, and access to key infrastructures, which are discussed in the narratives. The International Futures system (IFs), based at the Pardee Center at the University of Denver, is able to provide forecasts of many of these indicators. IFs cannot use the SSP drivers as exogenous inputs, but we are able to create development pathways that closely reproduce the core quantitative drivers defined by the different SSPs, as well as incorporating assumptions on other key driving factors described in the qualitative narratives. In this paper, we present forecasts for additional quantitative indicators based upon the implementation of the SSP development pathways in IFs. These results will be of value to many researchers.

  5. Future Mars geophysical observatories for understanding its internal structure, rotation, and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehant, Veronique; Banerdt, Bruce; Lognonné, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    of European, US and international high-level planetary science recommendations for the past 30 years. New seismological methods and approaches based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise by two seismic stations/landers on the surface of Mars and on joint seismic/orbiter detection of meteorite impacts......, as well as the improvement of the performance of Very Broad-Band (VBB) seismometers have made it possible to secure a rich scientific return with only two simultaneously recording stations. In parallel, use of interferometric methods based on two Earth–Mars radio links simultaneously from landers tracked...... through a measurement of the surface heat flow. The landers of the mission will also provide meteorological stations to monitor the climate and obtain new measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer....

  6. Pinus strobus: past and future in Europe. A page of silvicultural history and international scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Radu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a short overview concerning eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. introduction in different European countries, including the period of early extension in forest culture until the first blister rust crisis occurred. The species rehabilitation at the European level and the new extension between 1927 and 1972 years period in different countries, particularly in Romania, was presented. Most of the data incorporated here were taken over from the monograph of the senior author's of this paper. However, parts of the newly acquired results in our country were taken in to account, as well. Finally, the fruitful international scientific cooperation, in favor of P. strobus, including that with I.U.F.R.O was highlighted

  7. Pinus strobus: past and future in Europe. A page of silvicultural history and international scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Radu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a short overview concerning eastern white pine(Pinus strobus L. introduction in different European countries, including the period of early extension in forest culture until the first blister rust crisis occurred. The species rehabilitation at the European level and the new extension between 1927 and 1972 years period in different countries, particularly in Romania, was presented.Most of the data incorporated here were taken over from the monograph of the senior author's of this paper. However, parts of the newly acquired results in our country were taken in to account, as well. Finally, the fruitful international scientific cooperation, in favor of P. strobus, including that with I.U.F.R.O was highlighted.

  8. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation; Les systemes nucleaires du futur. Enjeux, strategie de recherche et developpement, et cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  9. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    The 12th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers was held at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA between September 30 and October 2, 2009. This meeting was the continuation of a series of previous meetings which was initiated in 1987 and has been held bi-annually since then. Following the recent tradition at the last few meetings, the program was sub- divided into six sessions. At each session, an overview talk was presented, followed by two or three shorter oral presentations which supplemented the coverage of important issues. These talks were followed by discussion periods and poster sessions of contributed papers. The sessions were: Physics of Transition to/from Enhanced Confinement Regimes, Pedestal and Edge Localized Mode Dynamics, Plasma Rotation and Momentum Transport, Role of 3D Physics in Transport Barriers, Transport Barriers: Theory and Simulations and High Priority ITER Issues on Transport Barriers. The diversity of the 90 registered participants was remarkable, with 22 different nationalities. US participants were in the majority (36), followed by Japan (14), South Korea (7), and China (6). This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of 18 accepted papers from submitted manuscripts based on overview talks and poster presentations. The paper selection procedure followed the guidelines of Nuclear Fusion which are essentially the same as for regular articles with an additional requirement on timeliness of submission, review and revision. One overview paper and five contributed papers report on the H-mode pedestal related results which reflect the importance of this issue concerning the successful operation of ITER. Four papers address the rotation and momentum transport which play a crucial role in transport barrier physics. The transport barrier transition condition is the main focus of other four papers. Finally, four additional papers are devoted to the behaviour and control of

  10. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  11. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  12. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  13. DELINEATING THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR CONSTITUTIVE INTERNALIZATION AND DEGRADATION OF THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Jacob; (Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Gether, Ulrik;

    The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) was transiently expressed in N2A neuroblastoma cells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed efficient surface targeting of the transporter in undifferentiated cells as well as in differentiated cells. In the differentiated cells the hDAT displayed...

  14. A Study on International Multimodal Transport Networks from Korea to Central Asia: Focus on Secondhand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.

  15. Postendocytic sorting of constitutively internalized dopamine transporter in cell lines and dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard;

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of released dopamine and is the target for psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamine. DAT undergoes marked constitutive endocytosis, but little is known about the fate and sorting of the endocytosed transporter. To study DAT sorting in cell...

  16. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  17. The role of international transport of equine semen on disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, E S

    2001-12-03

    Despite the numerous benefits of having the capability to transport semen internationally, there are serious potential ramifications if that semen is contaminated with a communicable disease. Bacteria: Many commensal bacteria colonize the exterior of the stallion penis and are not regarded as pathogenic. They may be cultured from an ejaculate. Alterations of the normal bacterial flora on the exterior genitalia may cause the growth of opportunistic bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which, if inseminated, may cause infertility in susceptible mares. Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly transmissible, true venereal disease of horses, is caused by the gram-negative coccobacillis, Taylorella equigenitalis. Even with the use of rigorous testing protocols, the current techniques used may not ensure accuracy of results. Viruses: Equine coital exanthema (equine herpes virus type 3; EHV-3) is a highly contagious virus that causes painful lesions on the stallion's penis and mare's vulva. Although it is primarily transmitted through coitus, infected fomites have also been implicated in its spread. Therefore, it is possible that the virus can potentially be transmitted to the ejaculate through penile contact with an artificial vagina or sleeve. Equine arteritis virus appears to be becoming more prevalent in recent years. The most common method of transmission is through respiratory disease, but the organism can also be shed in the semen of asymptomatic stallions. Equine infectious anemia virus has also been found to be present in the semen of an infected stallion, although no evidence exists at this time that there is venereal transmission of this disease. Protozoa: Dourine, caused by Trympanosoma equiperidum, is a venereal disease found only in Africa, South and Central America and the Middle East. Serological testing using complement fixation is recommended for diagnosis. Piroplasmosis, a disease caused by Babesia

  18. A Demanding Future in the Hydrologic Sciences: International Collaborations and Incorporating the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, S. E.; Crane, P.; Boukari, M.

    2005-12-01

    When considering groundwater research focused on sustainable water supply in a developing region such as western Africa, questions that need to be addressed range from long-term variation in precipitation, to geochemical alteration of natural and anthropogenic contaminants, to development of management strategies that are consistent not only with technology but also with social and religious customs. While some may view these projects as 'service', these types of projects provide fertile ground for new technical and policy advances in the study of groundwater resources, with results that may provide substantial new insights to technological and policy issues in the United States. Research questions that might be addressed include impact of long-term uncertainties in climate, integration of data time-series of variable frequency and quality, measure of the value of a groundwater resource, integration of technical and social constraints on management strategies, and integration of multiple views of water as a resource. In addition, these types of projects provide opportunities for active collaboration with colleagues from other countries who view research in hydrology quite differently than do many of our colleagues in the United States. It is therefore argued that there is a demanding, challenging future for advances in the hydrologic sciences focused on sustainability issues in regions of the world for which groundwater is a critical resource limiting development.

  19. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  20. AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for castings of pistons for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents chosen properties and microstructure of AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for casting pistons in automotive industry. Tests were conducted to elaborate technology of preparation, assessment of crystallisation parameters and shaping the primary structure of the silumin with the aim to improve the working parameters and the functioning efficiency in cylinder-piston system. Refinement of Si crystals, achieved due to overheating above the temperature Tliq. causes that the alloy reaches satisfactory properties in working chamber of the engine are optimised. Such condition of material characteristics causes that hypereutectic silumins, for chosen applications in transport, may serve as an alternative to Al - Si alloys of hypoeutectic and near - eutectic type.

  1. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  2. Current and Future Clinical Applications of Zinc Transporter-8 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yi; Gan Huang; Zhi-Guang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the utility of zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) in the improvement of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis and prediction,and to explore whether ZnT8 is a potential therapeutic target in T l DM.Data Sources:A search was conducted within the medical database PubMed for relevant articles published from 2001 to 2015.The search terms are as follows:"ZnT8," "type 1 diabetes," "latent autoimmune diabetes in adults," "type 2 diabetes," "islet autoantibodies," "zinc supplement," "T cells," "β cell," "immune therapy." We also searched the reference lists of selected articles.Study Selection:English-language original articles and critical reviews concerning ZnT8 and the clinical applications of islet autoantibodies in diabetes were reviewed.Results:The basic function of ZnT8 is maintaining intracellular zinc homeostasis,which modulates the process of insulin biosynthesis,storage,and secretion.Autoantibodies against ZnT8 (ZnT8A) and ZnT8-specific T cells are the reliable biomarkers for the identification,stratification,and characterization ofTl DM.Additionally,the results from the animal models and clinical trials have shown that ZnT8 is a diabetogenic antigen,suggesting the possibility of ZnT8-specific immunotherapy as an alternative for T1DM therapy.Conclusions:ZnT8 is a novel islet autoantigen with a widely potential for clinical applications in T1DM.However,before the large-scale clinical applications,there are still many problems to be solved.

  3. NASA International Year of Astronomy 2009 Programs: Impacts and Future Plans (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The opportunity offered by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 to increase the exposure of the public and students to NASA discoveries in astronomy resulted in several innovative programs which have reached audiences far and wide. Some examples of the impact of these programs and building on the success of these programs beyond 2009 will be discussed in this talk. The spectacular success of the traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country prompted NASA to extend it to include more libraries. As a part of the IYA Cornerstone project From Earth To The Universe, NASA images were displayed at non-traditional sites such as airports, parks, and music festivals, exposing them to an audience which would otherwise have been unaware of them. The NASA IYA Student Ambassadors engaged undergraduate and graduate students throughout the U.S. in outreach programs they created to spread NASA astronomy to their local communities. NASA’s Afterschool Universe provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions were designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, LCROSS. NASA’sIYA website and Go Observe! feature remain popular. The associated IYA Discovery Guides and Observing with NASA MicroObservatory activities have guided the public and students to perform their own observations of the night sky and to interpret them. NASA intends to work with its Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF) to develop a strategy to take forward the best of its IYA2009 plans forward so as to build on the momentum generated by IYA2009 and continue to keep the public and students engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.

  4. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) progress to date and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Charlotte M; Baker, Julia F; Bradley, Alys E; Goodman, Dawn G; Harada, Takanori; Herbert, Ronald; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kellner, Rupert; Mahler, Beth; Meseck, Emily; Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Vahle, John; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The INHAND Proposal (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) has been operational since 2005. A Global Editorial Steering Committee (GESC) manages the overall objectives of the project and the development of harmonized terminology for each organ system is the responsibility of the Organ Working Groups (OWG), drawing upon experts from North America, Europe and Japan.Great progress has been made with 9 systems published to date - Respiratory, Hepatobiliary, Urinary, Central/Peripheral Nervous Systems, Male Reproductive and Mammary, Zymbals, Clitoral and Preputial Glands in Toxicologic Pathology and the Integument and Soft Tissue and Female Reproductive System in the Journal of Toxicologic Pathology as supplements and on a web site - www.goreni.org. INHAND nomenclature guides offer diagnostic criteria and guidelines for recording lesions observed in rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The guides provide representative photo-micrographs of morphologic changes, information regarding pathogenesis, and key references. During 2012, INHAND GESC representatives attended meetings with representatives of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to begin incorporation of INHAND terminology as preferred terminology for SEND (Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data) submissions to the FDA. The interest in utilizing the INHAND nomenclature, based on input from industry and government toxicologists as well as information technology specialists, suggests that there will be wide acceptance of this nomenclature. The purpose of this publication is to provide an update on the progress of INHAND.

  5. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. The International year of soils: thoughts on future directions for experiments in soil erosion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    The 2015 UN Year of Soils (IYS), implemented by the FAO, aims to increase awareness and understanding of the importance of soil for food security and essential ecosystem functions. The IYS has six specific objectives, ranging from raising the awareness among civil society and decision makers about the profound importance of soils, to the development of policies supporting the sustainable use of the non-renewable soil resource. For scientists and academic teachers using experiments to study soil erosion processes, two objectives appear of particular relevance. First is need for the rapid capacity enhancement for soil information collection and monitoring at all levels (global, regional and national). While at first glance, this objective appears to relate mostly to traditional mapping, sampling and monitoring, the threat of large-scale soil loss, at least with regards to their ecosystem services, illustrates the need for approaches of studying soils that avoids such irreversible destruction. Relying on often limited data and their extrapolation does not cover this need for soil information because rapid change of the drivers of change itself carry the risk of unprecedented soil reactions not covered by existing data sets. Experiments, on the other hand, offer the possibility to simulate and analyze future soil change in great detail. Furthermore, carefully designed experiments may also limit the actual effort involved in collecting the specific required information, e.g. by applying tests designed to study soil system behavior under controlled conditions, compared to field monitoring. For rainfall simulation, experiments should therefore involve the detailed study of erosion processes and include detailed recording and reporting of soil and rainfall properties. The development of a set of standardised rainfall simulations would widen the use data collected by such experiments. A second major area for rainfall simulation lies in the the education of the public about

  9. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-01

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (Ti,e) and toroidal velocity (Vϕ) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  10. Are Canadian General Internal Medicine training program graduates well prepared for their future careers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Linda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At a time of increased need and demand for general internists in Canada, the attractiveness of generalist careers (including general internal medicine, GIM has been falling as evidenced by the low number of residents choosing this specialty. One hypothesis for the lack of interest in a generalist career is lack of comfort with the skills needed to practice after training, and the mismatch between the tertiary care, inpatient training environment and "real life". This project was designed to determine perceived effectiveness of training for 10 years of graduates of Canadian GIM programs to assist in the development of curriculum and objectives for general internists that will meet the needs of graduates and ultimately society. Methods Mailed survey designed to explore perceived importance of training for and preparation for various aspects of Canadian GIM practice. After extensive piloting of the survey, including a pilot survey of two universities to improve the questionnaire, all graduates of the 16 universities over the previous ten years were surveyed. Results Gaps (difference between importance and preparation were demonstrated in many of the CanMEDS 2000/2005® competencies. Medical problems of pregnancy, perioperative care, pain management, chronic care, ambulatory care and community GIM rotations were the medical expert areas with the largest gaps. Exposure to procedural skills was perceived to be lacking. Some procedural skills valued as important for current GIM trainees and performed frequently (example ambulatory ECG interpretation had low preparation ratings by trainees. Other areas of perceived discrepancy between training and practice included: manager role (set up of an office, health advocate (counseling for prevention, for example smoking cessation, and professional (end of life issues, ethics. Conclusion Graduates of Canadian GIM training programs over the last ten years have identified perceived gaps

  11. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  12. The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, G.

    2012-11-01

    The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, held in Lady Margaret Hall College in Oxford in October 2011 continues the tradition of bi-annual international meetings dedicated to the study of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. The first meeting of this series took place in S Diego (CA, US) in 1987, and since then scientists in the fusion community studying the formation and effects of transport barriers in plasmas have been meeting at this small workshop to discuss progress, new experimental evidence and related theoretical studies. The first workshops were strongly focussed on the characterization and understanding of the H-mode plasma, discovered in ASDEX in 1982. Tokamaks throughout the entire world were able to reproduce the H-mode transition in the following few years and since then the H-mode has been recognised as a pervasive physics feature of toroidally confined plasmas. Increased physics understanding of the H-mode transition and of the properties of H-mode plasmas, together with extensive development of diagnostic capabilities for the plasma edge, led to the development of edge transport barrier studies and theory. The H-mode Workshop reflected this extension in interest, with more and more contributions discussing the phenomenology of edge transport barriers and instabilities (ELMs), L-H transition and edge transport barrier formation theory. In the last 15 years, in response to the development of fusion plasma studies, the scientific scope of the workshop has been broadened to include experimental and theoretical studies of both edge and internal transport barriers, including formation and sustainment of transport barriers for different transport channels (energy, particle and momentum). The 13th H-mode Workshop was organized around six leading topics, and, as customary for this workshop, a lead speaker was selected for each topic to present to the audience the state-of-the-art, new understanding and open issues, as well

  13. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation...... shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...

  14. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: International Mail Transportation (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    requirements to the physical IMPC facilities where mail transportation activities are conducted and other physical, environmental , and geographical...controls to support the resilience of mail and mail services during transportation are managed in the CERT-RMM Environmental Control process area. The...RISK:SG3 and RISK:SG4 in the CERT-RMM Risk Management process area. Typical Work Products 1. Postal item risk statements, with impact valuation 2

  15. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  16. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Greenland was used by the US as a platform and as an extended arm within its security and foreign policy during the World War II and the cold war. After this things changed, although Greenland remained important in Danish-US relations under the umbrella of NATO. Nowadays, the geostrategic position....... This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...... of Greenland between North America and Europe is gaining fresh prominence in the race for natural resources in the Arctic. Many issues arise from the prospective opening of the Arctic, all of which may have fateful impacts on future development in the region. Climate change, claims related to the extension...

  17. Modular Growth NTR Space Transportation System for Future NASA Human Lunar, NEA and Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    reusable Mars architecture, Copernicus' saddle truss / drop tank assembly is replaced by an in-line tank and "star truss" assembly with paired modular drop tanks to further increase the vehicle's propellant capacity. Shorter "1-way" transit time fast-conjunction Mars missions are another possibility using this vehicle configuration but, as with reusability, increased launch mass is required. "Scaled down" versions of Copernicus (sized to a SLS lift capability of approx.70 t - 100 t) can be developed initially allowing reusable lunar cargo delivery and crewed landing missions, easy NEA missions (e.g., 2000 SG344 also in 2028) or an expendable mission to Apophis. Mission scenario descriptions, key vehicle features and operational characteristics are provided along with a brief discussion of NASA's current activities and its "pre-decisional" plans for future NTR development.

  18. Modeling aeolian transport of soil-bound plutonium: considering infrequent but normal environmental disturbances is critical in estimating future dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Erika A; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Eisele, William F; Breshears, David D; Kirchner, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Dose assessments typically consider environmental systems as static through time, but environmental disturbances such as drought and fire are normal, albeit infrequent, events that can impact dose-influential attributes of many environmental systems. These phenomena occur over time frames of decades or longer, and are likely to be exacerbated under projected warmer, drier climate. As with other types of dose assessment, the impacts of environmental disturbances are often overlooked when evaluating dose from aeolian transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. Especially lacking are predictions that account for potential changing vegetation cover effects on radionuclide transport over the long time frames required by regulations. A recently developed dynamic wind-transport model that included vegetation succession and environmental disturbance provides more realistic long-term predictability. This study utilized the model to estimate emission rates for aeolian transport, and compare atmospheric dispersion and deposition rates of airborne plutonium-contaminated soil into neighboring areas with and without environmental disturbances. Specifically, the objective of this study was to utilize the model results as input for a widely used dose assessment model (CAP-88). Our case study focused on low levels of residual plutonium found in soils from past operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, NM, located in the semiarid southwestern USA. Calculations were conducted for different disturbance scenarios based on conditions associated with current climate, and a potential future drier and warmer climate. Known soil and sediment concentrations of plutonium were used to model dispersal and deposition of windblown residual plutonium, as a function of distance and direction. Environmental disturbances that affected vegetation cover included ground fire, crown fire, and drought, with reoccurrence rates for current climate based on site historical

  19. PATRAM 2004 - The 14th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The 14th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials, PATRAM 2004, was held at the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin, Germany, from 20-24 September 2004. PATRAM '04 was held under the auspices of the German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing (BMNBW), and was hosted by the German Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -Prufung (BAM). Further, the conference was held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. As with past PATRAM conferences, this one covered a wide range of topics that are of concern to the nuclear materials transport industry; regulations, operations, technical analyses and testing, design, institutional issues, security, risk assessment and emergency response. Presentation of these topics was provided through a number of fora, plenary presentations, panel presentations, oral presentations, posters and technical tours. Coupled with the opening reception on Monday evening and the coffee breaks, a forum was provided at this PATRAM that allowed all participants ample opportunities to increase their technical knowledge, to learn about compelling issues around the world and to network with colleagues. (orig.)

  20. Predicting the Future Burden of Esophageal Cancer by Histological Subtype: International Trends in Incidence up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Laversanne, Mathieu; Brown, Linda Morris; Devesa, Susan S; Bray, Freddie

    2017-08-01

    Rapid increases in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in high-income countries in the past decades have raised public health concerns. This study is the first to predict the future burden of esophageal cancer by histological subtype using international incidence data. Data on esophageal cancer incidence by year of diagnosis, sex, histology, and age group were extracted from 42 registries in 12 countries included in the last three volumes (VIII-X) of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, contributing at least 15 years of consecutive data. Numbers of new cases and incidence rates were predicted up to 2030 by fitting and extrapolating age-period-cohort models; the differential impact of demographic vs. risk changes on future cases were examined. The number of new AC cases is expected to increase rapidly 2005-2030 in all studied countries as a combined result of increasing risk and changing demographics. In contrast, the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is predicted to continue decreasing in most countries. By 2030, 1 in 100 men in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are predicted to be diagnosed with EAC during their lifetime. The burden from EAC is expected to rise dramatically across high-income countries and has already or will surpass ESCC incidence in the coming years, especially among men. Notwithstanding the inherent uncertainties in trend-based predictions and in subtype misclassification, these findings highlight an ongoing transition in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer that is highly relevant to future cancer control planning and clinical practice.

  1. Internal electron transport barrier due to neoclassical ambipolarity in the Helically Symmetric Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Guttenfelder, Walter [University of Warwick, UK; Briesemeister, Alexis [HSX Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Anderson, David [HSX Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Anderson, F. S.B. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Deng, C. B. [University of California; Likin, K. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Talmadge, Joseph [HSX Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Zhai, Kan [HSX Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2010-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heated plasmas in the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) feature strongly peaked electron temperature profiles; central temperatures are 2.5 keV with 100 kW injected power. These measurements, coupled with neoclassical predictions of large 'electron root' radial electric fields with strong radial shear, are evidence of a neoclassically driven thermal transport barrier. Neoclassical transport quantities are calculated using the PENTA code [D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005)], in which momentum is conserved and parallel flow is included. Unlike a conventional stellarator, which exhibits strong flow damping in all directions on a flux surface, quasisymmetric stellarators are free to rotate in the direction of symmetry, and the effect of momentum conservation in neoclassical calculations may therefore be significant. Momentum conservation is shown to modify the neoclassical ion flux and ambipolar ion root radial electric fields in the quasisymmetric configuration. The effect is much smaller in a HSX configuration where the symmetry is spoiled. In addition to neoclassical transport, a model of trapped electron mode turbulence is used to calculate the turbulent-driven electron thermal diffusivity. Turbulent transport quenching due to the neoclassically predicted radial electric field profile is needed in predictive transport simulations to reproduce the peaking of the measured electron temperature profile [Guttenfelder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 215002 (2008)].

  2. Internal electron transport barrier due to neoclassical ambipolarity in the Helically Symmetric Experimenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Briesemeister, A.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Deng, C. B.; Likin, K. M.; Spong, D. A.; Talmadge, J. N.; Zhai, K.

    2010-05-01

    Electron cyclotron heated plasmas in the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) feature strongly peaked electron temperature profiles; central temperatures are 2.5 keV with 100 kW injected power. These measurements, coupled with neoclassical predictions of large "electron root" radial electric fields with strong radial shear, are evidence of a neoclassically driven thermal transport barrier. Neoclassical transport quantities are calculated using the PENTA code [D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005)], in which momentum is conserved and parallel flow is included. Unlike a conventional stellarator, which exhibits strong flow damping in all directions on a flux surface, quasisymmetric stellarators are free to rotate in the direction of symmetry, and the effect of momentum conservation in neoclassical calculations may therefore be significant. Momentum conservation is shown to modify the neoclassical ion flux and ambipolar ion root radial electric fields in the quasisymmetric configuration. The effect is much smaller in a HSX configuration where the symmetry is spoiled. In addition to neoclassical transport, a model of trapped electron mode turbulence is used to calculate the turbulent-driven electron thermal diffusivity. Turbulent transport quenching due to the neoclassically predicted radial electric field profile is needed in predictive transport simulations to reproduce the peaking of the measured electron temperature profile [Guttenfelder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 215002 (2008)].

  3. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Peter; Adams, David B; Voracek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world's zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides 'leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability'. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  4. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Linhart†

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  5. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on International Summer School on Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, P; Métens, S; Neishtadt, A; Zaslavsky, G; Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a modern updated review on the most important activities in today dynamical systems and statistical mechanics by some of the best experts in the domain. It gives a contemporary and pedagogical view on theories of classical and quantum chaos and complexity in hamiltonian and ergodic systems and their applications to anomalous transport in fluids, plasmas, oceans and atom-optic devices and to control of chaotic transport. The book is issued from lecture notes of the International Summer School on "Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems" held in Cargèse (Corsica) 18th to the 30th August 2003. It reflects the spirit of the School to provide lectures at the post-doctoral level on basic concepts and tools. The first part concerns ergodicity and mixing, complexity and entropy functions, SRB measures, fractal dimensions and bifurcations in hamiltonian systems. Then, models of dynamical evolutions of transport processes in classical and quantum systems have been largely expla...

  7. Suppressing electron turbulence and triggering internal transport barriers with reversed magnetic shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. Y. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.

  8. Experimental investigation of internal structure of open-channel flow with intense transport of sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity-driven open-channel flows carrying coarse sediment over an erodible granular deposit are studied. Results of laboratory experiments with artificial sediments in a rectangular tilting flume are described and analyzed. Besides integral quantities such as flow rate of mixture, transport concentration of sediment and hydraulic gradient, the experiments include measurements of the one-dimensional velocity distribution across the flow. A vertical profile of the longitudinal component of local velocity is measured across the vertical axis of symmetry of a flume cross section using three independent measuring methods. Due to strong flow stratification, the velocity profile covers regions of very different local concentrations of sediment from virtually zero concentration to the maximum concentration of bed packing. The layered character of the flow results in a velocity distribution which tends to be different in the transport layer above the bed and in the sediment-free region between the top of the transport layer and the water surface. Velocity profiles and integral flow quantities are analyzed with the aim of evaluating the layered structure of the flow and identifying interfaces in the flow with a developed transport layer above the upper plane bed.

  9. 77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 41st session of the United...

  10. 77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 42nd session of the United...

  11. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 38th session of the United...

  12. 76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 39th session of the United...

  13. 76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise interested persons that PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation for the 40th session of the United...

  14. Efficient Frontier for Multi-Objective Stochastic Transportation Networks in International Market of Perishable Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bustos

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the main features of the model, the theoretical bases and a computational implementation. Experiments were applied in a transport network for the exportation market of ornamental flowers as perishable goods from Mexico to the United States, which considered variations in border crossing times.

  15. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Studies of Membrane Transporters Using Total Internal Reflection Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmits, Joris M H; van Oijen, Antoine M; Slotboom, Dirk J

    2017-01-01

    Cells are delineated by a lipid bilayer that physically separates the inside from the outer environment. Most polar, charged, or large molecules require proteins to reduce the energetic barrier for passage across the membrane and to achieve transport rates that are relevant for life. Here, we descri

  16. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  17. Trucks on Our Turf: Seeking to Resolve the International Inconsistency in Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica J. Burgess

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Such it is with international trade. What was once a world divided into separate and distinct cultures has now become a globe where borders continually fade and cease to exist. Although this progress brings new opportunities to many, it similarly awakens emotions of apprehension and uncertainty, while creating clashes between what was known and what is yet to be discovered. A recent Ninth Circuit case, Public Citizen v. Department of Transportation,6 illuminated inconsistencies that may occur when transnational interactions attempt to fit into our previously ethnocentric societies. The discrepancy brought to light through this decision concerned a claimed conflict between an international arbitration decision under the North American Free Trade Agreement7 (hereinafter “NAFTA” and United States environmental law.

  18. Internal Electron Transport Barrier due to Neoclassical Ambipolarity in the HSX Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, Jeremy

    2009-11-01

    Strongly peaked electron temperature profiles are measured in the core of the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) during electron cyclotron heating; with central temperatures of 2.5keV for 100kW of injected power. These measurements, coupled with neoclassical predictions of large ``electron root'' radial electric fields with strong radial shear, are evidence of a neoclassically driven thermal transport barrier. Neoclassical transport is analyzed using the PENTA code [1], in which parallel momentum is conserved. Momentum conservation, including the effects of parallel flow, has long been known to be important in tokamak neoclassical calculations. Conventional stellarators, on the other hand, typically exhibit strong flow damping in all directions on a flux surface, and the parallel flows can be neglected. In this case, the radial electric field is calculated using a simple ambipolarity constraint: setting the ion flux equal to the electron flux. In stellarators with very low effective ripple, such as HSX, parallel flow and momentum conservation are again expected to be important. Large parallel flow measurements (˜20km/s) from the ChERS diagnostic are consistent with reduced damping in the direction of symmetry. In addition to neoclassical transport, a model of Trapped Electron Mode turbulence is used to calculate the turbulent-driven electron thermal diffusivity. The very peaked Te profile is reproduced by predictive transport simulations only when turbulent transport quenching via sheared ExB flow is included [2]. ChERS measurements of the radial electric field profile and comparison to the neoclassical calculations will also be presented.[4pt] [1] D.A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005).[0pt] [2] W. Guttenfelder, J. Lore, et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 215002 (2008).

  19. Assessing Watershed Transport of Atrazine and Nitrate to Evaluate Conservation Practice Effects and Advise Future Monitoring Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Continued public support for U.S. taxpayer funded programs aimed at reducing agricultural pollutants depends on clear demonstrations of water quality improvements. The objective of this research was to determine if implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) resulted in changes to atrazine and nitrate (NO3-N) loads during storm events. An additional objective was to estimate future monitoring periods necessary to detect a 5, 10, 20, and 25% reduction in atrazine and NO3-N event load. The GCEW is a 73 km2 watershed located in northcentral Missouri, USA. Linear regressions and Akaike Information Criteria were used to determine if reductions in atrazine and NO3-N event loads occurred as BMPs were implemented. No effects due to any BMP type were indicated for the period of record. Further investigation of event sampling from the long-term GCEW monitoring program indicated errors in atrazine load calculations may be possible due to pre-existing minimum threshold levels used to trigger autosampling and sample compositing. Variation of event loads was better explained by linear regressions for NO3-N than for atrazine. Decommissioning of upstream monitoring stations during the study period represented a missed opportunity to further explain variation of event loads at the watershed outlet. Atrazine requires approximately twice the monitoring period relative to NO3-N to detect future reductions in event load. Appropriate matching of pollutant transport mechanisms with autosampling protocols remains a critical information need when setting up or adapting watershed monitoring networks aimed at detecting watershed-scale BMP effects.

  20. Future space transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, S. D.; Chekalin, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Prospects for the mastery of space and the basic problems which must be solved in developing systems for both manned and cargo spacecraft are examined. The achievements and flaws of rocket boosters are discussed as well as the use of reusable spacecraft. The need for orbiting satellite solar power plants and related astrionics for active control of large space structures for space stations and colonies in an age of space industrialization is demonstrated. Various forms of spacecraft propulsion are described including liquid propellant rocket engines, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear rocket engines, electrorocket engines, electromagnetic engines, magnetic gas dynamic generators, electromagnetic mass accelerators (rail guns), laser rocket engines, pulse nuclear rocket engines, ramjet thermonuclear rocket engines, and photon rockets. The possibilities of interstellar flight are assessed.

  1. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  2. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality

  3. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  4. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemente

  5. Impact of a future H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.E.; Segers, A.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Krol, M.C.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality

  6. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Q. D., E-mail: qgao@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (T{sub i,e}) and toroidal velocity (V{sub ϕ}) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  7. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect using satellite, tracer transport model, and aircraft data from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, L.; Garrett, T. J.; Stohl, A.

    2007-05-01

    The magnitudes of the "indirect effects" that anthropogenic aerosols have on clouds and climate remain uncertain. Past space-based characterizations have compared satellite retrievals of cloud properties with satellite- or model-derived aerosol quantities. The two fields have been taken from air masses displaced from each other either horizontally or vertically. Thus, almost by definition, the cloud retrievals have come from different meteorological regimes than the aerosol to which ostensibly they are related. Because cloud properties depend foremost on meteorology, the difference introduces undesired ambiguity in the comparisons. In this study, we compare Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud retrievals with high spatial and temporal resolution output from a tracer transport model (FLEXPART), enabling colocation of fields of pollution and clouds both vertically and horizontally. Anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a passive pollution tracer, because its concentrations are tied to mixing and pollutant source strength, and they are independent of atmospheric oxidation and removal processes on timescales of weeks to months. Cloud and pollution fields are compared along a downwind axis from the U.S. northeastern seaboard for the duration of the summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) mission. Where the transport model indicates air as being polluted, cloud re is smaller and cloud optical depth is in some cases higher, at least close to primary source regions. However, within 4 ± 1 days advection time from the northeastern seaboard, cloud perturbations become negligible, probably because of wet-scavenging of CCN. No conclusive evidence was found for any perturbation to cloud liquid water path by pollution.

  8. The Transportation Logistics of Manufactured Products in the Colombian Internal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisson Castro Escobar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks the transport logistics of the Colombian manufacturing industry in the domestic market, analyzing the direction and the volume of the cargo moved by road. The study is intended to identify some sectorial and regional enclaves of the industry that could be strategic for market diversification and to facilitate production chains. Estimates of land freight movements are made based on the origin-destination survey carried out by the Ministry of Transportation in 2008. The different regional and sectorial flows are projected through a geodetic network model. The results indicate that regional differences in product specialization explain the movement of cargo from specific industries, while in other cases there are no significant flows because the industries largely serve local markets.

  9. Honolulu Rail Transit: International Lessons in Linking Form, Design, and Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Boeing, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The city of Honolulu, Hawaii is currently planning and developing a new rail transit system. While Honolulu has supportive density and topography for rail transit, questions remain about its ability to effectively integrate urban design and accessibility across the system. Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip from origins and to destinations: transportation planning must account for pedestrian safety, comfort, and access. Ildefons Cerda's 19th century utopian plan for Barcelona's Eixample district produced a renowned, livable urban form. The Eixample, with its well-integrated rail transit, serves as a model of urban design, land use, transportation planning, and pedestrian-scaled streets working in synergy to produce accessibility. This study discusses the urban form of Honolulu and the history and planning of its new rail transit system. Then it reviews the history of Cerda's plan for the Eixample and discusses its urban form and performance today. Finally it draws several lessons from Barc...

  10. A proposal for an international brittle fracture acceptance criterion for nuclear material transport cask applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.J.; Nickell, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental basis for a brittle fracture acceptance criterion, examine several existing criteria and propose examples for consideration as international brittle fracture acceptance criteria. The proposed criteria are intended to stimulate discussion in order to advance the development of a consensus approach. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Linhart†; David B Adams; Thomas Voracek

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transp...

  12. Future trends in transport and fate of diffuse contaminants in catchments, with special emphasis on stable isotope applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeffrey; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bonell, Mike; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Harris, Bob; Meckenstock, Rainer; McGuire, Kevin; Moussa, Roger; Peters, Norman; Richnow, Hans H.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; van Lanen, Henny

    2006-01-01

    A summary is provided of the first of a series of proposed Integrated Science Initiative workshops supported by the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme. The workshop brought together hydrologists, environmental chemists, microbiologists, stable isotope specialists and natural resource managers with the purpose of communicating new ideas on ways to assess microbial degradation processes and reactive transport at catchment scales. The focus was on diffuse contamination at catchment scales and the application of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) in the assessment of biological degradation processes of agrochemicals. Major outcomes were identifying the linkage between water residence time distribution and rates of contaminant degradation, identifying the need for better information on compound specific microbial degradation isotope fractionation factors and the potential of CSIA in identifying key degradative processes. In the natural resource management context, a framework was developed where CSIA techniques were identified as practically unique in their capacity to serve as distributed integrating indicators of process across a range of scales (micro to diffuse) of relevance to the problem of diffuse pollution assessment.

  13. Future trends in transport and fate of diffuse contaminants in catchments, with special emphasis on stable isotope applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Bonell, M.; Duguet, J.-P.; Harris, B.; Meckenstock, R.; McGuire, K.; Moussa, R.; Peters, N.; Richnow, H.H.; Sherwood-Lollar, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; van, Lanen H.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is provided of the first of a series of proposed Integrated Science Initiative workshops supported by the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme. The workshop brought together hydrologists, environmental chemists, microbiologists, stable isotope specialists and natural resource managers with the purpose of communicating new ideas on ways to assess microbial degradation processes and reactive transport at catchment scales. The focus was on diffuse contamination at catchment scales and the application of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) in the assessment of biological degradation processes of agrochemicals. Major outcomes were identifying the linkage between water residence time distribution and rates of contaminant degradation, identifying the need for better information on compound specific microbial degradation isotope fractionation factors and the potential of CSIA in identifying key degradative processes. In the natural resource management context, a framework was developed where CSIA techniques were identified as practically unique in their capacity to serve as distributed integrating indicators of process across a range of scales (micro to diffuse) of relevance to the problem of diffuse pollution assessment. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Considerations of beta and electron transport in internal dose calculations. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W.E.

    1994-11-01

    The goal of this particular task is to consider, for the first time, the explicit transport of beta particles and photon-generated electrons in the series of six phantoms developed by Cristy and Eckerman (1987) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In their report, ORNL/TM-8381, specific absorbed fractions of energy are reported for phantoms representing the newborn (3.4 kg), the one-year-old (9.8 kg), the five-year-old (19 kg), the ten-year-old (32 kg), the fifteen-year-old/adult female (55-58 kg), and the adult male (70 kg). Radiation transport calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code ALGAMP which allows photon transport only. In subsequent calculations of radionuclide S values as is done in the MIRDOSE2 computer program, electron absorbed fractions are thus considered to be either unity or zero depending upon whether the source region does or does not equal the target region, respectively.

  15. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  16. Accumulation and Transport of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid (ACC) in Plants: Current Status, Considerations for Future Research and Agronomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a non-protein amino acid acting as the direct precursor of ethylene, a plant hormone regulating a wide variety of vegetative and developmental processes. ACC is the central molecule of ethylene biosynthesis. The rate of ACC formation differs in response to developmental, hormonal and environmental cues. ACC can be conjugated to three derivatives, metabolized in planta or by rhizobacteria using ACC deaminase, and is transported throughout the plant over short and long distances, remotely leading to ethylene responses. This review highlights some recent advances related to ACC. These include the regulation of ACC synthesis, conjugation and deamination, evidence for a role of ACC as an ethylene-independent signal, short and long range ACC transport, and the identification of a first ACC transporter. Although unraveling the complex mechanism of ACC transport is in its infancy, new questions emerge together with the identification of a first transporter. In the light of the future quest for additional ACC transporters, this review presents perspectives of the novel findings and includes considerations for future research toward applications in agronomy.

  17. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares a number of very long term scenarios, and indicates that a di

  18. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, D. [Spent Fuel Services, British Nuclear Fuels plc, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised).

  19. Globalisation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubbels, B.; Rodenburg, C.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between globalisation and traffic volume is a complex one for many reasons. The transport sector is influenced by a variety of developments at different scales. Increasing incomes, more leisure time, new technology and a greying population are only a few examples of trends that are influencing future developments in transport and traffic. The future of transport is thus very uncertain. The project GITAGE (Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment) is being conducted by the Vrije Universteit Amsterdam, TRAIL (Delft University), the Netherlands Central Planning Bureau (CPB) and IVM (Institute for Environmental Studies). It was within this context that a layered assessment model was used to attempt to chart the possible influence of globalisation on the transport sector in terms of transport flows: and CO2 emissions. Four future scenarios at different scales (Global, European and Netherlands) produced virtually everywhere a (steep) rise in transport and emissions. The introduction of focused policy can change this picture. In fact, however, in most cases only a combination of stringent environmental policy and an environmentally conscious vision of the future can lead to a decline in CO2 emissions between 1995 and 2020.

  20. Treatment of excessive bone loss from both crus bones with internal bone transport using an intramedullary nail. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, Przemysław; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Kusz, Damian

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 16-year-old patient who suffered multisite and multiorgan injuries following a road accident. The most prominent musculoskeletal problem was a bilateral crush injury of the crus in combination with open fractures. The aim of this study is to present the possibilities and available methods of treatment of patients with extensive posttraumatic and postinflammatory bone loss of the lower limbs that make it possible to avoid amputation. We used intramedullary nailing and internal bone transport to reconstruct continuity and leg length of both crus bones. The treatment was complicated by poor vascularity and emerging complications. After several months and multi-stage treatment the patient was able to walk with full weight-bearing without crutches. Importantly, the patient is satisfied with the outcome of the treatment and does not consider herself disabled. The study presents our approach to the dilemma of choosing between prolonged reconstruction surgery and amputation as a final method.

  1. The future of commercial air transport; Jan van Toor, VP within EADS Corporate Technical Office CTO, gives a look into the future of aviation; interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zon, N.

    2013-01-01

    Jan van Toor spends his time at EADS Innovation Works looking into the future, designing advanced concepts and initiating research efforts to analyse the feasibility and affordability of such a project. He recently visited the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering to give a lecture, and agreed to an inte

  2. The future of commercial air transport; Jan van Toor, VP within EADS Corporate Technical Office CTO, gives a look into the future of aviation; interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zon, N.

    2013-01-01

    Jan van Toor spends his time at EADS Innovation Works looking into the future, designing advanced concepts and initiating research efforts to analyse the feasibility and affordability of such a project. He recently visited the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering to give a lecture, and agreed to an inte

  3. DMFC Module for non-road transport and mobile applications. Final report; DMFC Modul for intern transport og mobile anlaeg. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to develop a compact fuel cell generator using methanol as fuel. The DMFC module will be tested as power generator for internal transport using a Mini Crosser electric wheelchair for elderly and disabled people. The main advantage is the potential enhanced operation time (enhanced range) and the abbreviated recharge time compared with rechargeable batteries. The project approach was to use a hybrid system comprising a DMFC and a battery. The Hybrid system enables the usage of the battery to cover the dynamic power requirements while operating the DMFC generator at a constant load charging the battery. The project result is a functioning vehicle with a 600W DMFC system installed. The DMFC system has been tested independently and together with the vehicle where test results have been gathered. It was not possible within the project to make a compact installation in the existing battery box of the vehicle, but it is illustrated that it will be possible to make the full installation of a 2nd generation system in the vehicle. On the commercial side it is concluded that there can be a potential market entry opportunity if the DMFC system can meet commercialisation targets. It is also concluded that usage of a DMFC system in a closed wheel chair would give the possibility to use the produced heat from the fuel cell and thereby eliminate the requirement for an additional heater on the vehicle. (au)

  4. Angular momentum transport by internal gravity waves III - Wave excitation by core convection and the Coriolis effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pantillon, Florian P; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    This is the third in a series of papers that deal with angular momentum transport by internal gravity waves. We concentrate on the waves excited by core convection in a 3Msun, Pop I main sequence star. Here, we want to examine the role of the Coriolis acceleration in the equations of motion that describe the behavior of waves and to evaluate its impact on angular momentum transport. We use the so-called traditional approximation of geophysics, which allows variable separation in radial and horizontal components. In the presence of rotation, the horizontal structure is described by Hough functions instead of spherical harmonics. The Coriolis acceleration has two main effects on waves. It transforms pure gravity waves into gravito-inertial waves that have a larger amplitude closer to the equator, and it introduces new waves whose restoring force is mainly the conservation of vorticity. Taking the Coriolis acceleration into account changes the subtle balance between prograde and retrograde waves in non-rotating ...

  5. Single-particle analysis reveals shutoff control of the Arabidopsis ammonium transporter AMT1;3 by clustering and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wangxi; Li, Ruili; He, Qihua; Fang, Xiaohong; Michele, Roberto De; Ast, Cindy; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-08-01

    Ammonium is a preferred source of nitrogen for plants but is toxic at high levels. Plant ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an essential role in NH4(+) uptake, but the mechanism by which AMTs are regulated remains unclear. To study how AMTs are regulated in the presence of ammonium, we used variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for single-particle fluorescence imaging of EGFP-tagged AMT1;3 on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root cells at various ammonium levels. We demonstrated that AMT1;3-EGFP dynamically appeared and disappeared on the plasma membrane as moving fluorescent spots in low oligomeric states under N-deprived and N-sufficient conditions. Under external high-ammonium stress, however, AMT1;3-EGFPs were found to amass into clusters, which were then internalized into the cytoplasm. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the glutamine synthetase mutant gln1;2 background. Single-particle analysis of AMT1;3-EGFPs in the clathrin heavy chain 2 mutant (chc2 mutant) and Flotllin1 artificial microRNA (Flot1 amiRNA) backgrounds, together with chemical inhibitor treatments, demonstrated that the endocytosis of AMT1;3 clusters induced by high-ammonium stress could occur mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytic pathways, but the contribution of microdomain-associated endocytic pathway cannot be excluded in the internalization. Our results revealed that the clustering and endocytosis of AMT1;3 provides an effective mechanism by which plant cells can avoid accumulation of toxic levels of ammonium by eliminating active AMT1;3 from the plasma membrane.

  6. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  7. Rapid modulation of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1, SLCO2B1) function by protein kinase C-mediated internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Kathleen; Koenen, Anna; Giese, Bernd; Fraunholz, Martin; May, Karen; Siegmund, Werner; Hammer, Elke; Völker, Uwe; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Kroemer, Heyo K; Grube, Markus

    2010-04-09

    Members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family are involved in various pharmacological, pathophysiological, and physiological processes, such as hepatic drug uptake, progress of cancer, or transport of hormones. Although variability in expression and function of OATPs has been investigated in detail, data concerning regulation are rather limited. Here, we report a novel mechanism for rapid regulation of OATP2B1 mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) resulting in significant changes of transport activity. PKC activation by the phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) resulted in increased phosphorylation of OATP2B1 as well as reduced OATP2B1 transport activity with a decrease in V(max) of E(1)S uptake (288 +/- 21 (control) versus 165 +/- 16 pmol/min/mg of protein (PMA)). This effect was sensitive to the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I). Confocal microscopy, fluorescence-based internalization assay, and live-cell imaging using green fluorescent protein-tagged OATP2B1 revealed that transport inhibition was due to internalization of the transporter. Furthermore, colocalization with LAMP-2 and chloroquine-sensitive degradation of OATP2B1 suggest that the internalized protein is targeted to a lysosomal degradation pathway. With regard to the underlying mechanism inhibition of caveolin/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis failed to prevent OATP2B1 internalization, whereas inhibition of clathrin-mediated processes blocked OATP2B1 sequestration. However, small interfering RNA-mediated clathrin knock-down affected general trafficking of OATP2B1 and resulted in intracellular accumulation in the absence of PMA. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that OATP2B1 function is regulated by PKC-mediated, clathrin-dependent internalization and followed by lysosomal degradation. Furthermore, internalization could be shown in an ex vivo placenta perfusion. Our findings represent a new, rapid mechanism in regulation of human OATPs.

  8. First TRUE Stage - Transport of solutes in an interpreted single fracture. Proceedings from the 4th international seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    The First Stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE-1) was initiated in 1994 and the experimental activities were officially concluded in December 1998 with the termination of the final test with radioactive sorbing tracers. The programme also included a laboratory programme focused on both generic (Aespoe HRL) and site-specific (Feature A) geological material. Modelling, both scopings, predictions and evaluation of the final tests with sorbing tracers has been performed parallel to the experimental work. The work and conclusions of the SKB TRUE project team have been published in a SKB technical report. The TRUE-1 experiments have also been subject to blind prediction and evaluation by an international group of modelling teams within the auspices of the Aespoe Task Force on Groundwater on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport. A list of relevant reports and publications related to the First TRUE Stage are presented in Appendix A. The present seminar provides a venue to present and discuss the results of the TRUE-1 experiments in terms of identified transport and retention processes and concepts/approaches used to model. However, given the fact that may international programs, including that of SKB, are either underway or preparing for site characterisation programs, the seminar provides a possibility to discuss research priorities and the specific data needs for development of a geological repository. In his opening address, the director of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory emphasised the need to carefully integrate available experience from other research sites, e.g. Grimsel (Switzerland), Stripa (Sweden) and El Berrocal (Spain). The two important questions to be asked are; What do we know? What is the way forward? For the subsequent discussions four different discussion themes were identified; 1. Identification of transport processes. 2. Model concepts. 3. Site-specific data needs for a geological repository. 4. Research priorities

  9. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MacKay, I., and Meador D. (2002). The production of English vowels by fluent early and late Italian- English bilinguals. Phonetica, 59:49- 71...U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace...International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace/Airports 6. Performing Organization Code

  10. The future of testis research is turning 6! Six years of international network for young researchers in male fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüttelmann, F; De Gendt, K; Amaral, A

    2012-01-01

    The 'International Network for Young Researchers in Male Fertility' has now turned 6 years old and offers a platform that stimulates scientific exchange as well as the development of international cooperation for young researchers. We report on our scope and the exciting achievements, amongst oth...

  11. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  12. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea; Systemes nucleaires du futur: forum international generation 4 et projets de R et D du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F

    2003-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  14. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.

    2016-06-01

    in the internal tide, as well as transport of near-bottom sediment in the mid-self mud belt during the relatively quiescent summer months.

  15. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    variability in the internal tide, as well as transport of near-bottom sediment in the mid-self mud belt during the relatively quiescent summer months.

  16. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  17. Abstracts of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering annual conference including the general conference, the 1. international structural specialty conference, the 1. international construction specialty conference, and the 1. specialty conference on disaster mitigation : towards a sustainable future[General Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, M.; Loov, R.E.; Ruwanpura, J.; El-Hacha, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kroman, J. [City of Calgary, AB (Canada); Rankin, J. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Dunaszegi, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for national and international practicing engineers, researchers and technical experts to discuss sustainable solutions to infrastructure development. Discussions focused on recent developments in new technologies for building more economic and sustainable infrastructure, while improving the safety of buildings, bridges, roads, water supply and sewage treatment systems. The conference was held in conjunction with associated specialty conferences, including a first international structures specialty conference, a first international construction specialty conference, and a first specialty conference on disaster mitigation. This book of abstracts highlights all the specialty conferences and accompanies a CD-ROM that has the full text of all the papers. Manuscripts of the full papers submitted to the specialty conferences were peer-reviewed by international scientific committees. The general conference provided a forum to learn about new technologies and future directions in various areas of civil engineering. It included a special theme session on sustainable development and a special session on innovation and information technology. Other technical sessions focused on topics such as civil engineering history and education; infrastructure management and renewal; asset management; risk assessment and management; engineering materials and mechanics; environmental engineering and science; hydrotechnical engineering; cold region engineering; and, transportation engineering. The general conference featured 88 presentations, of which 15 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  18. Current limits and future challenges in the management of renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis: report from the International Club of Ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angeli, Paolo; Sanyal, Arun; Møller, Søren

    2013-01-01

    is based either on the more recent knowledge on renal dysfunction in advanced cirrhosis or current opinions among the members of the International Club of Ascites (ICA) on the management of this complication, obtained through a survey and discussed during the EASL-ICA Joint Meeting in Berlin in March 2011....... It reviews critically our current knowledge and it outlines future perspectives, on the management of renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis....

  19. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  20. The 34th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are abstracts of papers presented at the annual American Physiological Society meeting and International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia. Papers are grouped by such topic areas as lung fluid balance, renal cardiovascular integration, smooth muscle physiology, neuroendocrines (pituitary), exercise physiology, mechanics of…

  1. The Future Of American Aviation Industry In International Markets (case Studies Of The New Bedford Airport And Chinese Aviation Market)

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyun, Hao; Wen Yu, Chien

    2013-01-01

    This project discovers the opportunities and challenges for the American aviation industry in international markets, through on-site case-study methods. The research hypothesis is this: “If there is better alignment with innovative international cooperation, then the American aviation industry’s success rates will be improved.” The project provides practical application, and it builds an optimal development model for addressing current problems facing the aviation industry in the United State...

  2. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miola, A., E-mail: apollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Marra, M., E-mail: Marleenmarra@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ciuffo, B., E-mail: biagio.ciuffo@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: > Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. > How to combine ambitious CO{sub 2} reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. > Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. > Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  3. Are Ubiquitous Technologies the future vehicle for Transportation Planning: An analysis on various methods for Origin Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Saini; S.V.Srikanth; Amritanshu Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Origin Destination has become a crucial aspect in l ong term transportation planning. For Origin- destination estimations, wide variety of methods ca n be used. Conventional methods like home surveys & roadside monitoring are slow & less effective. Blue tooth & CCTV cameras are also feasible methods for doing OD study, but have their own downsides. At pr esent, this information contributes to very less percentage of...

  4. Stability of Microturbulent Drift Modes during Internal Transport Barrier Formation in the Alcator C-Mod Radio Frequency Heated H-mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.H. Redi; C.L. Fiore; W. Dorland; D.R. Mikkelsen; G. Rewoldt; P.T. Bonoli; D.R. Ernst; J.E. Rice; S.J. Wukitch

    2003-11-20

    Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region.

  5. Constitutively internalized dopamine transporter is targeted to late endosomes and lysosomal degradation in heterologous cell lines and dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Madsen, Kenneth; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard;

    (leupeptin, chloroquine, or ammonium chloride) increased the amount of transporter accumulated intracellularly over time, suggesting that constitutively endocytosed transporter was targeted to lysosomal degradation. This was further supported by expression of Tac-DAT in the immortalized dopaminergic cell...

  6. Proceedings of MUTA 2006, the 4. international forum on urban mobility and advanced transportation : alternative energies for the automobile; Actes du colloque MUTA 2006, le 4. forum international sur la mobilite urbaine et les transports avances : alternatives energetiques dans l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Clean modes of transport were highlighted at this forum with particular reference to the needs of transport operators in meeting urban mobility targets. The constraints facing the delivering of goods in urban centres were identified along with political and financial incentives that can promote research and innovation in the transportation sector. Other topical issues included mass transportation as a means to achieve clean and efficient mobility; the leadership role of governments in establishing policies for sustainable transportation; intelligent transportation systems and their many applications; and, transportation solutions presented by electric vehicles. The technological developments required to meet the needs of buses, tramways and trucks were also identified along with some of the technical and societal barriers to the development of special urban vehicles, such as small delivery vehicles for local transport. New collaborative projects aimed at improving buses and delivery vehicles were highlighted with reference to future prospects for individualized urban mobility. Regulations and incentives that would contribute to fewer cars in urban environments were discussed in terms of the challenge created by the public's resistance to change. Methods to overcome bad habits and to optimize modal transport were recommended. Funding tools for transport innovation in France, Europe and elsewhere were highlighted along with case studies of research and development projects in urban transport. New developments and applications in batteries and hybrid technology for automotive propulsion systems were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses: Main Text and Appendices A, B, C, D, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Singh, Margaret [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patterson, Phil [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ward, Jake [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, Frances [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Kydes, Niko [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Holte, John [OnLocation Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Moore, Jim [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Miller, Grant [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greene, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-07-22

    This report provides details for Phase 2 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2009, examined the full range of pathways of interest to EERE, with multiple scenarios aimed at revealing the issues and impacts associated with a national effort to reduce U.S. dependence on oil use in transportation. Phase 2 expanded the scope of the analysis by examining the interactive effects of multiple pathways on each other and on oil and feedstock prices, focusing far more on costs; and substantially increasing the number of metrics used to compare pathways and scenarios.

  8. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH A NEW CONCEPT OF POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Dhale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments of the exhaust gases. Such treatments, however, result in high costs and relatively low conversion efficiency. This suggests that a new combustion technique should be developed to yield improved primary combustion processes inside the engine with drastically reduced exhaust gas emissions. To fulfill all requirements, Dr. Franz Drust has proposed a new combustion concept to perform homogenous combustion in internal combustion engines. This concept used the porous medium combustion technique and is called "PM-engine". It is shown that the PM combustion technique can be applied to internal combustion engines. Theoretical considerations are presented for internal combustion engines, indicating that an overall improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved for the PM-engine. This is explained and general performance of the new PM-engines is demonstrated for a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Verification of experiments at primary stage is described that were carried out as a part of the present study.

  9. Changing Internal Governance: Are Leadership Roles and Management Structures in United Kingdom Universities Fit for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes and developments in institutions' internal governance during the last decade, identifying points of continuity in the policy and political environment in the United Kingdom as well as points of difference. External drivers are discussed as part of the increasingly dynamic and volatile operating conditions for…

  10. International Festival of Student Films as the Innovative Means of Legal Education and Multimedia Training of Future Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaev, Yury Petrovich; Chumakova, Lydia Petrovna

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to ensure further modernization of the educational activities in law universities based on the use of multimedia technologies as well as development of tools for legal education through implementation of the project of international student film festivals. The methodology is based on the concept and methods of…

  11. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  12. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  13. Analysis of current segmentation procedures within the 3M Industry and Transportation Department and recommendations for future segmentation approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Breitbach, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The present Master thesis broaches the issue of market segmentation and its importance for the Industry and Transportation department of 3M Česko. Market segmentation has been recognized to be a very important tool for strategic marketing planning but currently, its implementation at 3M in the Czech Republic is in an early stage and therefore rather unorganized and not yet framed by precise guidelines. The hypothesis is that linking together need-based and descriptive customer behav...

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  15. How can international studies such as the international mathematics and science study and the programme for international student assessment be used to inform practice, policy and future research in science education in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robyn; Jones, Alister

    2005-02-01

    New Zealand is investing in two international studies that assess the achievement of students in science--the International Mathematics and Science Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment. While the studies have very different purposes, they both provide extensive data on student achievement in science and about factors that impact on this achievement. Currently the international and national study reports describe general findings but there has been no systematic secondary analysis or commentary by the New Zealand science education community. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of these international studies including some of the major findings so as to highlight their potential for further interrogation by science educators both nationally and internationally to inform policy, practice and further research.

  16. Modelling the future impacts of climate and land-use change on suspended sediment transport in the River Thames (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Gianbattista; Dadson, Simon J.; Prudhomme, Christel; Whitehead, Paul G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of climate change and variability on river flows have been widely studied. However the impacts of such changes on sediment transport have received comparatively little attention. In part this is because modelling sediment production and transport processes introduces additional uncertainty, but it also results from the fact that, alongside the climate change signal, there have been and are projected to be significant changes in land cover which strongly affect sediment-related processes. Here we assess the impact of a range of climatic variations and land covers on the River Thames catchment (UK). We first calculate a response of the system to climatic stressors (average precipitation, average temperature and increase in extreme precipitation) and land-cover stressors (change in the extent of arable land). To do this we use an ensemble of INCA hydrological and sediment behavioural models. The resulting system response, which reveals the nature of interactions between the driving factors, is then compared with climate projections originating from the UKCP09 assessment (UK Climate Projections 2009) to evaluate the likelihood of the range of projected outcomes. The results show that climate and land cover each exert an individual control on sediment transport. Their effects vary depending on the land use and on the level of projected climate change. The suspended sediment yield of the River Thames in its lowermost reach is expected to change by -4% (-16% to +13%, confidence interval, p = 0.95) under the A1FI emission scenario for the 2030s, although these figures could be substantially altered by an increase in extreme precipitation, which could raise the suspended sediment yield up to an additional +10%. A 70% increase in the extension of the arable land is projected to increase sediment yield by around 12% in the lowland reaches. A 50% reduction is projected to decrease sediment yield by around 13%.

  17. The NASA Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute: International Efforts in Advancing Lunar Science with Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), originally chartered in 2008 as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), is chartered to advance both the scientific goals needed to enable human space exploration, as well as the science enabled by such exploration. NLSI and SSERVI have in succession been "institutes without walls," fostering collaboration between domestic teams (7 teams for NLSI, 9 for SSERVI) as well as between these teams and the institutes' international partners, resulting in a greater global endeavor. SSERVI teams and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists and bringing the scientific results and excitement of exploration to the public. The domestic teams also respond to NASA's strategic needs, providing community-based responses to NASA needs in partnership with NASA's Analysis Groups. Through the many partnerships enabled by NLSI and SSERVI, scientific results have well exceeded initial projections based on the original PI proposals, proving the validity of the virtual institute model. NLSI and SSERVI have endeavored to represent not just the selected and funded domestic teams, but rather the entire relevant scientific community; this has been done through many means such as the annual Lunar Science Forum (now re-named Exploration Science Forum), community-based grass roots Focus Groups on a wide range of topics, and groups chartered to further the careers of young scientists. Additionally, NLSI and SSERVI have co-founded international efforts such as the pan-European lunar science consortium, with an overall goal of raising the tide of lunar science (and now more broadly exploration science) across the world.

  18. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature.

  19. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorenpää, Anne Elina; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Newman, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    increased intracellular accumulation of JHC 1-64-labeled NET and caused a parallel reduction in uptake capacity. Internalized NET strongly colocalized with the “long loop” recycling marker Rab11, whereas less overlap was seen with the “short loop” recycling marker Rab4 and the late endosomal marker Rab7....... Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET......, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements...

  20. Challenges related to the management of energy and transportation infrastructures within the context of future eco cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Culver, Keith; Gaudin, Etienne; Sun, David

    2010-09-15

    The 100 years from 1950 to 2050 will be remembered for the greatest social, cultural, economic and environmental transformation in history - the urbanization of humanity. With half of us now occupying urban space, the future of the human species is tied to the city - Anna Tibaijuka, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director UN-HABITAT, in remarks at the third session of the World Urban Forum in Vancouver, Canada, in 2006. The urbanization of humanity is both a fact and a challenge. 3.5 billion people live in cities now, and 6 billion people will live in cities by 2050.

  1. International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology: the future of endocrine measures for reproductive science, animal welfare and conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, André; Brown, Janine L; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Kouba, Andrew J; Penfold, Linda M; Santymire, Rachel M; Vick, Mandi M; Wielebnowski, Nadja; Willis, Erin L; Milnes, Matthew R

    2012-10-23

    Hormone analysis is a precise and widely accepted tool for monitoring reproductive function and responses to stressors. Although hormones are present and can be measured in various biological matrices, non-invasive methods have gained popularity over the past 30 years as a more practical approach for assessing ovarian, testicular and, more recently, adrenocortical activity in intractable wildlife species. Non-invasive hormone monitoring also has been key to understanding biological mechanisms related to observed behaviours of captive and free-ranging animals. Despite the increasing popularity of this research field, wildlife endocrinologists have not had a specific forum for sharing and discussing their latest findings, technical developments and common challenges. To provide such a communication platform, the International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology (ISWE) was established in 2010, followed by an international meeting held on 3-4 November 2011 at the Toronto Zoo, Canada. Over several sessions, keynote speakers and participants discussed recent developments of new and innovative methods for hormone monitoring, as well as the latest advances in basic endocrinology as applied to adrenal function, reproductive physiology, animal health, ecology and evolution. Here, we introduce ISWE to the scientific community and discuss how this new society will serve as a resource for wildlife endocrinologists worldwide.

  2. An International Survey of Transport Airplane Pilots’ Experiences and Perspectives of Lateral/Directional Control Events and Rudder Issues in Transport Airplanes (Rudder Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Lufthansa German Airlines Midwest Express Airlines, Inc. National Transportation Safety Board Northwest Airlines, Inc. Qantas Airways , Ltd. SAS Flight Academy...with analysis of characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents, is necessary to assure that statistics among a sample generalize more broadly. We...were recognized during analysis of the survey data. Nonetheless, we can assess the representativeness of respondents relative to characteristics of

  3. E-COURSE BASED ON THE PLATFORM MOODLE IN TEACHING PHYSICS TO FUTURE SPECIALISTS OF RIVER AND SEA TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherniavskyі V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers that the fastest way to include Ukraine into the global educational system is to create conditions for widespread use of the Internet for training purposes, which is considered the most perfect model of communication in the global information society. It is stated that one of the most common and most convenient forms of distance learning for marine institutions of higher education is electronic courses. Their main advantage over traditional forms of education is to provide the conditions for productive individual work of the students. It is shown that the problem of individual work is particularly relevant for marine education, due to the specific schedule of the educational process, including the presence of long-term shipboard training. It is defined the peculiarities of usage of e-learning courses in Physics for training of the specialists of river and sea transport. It is proposed the interpretation of the term "e-learning course in Physics" as an information model of a specific topic or section of "Physics", which displays the oriented basis of cognitive activity of the student, it provides organic and natural formation, regulates mental and emotional processes, predicts the opportunities for educational tasks solving by offered means for stimulating the development of personal cognitive capabilities. The requirements for e-learning courses in Physics are determined and their advantages over other innovative teaching methods towards the realization of methodological features of the educational process are highlighted. The structure of e-learning courses in Physics is proposed and the experience of e-courses using in Physics for bachelors of specialty "River and Sea transport" is described.

  4. Importance of the fine structure in a tokamak for the abnormal transport and the internal disruptions; Importance de la structure magnetique fine dans un Tokamak pour le transport anormal et les disruptions internes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabot, R.

    1996-02-28

    The problem of energy transport in a Tokamak, in presence of magnetic islets, has been treated by decomposing this problem in different bricks. To assembly the different bricks the model of dynamic percolation, which couples by the intermediate of scattering coefficient, the activity of transport sites (islets size) to the profile of transported quantity (temperature profile) has been chosen. The results, got with this model, results connected to the hypothesis of a limited number of islets, agree with the different observations. A possible application of this model could be the exploration of different operating conditions of Tokamak and a research of improved confinement running. (N.C.). 149 refs., 85 figs.

  5. International Round-Robin Study of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties of an n-Type Half-Heusler Compound from 300 K to 773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; König, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James; Sharp, Jeff; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Y. C.

    2015-11-01

    International transport property-measurement round-robins have been conducted by the thermoelectric annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). Two previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the test material, with the objectives of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. This round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data for thermoelectric materials used for power-generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in the study. A half-Heusler ( n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties had a narrower distribution of uncertainty than previous round-robin results. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies for the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±11.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  6. Passive internal transport of aquatic organisms by waterfowl in Doñana, south-west Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Green, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Waterbirds may play an important role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity by transporting plants and invertebrate propagules between different wetlands. The aim of this study is to provide the first quantitative analysis of the transport of plant and animal propagules by a commu

  7. Passive internal transport of aquatic organisms by waterfowl in Doñana, south-west Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Green, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Waterbirds may play an important role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity by transporting plants and invertebrate propagules between different wetlands. The aim of this study is to provide the first quantitative analysis of the transport of plant and animal propagules by a

  8. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirchner, Thomas B. [New Mexico State University; Breshears, David D. [University of Arizona; Field, Jason P. [University of Arizona

    2012-03-27

    succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the

  9. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  10. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency Analysis of Critical Meteorological Conditions in a Changing Climate—Assessing Future Implications for Railway Transportation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Kellermann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological extreme events have great potential for damaging railway infrastructure and posing risks to the safety of train passengers. In the future, climate change will presumably have serious implications on meteorological hazards in the Alpine region. Hence, attaining insights on future frequencies of meteorological extremes with relevance for the railway operation in Austria is required in the context of a comprehensive and sustainable natural hazard management plan of the railway operator. In this study, possible impacts of climate change on the frequencies of so-called critical meteorological conditions (CMCs between the periods 1961–1990 and 2011–2040 are analyzed. Thresholds for such CMCs have been defined by the railway operator and used in its weather monitoring and early warning system. First, the seasonal climate change signals for air temperature and precipitation in Austria are described on the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM simulations for Europe. Subsequently, the RCM-ensemble was used to investigate changes in the frequency of CMCs. Finally, the sensitivity of results is analyzed with varying threshold values for the CMCs. Results give robust indications for an all-season air temperature rise, but show no clear tendency in average precipitation. The frequency analyses reveal an increase in intense rainfall events and heat waves, whereas heavy snowfall and cold days are likely to decrease. Furthermore, results indicate that frequencies of CMCs are rather sensitive to changes of thresholds. It thus emphasizes the importance to carefully define, validate, and—if needed—to adapt the thresholds that are used in the weather monitoring and warning system of the railway operator. For this, continuous and standardized documentation of damaging events and near-misses is a pre-requisite.

  12. Tritium transport modeling for breeding blanket: State of the art and strategy for future development in the EU fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, Italo, E-mail: italo.ricapito@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, Luis [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The design of the Test Blanket Modules for ITER and the breeding blanket for DEMO requires robust and accurate modeling tools. Transport phenomena through the blanket tritium cycle are complex and involve a large number of physical properties and parameters, many of which have not been determined yet with a level of accuracy adequate for design optimization. Similarly, the use of simplified models with experimentally determined lumped coefficients allows satisfactory predictions only in very limited range of operative conditions, strongly reducing their potential to be relevant to the DEMO design. Within the European Union fusion program a road map to develop such modeling tools has been defined with the purpose of supporting the design of the ITER Tritium Blanket System and to exploit the TBM experimental testing for extrapolation to DEMO. The roadmap includes the development of the simulation tools as well as the supporting validation and verification experiments that must be carried out in parallel. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art of tritium modeling tools for blanket design, proposes a structure of the tritium modeling tools in order to facilitate their development and identifies a realistic work plan to achieve their final delivery.

  13. Climate change and biometeorology, the International Society of Biometeorology and its journal: a perspective on the past and a framework for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is inherently a biometeorological issue. As such, it would be reasonably expected that the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and its journal, International Journal of Biometeorology ( IJB), would have had climate change feature prominently in their activities, articles etc., and to therefore have made a substantial and valuable contribution to the science of the issue. This article presents an analysis of climate change science in ISB and IJB. The analysis focusses on climate-change-related publications by ISB Presidents found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science; contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) Working Group II (WGII) by ISB Presidents; and climate change-related publications in IJB found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science. The results demonstrate that the ISB, as represented by its recent, current, and future Presidents, is actively engaged in climate change research and the production of scholarly climate change publications. For example, ISB Presidents have contributed as authors to all four IPCC WGII Assessment Reports, with some Presidents having contributed to more than one Assessment Report or several chapters of the one report. Similarly, it is evident that the IJB is increasingly attracting and publishing climate-change-related articles, with such articles generally having greater impact (as indicated by citations) than other IJB articles. Opportunities for the ISB to provide an internal framework for, and showcase, its climate change work are described. Such opportunities, if enacted, would complement the recent creation of two IJB climate change Field Editor positions.

  14. Climate change and biometeorology, the International Society of Biometeorology and its journal: a perspective on the past and a framework for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is inherently a biometeorological issue. As such, it would be reasonably expected that the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and its journal, International Journal of Biometeorology (IJB), would have had climate change feature prominently in their activities, articles etc., and to therefore have made a substantial and valuable contribution to the science of the issue. This article presents an analysis of climate change science in ISB and IJB. The analysis focusses on climate-change-related publications by ISB Presidents found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science; contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) Working Group II (WGII) by ISB Presidents; and climate change-related publications in IJB found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science. The results demonstrate that the ISB, as represented by its recent, current, and future Presidents, is actively engaged in climate change research and the production of scholarly climate change publications. For example, ISB Presidents have contributed as authors to all four IPCC WGII Assessment Reports, with some Presidents having contributed to more than one Assessment Report or several chapters of the one report. Similarly, it is evident that the IJB is increasingly attracting and publishing climate-change-related articles, with such articles generally having greater impact (as indicated by citations) than other IJB articles. Opportunities for the ISB to provide an internal framework for, and showcase, its climate change work are described. Such opportunities, if enacted, would complement the recent creation of two IJB climate change Field Editor positions.

  15. The future of the reservoirs in the Siret River Basin considering the sediment transport of rivers (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru OLARIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River Basin is characterized by an important use of hydro potential, resulted in the number of reservoirs constructed and operational. The cascade power stage of the reservoirs on Bistrita and Siret rivers indicate the anthropic interventions with different purposes (hydro energy, water supply, irrigation etc. in the Siret River Basin. In terms of the capacity in the Siret River Basin there is a dominance of the small capacity reservoirs, which is given by the less than 20 mil m³ volumes. Only two lakes have capacities over 200 mil m³: Izvoru Muntelui on Bistrita River and Siriu on Buzau River. Based on the monitoring of the alluvial flow at the hydrometric stations, from the Siret River Basin, there have been analysed the sediment yield formation and the solid transit dimensions in order to obtain typical values for the geographical areas of this territory. The silting of these reservoirs was monitored by successive topobatimetric measurements performed by the Bureau of Prognosis, Hydrology and Hydrogeology and a compartment within Hidroelectrica S.A. Piatra Neamt Subsidiary. The quantities of the deposited sediments are very impressive. The annual rates range betwee3 000 – 2 000 000 t/year, depending on the size of the hydrographical basin, the capacity of the reservoirs, the liquid flow and many other factors which may influence the upstream transport of sediments. These rates of sedimentation lead to a high degree of silting in the reservoirs. Many of them are silted over 50% of the initial capacity and the others even more. The effects of the silting have an important impact when analysing the effective exploitation of the reservoirs. 

  16. Transit time distributions and StorAge Selection functions in a sloping soil lysimeter with time-varying flow paths: Direct observation of internal and external transport variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Pangle, Luke A.; Cardoso, Charléne; Lora, Marco; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Harman, Ciaran J.; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Transit times through hydrologic systems vary in time, but the nature of that variability is not well understood. Transit times variability was investigated in a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter, representing a simplified model of a hillslope receiving periodic rainfall events for 28 days. Tracer tests were conducted using an experimental protocol that allows time-variable transit time distributions (TTDs) to be calculated from data. Observed TTDs varied with the storage state of the system, and the history of inflows and outflows. We propose that the observed time variability of the TTDs can be decomposed into two parts: "internal" variability associated with changes in the arrangement of, and partitioning between, flow pathways; and "external" variability driven by fluctuations in the flow rate along all flow pathways. These concepts can be defined quantitatively in terms of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions, which is a theory describing lumped transport dynamics. Internal variability is associated with temporal variability in the rSAS function, while external is not. The rSAS function variability was characterized by an "inverse storage effect," whereby younger water is released in greater proportion under wetter conditions than drier. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by the rapid mobilization of water in the unsaturated zone by the rising water table. Common approximations used to model transport dynamics that neglect internal variability were unable to reproduce the observed breakthrough curves accurately. This suggests that internal variability can play an important role in hydrologic transport dynamics, with implications for field data interpretation and modeling.

  17. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): Future X-ray Astrophysics from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, K.; NICER Team

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, NASA announced the selection of its newest planned high-energy astrophysics mission, the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), expected to launch in late 2016. As a successor to the now-decommissioned but highly productive Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, NICER offers capabilities that will appeal to a large community of prospective users. We present an overview of the NICER mission, its core science agenda, and a brief discussion of NICER's anticipated contributions across an array of X-ray astrophysics investigations, enabled by a proposed Guest Observer program. NICER is designed to probe the exotic interiors of neutron stars, revealing the fundamental physics of dense matter that exists nowhere else in nature, a longstanding unsolved problem. NICER's key approach consists of inferring neutron star masses and radii through time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy of pulsars with millisecond spin periods. In addition to exploring neutron star structure, NICER will study dynamic phenomena powered by accretion and strong gravity, and the extreme physics of pulsar magnetospheres, perhaps the most powerful cosmic particle accelerators known. NICER is particularly timely given the tremendous rate of millisecond-pulsar discovery enabled by NASA's Fermi gamma-ray telescope. NICER brings together high-heritage technologies -- such as grazing-incidence foil optics and silicon drift detectors -- in an innovative configuration, and exploits established infrastructure on the International Space Station to offer a low-risk, highly capable instrument to the X-ray astrophysics community. NICER's unique combination of photon time-tagging precision, energy resolution, and sensitivity in the soft X-ray (0.2-12 keV) band represents both a novel capability for studying neutron stars and exploration of new discovery space in time-domain astrophysics.

  18. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  19. Trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Ka-Ming, E-mail: bhkmwai@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yu, Peter K.N. [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of {sup 137}Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0–500 m) {sup 137}Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m{sup −3} near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (∼ 1 mBq m{sup −3}) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km{sup 2} in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. - Highlights: • A Lagrangian model was used to predict the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs from plant accident. • Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable for the Fukushima accident. • The maximum surface concentrations could reach 10 Bq m{sup −3} for the hypothetical case. • The hypothetical radiative plumes could impact E/SE Asia and N. America.

  20. Importance économique du transport dans les contraintes énergétiques internationales. Le cas des hydrocarbures Economic Importance of Transportation in International Energy Constraints. the Case of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masseron J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses prévisions publiées pour tenter d'estimer l'offre et la demande d'énergie d'ici la fin du XX' siècle montrent qu'il est nécessaire d'examiner les conditions de transport à grande distance de l'ensemble des ressources énergétiques. Le présent article tente, à partir des scenarios des besoins énergétiques mondiaux, d'analyser à quelles conditions pratiques seront soumis les échanges. L'auteur passe successivement en revue les différents moyens de transport pour chaque type d'énergie et les problèmes qui s'y rattachent. En particulier, il montre l'interdépendance des diverses formes de transport et souligne l'absence d'une véritable coopération dans les échanges internationaux d'énergie. The numerous published forecosts attempting to estimate the supply and demand for energy between now and the end of the 20th century show that an examination must be made of long-distance transportation conditions thot will govern exchanges. The present article is based on scenarios for worldwide energy needs and attempts to onalyze the practical conditions that will govern exchanges. A review is made of different means of transportation for each type of energy and the problems they entail. In porticular, the article shows the interdependence of different forms of transportation and emphasizes the absence of any veritable coopération in international energy exchanges.

  1. One decade of research into the fate and transport of carbon-based nanomaterials - Lessons learnt and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffer, Thorsten; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM) exhibit unique physico-chemical properties (e.g., large surface area to volume ratios, electron delocalization), which make them promising for a great number of applications. The production, use, and disposal of CNM and CNM-containing products will inevitably result in the release of these materials into the environment. The fate and transport of CNM greatly depends on their physico-chemical properties and surrounding environmental conditions. This field of research has constantly increased over recent years. Yet little is known on how transformation processes such as changes in surface properties or aggregation influence their interaction with other environmental species (i.e., solid surfaces or contaminants). For example, changes in redox chemistry in combination with irradiation have shown to significantly alter the surface chemistry of C60 fullerenes and consequently decreased their sorption affinity towards non-polar organic contaminants [1]. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) seems to play a major role on the aggregation of CNM; however, the results are not consistent whether this leads to an increase or decrease in interactions with solid surfaces or contaminants. Either increased interactions resulting from a higher dispersion of CNM or decreased interactions of CNM, which was assigned to an offset of "creating" new sorption sites due to increased dispersion by a reduced accessibility of polar moieties. For the latter effect, NOM was proposed to either directly compete for sorption sites on CNM surface or a blocking of CNM pores by large NOM molecules [2]. The potential consequences of these changes in surface properties of CNM on their toxic effects on microorganisms have only been partially examined. For an environmental risk assessment, data on the occurrence of CNM is obligatory but to date the environmental concentrations of CNM are still difficult to assess due to still unsolved analytical issues in matrix

  2. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  3. Report on the Inaugural Meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research: A Clinical and Research Update and 16 Consensus-Set Goals for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Aleman, André; Fernyhough, Charles; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a report on the first meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, which took place on September 13–14, 2011 at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The first day of the meeting served to reflect on the current state of knowledge regarding auditory hallucinations in different diagnostic groups, based on the presentations from the phenomenology, cognition, emotion, electrophysiology, neurochemical, neuroimaging, genetics, treatment, and computational modeling working groups. The second day comprised a discussion forum where the most important and urgent questions for future research were identified. The meeting recognized that a lot has been achieved in auditory hallucination research but that much still remains to be done. Here, we outline the top 16 goals for research on auditory hallucinations, which cover topics of conceptual importance, academic and treatment issues, scientific rigor, and cross-disciplinary collaboration. Concerted and coordinated actions will be required to make substantial research progress. PMID:22223735

  4. Impacts of long-range transport of global pollutants and precursor gases on U.S. air quality under future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ho-Chun; Lin, Jintai; Tao, Zhining; Choi, Hyun; Patten, Kenneth; Kunkel, Kenneth; Xu, Min; Zhu, Jinhong; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Williams, Allen; Caughey, Michael; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Wang, Julian

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. air quality is impacted by emissions both within and outside the United States. The latter impact is manifested as long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants across the U.S. borders, which can be simulated by lateral boundary conditions (LBC) into a regional modeling system. This system consists of a regional air quality model (RAQM) that integrates local-regional source emissions and chemical processes with remote forcing from the LBC predicted by a nesting global chemical transport model (model for ozone and related chemical tracers (MOZART)). The present-day simulations revealed important LRT effects, varying among the five major regions with ozone problems, i.e., northeast United States, midwest United States, Texas, California, and southeast United States. To determine the responses of the LRT impacts to projected global climate and emissions changes, the MOZART and RAQM simulations were repeated for future periods (2048-2052 and 2095-2099) under two emissions scenarios (IPCC A1Fi and B1). The future U.S. air quality projected by the MOZART is less sensitive to the emissions scenarios than that simulated by the RAQM with or without incorporating the LRT effects via the LBC from the MOZART. The result of RAQM with the LRT effects showed that the southeast United States has the largest sensitivity of surface ozone mixing ratio to the emissions changes in the 2095-2099 climate (-24% to +25%) followed by the northeast and midwest United States. The net increase due to the LRT effects in 2095-2099 ranges from +4% to +13% in daily mean surface ozone mixing ratio and +4% to +11% in mean daily maximum 8-h average ozone mixing ratios. Correspondingly, the LRT effects in 2095-2099 cause total column O3 mixing ratio increases, ranging from +7% to +16%, and also 2 to 3 more days with the surface ozone exceeding the national standard. The results indicate that future U.S. air quality changes will be substantially affected by global emissions.

  5. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-08-22

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than two percent of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50 percent. While fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas fueled vehicles and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "Pump-to-Wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete Wells-to-Wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emission projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emission reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Implications Newly collected Pump to Wheels methane emissions data for current

  6. The Importance of the geographical position of Kosovo in increasing the Trade, Transit and International Transport in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of the main highways in Kosovo (Roads 6 and 7 in the development of trade and transport of goods. In this sense, another objective of this paper is the effect of the Kosovo highways (Kosovo Roads 6 and 7 in developing the Albanian Sea Ports (Port of Durres, Vlora and Shengjin. Many Balkan countries are working in the improvement of roads and rail capacity in order to develop multimodal transport, aiming always at strengthening a dominant position in the Balkans, to serve as a connection bridge for the transportation of goods between Asia and Europe. Parts of this paper are also the movement of goods, trade exchange between Kosovo and other European countries, and a short analysis of the Trans CAD software program consisting of calculations of the quantity of goods that can be traded in Kosovo or through its territory (transit.

  7. Assessing Current and Future Performance of the Alamitos Gap Seawater Intrusion Barrier with a New Flow and Transport Model, Los Angeles and Orange Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigda, J. M.; Deeds, N.; Jordan, D. L.; Sengebush, R.

    2010-12-01

    Seawater intrusion has threatened aquifers that supply Los Angeles residents since the 1920s, but now millions depend on effective resource management, especially for the four injection barriers. Even with ~6,000 acre-ft/yr injected through the Alamitos Gap barrier, which straddles the San Gabriel River, chloride concentrations have continued to increase in several aquifers inland of the barrier. On behalf of the Orange County Water District, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California, and the Los Angeles Department of Public Works, INTERA created a new flow and solute transport model for permitting, management, and performance assessment of the injection barrier. We devised a new conceptual model, water balance, geologic model, and numerical flow and solute transport models in five months to meet a regulatory deadline. Quickly developing a hydrogeologic framework was challenging because erosion and deposition on the uplifted transgression-regression system of aquitards and aquifers created pathways within the Gap for seawater to travel inland. The pathways, called mergence zones, connect the seawater-intruded Recent Aquifer with several of the deeper aquifers used for water supply. Capturing their locations and geometries was critical to effectively simulating past and future seawater intrusion. We extended the new hydrogeologic framework beyond and below previous frameworks by combining traditional geologic interpretation, GIS analysis, and an innovative geologic modeling software tool. Using the new conceptual and geologic models as a foundation, INTERA constructed a three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model, the Alamitos Barrier Flow Model (ABFM), using the MODFLOW 2000 code. The ABFM was calibrated in three ways: (1) a steady-state calibration to average heads for the 1999-2009 period, (2) transient calibration to the heads observed from 1999 through 2009, and (3) final flow calibration adjustments based on the chloride transport

  8. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah;

    2016-01-01

    and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18-66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated......-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear relationships with walking, with a plateau in the relationship at higher levels of the scales....

  9. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirchner, Thomas B. [New Mexico State University; Breshears, David D. [University of Arizona; Field, Jason P. [University of Arizona

    2012-03-27

    succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the

  10. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern

  11. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  12. Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North Seas, since special regulatory actions on sulphur emissions, called SECA (sulphur emission control area, have been introduced in these areas,. We conclude that despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem to human health, hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe is estimated at 803 bn Euro yr−1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn Euro yr−1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr−1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulphur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in

  13. Cost-effective fuel and technology choices in the transportation sector in a future carbon constrained world: Results from the Global Energy Transition (GET) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Maria

    2009-06-15

    This thesis analyzes future fuel and technology choices focusing on transport in a carbon constrained world. The analysis tool used in all five appended papers is the cost-minimizing Global Energy Transition (GET) model. Paper I analyzes cost-effective fuel and technology choices for passenger vehicles under a variety of vehicle cost-assumptions and how these choices depend on technology paths in the electricity sector. We find that cost estimates as well as the availability of carbon capture and storage technology and concentrating solar power have a substantial impact, ranging from a dominance of hydrogen to a dominance of electricity. Paper II analyzes the cost-effectiveness of biofuels for transportation, assuming that industrialized regions start reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions some decades ahead of developing regions. We find that biofuels may play a more important role for transportation in industrialized regions if these regions assume their responsibilities and reduce emissions before developing regions start reducing theirs, compared to the case in which all countries take action under a global cap and trade emissions reduction regime. Paper III analyzes how policy instruments aimed at increasing the use of biofuels for transportation in industrialized regions affect CO{sub 2} emissions in industrialized and developing regions. We find that such policy instruments may lead to avoided emissions in industrialized regions, especially during the first 50 years, and in a few specific cases in the developing regions, too. However, in the majority of cases, such a biofuels policy leads to increased emissions in the developing regions, i.e., to 'carbon leakage'. Paper IV analyzes why two global energy systems models reach different results on the cost-effectiveness of biofuels, although the models have strong similarities. We find biomass most cost-effectively used for heat production at low CO{sub 2} taxes in both models. Biomass allocation at

  14. Phosphorylation of the norepinephrine transporter at threonine 258 and serine 259 is linked to protein kinase C-mediated transporter internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Samuvel, Devadoss J

    2006-01-01

    ester (beta-PMA)-induced phosphorylation of NET occurs on serine and threonine residues. Beta-PMA treatment inhibited NE transport, reduced plasma membrane hNET levels, and stimulated hNET phosphorylation in human placental trophoblast cells expressing the WT-hNET. Substance P-mediated activation...... of the G alpha(q)-coupled human neurokinin 1 (hNK-1) receptor coexpressed with the WT-hNET produced effects similar to beta-PMA via PKC stimulation. In striking contrast, an hNET double mutant harboring T258A and S259A failed to show NE uptake inhibition and plasma membrane redistribution by beta-PMA or SP....... Most interestingly, the plasma membrane insertion of the WT-hNET and hNET double mutant were not affected by beta-PMA. Although the WT-hNET showed increased endocytosis and redistribution from caveolin-rich plasma membrane domains following beta-PMA treatment, the hNET double mutant was completely...

  15. The relation between pre-eruptive bubble size distribution, ash particle morphology, and their internal density: Implications to volcanic ash transport and dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Parameterization of volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models strongly depends on particle morphology and their internal properties. Shape of ash particles affects terminal fall velocities (TFV) and, mostly, dispersion. Internal density combined with particle size has a very strong impact on TFV and ultimately on the rate of ash cloud thinning and particle sedimentation on the ground. Unlike other parameters, internal particle density cannot be measured directly because of the micron scale sizes of fine ash particles, but we demonstrate that it varies greatly depending on the particle size. Small simple type ash particles (fragments of bubble walls, 5-20 micron size) do not contain whole large magmatic bubbles inside and their internal density is almost the same as that of volcanic glass matrix. On the other side, the larger compound type ash particles (>40 microns for silicic fine ashes) always contain some bubbles or the whole spectra of bubble size distribution (BSD), i.e. bubbles of all sizes, bringing their internal density down as compared to simple ash. So, density of the larger ash particles is a function of the void fraction inside them (magmatic bubbles) which, in turn, is controlled by BSD. Volcanic ash is a product of the fragmentation of magmatic foam formed by pre-eruptive bubble population and characterized by BSD. The latter can now be measured from bubble imprints on ash particle surfaces using stereo-scanning electron microscopy (SSEM) and BubbleMaker software developed at UNH, or using traditional high-resolution X-Ray tomography. In this work we present the mathematical and statistical formulation for this problem connecting internal ash density with particle size and BSD, and demonstrate how the TFV of the ash population is affected by variation of particle density.

  16. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed.

  17. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  18. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 1: Background Information and General/Pre-Flight Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air...Navigation Commission was directed to complete the task of strengthening relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to...language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English

  19. No Nation Is Home Alone: Understanding The International Dimension Of Homeland Security Through Global Transportation Security Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    security procedures, encouraging their followers to attack the global transportation system.15 The consequences of these attacks are not just the visual ...partnerships for DHS.31 Though this argument is sound , the author only reviews a few programs, and does not acknowledge the broader DHS capability nor its...Capacity Development,”2. 89 Neil A. Englehart, “State Capacity, State Failure, and Human Rights,” Journal of Peace Research 46, no. 2 (2009): 163

  20. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.